AU Powerlab

USER REFERENCE MANUAL
FOR
LOAD FLOW ANALYSIS
(DOC. NO. ANLF – URM – 1.0)























MARCH – 2004
ANNA UNIVERSITY
CHENNAI – 600 025
CONTENTS

Page No

About this document
(i)
Accompanying documents
(i)

Preamble

(ii)

1. GETTING STARTED


1.0 Introduction 1-1
1.1 The Opening Menu Screen 1-1
1.2 Tutorial Option 1-1
1.2.1 Running the Packaged Examples 1-1
1.2.2 Viewing Results 1-2
1.2.3 Editing Examples and Saving Your Own Copy 1-2
1.2.4 Printing lfo and Line Diagram 1-3

2. CREATION OF DATA FOR YOUR PROBLEM


2.0
Introduction
2 –1
2.1
Starting Data Preparation
2 –1
2.2
Saving the Data Entered
2 –6

3. EDITING SYSTEM DATA CREATED BY YOU


3.0
Introduction
3 -1
3.1
The Editing Option
3 -1

View/Modify/Delete Option
3 –1

Add New Data Option
3 –1

4. VIEWING RESULTS OF THE LOAD FLOW PROGRAM


4.0
Introduction
4 –1
4.1
Conventional Text Format Output
4 –1
4.2
Single Line Diagram
4 –1


5. ANALYSIS OPTIONS

5.0
Introduction
5-1
5.1
Problem Analysis
5-1
5.2
System Analysis
5-2

Reference
Appendices
A. Error Messages


A.1

B. Sample Problem and Results B.1































(i)


About This Document

This document takes the user on a guided tour of the user interface for creating
data, editing, saving, output options and archiving the results of execution for the
student-created case. It has been written specifically keeping in mind a student in
a laboratory environment. At the end of a lab session, the student should be able
to prepare the record for submission for evaluation by the instructor. The Load
Flow software itself is rich in context sensitive help in the form of tool tips and a
dedicated help menu. With a little bit of practice, the student can be at ease with
the Load flow and hopefully need not have to refer to this document often.

Conventions used in this document: menu items or button names are given in
italics.

Accompanying documents

1. Load Flow Analysis Laboratory Manual (DOC. No.ANLF-LM – 1.0)


























(ii)

Preamble

Why Load flow Analysis?

Power flow analysis is the most frequently performed system study by electric utilities.
This analysis is performed on a symmetrical steady –state operating condition of a power
system under ‘normal’ mode of operation and aims at obtaining bus voltages and
line/transformer flows for a given load condition.

The power flow problem can be stated as follows: for a given power network with
known complex power loads and set of specifications on power generations and voltages,
solve for unknown bus voltages.

The power flow analysis enables simulation of the system performance under a wide
variety of projected operating conditions. It plays a key role in planning of expansions to
transmission system and generation facilities. In long term planning the power flow
analysis, helps in investigating the effectiveness of alternative plans and choosing the
‘best’ plan for system expansion to meet the projected operating state. In operational
planning, it helps in choosing the ‘best’ unit commitment plan and generation schedules
to run the system efficiently for the next day’s load condition without violating the
operating limits. It is at the heart of contingency analysis and real-time monitoring of
system. Power flow solution provides the initial conditions for stability and other system
studies.

The program implementation here employs two popular methods, namely, Newton-
Raphson and Fast Decoupled. The choice between them is left to the user.

Methodology – Newton- Raphson Method [1,2]

In this method, the complex non-linear algebraic power flow equations are linearised
around the starting values of the unknowns namely, voltage magnitudes and phase angles
specified by the user initially, and latest iterated values subsequently. The linearised
equations are then solved by Gaussian elimination (also known as LU factorisation)
method [3,4]. Optimal ordering and special storage techniques are implemented to
preserve and exploit sparsity of the bus admittance and Jacobian matrices and hence
minimise storage and speed up solution.

Methodology – Fast Decoupled Method [5]

The solution to the non-linear power flow equations is obtained through iterative
procedures as in the case of Newton-Raphson. However, in this method the strong
coupling between the active power (P)-voltagephaseangle( )andreactivepower(Q) -


(iii)

voltage magnitude (V) is taken advantage of by ignoring the relatively weaker coupling
between P-V and Q-. TheprogramusesthecompactlystoredbiIactorsoItheconstant
matrices [B’] and [B”] in every iteration. Optimal ordering technique, compact storage of
sparse factors and exploitation of sparsity minimizes storage requirements and execution
time.

Sensitivity factors are used in adjusting the voltage magnitude of a P-V bus whenever the
reactive power limit of a voltage controlled bus is violated.

Features

• Highly student-friendly with built in default values

• No Practical limitation on system size.

• Extensive data error checking facilities including detection of network split

• Detection of abnormal line parameters

• System summary reports .

• Automatic bus type switching

• Equipment loading abnormalities such as overloading and underutilisation

• Detection of system trouble spots such as over- and under voltage buses

• Graphical output such as simple elegant line diagrams with animations for trouble
spots

• Context-sensitive help














CHAPTER 1

GETTING STARTED

1.0 Introduction
This chapter starts with an overview of the Load Flow Analysis software exposing
the student to the facilities available for creating and editing data, running the Load
Flow Analysis program and viewing results and finally archiving. The above tasks
are explained by taking an example from the list of “packaged” examples.

1.1 The Opening Menu Screen
After successful installation of the AU Powerlab software package, the AU
Powerlab icon will appear on the desktop. The opening window for AU
Powerlab is obtained as follows.

1. Click the AU Powerlab icon on the desktop. A window carrying Anna University
frontage will appear on the screen and will disappear within few seconds. Then
the student log-on Window will appear (Fig.1.1).

2. Enter student information in the respective boxes. After entering all information,
click enter button. Then the Opening Window for AU Powerlab will appear (Fig.
1.2)

3. Click the button ‘Load Flow Analysis’ in the Opening Window. Then another
window containing the title of the modules in Load Flow Analysis will appear
(Fig 1.3)

4. Click the button ‘Newton Raphson / Fast Decoupled Method’ in the window.
Then the menu screen for these modules will appear. (Fig 1.4)

1.2 Tutorial Option
Select the Tutorial option by pointing the mouse on the option and clicking. A
dropdown menu will appear (Fig.1.5).

Lab manual option displays the Laboratory Manual for Load Flow analysis.
User manual option displays the User Reference Manual for Load Flow Analysis.

Examples option displays the packaged examples, i.e., data created for sample
systems.

1.2.1 Running the Packaged Examples
We will select the 4bus example from the list of packaged examples for further
explanation. The list of packaged examples is shown in Fig. 1.6.
1-1
The 4bus example is selected by clicking on Examples => 4bus. Selecting 4bus
example takes you to the editing option window shown in Fig.1.7

You have a choice of either Newton-Raphson Method or Fast Decoupled Method
for running the 4bus example. The choices would be prompted if you click RUN
LOAD FLOW PROGRAM item in the editing option window as shown in Fig. 1.8

To run the method of your choice just point the mouse and click. Assume that we
want to use the Newton-Raphson Method. Then we would have taken the
following route:

Tutorial => Examples => 4bus => RUN LOAD FLOW PROGRAM =>
Newton-Raphson.

Successful running of the program is indicated by the message Program
Completed Sucessfully!!

1.2.2 Viewing Results
The student can view the results of successful execution in two ways: (i)
conventional text format and (ii) on single line diagram. The View option can be
invoked by pointing the mouse to that option and clicking. The selection of View
option displays the drop down menu shown in Fig.1.9.

A portion of the conventional text format output is shown in Fig. 1.10. View =>
Output causes the conventional text format output to be brought to Notepad. The
student can take the printout of the output and use it as a part of his lab record to
be submitted.

Results on Single Line Diagram is more appealing visually and it can be taken bus
wise. View => Line Diagram produces the display shown in Fig. 1.11. Clicking
on the down arrow of the combo box results in the display of the bus names as
shown in Fig.1.12 from which you can select a bus details around which you are
interested. Selecting the bus BUS1 results in display shown in Fig. 1.13

What we have so far seen are the basic features available. However, much more
analysis results that are useful from the student’s and instructor’s point of view
are available and they are described in detail in Chapter 5. View option is
described in detail in Chapter 4. It is suggested that the student first gets familiar
with the basic operations described above before proceeding further.

1.2.3 Editing Examples and Saving Your Own Copy
The Edit menu is dealt with in detail in Chapter 3. Here, we will see how to make
changes in the data of packaged examples and save your own copy of the changed
system data. As soon as you selected Tutorial => Example => 4bus, a temporary
1-2
copy of the 4bus data was stored in a file called TEMP.

The changes you make in the 4bus are stored in the TEMPorary copy. Before you
exit the program you must save the changed TEMPorary copy as, say, my4bus.

Now, for making changes: Tutorial => Examples => 4bus takes you to the Edit
option window, Fig.1.7. Click on the MODIFY/DELETE option and it takes you
to the Input Editing Window shown in Fig.1.14. Let us say that you want to
change the active power load on BUS3 from 1500 MW to 1200 MW. Then, click
on the Load Bus Data and the window for editing load bus data shown in Fig.
1.15 is displayed.

Now select BUS3 from the drop down list that is displayed when clicked on the
down arrow of the combo box. Point to the box which contains 1500 and change
it to 1200. The resulting window is shown in Fig.1.16.

Press save to save the changed data and Quit which takes you to the Input Editing
Window, Fig.1.14 Go back to the Editing Option Window, Fig.1.7 by clicking the
Quit button of Input Editing Window. Press the SAVE PROJECT AS... button in
Editing Option Window and save it with a new project name as shown in Fig.1.17.

1.2.4 Printing .lfo and Line Diagram
The .lfo file is opened as a WordPad
*
file as soon as you select the Output option
of the View item on menu bar and it can be printed. The line diagram can also be
printed by copying it to the clipboard and then pasting it on to Paint
*
.
















* WordPad and Paint are registered trademarks of Microsoft Corporation, USA.



1-3























Fig 1.1 Student log-on window




















Fig 1.2 Opening window for AU Powerlab
1-4





















1.3 Window for title of the modules in load flow analysis






















Fig. 1.4 Load Flow Analysis Opening Window
1-5





















Fig. 1.5 Tutorial Option





















Fig. 1.6 List of Packaged Examples – Menu

1-6




















Fig. 1.7 Editing Option Window























Fig.1.8 Editing Option Window
1-7




















Fig.1.9 View Option






















Fig.1.10 Conventional Text Format Output

1-8





















Fig.1.11 Single Line Diagram Option






















Fig.1.12 Single Line Diagram – bus selection menu
1-9





















Fig.1.13 Single Line Diagram Display of Results for BUS1






















Fig.1.14 Input Editing Window
1-10





















Fig.1.15 Editing Load Bus data


















Fig.1.16 Changed the load on BUS2

1-11





















Fig.1.17 Saving Edited Examples






















1-12

CHAPTER 2


CREATION OF DATA FOR YOUR PROBLEM

2.0 Introduction
In this Chapter, we will take you through data preparation step-by-step. You must
first ensure that you have all the data required to run the Load Flow, ready. They
are:

Bus data
- Active power generation, voltage magnitude for generator buses and reactive
power capabilities
- Active and Reactive power loads for load buses
- Specified voltage magnitude and reactive power limits for SVC buses

Branch data
- Positive sequence resistance, reactance and line charging susceptances, and
load ability limits for transmission lines
- Positive sequence resistance and leakage reactances and ratings for transformers

Compensation data
Susceptance or reactive power injected/absorbed at nominal voltage and rated
voltage for shunt capacitors/reactors. Most of the windows for data creation
contain default values for the data items and in case you are not sure about actual
values, just leave the default values on.

2.1 Starting Data Preparation
Project => New => option in Load Flow Analysis program window results in the
window shown in Fig.2.1. When you click on the Data Preparation button you
are asked to confirm whether you would like to continue data preparation.
Clicking on the OK button takes you to the Input Data Preparation Window
shown in Fig.2.2.

Entering data for your problem
Max Dimension
Among the groups of data required to be entered, only the first one, Max
Dimension is highlighted. When you select this group of data by clicking on the
button, the window shown in Fig.2.3 appears. Note that some of the buttons
appearing in the window are disabled and these buttons correspond to features
beyond the scope of an undergraduate syllabus. However, these features can be
enabled as special cases for interested institutions. The data items are self-
2-1
explanatory. Selecting the DEFAULT item results in the window shown in
Fig.2.4 and these default values are adequate for handling medium sized system.
You can, however, override these values by pointing the mouse inside the box
adjacent to the corresponding button and entering the value. After entering the
values Click the Save button to save the values entered along with the remaining
default values. On saving the data, the window disappears and the Input Data
Preparation Window, Fig.2.2 appears. Note that now the Case Description button
is highlighted.

Case description
Any number of case description lines can be entered in the window box that
appears when the Case Description button is clicked. The window is shown in
Fig.2.5. After entering the case description lines, click OK to save them and to go
back to Input Data Preparation Window, Fig.2.2

General parameters
Fig.2.6 shows the window for General Parameters entry with default values. You
can override the default values by entering appropriate values and you must Save
before you Quit this window. The disabled buttons are for advanced users. Some
of the buttons require some explanation.

The Dynamic Q Compensation
If a nonzero value is entered, suitable reactive power compensation will be
assumed for each iteration of load flow to minimize the reactive power mismatch
at all buses. However, the compensation assumed by the program is limited to a
range from zero to reactive power load specified for the buses.

% Fill After Factorisation
In the Newton’s method for solution of non -linear algebraic equations of load
flow, the system is linearised around the starting values of the unknowns, namely,
voltage magnitudes and angles specified by the user initially and around latest
iterated values subsequently. The linearized equations are then solved by
Gaussian elimination (also known as LU factorization) method. During the
factorization of the linearized system matrix (referred to as Jacobian in the
literature) some of the original zero elements in the matrix become non zero.
These elements are called ‘fills’ or ‘fillins’, They should also be stored in the
memory for further processing. The user can control the storage that is to be
allocated to fills through this parameter. Retain the default value for this
parameter if you are not sure as to what value to enter. After entering all required
parameter values do not forget to Save.


2-2
Intermediate Results

A nonzero value will enable, admittance, Jacobian/B’ and B” mat rices, system
summaries and convergence characteristics to be viewed through View option.
Bus data

The next group of data to be entered is the bus data and it consists of the
following four subgroups, namely, (i) Slack bus data, (ii) Generator bus data, (iii)
SVC bus data and (iv) Load bus data.

Slack Bus Data

The window for entering data for slack bus with built-in default values is shown
in Fig.2.7 and it is displayed once the Slack Bus Data button is clicked in the
Input Data Preparation Window. As mentioned earlier, you can override the
default values. Make sure you click the Save button before you Quit the window
even if you retain all the default values. Note that only the required buttons are
highlighted.

Generator Bus Data
On clicking the Generator Bus data button of the Input Data Preparation
Window, you are asked to confirm whether you want to Proceed with Generator
Bus Data as shown in Fig.2.8. This is provided because in a simple two-bus
system, there will be only a slack bus and a load bus. For other systems select Yes
and the generator bus data form shown in Fig.2.9 is displayed. For a generator bus
which is not a slack bus, active power scheduled and terminal voltage magnitude
must be specified by the user and the Load Flow program computes the reactive
power generated / absorbed and voltage phase angle with respect to slack bus
voltage phasor. You may want to retain the default values for the other data items.
If the data just entered is for the last generator bus in the system then click END
GENERATOR BUS DATA other wise click Next>>. Clicking Next>> allows you
to proceed with the next generator bus. Note that Save button is disabled initially
and is enabled only after END GENERATOR BUS DATA button is clicked. After
entering data for all generator buses click END GENERATOR BUS DATA and
Save. If you Quit then the data for all generators will not be saved. After END
GENERATOR BUS DATA is clicked Next>> and <<Previous buttons are also
enabled. These buttons allow you to modify the data entered for generators before
END GENERATOR BUS DATA.

SVC Bus Data
The window for SVC bus data entry is shown in Fig.2.10 and is displayed when
the corresponding button is clicked in the Input Data Preparation Window and
confirmed.
2-3
Data entry, Next>>, END…DATA etc are similar to generators. Note that Bmax
and Bmin correspond to maximum and minimum susceptances in p.u. A positive
sign is to be given for capacitive susceptance and negative sign for inductive
susceptance. The real/reactive generation /demand are not related to the SVC and
are specified if they are present.
Load Bus Data

The window for load bus data entry is shown in Fig.2.11. In this case voltage
magnitude and angle are the starting values. Through default option “flat” start
(all load bus voltage magnitudes =1.0 pu and angles = 0.0) is made possible. All
other the items are self-explanatory. Data entry, Next>>, END…DATA etc are
similar to generators.

Shunt data

The compensation, inductive for 400 KV and above and capacitive for 220 kV
and below should be entered in this group. The programs treats the shunt
compensation as constant impedance / admittance. The data can be given in either
conductance-susceptance form or rated real /reactive power absorbed – voltage
form. The real power absorbed should be in MW if the nominal voltage is
nonzero and conductance is in p.u if the nominal voltage is not specified (default
option). Similarly, the reactive power absorbed is in MVAR if the nominal
voltage is nonzero and susceptance in p.u if the nominal voltage is not specified.
If the data is in conductance-susceptance form then, it should be positive for
capacitive susceptance and negative for inductive susceptance. If the data is in
rated real/reactive power voltage form then it should be positive for reactive
power absorbed (shunt reactor) and negative for reactive power injected (shunt
capacitor), if the nominal voltage of the shunt in KV. If left blank the program
assumes that values entered conductance and susceptance computed at nominal
voltage and base MVA specified earlier.

Note: The rated voltage of the shunt compensators need not be the same as the
nominal system voltage. For example, shunt reactors employed on 400 KV
system are rated at 420KV.
The form for shunt data entry is shown in Fig.2.12. Data entry, Next>>,
END…DATA etc are similar to generators.

Note that the From Bus Name and To Bus Name are to be chosen from the combo
box which contains names of all buses. The data for all buses is presumed to have
been given prior to shunt data.

Transmission Line Data

The window for transmission line data entry is shown in Fig.2.13. The data items
are self-explanatory. Note that the From Bus Name and To Bus Name are to be
2-4
chosen from the combo box which contains all the bus names.


The Power Carrying Capacity is the loadability of the line and it is used to
compute percentage line loading after Load Flow has converged. The loadability
of short lines (length < or = 80 km) is the thermal rating. For medium lines
(length between 80 km and 150 km) voltage drop consideration determines the
loadability and for long lines (length > 150 km), stability, i.e, angular separation
determines the loadability. The data items are self-explanatory. Data entry,
Next>>, END…DATA etc are similar to generators.

Transformer Data

The form for data entry for two winding transformer with fixed tap is shown in
Fig.2.14

The data items are self-explanatory. Note that the From Bus Name and To Bus
Name are to be chosen from the combo box which contains all the bus names.

The Load Flow program assumes that the tapped winding is connected to From
Bus and the untapped winding is connected to To Bus. The rated voltage of a
winding need not be same as that of the nominal voltage of the bus to which it is
connected. The nominal voltage of the bus is usually the base voltage. If the
nominal bus voltage of the bus and the rated voltage of the transformer winding to
which it is connected are different, an off-nominal ratio will be introduced which
is given by

t
off
= (V
rated-primary
/ V
nominal-From bus
)
(V
rated-secondary
/ V
nominal-To bus
)


where we have assumed that the tapped winding is the primary winding connected
to From Bus and the untapped winding is the secondary winding connected to To
Bus.

DV/DTapstep is the pu change in voltage per change in tap step.

In general the transformation ratio in pu from primary to secondary is given by

t = t
off
( 1.0 + tap number * DV/DTapstep)

If the nominal bus voltage and rated winding voltage are identical on both sides of
the transformer, t
off
= 1.0. For unity tap between the primary and secondary
winding, set tap number or DV/Dtapstep to zero.

2-5
Illustration

Assume that 220 kV/ 34.5 kV transformer is connected between two buses whose
nominal voltages are 220 kV and 33 kV and these are taken as the base voltages
for per unit representation. The 220 kV side of the transformer contains the tap-
changing gear and it is set at tap no.2 (boost). The p.u change in voltage per
change in tap (DV/Dtapstep) = 0.0125. Compute the effective tap/ transformation
ratio between the 220 kV and 33 kV sides.

Solution

(220.0 /220.0)
t
off
= = 0.9565
(34.5 / 33.0)

Effective tap between 220 kV and 33 kV sides = 0.9565 * (1.0 + 2 * 0.0125)
= 0.9804

The rated MVA of the transformer is used to compute percentage loading.


2.2 Saving the data entered
The data entered and saved through various data windows are written into a
temporary file called TEMP. You should save it through Project => Save Project
As. This results in a display shown in Fig.2.15. Let us say that mysys is the name
of the project then type mysys and click the Save button. If you do not save it, then
when you create data afresh for another system or select an existing Project name,
TEMP would be over written.

















2-6





















Fig.2.1 Load Flow Opening Window






















Fig.2.2 Input Data Preparation Window
2-7






















Fig.2.3 Window for Maximum Dimension Data





















Fig.2.4 Window for Max Dimension with Default Values 2-8






















Fig. 2.5. Window for Case Description





















Fig.2.6 Window for General Parameters Entry

2-9





















Fig.2.7 Window for Slack Bus Data Entry






















Fig.2.8 Prompt for Generator Bus Data Confirmation
2-10




















Fig.2.9 Window for Generator Bus Data Entry





















Fig.2.10 Window for SVC Bus Data Entry

2-11





















Fig.2.11 Window for Load Bus Data Entry























Fig.2.12 Window for Shunt Data Entry
2-12





















Fig.2.13 Window for Transmission Data Entry






















Fig.2.14 Window for Data Entry of a Two-winding Transformer with Fixed Tap
2-13





















Fig.2.15 Saving the Data Entered























2-14
CHAPTER 3
EDITING SYSTEM DATA CREATED BY YOU
3.0 Introduction
It may not be possible to get all the data entered correctly in a single attempt,
especially, if the system is large. In some caeses, you might want to run the Load
Flow program with data for some groups changed. This can be accomplished by
the Edit Option. Note that if you have saved the project then you must specify the
saved project name. If you are editing after a fresh data entry without saving the
project, the Editing Option changes are done to TEMP and you must save it if
you want the changes to be retained.

3.1 The Editing Option
Let us say that the Project has been saved under the name mysys. Then to edit
mysys perform the following: Project => Existing . This results in the window
display shown in Fig.3.1. If you now click Select Project you can browse and
select mysys from the folder in which you have saved it as shown in Fig.3.2. As
soon as mysys is selected, the Editing Option appears as shown in window
Fig.1.4.

Some of the options under Editing Option are explained below.

View/modify/delete option
+Selecting this option results in the Input Editing Window, Fig. 1.11. Now you
can choose any group of data and the appropriate window will appear for you to
change the data.

Add new data option
Clicking on this option results in the Input Adding Window shown in Fig.3.3. You
can select any group of data and enter the values in the window that appears. For
example, selecting Generator Bus data results in the window shown in Fig.3.4.
After entering the values for all the data items in the window you must click Add
button. You can Add as many number of generators as you want “staying” in the
window. Once the generator bus data addition is complete press Quit button. In
case you want to abort addition just Quit. Make sure that you save the additions
made by either overwriting on the selected project or saving it under a new name.

To overwrite do the following: Quit the Editing Option menu and then Project
=> Save.

To save it under a new name : In the Editing Option menu select Save Project
As…When the appropriate window appears store it under a different file name.

Note that you can also run the Load Flow program from the Editing Option.

3-1






















Fig.3.1 Selecting a Project to Edit





















Fig.3.2 Selecting mysys
3-2





















Fig.3.3 Input Adding Window





















Fig.3.4 Adding Generator Bus

3-3
CHAPTER 4

VIEWING RESULTS OF THE LOAD FLOW PROGRAM


4.0 Introduction
The Load Flow results are presented in basically two forms, namely, a
conventional form which is the normal print out and a graphical form. Both forms
are useful in archiving as a lab record by the student.

4.1 Conventional Text Format Output
This form can be viewed through View => Output. This causes an easily
understood output invoked as a WordPad file. It can be readily printed and
straightaway used as a part of lab documentation. A typical conventional text
format output is enclosed at the end of this Chapter. It can be seen that the output
is self-explanatory.

4.2 Single Line Diagram
Line diagrams show the results from the Load Flow program graphically. They
can be displayed by performing the sequence View => Line Diagram which
results in the window shown in Fig.4.1

You can now select a bus from the combo box around which the results are of
interest. For the 9bus tutorial example, selecting BUS4 results in the line diagram
display shown in Fig.4.2


The conventions adopted in the line diagrams are as follows:

• Active powers are written in MW, reactive power in MVAR, voltage magnitude
in pu and voltage phase angle in degrees enclosed within angle brackets <>.

• Generations are shown as complex power injections into the bus, i.e by arrows
pointing towards the bus. The active power (P) in MW is written above the
reactive power (Q) in MVAR. The reactive power value is enclosed within
parentheses.

• Loads are shown as complex power drawn out of the buses, i.e, by arrows
pointing away from the bus. The active and reactive powers are written in the
form P + Q j

• Power absorbed / injected by shunt compensators are enclosed within square
brackets in the form [P ± Q j] where positive sign stands for absorption and
negative for injection. See a line diagram from 4bus example Fig.4.3.
4-1


• Branch flows are written near the bus where the branch terminates with active
power flow above the branch and reactive power flow below the branch and
enclosed within parentheses. A positive sign or no sign before a flow indicates
that the flow is away from the bus. A negative sign indicates flow towards the
bus.

Note that you don’t have to go through combo box every time to select various
buses in the system for Single line diagram display. You can use the up/down
arrow key to navigate through the system bus wise.







Fig.4.1 Invoking Single Line Diagram




4-2




















Fig.4.2 A Single Line Diagram Display for 9bus Example






















Fig.4.3 A Single Line Diagram Display for 4bus Example Showing Power
Injected by Shunt Capacitor at BUS4
4-3
CHAPTER 5

ANALYSIS OPTIONS

5.0 Introduction
There are two Analysis options and both are available on the Tool Bar. These
options are packed with features full of educational value to the students. They
help the student t understand the system being analysed better and appreciate the
algorithms on which the program is based. The features provide helpful validation
checks for hand computation exercise by the student.

5.1 Problem Analysis
Clicking on the Problem Analysis produces the window display shown in Fig.5.1

Optimal Ordering
Optimal Ordering is a strategy to preserve sparsity in the Load Flow equations
and the associated matrices, e.g. the bus admittance matrix. Sparse matrices are
those in which only 20-30% elements are nonzero. Sparsity occurs in the bus
admittance matrix because for practical systems number of outgoing feeders from
a substation to other substations is limited. Sparse matrix techniques take
advantage of the zero elements by not allotting storage for them and avoiding
known results of multiplication by zero elements. Impressive savings in storage
and execution time can be realised through these techniques. Most of the
algorithms use one of the implementations of Gaussian elimination method to
solve the set of linearised equations for the correction vector.

Normally used implementations are triangular and LU factorisation techniques.
Both these methods can introduce "fills". Fills are those elements which were
zero initially and became nonzero due to factorisation. Fills spoil the sparsity of
the matrix and offset the advantages that can be realised by sparsity techniques.
Selecting this option results in the display of optimal ordering performed by the
program for the system considered. The optimal ordered buses for the 6bus
example is shown in Fig.5.2. This outputting feature is available only with
Newton-Raphson method.

Memory Requirement
The Load Flow program has been dimensioned to handle practical systems that
are of academic interest. However, the systems given for lab experiments will be
smaller. In order to provide information on the memory required for lab
experiment problems, this feature has been provided. Selecting this option results
in the memory information displayed as a WordPad file as shown in Fig.5.3. This
feature is available only with Newton-Raphson method.
5-1

Convergence Characteristics

This option allows the student to visualise how the algorithm “marches” towards
the final solution. It also educates on the comparitive computational efficiency of
the two popular methods of load flow analysis, Newton-Raphson and Fast
Decoupled.

Selecting this option results in the screen display shown in Fig.5.4.

You have a choice of plotting for four variables against number of iterations.
They are: (i) maxmimum absolute value of active power mismatch, (ii) maximum
absolute value of reactive power mismatch, (iii) Max absolute value of voltage
magnitude correction and (iv) maximum absolute value of voltage phase angle
correction. These options are listed in the combo box that appears when
Convergence Plot option is selected, i.e, Problem Analysis => Convergence
Characteristics => Convergence Plot. This results in the display shown in Fig.
5.5. You can navigate through Convergence Plot by using the up/down arrow key.
A sample active power mismatch convergence plot for the 4bus example is shown
in Fig.5.6. Note that the plot also shows the bus at which the maximum absolute
mismatch occurred during the iteration.

Comparitive Plot option enables you to visualise the comparitive performance of
the Newton-Raphson and fast-decoupled method. To obtain this plot you must
have executed both these methods. The comparitive plot for Q-mismatch for the
4bus problem is shown in Fig.5.7. Notice that in the Newton-Raphson method the
mismatch becomes negligible after five iterations, whereas, even after twelve
iterations, the mismatch by Fast Decoupled method is considerable.

Matrices option allows you to display the admittance and Jacobian / B’ and B”
matrices as a WordPad file. Problem Analysis => Matrices => Admittance results
in the display shown in Fig.5.8 for 4bus system. Similarly Problem Analysis =>
Matrices => Jacobian => Del P/Del delta results in the display of the partial
Jacobian [˜3˜/| asshowninEig.5.9Iorthe 4bus system.

Note that Optimal Ordering, Convergence Characteristics and Matrices are
enabled only if the Intermediate Results option is given as nonzero in the General
Parameters group of data. Optimal Ordering and Memory Requirement are
available only for Newton-Raphson method.

5.2 System Analysis
The options under System Analysis belong to two categories, namely, system
abnormality and system summaries. These options are displayed in Fig.5.10.
System abnormalities can be over/under loading and over/under voltages. Typical
examples of these are displayed in Fig.5.11 and 5.12. Fig.5.13 shows sample
system performance summary.
5-2





















Fig.5.1 Problem Analysis options






















Fig.5.2 Optimally Ordered Buses for 6bus Example
5-3




















Fig.5.3 Memory Requirements






















Fig.5.4 Convergence Characteristic
5-4






















Fig.5.5 Convergence Plot





















Fig.5.6 Maximum absolute value of P-mismatch versus number of
iterations for the 4bus example. 5-5




















Fig.5.7 Comparison of Convergence Characteristics of Newton-Rhapson
and Fast Decoupled Methods for the 4bus Example.





















Fig.5.8 Admittance Matrix Display for the 4bus System

5-6





















Fig.5.9 Display of the Partial Jacobian [˜3˜/@IRUWKH 4bus System






















Fig.5.10 System Analysis Options

5-7



















Fig.5.11 Display of Over and Under Voltages for 4bus System






















Fig.5.12 Percentage Loading of Branches for 4bus System


5-8



















Fig.5.13 Output Summary














5-9










Reference

[1] WF Tinney, CE Hart, “ Power Flow Solution by Newton’s Method.”, Trans IEEE,
PAS-86, 1449-1456, 1967.

[2] HW Dommel, NOTES ON POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS, The University of
British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada, 1975.

[3] LO Chua, PM Lin, Computer-aided Analysis of Electronic Circuits, Prentice-Hall
Inc., USA, 1975.

[4] R Ramanujam, R Raghunatha, “Load Flow – Theoretical Development”, unpublished
document based on the above references, 1990.

[5] B.Stott, O Alsac, “ Fast Decoupled Load Flow.”, Trans.IEEE, PAS-93, 859-869,
1974.



































Appendix-A: Error Messages

1.??? NR: ARRAY SIZE PROVIDED..= NNNNN
??? NR: REQUIRED ARRAY SIZE..= NNNNN
CONTACT ANNA UNIVERSITY
This error occurs when the maximum dimension specified by the
user is more than what has built into the program. Care has been
taken to accomodate system sizes that are of academic interest
and this error should not occur.

2.??? NR: ERROR IN READING MAX PARAMETERS
This is a file reading error and it should not normally occur.


3.??? NR: ERROR IN READING GEN PARAMETERS
This is a file reading error and it should not normally occur.

4.NR: ??? INSUFFICIENT DIMENSION FOR SHUNT DATA
INCREASE MAXIMUM NUMBER OF SHUNT ELEMENTS
This error is self-explanatory

5.NR: ??? INSUFFICIENT DIMENSION FOR LINES',
INCREASE MAXIMUM NUMBER OF LINES
This error is self-explanatory

6.NR: ???INSUFFCIENT DIM FOR 2-WDG TRANSFORMERS
INCREASE MAXIMUM NUMBER OF TRANSFORMERS
This error is self-explanatory

7.NR: ??? BUS NAME REPEATED IN BUS DATA busname
This error is self-explanatory

8.NR: ??? BUS NAME NOT IN THE BUS LIST OR INSUFFICIENT MAX
PARAMETERS busname
You must give all the bus names while entering bus data.
If you give a bus name after the end of bus data this error
will occur.

9.NR: ??? INSUFFICIENT DIMENSION FOR GENERATORS
INCREASE MAXIMUM NUMBER OF GENERATORS
This error is self-explanatory

10.NR: ??? INSUFFICIENT DIMENSION FOR SVC
INCREASE MAXIMUM NUMBER OF GENERATORS
This error is self-explanatory

11.NR: ??? INSUFFICIENT DIMENSION FOR BUSES
INCREASE MAXIMUM NUMBER OF BUSES
This error is self-explanatory

12.NR: ??? ERROR-DIMENSION OVERFLOW FOR BRANCHES INCLUDING FILLS
INCREASE MAXIMUM LINES/TRANSFORMERS
This error is self-explanatory

A.1


13.NR: ??? ERROR IN FINDING Y BUS INDEX IN THE JACOBIAN
Contact Project Coordinator, AU Powerlab, Anna University
This error should not normally occur.

14.??? ERROR IN FORMING Y BUS OFF DIAGONAL
CONTACT ANNA UNIVERSITY
This error should not normally occur.

15.??? BUSES THAT CAN BE TRACED TO BUS 1 ARE
NR: ??? NETWORK IS SPLIT
NR: ??? BUS ',A8,' IS ISOLATED
NR: ??? BUS ',A8,' AND POSSIBLY SOME MORE BUSES ARE ISOLATED
These errors are associated with the islands that are detected
from processing the data given by the user.

16.??? BUS ',A10,' COULD NOT BE TRACED TO BUS ',A10,
CHECK LINE / TRANSFORMER DATA
This is similar to Error no. 15.

17.NR: ??? XFRMR transformer name FROM & TO BUSES ARE SAME busname
This error is self-explanatory

18.NR: ??? LINE line name FROM & TO BUSES ARE SAME busname
This error is self-explanatory













A.2






Appendix-B: Sample Problem and Results

Load Flow Sample Problem Data
The sample system and the associated data are taken from [1] PM Anderson, AA Fouad,
Power System Control and Stability, Iowa State University press, Ames, Iowa, 1978,
pp37-39.

Single Line Diagram
BUS7 BUS8 BUS9
~

BUS2 BUS3


BUS5 BUS6



BUS4




BUS1


Branch Data
All Parameters On System Base MVA = 100 MVA; X and B/2 frequency = 60 Hz
From To R X B/2 Remarks
BUS1 BUS4 0.0 0.0576 0.0 Transformer
BUS2 BUS7 0.0 0.0625 0.0 with nominal
BUS3 BUS9 0.0 0.0586 0.0 taps
BUS4 BUS5 0.010 0.085 0.088
BUS4 BUS6 0.017 0.092 0.079
BUS5 BUS7 0.032 0.161 0.153
BUS6 BUS9 0.039 0.170 0.179
BUS7 BUS8 0.0085 0.072 0.0745
BUS8 BUS9 0.0119 0.1008 0.1045
Generation Schedule
Bus name Volt.mag (pu) Volt.angle (deg) P(MW) Remarks
BUS1 1.040 0.0 - Slack bus
BUS2 1.025 - 163.0 P-V bus
BUS3 1.025 - 85.0 P-V bus
B.1

Loads
Bus name P(MW) Q(MVAR)
BUS5 125.0 50.0
BUS6 90.0 30.0
BUS8 100.0 35.0






































B.2

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