You are on page 1of 7

Cch tnh ton v la chn dy dn.

Din n PLC :: H thng in - in t ng dng :: in cng nghip v dn dng. Trang 1 trong tng s 1 trang Share Actions

Cch tnh ton v la chn dy dn.


by hienauto on 2010-09-11, 18:53 Cng sut chu ti ca cc loi dy cp in thng s dng cho nh Mi c dy/ cp (tit din rut dn) v mi loi dy/cp c mc chu ti khc nhau. i vi mc ch nh , hng dn ny a ra cc bng m t cng sut chu ti ca cc loi dy/cp nh di y. Cng sut chu ti nu trong cc bng ny l ph hp vi nhit mi trng n 40 C v cng xem xt n vn st p nhm m bo cht lng in sinh hot cho nh . Bng 1: Cng sut chu ti ca cp Duplex Du-CV, Duplex Du-CX Tit din rut dn Cng sut chu ti Chiu di ng dy Tit din rut dn Cng sut chu ti Chiu di ng dy 3 mm2 5,5 kW 30 m 10 mm2 12,1 kW 45 m 4 mm2 6,8 kW 30 m 11 mm2 12,9 kW 45 m 5 mm2 7,8 kW 35 m 14 mm2 15,0 kW 50 m 5.5 mm2 8,3 kW 35 m 16 mm2 16,2 kW 50 m 6 mm2 8,7 kW 35 m 22 mm2 20,0 kW 60 m 7 mm2 9,5 kW 40 m 25 mm2 21,2 kW 60 m 8 mm2 10,6 kW 40 m 35 mm2 26,2 kW 70 m Chiu di ng dy ngh s dng bng ny c tnh tan theo st p khng qu 5% iu kin y ti. i vi ngun 1pha 2dy, 220V, sau khi chn c tit din rut dn ph hp vi cng sut nhng cha ph hp vi chiu di ng dy mong mun th ch vic tng tit din ln mt cp (v d tng t 3mm2 ln 4mm2) v kim tra li theo cng thc di y (0,187 x P x L / S <= 11), nu tha mn th tit din dy va tng ln l ph hp, nu cha tha mn th tng tit din rut dn ln mt cp na v kim tra li nh trn cho n khi tha mn. [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] 5. Cch tnh ton v la chn dy dn Tnh ton v la chn dy dn cn phi thc hin theo cc bc sau y.

- Xc nh ngun in s dng - Tnh tng cng sut thit b tiu th in - La chn dy dn cho tng phn ca nh , bao gm ba bc nh: + La chn an dy ngoi tri + La chn an cp in k + La chn dy cho tng nhnh v dy n tng thit b tiu th in. 5.1 Xc nh ngun in s dng Cn c vo thit b in trong nh m ngi dng s dng l thit b 1 pha hay 3 pha, ng thi cng phi cn c vo ngun cung cp ca in lc a phng mnh c nhng loi ngun in no. Hu ht ngun in dng cho nh hin nay Vit Nam l ngun 1 pha 2dy. Bc ny thng b ph thuc vo ngun cung cp tng a phng, nu ngi dng ch xi thit b in 1 pha v ngun a phng ca in lc ch c 2 dy (1 nng, 1 ngui) hoc 4 dy (3 nng, 1 ngui) th ch c ngun 1pha 2dy (nh nu mc 1.1) l p dng c. Trong trng hp ny vn c th chn ngun 1pha 3dy (nh nu mc 1.2) dng, nhng phi thit k thm h thng ni t cho h thng in trong nh, pha sau ng h o in. 5.2 Tnh tng cng sut thit b tiu th in Thit b tiu th in l nhng thit b hat ng bng nng lng in. Cc thit b tiu th in trong nh c th k ra nh: n in, qut in, ni cm in, bn i, t lnh, my git, l nng vi sng, my iu ha nhit , my bm nc Trn mi thit b tiu th in, hu ht u c ghi tr s cng sut, c n v l W (Woat) hoc kW (Kil-Woat) hoc HP (Horse Power- Sc nga). Mt cch gn ng, c th xem tt c cc tr s cng sut ghi trn cc thit b l cng sut tiu th in. Tnh tng cng sut thit b tiu th in l lit k v cng li tt c tr s cng sut ca cc thit b tiu th in trong nh nhm xc nh cng sut tiu th in tng ca c ngi nh. Khi gp cc n v cng sut khc nhau th quy i sang cng mt n v nh sau: 1kW = 1.000W 1HP = 750W 5.3 La chn dy dn cho tng phn ca nh y l buc cui cng tm ra cc c dy cn phi dng. Ty theo cng sut chu ti ca tng nhnh trong s in, ngi dng c th chn nhiu loi dy, c dy khc nhau. *V d: Tnh ton la chn dy dn cho mt nh c th. bi: Cn tnh tan chn la dy dn cho h thng in ca mt ngi nh 1 trt 1 lu, i dy m tng, khang cch t nh n li in a phng l 30m, tt c thit b in trong nh s dng in 1pha 220V, v c cng sut c nu trong bng sau. [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] Bc 1: Xc nh loi ngun in s dng: V tt c thit b in trong nh s dng in 1pha, 220V nn ta chn ngun in thng dng nht l ngun 1pha 2 dy. Bc 2: Tnh tng cng sut thit b tiu th in: Cng tt c cng sut ca cc thit b ca tng trt, tng lu v cng sut tng ca c nh ta c s liu sau. Tng cng sut tng trt: 7.470W Tng cng sut tng lu: 3.335W Tng cng sut c nh: 10.805W

Bc 3: La chn dy dn cho tng phn ca nh La chn an dy ngoi tri on dy ngoi tri l an dy dn in vo nh nn n phi chu c tng cng sut c nh l 10.805W. Tuy nhin, hu nh khng c thi im no m tt c cc thit b in trong nh hat ng ng thi cng mt lc, cho nn ngi ta c th gim cng sut tnh tan xung cn khong 80% cng sut tnh tan ri mi chn la dy dn theo cng sut c gim. Khi gim xung 80% nh vy ngi ta c cch gi khc l chn h s ng thi (kt) = 0,8. Trong v d ny hng dn ny cng chn kt = 0,8 v cng sut sau khi gim l: P = 10.805 x 0,8 = 8644W = 8,644kW on dy ngoi tri thng thng c s dng l loi dy Duplex rut ng, cch in PVC (Du-CV). Cn c vo cng sut 8,644kW ta tra bng tm c (tit din rut dn) cp cho thch hp. Tra bng 1 (cp Du-CV v Du-CX), chn gi tr ln hn gn nht ta thy cp tit din rut dn 6mm2 c cng sut chu ti ph hp. Chiu di lp t ca cp c tit din rut dn 6mm2 cho trong bng 1 cng tha mn vi chiu di lp t m u bi yu cu l 30m, v vy ta c th chn on cp ngoi tri l cp Du-CV 26mm2 hoc Du-CX 26mm2 La chn an cp in k on cp in k ni t an dy ngoi tri vo n nh nn n cng phi c cng sut chu ti ln hn hoc bng 8,644kW. Tra bng 2 ta thy cp K-CVV tit din rut dn 5mm2 hoc cp K-CXV tit din rut dn 4mm2 l ph hp. on cp in k thng kh ngn (< 10m) nn khng cn quan tm n in p ri theo chiu di. Nh vy, ngi dng c th s dng K-CVV 2 x 5mm2 hoc K-CXV 2 x 4mm2. La chn dy cho tng nhnh v dy dn n tng thit b in Ngi nh c tng trt v 1 tng lu, hai tng c cng sut tiu th khc nhau nhiu, do tit kim ngi dng c th phn lm 2 nhnh. ng dy cho 2 nhnh ny ngi dng nn chn loi dy n cng (VC). Nhnh 1 cho tng trt: Tng trt c cng sut tng l 7.470W = 7,47kW. Tng t nh cp trn, hu nh cc thit b khng hat ng ng thi nn c th chn h s ng thi kt = 0,8, lc cng sut chn dy dn l 7,47 x 0,8 = 5,976kW. Tra bng 3 ta thy dy VC tit din rut dn 4mm2 l ph hp, nh vy ngi dng c th chn dy VC 4mm2 cho nhnh 1 (tng trt). Nhnh 2 cho tng lu: Tng lu c cng sut tng l 3.335W = 3,335kW. Tng t nh cp trn, hu nh cc thit b khng hat ng ng thi nn c th chn h s ng thi kt = 0,8, lc cng sut chn dy dn l 3,335 x 0,8 = 2,668kW. Tra bng 3 ta thy dy VC tit din rut dn 2mm2 l ph hp, nh vy ngi dng c th chn dy VC 2mm2 cho nhnh 2 (tng lu). Dy cho tng thit b: Theo l thuyt th mi thit b c cng sut khc nhau s cn mt c dy khc nhau. Vic chn tng c dy ring cho tng thit b nh vy c u im l tit kim c chi ph dy dn, nhng li rt phc tp cho vic mua dy cng nh i dy, s phc tp ny nhiu khi cng rt tn km. V vy, khi trong nh khng c thit b no c cng sut ln c bit th ngi dng c th chn mt c dy v dng chung cho tt c cc thit b. Cng sut s dng cc cm thng khng c nh, khng bit trc chc chn, v i khi c hai hay nhiu thit b s dng chung mt cm, do , bm bo, ngi dng nn chn dy cho cm hn mt cp so vi c dy d nh dng chung cho tt c cc thit b.

Ty theo cch lp t, ngi dng c th chn loi dy n cng hoc dy i mm, ngi nh trong v d ny c yu cu i dy m tng nn ta chn dy n VC cho tt c cc thit b. Nhn vo bng cng sut ta thy cng sut ca my iu ha nhit 1,5HP (1,125kW) l ln nht, tra bng 3 ta thy cp VC tit din rut dn 0,75mm2 l ph hp, tuy nhin cn chn dy cho cm hn mt cp cho nn ngi dng c th chn dy VC 1,0mm2 cho tt c cc thit b v cm. Tm li: Cc loi dy, c dy c tnh ton la chn cho ngi nh trn nh sau: - on dy ngoi tri: cp Duplex Du-CV 26mm2 hoc Duplex Du-CX 26mm2 - on cp in k: cp K-CVV 2 x 5mm2 hoc K-CXV 2 x 4mm2 - Dy cho nhnh tng trt: dy VC 4mm2 - Dy cho nhnh tng lu: dy VC 2mm2 - Dy cho cc thit b in v cm: dy VC 1,0mm2 Ghi ch: Ngi dng c th la chn lp t cc loi dy & cp khng ch vi tit din rut dn ging nh la chn trn. 6. Cc lu cho h thng in nh - Nn chia ng in phn phi trong nh thnh nhiu nhnh thun tin cho vic ngt in khi cn sa cha, thay th. - Cc dy pha (dy nng) c cng mu v tt nht l mu , mu cam hoc mu vng. Khi c nhiu nhnh i chung mt tuyn m kch c ging nhau th mu ca tng nhnh nn khc nhau d phn bit. - Dy cho h thng ni t nn c mu ring bit vi tt c cc dy khc v nn chn dy mu xanhsc- vng hoc vng- sc- xanh. - Khi lun dy trong ng hoc trong np, phi chn kch thc ng, np rng sao cho d lun, d rt m khng h hi n dy dn. - Khng nn i dy ni m thp hoc qu gn cc ngun nhit, ha cht. - Mi ni dy phi cht, tip xc tt khng gy ra m-ve nc la khi mang ti. - Khng c ni trc tip rut dn ng v nhm vi nhau. - on dy i trong ng khng nn c mi ni. - Khng nn i dy m trong nn ca tng trt nu nn khng m bo c nh vi tng khi nn b ln. - Khng nn s dng dy c tit din nh hn 0.5mm2. 7. Nhng tc hi khi dng dy & cp in km cht lng Khi rut ng km cht lng hoc khng tit din c th gy ra cc tc hi sau - Dn in km, gy st p trn ng dy lm cho thit b hat ng khng hiu qu, tui th thit b gim nhanh. - Pht nng qu mc trn ng dy, gy h hi lp cch in, gy chm chp chy n. - Rut ng km cht lng rt d gy, kh ni, kh lp vo cc ph kin in khc. Khi lp cch in km cht lng c th gy ra cc tc hi sau - Nt cch in, h rut dn, gy in git cho ngi. - Rn nt cch in sau mt thi gian ngn, gy r in, tn tht in nng, chm chp chy n. - Khng chu c nhit cho php ca rut dn, chy nho gy ra chm chp chy n. - Khng t tt khi b pht chy bi tc nhn bn ngoi. - Mt mu sau mt thi gian ngn, gy nhm ln cc dy vi nhau khi sa cha, thay th. 8. Nhng kinh nghim la chn dy din cho nh

Nhng kinh nghim c nu y ch yu hng ti cc loi dy dng trong nh (nh mc 3.1 cp). Vi rt nhiu cc loi dy in trn th trng hin nay, tt c, xu c, tht c, gi c, thm ch c khi gp dy chng c nhn mc, tn nh sn xut g c. V vy, mt ngi khng chuyn th vic la chn dy no, nhn hiu no m c th tin cy c l mt vic khng d dng g. Bng mt vi kinh nghim ca ngi bin son, hng dn ny a ra mt s khuyn ngh v nhng ch du hy vng rng ngi dng c th trnh c cc sn phm dy/ cp in km cht lng. - Khng nn chn dy khng c nhn mc trn bao b, khng c tn nh sn xut, khng a ch r rng. - Khng nn chn dy m trn dy khng c cc thng tin c bn nh: nhn hiu, tn loi dy, tit din, cu trc rut dn (s si v ng knh mi si), tiu chun sn xut. - Dy tt thng c b ngoi ca v nha bng, lng. - Lp nha cch in ca dy tt rt do, khi tut ra khi rut dn, c th ko gin gp i, gp ba chiu di ban u m cha b t. Dy c th b gp nhiu ln hoc xon gt nhng b mt cch in khng b rng nt. - C th kim tra rut dn, bng cch m s si nh bn trong so vi s si c ghi bn ngoi. ng knh ca cc si nh bn trong rt kh kim tra, v phi c thc chuyn dng mi o c. Tuy nhin, vi mt thng hiu uy tn, trn dy c ghi c th cu trc rut dn (s si v ng knh mi si) th c th tin tng c. - Dy tt th c rut dn sng, bng, nu l dy ng th rut dn rt mm do. i vi dy rut dn ng c nhiu si nh th c th dng hai ngn tay xon rut dn d dng m cc si nh khng bung, khng gy, khng m vo tay. i vi dy rut dn c mt si th c th b gp rut ng n vi chc ln m khng gy. - Thng thng, dy tt c gi cao hn dy dm vi cng c loi. noithatdongtay.com theo ngohuudoan.wordpress.com 12-06-2008, 03:52 PM Cc bc cho mnh hi mnh cn chn MCCB cho dn nng 3 pha c cng sut tiu th in l 39.9 KW v Dng lm vic l 67.5 A nhn h s an ton 1,5 mnh c dng l 67.5 x1.5 = 102A Vy mnh chn MCCB l 110A .Mnh ch bit tnh n y cc bc kim tra gip mnh c ng khng cn dng ct ca n l bao nhiu KA mnh khng bit cch tnh .Ri mnh chn dy dn nh th no mnh tra bng dy dn ca Cadivi th thy hnh nh l chn dy 16mm m khng bit ng hay khng .Cc bc c th ch mnh cch tnh v cch chn c th nh th no khng mnh rt chn thnh cm n :laugh: Katatonia 12-06-2008, 06:01 PM c 1mm2 tit din dy l 10 A, c th m phang! nhingiku 12-06-2008, 07:24 PM theo tui nu cng sut in ca dn nng l 39,9 KW th dng in ca n thng =69-79A (ty theo cch nhn h s cos phi) nh vy y dng l 80A (lm trn). Nh vy ta s chn MCCB ln hn 1 Cp la MCCB-100A (khng nn chn cao qu). Cn v dy dn theo catalog th 1mm2 c th ti t 5-18A (ty tng trng hp lp t-tham kho catalogues ca dy in bn nh). nhng thng thng bn nn chn khong 1mm2 cho 4-8A------&gt; chn dy 16mm2 l OK nht cn mun tit kim th dy 10mm2.Cn dng ct th theo tiu chun ca nh ch to. Bn no c cao kin th ch gio thm :laugh: MrBen 13-06-2008, 03:48 PM thanks cc bn rt nhiu :laugh: K9night 16-06-2008, 05:07 PM nh ti c hc th khi tnh ton khng c h s an ton 1,5 u c. cn nh bn a ra yu cu th dn nng 39.9Kw t cng thc tnh I=P/(U*cos(phi)bn tnh ton ra cos phi th t 0.85-0.95 t tng my ty tng nh sn xut m tnh ban c 71.4-63.8A.t y ban chon c p = 75A, t I ca p bn tnh ton ra c I dy dn v chn dy. trong chn dy ban phi chia cho 1 s h s l h s lp t, h s pht nng ( dy i trong mng hay i ngoi khng kh .v.v ) chn dy cn nh bn chn

cu/XLPE/PVC(3x16+1x10+1x10mm2)cng c. cn ti hiu l ci h s 1.5 ca bn Mrben l h s an ton do nh sn xut ca Vit Nam thi ( do nh sx lm n km qu ) mi c ci h s .nh bn thy nh sx ngi ta tnh I cho bn ri bn ly ci y chia ngc li th c cos (phi). ko bit mnh tnh ton th c ng khng mong cc ban gp . Hero 21-06-2008, 05:24 AM Mnh cng xin ng gp t kinh nghim vi cc bc vi cng sut P=39.9 Kw, in p U=380V, tn s 50Hz. Dng in nh mc l Im=P/U*1.73*cos(phi) = 39900/(1.73*380*0.68)= 89(A) C l cc bc ngh cos(phi) = 0.68 l rt thp c phi ko? Nhng m ko thp u, v y l ng c khng ng b 3 pha. khi n khi ng th dng ca n ln rt ln, nhng m ch trong giy lt thi, nn ko nh hng g n dy dn v MCCB. Vi gi tr cos(phi)= 0.68 th bn ch cn chn MCCB ln hn n l c. bn chn MCCB = 100A/3pha l qu OK ri. Cn v vn dy dn th c ly dng nh mc chia 5 bn chn dy 3x16mm2 l hp l ri. nhng ch i vi dy dn ca bn nguyenledung 04-09-2008, 12:21 PM Cho bn! Vn bn thc mc l vn rt nhiu ngi gp phi. u tin l phi xem ti ca bn l g th vic chn CB, dy dn in mi c th thc hin c. Theo nh bn ni th l dn nng my lnh c tng dng chy l 67,5A. Bn cn phi tra thm thng s locked current tc l dng khi ng ca m t bm ca my nn. Nu khng tra cu c th coi dng in ny bng 8 ln dng in chy, gi tr ca n l: 67.5x8 = 540A. - Ti nu ra dng in ny bn phi hiu rng CB m bn chn phi chu ng dng in 540A trong vng 6-10 giy khi ng. - CB ca bn c ni vi dy cp dn ti dn nng, nhit lm vic ca tip im ng lc ca CB phi chn sao cho khng vt qu nhit gii hn ca dy dn (V d bn chn dy XLPE th nhit l 90 , dy PVC th nhit l 70 ). Ti xin chn nhit l 70 . Khi bn phi tra bng ti dng ca CB theo nhit . iu kin 70 , CB ch c th ti c 85% dng danh nh, bn c th ch chn 80% dng danh nh tnh. Khi CB bn chn c gi tr danh nh l: 67.5/0.8 = 77.5 v do bn c th chn gi tr 80A cho dng danh nh CB ca bn. - n dy cn phi chn characteristic cuver tc l c tuyn lm vic. Mi CB c mt c tuyn ring, v c tuyn CB ca bn phi nm trn im 540A/8sec (Ni chung con s ti a ra dy ch l phng on). Nu CB 80A c tuyn khng tho th bn th bn phi chn cp dng tip theo so snh. Cn v vic chn cp in, bn cn lu l dng in ch tn ti thc s vng trn bin ngoi ca li dy in. ti ni l dng in ti gn nh t l thun vi chu vi vng trn bin ca dy dn in. Do khng nn tnh dng in ti theo mt dng in. Bn phi tra bng theo Quy Phm Trang B in mi do B Cng Thng ban hnh. Nu hng cp bn chn c bng tra dng th cng c th chn dng in trn bng tnh tan. Thng th vi dng 67.5A th cp in chn c tit din nh nht l 14 sqmm. Cn lu n chiu di tuyn cp ni n thit b ca bn, nu qu di (thng l t 70 mt tr ln) th cn phi tnh st p sao cho dy ti bo m. ti l st p khi khi ng khng vt qu 20% in p, st p khi ti khng vt qu 10% in p, lc thit b ca bn mi vn hnh c tt. Cho thn i! trinhkhai79 19-11-2008, 10:56 AM Cho bn, Trn thc t li khuyn u tin l c cun hng dn ca nh sn xut xem n khuyn co th no. Nu khng r th phi xem li chng loi motor c s dng c ng ti c trng nh th no. (Bn

c th hi r l dng khi ng n bao nhiu). Ri tnh nh cc bn ch dn. Cch th ba n gin hn: Merlin Gerin, ABB u c chng loi CB c ng ct K (ng ct c tr) thch hp cho cc Motor. Ly chng loi l ph hp. Ngn mch th da vo ng sut kA ca CB mch tng m ni suy ngc li. Thc t dng ngn mch s truyn t bn ngoi ngun vo ti ch khng i ngc, do vy bn c th yn tm chn dng ngn mch tiu chun nh hn CB tng. Theo kinh nghim tr khi li rt c bit ti lun chn dng ngn mch 25kA cho trng hp ny. Dy dn: v nguyn tc dy 1mm2 vn c th chu c dng 7000A m khng t nu nh gii quyt c vn gii nhit cho n. Bn tra bng ca nh sn xut cp l kh chnh xc, vi dng in nh hn 500A bn khng cn quan tm nhiu lm v cc quy chun v s nh hng l rt nh. Ch c iu nu dy nh hn 4mm2 th n hi yu d b t vi vic dn i xa. Bn c th phi cn nhc vn kt cu h tr (ng thp lun, ng nha)... v chn dy dn ln hn c th chu lc lc ko. i bn ngoi nn bc gip chng n mn, t ... Dy di hn 100mt th nn xem xt li vn MCCB bo v, i khi phi chnh li mt cht cho thch hp vi vic bo v dy di. Dy i vo khu vc nng qu nh i vo ng gi nng trn 40oC thng xuyn th phi tnh dy ln hn mt cht. Ti ngh rng: MCCB 100A, 25kA (3 cc hoc 4 cc tu loi) ng ct K. Dy dn chn mc 100A. Nh hn khi thit b qu ti dy s d b hng trc khi MCCB ct (c bit l dy di). Dy 16mm2 Cu l c ri.