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1.1 AIM (i) To determine the positive sequence line parameters L and C per phase per kilometer of a three phase single and double circuit transmission lines for different conductor arrangements. (ii) To understand modelling and performance of short, medium and long lines. 1.2 OBJECTIVES i. To become familiar with different arrangements of conductors of a three phase single and double circuit transmission lines and to compute the GMD and GMR for different arrangements. ii. To compute the series inductance and shunt capacitance per phase, per km of a three phase single and double circuit overhead transmission lines with solid and bundled conductors. iii. To become familiar with per phase equivalent of a three phase short and medium lines and to evaluate the performances for different load conditions. iv. (a) To become familiar with the theory of long transmission line and study the effect of distributed parameters on voltage and currents, along the line, (b) calculate the surge impedance and surge impedance loading. 1.3 SOFTWARE REQUIRED LINE CONSTANTS module of AU Powerlab or equivalent 1.4. THEORETICAL BACK GROUND 1.4.1. Line Parameters Transmission line has four electrical parameters - resistance, inductance, capacitance and conductance. The inductance and capacitance are due to the effect of magnetic and electric fields around the conductor. The shunt conductance characterizes the leakage current through insulators, which is very small and can be neglected. The parameters R, L and C are essential for the development of the transmission line models to be used in power system analysis both during planning and operation stages. While the resistance of the conductor is best determined from manufactures data, the inductances and capacitances can be evaluated using formula. The student is advised to read chapter 4 of ref [1] or any other text book before taking up the experiment. The transmission lines are represented by an equivalent circuit model with approximate circuit parameters on per phase basis. This model can be used to compute voltages, currents, power flows, efficiency and regulation etc. Normally the lines are classified into short, medium and long lines for the purpose of modelling. 1-1

1.4.2 Inductance The inductance is computed from flux linkage per ampere. In the case of the three phase lines, the inductance of each phase is not the same if conductors are not spaced equilaterally. A different inductance in each phase results in unbalanced circuit. Conductors are transposed in order to balance the inductance of the phases and the average inductance per phase is given by simple formulas, which depends on conductor configuration and conductor radius. General Formula The general formula for computing inductance per phase in mH per km of a transmission is given by L = 0.2 lnDm/Ds where Dm = Geometric Mean Distance (GMD) Ds = Geometric Mean Radius (GMR) The expression for GMR and GMD for different arrangement of conductors of the transmission lines are given in the following section. I. Single Phase - 2 Wire System (1.1)

.

GMD = D GMR = re-1/4 = r’ r = radius of conductor

D

.

(1.2) (1.3)

Fig. 1.1. Conductor arrangement

II. Three Phase - Symmetrical Spacing:

D

D

D GMD = D GMR = re-1/4 = r’ r = radius of conductor Fig. 1.2. Conductor Arrangement 1-2 (1.4) (1.5)

III. Three Phase - Asymmetrical Transposed: A DAB DCA B C DBC Fig. 1.3. Conductor Arrangement GMD = Geometric mean of the three distances of the unsymmetrically placed conductors = ¥ '

3 AB

DBC DCA

(1.6) (1.7)

GMR = re-1/4 = r’ r = radius of conductors Composite Conductor Lines

Composite conductor is composed of two or more elements or strands electrically in parallel. The expression derived for the inductance of composite conductors can be used for the stranded and bundled conductors and also for finding GMD and GMR of parallel transmission lines. Fig 1.4 shows a single phase line with two composite conductors. b c a n a' b’ m' Conductor Y with m strands c’

Conductor X-with n strands

Fig. 1.4. Single Phase Line With Composite Conductor The inductance of composite conductor X., is given by Lx = 0.2 ln GMD/GMRx where GMD = ¥ '

mn n 2 aa’

(1.8)

Dab’ … Dam’ ) …… (Dna’ Dnb’ ….. Dnm’ ) 1-3

(1.9)

n2 GMRx = ¥ ' r’ a = rae-1/4

aa Dab

… D an) …… (D

na

Dnb….. D nn)

(1.10)

The distance between elements are represented by D with respective subscripts and r’ a , r’ b and r’ n have been replaced by Daa, Dbb …… and D nn respectively for symmetry. Stranded Conductors: The GMR for the stranded conductors are generally calculated using equation (1.10). For the purpose of GMD calculation, the stranded conductors can be treated as solid conductor and the distance between any two conductors can be taken as equal to as center-to-center distance between the stranded conductors as shown in Fig 1.5, since the distance between the conductors is high compared to the distance between the elements in a stranded conductor. This method is sufficiently accurate. A DAB DAC C DBC B

Fig. 1.5. Three Phase Line with Stranded Conductors Bundle Conductors: EHV lines are constructed with bundle conductors. Bundle conductors improves power transfer capacity and reduces corona loss, radio interference and surge impedance. d d d d d d d d Fig. 1.6. Examples of bundles The GMR of a bundle conductor is normally calculated using (1.10). GMR for two subconductor Dsb = ¥ s x d ' GMR for three subconductor Dsb = (Dsxd2)1/3 GMR for four subconductor Dsb = 1.09 (Dsxd3)1/4 1-4

Where Ds is the GMR of each subconductor and d is the bundle spacing For the purpose of GMD calculation, the bundled conductor can be treated as a solid conductor and the distance between any two conductors can be taken as equal to center-to-center distance between the bundled conductors as shown in Fig 1.7, since the distance between the conductors is high compared to bundle spacing. A B C

DAB

DBC

DAC Fig.1.7. Bundled conductor arrangement Three phase - Double circuit transposed: A three-phase double circuit line consists of two identical three-phase circuits. The phases a, b and c are operated with a1-a2, b1-b2 and c1-c2 in parallel respectively. The GMD and GMR are computed considering that identical phase forms a composite conductor, For example, phase a conductors a1 and a2 form a composite conductor and similarly for other phases. a1 b1 H12 H23 c1 S11 S22 S33 a2

c2 b2

Fig. 1.8. Conductor Arrangement

Relative phase position a1b1c1 –c2b2a2. It can also be a1b1c1 – a2b2c2. The inductance per phase in milli henries per km is L = 0.2 ln (GMD/GMRL) mH/km. where GMRL is equivalent geometric mean radius and is given by GMRL = (DSA DSB DSC)1/3 1-5 (1.12) (1.11)

where DSA DSB and DSC are GMR of each phase group and given (refer 1.10) by DSA = 4¥ Dsb Da1a2 )2 = [Dsb Da1a2]1/2 DSC = 4¥ (Dsb Dc1c2 )2 = [Dsb Dc1c2]1/2 where Dsb = GMR of bundled conductor if conductor a1, a2 …. are bundle conductor. Dsb= ra1’ = r b1’ = r c1’ = r a’ 2 = rb’ 2 = rc’ 2 if a1, a2 ….. are not bundled cond uctor. GMD is the “equivalent GMD per phase” & is given by GMD = [DAB DBC DCA]1/3 where DAB, DBC, & DCA are GMD between each phase group A-B, B-C, C-A which are given by DAB = [Da1b1 Da1b2 Da2b1 Da2b2]1/4 DBC = [Db1c1 Db1c2 Db2c1 Db2c2]

1/4

DSB = 4¥ (Dsb Db1b2 )2 = [Dsb Db1b2]1/2

(1.13)

(1.14)

(1.15) (1.16) (1.17)

DCA = [Dc1a1 Dc2a1 Dc2a1 Dc2a2]1/4 1.4.3 Capacitance

A general formula for evaluating capacitance per phase in micro farad per km of a transmission line is given by where GMD is the “Geometric Mean Distance” which is the same as that defined for inductance under various cases. GMR is the Geometric Mean Radius and is defined case by case below:

(i) Single phase two wires system (for diagram see inductance):

C = OQ *0'*05 )NP

(1.18)

**GMD = D GMR = r (as against r’ in the case of L)
**

(ii) Three phase - symmetrical spacing (for diagram see inductance):

GMD = D GMR = r in the case of solid conductor =Ds in the case of stranded conductor to be obtained from manufacturers data. 1-6

(iii) Three-phase – Asymmetrical - transposed (for diagram see Inductance):

GMD = [DAB DBC DCA]1/3 GMR = r ; for solid conductor GMR = Ds for stranded conductor = rb for bundled conductor where rb = [r*d]1/2 for 2 conductor bundle rb = [r*d2]1/3 for 3 conductor bundle rb = 1.09 [r*d3]1/4 for 4 conductor bundle where r = radius of each subconductor d = bundle spacing (iv) Three phase - Double circuit - transposed (for diagrams see inductance): C = 0.0556 / ln (GMD/GMRc) )NP GMD is the same as for inductance as equation (1.14). GMRc is the equivalent GMR, which is given by GMRc = [rA rB rC ]1/3 where rA, rB and rC are GMR of each phase group obtained as rA = [rb Da1a2]1/2 rB = [rb Db1b2]1/2 rC = [rb Dc1c2]1/2 where rb GMR of bundle conductor 1.4.4 Line Modelling and Performance Analysis The following nomenclature is adopted in modelling: z = series impedance per unit length per phase y = shunt admittance per unit length per phase to neutral. L = inductance per unit length per phase C = capacitance per unit length per phase r = resistance per unit length per phase l = length of the line Z = zl = total series impedance Y = yl = total shunt admittance per phase to neutral. 1-7

(1.19)

(1.20)

(1.21)

(1.22)

Short line Model and Equations (Lines Less than 80km) The equivalent circuit of a short transmission line is shown in Fig.1.9 R X IR Is VR Vs ABCD Constants IR VR

Vs

Fig. 1.9 Short Line Model

Fig.1.10 Two port representation of a Line

In this representation, the lumped resistance and inductance are used for modelling and the shunt admittance is neglected. A transmission line may be represented by a two port network as shown in Fig 1.10 and current and voltage equations can be written in terms of generalised constants known as A B C D constants. For the circuit in Fig.1.9 the voltage and currents relationships are given by Vs = VR + Z IR Is = IR In terms of A B C D constants VS IS where A = 1, B = Z, C = 0 D= 0. Percentage regulation = |VR (NL)| - |VR (FL) |

--------------------------------------------

(1.23) (1.24)

=

A C

B D

VR IR

(1.25)

|VR( FL)|

x 100 PR - Ps -

(1.26) (1.27)

Transmission efficiency of the line

= Receiving end power in MW = Sending end power in MW

Medium Line Model and equations (Lines above 80km): The shunt admittance is included in this model. The total shunt admittance is divided into two equal parts and placed at the sending and receiving end as in Fig.1.11 1-8

Is Vs Y/2

Z=R+jX

IR

Y/2

VR

)LJ1RPLQDO 0RGHO The voltage current relations are given by Vs = (1+ ZY ) VR + ZIR 2 Is = Y(1+ZY) VR + (1+ZY) IR 4 2 In terms of ABCD constants Vs Is where A = (1+ZY ), B=Z 2 C = Y(1+ ZY) , D=(1+ZY ) 4 2 The receiving end quantities can be expressed in terms of sending end quantities as VR IR D -C -B A Vs Is (1.31) = A C B D VR IR (1.28) (1.29)

(1.30)

=

Long line Model and Equations (lines above 250 km): In the short and Medium lines, lumped line parameters are used in the model. For accurate modelling, the effect of the distributed line parameter must be considered. The voltage and current at any specific point along the line in terms of the distance x from the receiving end is given by 1-9

V(x) = VRFRVK [ = where

I(x) = (1/Zc) VRVLQ [ , K

K cIRVLQ

RFRVK

[

[

Zc = ¥ LVFDOOHG ]\ FKDUDFWHULVWLF LPSHGDQFH ¥]\ LVFDOOHG SURSDJDWLRFRQVWDQW Q . ¥]\ ¥ M &/J M M &F

.– is called attenuation constant – is called phase constant

The relation between sending and receiving end quantities is given by Vs = VRFRVK O c IRVLQK O = IS = (VR/ZcVLQ O K , Is Y’/2 Vs 7KH TXLYDOHQW PRGHORIWKH OLQ H ORQJ RFRVK O (1.36) e is given in Fig. 1.12. O IR Y’/2 = (1/Z cWDQ O K VR )LJ(TXLYDOHQW PRGHO Loss Less Line For loss less line, the equations for the rms voltage and currents along the line is given by V(x) I(x) = VRFRV [ M= = j 1 VRVLQ [ , Zc

cIRVLQ[

=¶ = K VLQ

O

RFRV[

1-10

£ ¥¤

**I(x) = ((VR / Zc) + IR) e - ((VR/ZC) - IR) e2 2 In term of Hyperbolic functions
**

£ ¢

¡

V(x) =( VR + ZcIR) e ( VR - ZcIR ) e+ 2 2

¢ ¡

(1.32) (1.33)

(1.34) (1.35)

(1.37) (1.38)

For open circuited line IR = 0 and the no load receiving end voltage is given by VR(nl) = VsFRV O Vs = jZc IRVLQ O Is = IRFRV O (1.39)

For solid short circuit at the receiving end VR = 0, the equation (1.37) and (1.38) reduces to

For a loss less line the surge impedance (SIL)= ¥/& The load corresponding to the surge impedance at rated voltage is known as surge impedance loading (SIL) given by SIL = 3 VR IR* = 3 |VR| / Zc for lossless line Zc is purely resistive = |VL|2 MW Zc VL = in k.v 1.5 EXERCISES: 1.5.1 A three-phase transposed line composed of one ACSR, 1,43,000 cmil, 47/7 Bobolink conductor per phase with flat horizontal spacing of 11m between phases a and b and between phases b and c. The conductors have a diameter of 3.625 cm and a GMR of 1.439 cm. The line is to be replaced by a three conductor bundle of ACSR 477,000-cmil, 26/7 Hawk conductors having the same cross sectional area of aluminum as the singleconductor line. The conductors have a diameter of 2.1793 cm and a GMR of 0.8839 cm. The new line will also have a flat horizontal configurations, but it is to be operated at a higher voltage and therefore the phase spacing is increased to 14m as measured from the centre of the bundles. The spacing between the conductors in the bundle is 45 cm. (a) Determine the inductance and capacitance per phase per kilometer of the above two lines. (b) Verify the results using the available program. (c) Determine the percentage change in the inductance and capacitance in the bundle conductor system. Which system is better and why? 1.5.2 A single circuit three phase transposed transmission line is composed of four ACSR 1,272,000 cmil conductor per phase with flat horizontal spacing of 14 m between phases a and b and between phases b and c. The bundle spacing is 45 cm. The conductor diameter is 3.16 cm. a) Determine the inductance and capacitance per phase per kilometer of the line. b) Verify the results using available program. 1-11 (1.42)

2

(1.40) (1.41)

1.5.3 A 345 kV double circuit three phase transposed line is composed of two ACSR, 1,431,000 cmil, 45/7 bobolink conductors per phase with vertical conductor configuration as shown in Fig. 1.13. The conductors have a diameter of 1.427 in and the bundle spacing is 18 in. a) Find the inductance and capacitance per phase per kilometer of the line. b) Verify the results using the available program. c) If we change the relative phase position to acb-a’b’c’, determine the inductance and capacitance per unit length using available program. d) Which relative phase position is better and why? a 7m b 6.5m c 12.5m Fig. 1.13 1.5.4 A 230 kV, 60 HZ three phase transmissions is 160 km long. The per phase resistance is SHUNP G UHDFWDQFH DQWKH LV SHUNP G VKXQWDGPLWWDQFLV DQWKH H o -6 3.30 x 10 ? simens per km. It delivers 40MW at 220 KV with 0.9 power factor ORJJLQJ8VH PHGLXP OLQH PRGHO i. Determine the voltage and current at sending end and also compute voltage regulation and efficiency. ii. Verify the results using the available program A three phase trDQVPLVVLROLQH SHUSKDVH Q KDVD VHULHVLPSHGDQFH RI] M -6 per km and a per phase shunt admittance of y=j4.0 x 10 Simens per km. The line is 200 km long. Obtain ABCD parameters of the transmission line. The line is sending 407 MW DQ 09$5 N G DW 98VH PHGLXP PRGHO 1.5.5 i. Determine the voltage and current at receiving end and also compute voltage regulation and efficiency. ii. Verify the results using the available program 1-12 a’ 16.5m 11m c’ 18” b’

1.5.6 A three phase 50 Hz, 400 kV transmission line is 250 km long. The line parameters per phase per unit length are found to be U NP L = 1.06mH/km & )NP Determine the following using the program available use long line model. (a) The sending end voltage, current and efficiency when the load at the receiving end is 640 MW at 0.8 power factor logging at 400 kV. (b) The receiving end voltage, current, efficiency and losses when 480 MW and 320 MVAR are being transmitted at 400 kV from the sending end. (c) The sending end voltage, current and efficiency and losses when the receiving end load LPSHGDQFLV H DW 9 N (d) The receiving end voltage when the line is open circuited and is energized with 400kV at the sending end. Also, determine the reactance and MVAR of a three phase shunt reactor to be installed at the receiving end in order to limit the no load receiving end voltage to 400 kV. (e) The MVAR and capacitance to be installed at the receiving end for the loading condition in (a) to keep the receiving end voltage at 400 kV when the line is energized with 400 kV at the sending end. (f) The line voltage profile along the line for the following cases: no load, rated load of 800 MW at 0.8 power factor at sending end at 400 kV, line terminated in the SIL and short circuited line. 1.6 REFERENCE 1. Hadi Saadat, ‘Power System Analysis’, Tata McGraw – Hill Publishing, Co. Ltd., New Delhi, 2002.

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