# EXPERIMENT 6

TRANSIENT AND SMALL SIGNAL STABILITY ANALYSIS: SINGLEMACHINE INFINITE BUS SYSTEM 6.1 AIM To become familiar with various aspects of the transient and small signal stability analysis of Single-Machine Infinite Bus (SMIB) system. 6.2 OBJECTIVES i. To understand modelling and analysis of transient and small signal stability of a SMIB power system.

ii. To examine the transient stability of a SMIB and determine the critical clearing time of the system through simulation by trial and error method and by direct method. iii. To determine transient stability margin (MW) for different fault conditions. iv. To obtain linearised swing equation and to determine the roots of characteristics equation, damped frequency of oscillation and undamped natural frequency. 6.3 SOFTWARE REQUIRED TRANSIENT / SS STABILITY-SMIB module of AU Powerlab or equivalent 6.4 THEORETICAL BACK GROUND 6.4.1. Stability: Stability problem is concerned with the behaviour of power system when it is subjected to disturbances and is classified into small signal stability problem if the disturbances are small and transient stability problem when the disturbances are large. The description of the problems are as follows. Transient Stability When a power system is under steady state, the load plus transmission loss equals to the generation in the system. The generating units run at synchronous speed and system frequency, voltage, current and power flows are steady. When a large disturbance such as three phase fault, loss of load, loss of generation etc., occurs the power balance is upset and the generating units rotors experience either acceleration or deceleration. The system may come back to a steady state condition maintaining synchronism or it may break into subsystems or one or more machines may pull out of synchronism. In the former case the system is said to be stable and in the later case it is said to be unstable.

6-1

Small Signal Stability When a power system is under steady state, normal operating condition, the system may be subjected to small disturbances such as variation in load and generation, change in field voltage, change in mechanical torque etc. The nature of system response to small disturbances depends on the operating condition, the transmission system strength, types of controllers etc. Instability that may result from small disturbances may be of two forms (i) (ii) Steady increase in rotor angle due to lack of synchronising torque Rotor oscillations of increasing magnitude due to lack of sufficient damping torque.

Lack of sufficient synchronising torque results in instability through non-oscillatory mode shown in fig. 6.1. Fig. 6.2. shows the instability of a synchronous machine through oscillations of increasing amplitude.

For small disturbance, the non-linear equations characterising the dynamics of power system may be linearised around an operating point for the purpose of analysis. Small signal analysis using linear techniques provides valuable information about the dynamic characteristics of the system and assists in its design. The location of the roots of the characteristic equation of the linearised differential equation will reveal the stability status of the system. We can also obtain the response of rotor angle and frequency of the rotor of the synchronous machines.

¡
t Fig 6.1 Non-Oscillatory instability Fig. 6.2. Oscillatory instability 6-2

6.4.2. Mathematical Modelling For Transient Stability Consider a single machine connected to an infinite bus shown in fig. 6.3. An infinite bus is a source of invariable frequency and voltage. Line 1 G Generator Et Transformer Line 2 x Infinite bus EB

Fig 6.3. Single machine connected to infinite bus system The equivalent circuit with the generator represented by classical model and all resistances neglected is shown in fig. 6.4. jX1 EB o jX’d jXtr It Et
e

Fig 6.4. Equivalent circuit

Pe

Fig. 6.5. Reduced Equivalent Circuit E’ = E t + jX’ dIt X = X’ d +XE where XE = Xtr + X1 || X2

E’ = e.m.f behind machine transient reactance leads EB

6-3

c db

g f I6e X 9 aU 3 3XD WU D0 H F B @ 97 0 3 10 A6TI`1AYATVTSRQP3IGEDCA865142") '

' \$ (&%#

!   " 

Pe = |E’||E B X where

max

hronously rotating reference phaser EB

¨ §

E’

¦

¥ ¤

E’

jX2

jX

EB

o

£ ¢

(6.1)

o

. E’

Pe = electrical power output of generator in p.u Computation of Initial Condition: Consider that the generator output power and the terminal voltage magnitude |Et| are specified. It |Et| jXtr jX1

Fig. 6.6. Equivalent circuit

It = S* = P Et* |Et|

Let X4 = Xtr + X3 where

EB = Et – jX4 (IR + jII) = (|Et| + X4 II) – jX4 IR = (|Et| - QX4) - j(X4 P) |Et| |Et|

6-4

y vt xwAus

r

EB = |EB| -

q i

Assume Et = |Et|

o

as reference = IR +jII |Et| = Et since it is reference X1 x X2 X1 + X2 P Et -Q Et (6.2)

jQ |Et|

X3 =

IR = II =

q i

p i

h

o

= synchronous speed of rotor

EH

jX2

EB

Xd ’ |E’|

|Et|

Xtr

jX3 EB
o

= tan -1

X4P / Et QX 4 ( Et − ) Et

Angle of EB with respect to Et Let E’ = |E’|

t

E’ = E t + jX’ d It = Et + j (IR + jII) X’ d = (Et – X’ d II )+ jIRX’ d

= E’ R + jE’ I where ER = |Et| + QX’ d |Et| EI = PX’ d |Et|

-1

(E’ I / E’ R)

|E’| = (E 2R + E2 I) ½

-1

(E’ I/E’ R) + tan-1 (Eq/Ed)

Swing Equation During any disturbance in the system, the rotor will accelerate or decelerate with respect to synchronously rotating axis and the relative motion begins. The equation describing the relative motion is called as swing equation. The following assumptions are made in the derivation of swing equation 1. 2. 3. 4. Machine represented by classical model Controllers are not considered Loads are constants Voltage and currents are sinusoids

The fundamental equation of motion of the rotor of the synchronous machine is given by

g f

Now changing reference to EB = |EB|

g df

=(|Et| + QX’ d ) + j PX’ d since Et = |Et| |Et| |Et|

o

o

6-5

g f

de`AY(2IRS          

      Y5jTm(     ~ } o y w vq usrqpo 4E |y{n zxVj6tY(Gn

l  i m5kj

 h

(6.4) = |Et|
o

(6.5)

m

– Pmax

Pm = mechanical power input in p.u Pmax = max. electrical power out in p.u H = Inertial constant in seconds

Rewriting equation (6.6) in state variable form

dt

Changing rotor speed in to per unit and introducing damping torque, equation (6.7) become dt

dt

o

r

where
r = rotor speed deviation in p.u Pm = mechanical input in p.u KD = damping co-efficient in p.u

Numerical Integration Techniques The differential equations (6.8) are to be solved using numerical techniques. There are several techniques available and two of them are given below. I. Modified Euler Method Consists of the following steps (i) (ii) Compute the derivative at t: PX(t) = f[X(t), t]

(iii) Compute the derivative : PX (t+

6-6

5ß¢Ý Þ

(iv) Compute the average derivative : PXav (t) = ½ [PX(t) + PX(t+

ÛÙ × Õ 5âÞ¢Ø«á425ß¢Ý ÉÜ%ÚØ`ÖÔ Ý Þà Þ ÌË Ð ÏÒ Ñ Ð Ï Î Ì ¢8«Í«ÌSÓ"¢«Í«ÌS`ÍË

Compute first estimate : X1(t+

Æ ²È

¦ ­ £ ¨ ¬¡ ¥¡ ¨  ª ¥ ¦ ¨ ¥ ¤ £¡     "S§¡(Y2tV§ªT«tE¦I£©§¦((Y¢6`2 

frame.

o

dt

Â À (ÉÁ%¿

r

) = 1 (Pm - Pmax 2H

Æ È ²Å Æ

r-

o

r

- KD

»Â À ÃÁ%¿

`¾¢¼Rºe¸·¶ µ ³ ½» ¹ ´

r)

m

  
- Pmax
r

 

Æ Æ ÊÈ ÇÅ Â Ä



2H . d2 dt o where

(6.6)

Æ ÇÅ Â Ä

± ¯ ²° I¬

Æ ²`È½ Ä

Æ ÊÈ

 ®

asured from synchronous by rotating reference

(6.7)

) (6.8)

1

(t+

av

II. Fourth order Runge-Kutta Method

This is an explicit algorithm. The general formula giving the value of X for the (n+1)th step is Xn+1 = Xn + 1/6 (K1+ 2K2 +2K3 + K4) (6.9)

K3 = f(Xn + K2/2, tn + K4 = f (Xn + K3, tn+

6.4.4. Determination of Critical Clearing Time Critical clearing time is the maximum allowable time between the occurrence of a fault and clearing of the fault in a system for the system to remain stable. For a given load condition and specified fault, the critical clearing time for a system is found out as follows. Choose a large clearing time say 30 cycles and decrease the clearing time in steps of say two cycles and check for stability at each time step until the system just becomes unstable. Vary the clearing time around this point in small step till you find the clearing time which is just critical. The clearing time margin for a fault may be defined as Clearing time margin = critical clearing time – clearing time specified = tc (critical) - tc (clearing) 6.4.5. Stability Margin in MW Consider that the machine connected to infinite bus delivers Po MW (Fig. 6.3) and a fault is specified at the end of line no. 1 with a clearing time tc = 0.3 seconds. Suppose the MW output of the machine is increased in steps and stability is checked for each step of load with the same clearing time and fault, then the system becomes just stable at a loading say Pm and a small increase in load beyond Pm causes instability; then the MW stability margin is defined as Ps = Pm - Po 6.4.6. Critical Clearing Time and Clearing Angle From Equal Area Criteria This method can be used for quick prediction of stability but is applicable only to single machine connected to infinite bus. The fundamental concepts and principles of stability can be explained very well. Consider the system shown in fig. 6.3. and its model in Fig 6.5. The terminal power is given by equation 6.1 and the power angle curves for various operating condition is given in fig. 6.7.

ìë ì ¢¢5ï¢ë ìðRîRíë ëï ì ìëï ì ¢ð6«îRí¢ë

K2 = f(Xn + K1/2, tn+

ä ã

K1 = f(Xn, tn)

6-7

ä ã

çê é è ç æ ä Ø¢«å«äS"5å¢ã

(v)

Compute the final estimate: X (t+

(t)

P

A

Pe - before fault

a

.. . . .
e A1 b A2 d c
o 1

fB g Mechanical Power After fault clearing C During fault

Fig. 6.7. Power angle curve

The steady state operating condition is given by point a and the corresponding rotor o. Consider a three phase fault at location F on line 2 as shown in fig. 6.3. The fault is cleared by opening the circuit breakers at both ends of the line. The pplot for three network conditions are shown in fig. 6.7. When the fault occurs, the operating point changes from a to b. Since Pm > Pe, the rotor accelerates until the operating point reaches c where the fault is 1. The operation shifts to e. Now Pe>PM increase until the kinetic energy gained during the period of acceleration (Area A1) is transferred to the system. The operating point moves from e to f such that area A2 is equal to A1. The rotor angle will oscillate back and forth around at its natural frequency such that |area A1| = |area A2|. This is known equal area criterion. 1
¦

P A1

a

Fig. 6.8. Equal area criterion for critical clearing angle Critical Creating Angle an Time With delayed fault clearing as shown in fig. 6.8, the area A2 just equals to A1 at c. Any further delay in clearing causes area A2 above Pm less than A2 c for which A1 = A2 is called critical clearing angle. The critical clearing angle can be computed as Applying equal area criterion to fig. 6.8.
T 8 7 E C 9 U A e R i h U A C S @ e 6 C d U b S U U S 7 uY££tsrFgqpg3Q§%f£Qca`3YX2W3DA VFBB@ C A E C R7 P U 8 T GS F£QH%FGFDB6 R 7 9 P I 8 8 7 E C 9 E C A @ 9 8 7

& 

¨&

o
&

max

6-8

& 0 1 325!

b

. .

e

2

d

f

c

3

& 0 1 £24!

. . . .

P3max

A2

Pm

P2max

ñ

ÿd C ÿ ÿ þ ÿ C   ñ müV2Y«öõ ù ýò û öúò

! ¢ \$ 0 )3%21

0 ¦  ¨)(' %# ¢ & \$ " ! 

¤ ¢  ¢  ¢ © ¤ ¦ ¦ ¤ ¨¡ §¥£¡ ¢

ÿ 6

ÿ þ

ñ

ñ

ñ ñ «øIRö(ò ÷ õôó

max

c c

c

and tc for different types of faults.

6.4.7. Modelling For Small Signal Stability The electrical power output of the generator in p.u. is
¡

Pe = |E’|E B X

In p.u. the air-gap torque is equal to air-gap power, Hence
¡

Te = P =
¾ ¨½

where

|E’|E B o , called synchronising co-efficient. X The state equations (6.8) are rewritten as dt
Õ ÉÎ Ï Ò Ñ 5Í }Ð

o is the base (rated) rotor speed in electrical radians per second, KD is the damping coefficient in p.u., H is in p.u (seconds).

Linearising equation (6.14) and using (6.15) we get,

6-9

Ý Ü Û ç æ Ý Ù 2èY%FrÚ Ò Ø Ò åÛ rØ Ú ä

Í Ü

Ï

á 3Ý Ò Ü Ø Y3fÛ âÓ f3Þ Í Ù Ü ã Û Û Ó

Ü Ý à Ú Û Ø 3%£Þ

Ü Í rÚ

Õ ÉÎ

á ß Þ 3à ¥2WtÙ Ý Ü Û Ú

where Tm , Te

º ¼l¢¨Y2££¨s£2l§3¨3g¤ VFDt%¨3t±%lr¢s£Y5r3D£ » º µ § © ¥ ³ ¤ µ ¤ ¹ ¥ ³ ¸ ª ¥ ¤ µ § ¨ ¦ · ³ ¶ § µ¤ ¥ ¤ ¥ § µ ´ ³ ² § ° ¯ ® ­ ¬ « ª ¥ ¤ © ¤ ¨ § ¦ ¥ ¤

|E’|E B X
À ¿

o

e

X

Ks =

r)

= [1/2H] (Tm – Te – KD

Õ ÉÎ

o

Ï Î Í Ì ÉapË

e
¾

r)

r

Ê À ¿ ÉÈ

À Ç Æ 53fÅ

Â Ã Â DÄpÁ

=

e
À

B

o

   FF



      sQ

The corresponding critical clearing time is given by te =
                     ¨s32rr¨HYBYrpDF

  £2¢

  £DF

½

ê ëÎ

Õ 'Ë Ó ×Ï Ó Ö Ø

¿

Õ ÉÎ Ó Ô

Ý Ù Ù Ú ç Ù é Ü é Û ç Õ á Í fYÜ Ó BBÚ Ø Û



= Pm

max

-

o)

+ P3max

max

– P2max

o

(P3max – P2max) o oPm)



 

 ~ | {

  c

y j o w i f m v u o q s f k q h s m q p g o n i f g k j i h g zQx£DF24a3tt%4rr¨£cFDm lB¨)¡Qf e



 ~ | t3{

d        %#25



    



 ~ | 3}{

 

Pm

c

-

o)

-

2max

  r3y x

w v

3max sin

– Pm

max

-

c)

(6.10)

(6.11)

(6.12) (6.13)

(6.14) (6.15)

2H

m

_

KD 6.9 Block Diagram for Equation (6.17) Taking Laplace transform for the above equation 2H
ì þ þ xý þ þ

o

o

o

2H
m

o

2H

Zero input response or force free response is obtained by setting
m

(s) = 0 (s + 2n

o

2  (s2 + 2 nV  n )

where  ½ KD+n 

n = Ks o / 2H rad/ s
The characteristic equation is given by s2 + 2 nV  n2 = 0 

6 4 20 (& 7531)'%

The undamped natural freq 

     #"  ! £   

(s2 + 2 nV  n) 

  ¥

(s + 2n

ý

þ

þ

o

D

o

2H

o

o

n

6-10

ü ëú

ó 'ÿ

ú ð ø ÷ ûxQrí

ÿ

ñ

õ ±ð

ñ ¨ì

¤ ¢ ¥£¡

ú

ó

þ xý

ÿ

þ

s2 + KD 2H

(s)

ü Éú

ó õ '±ð

ñ ì ¨}ú

ó

ÿ ûù

ì Éú

ð

ñ ì ¨Éú

ö

ì Éú

þ

ð

þ 

ñ ì ¨Éú

s2

-

– 0 + KD 2H

-

m

(s)

C ¥9

6

8

+

_ 1/2 Hs

@ ¥9

A B9

þ sý

D

2H

o

2H

o

m

Ks

ó

ü ëú

ó õ ì 'Éú

ó

ÿ ×ì

.. .
ý ÿ ì

þ xý

o

m

o dt

ì %î

ì ú

ü ú ù ø ÷ í ò ö õ ëû#Q¡45W±ð

ó í ò ñ ô`lzð

ï î í ¨Äì

(d2

2

– KD

(6.16) (6.17)

r o/

s

(6.18) (6.19)

\$

ü ëú

(6.20)

(6.21) 

n

d is

Taking inverse Laplace transform of equation (6.20) and (6.21) and taking o = 10o = 0.1745 radians; we get the equation for motion of rotor relative to synchronously revolving field and the rotor angular frequency o 2

n)

6.5 EXERCISES 6.5.1 A power system comprising a thermal generating plant with four 555 MVA, 24kV, 60HZ units supplies power to an infinite bus through a transformer and two transmission lines (refer Fig 6.10) H.T L.T G Et P+jQ Transformer line 1 Infinite Bus

Fig. 6.10 Single Machine Infinite Bus System The data for the system in per unit on a base of 2220 MVA, 24 kV is given below:

     R7

Hp kHk"R {y Yk  z v   z   ~ v v vw v v}1u | h zy l  {x vwv u v)1Wt h sf g l k n i  md j i

n

-

2

o

-1

   p Pa r qo

-

d e T ©     

e-

dt

e-

dt)

o

D)

line 2

EB

6-11

 

q ¥x y

h ¥f g   w Y§  

i w i

d

n

-

i pg ig phf

i q

s1 = s2 = -

c 5aY)"W'TRPHFD b `QX E V U SQ I G E
The roots of the characteristic equation

d ec i

n

d d

tut s v)1Wr

the damped frequency of oscillation given by
2

(6.22) (6.23)

An equivalent generator representing the four units, characterized by classical model: Xd’ = 0.3 p.u H= 3.5 MW-s/MVA Transformer Line 1 Line 2 : : : X = 0.15 p.u X = 0.5 p.u X = 0.93 p.u

Plant operating condition: P = 0.9 p.u ; Power factor: 0.9 lagging; Et = 1.0 p.u Case 1: It is proposed to examine the transient stability of the system for a three-phase-toground fault at the end of line 2 near H.T bus occurring at time t= 0 sec. The fault is cleared at 0.07 sec. by simultaneous opening of the two circuit breakers at both the ends of line 2. (a) Calculate the initial conditions necessary for the classical model of the machine for the above pre-fault operating condition, determine the critical clearing angle and time for the fault using “Equal Area Criterion” and hence comment on the stability of the system for this fault. (b) Simulate the above sequence of fault occurrence and clearance using the software available and plot the swing curve (rotor angle versus time) as well as the curves showing angular velocity and real power delivered by the plant versus time. (c) Determine the critical clearing angle and time for the above fault through trial and error method by repeating the simulation in (b) for different fault clearing times and compare the critical clearing angle and time obtained with that obtained by Equal Area Criterion in (a). 6.5.2 For the system given in exercise 6.5.1 and for the same operating condition, examine the transient stability using the software available for the following faults. Case 2: Three-phase-to-ground fault at the end of line 2 near infinite bus occurs at t=0 sec and is cleared at t=0.07 sec by the simultaneous opening of two breakers in line 2. Case 3: Three-phase-to-ground fault at the mid point of line 2 occurs at t=0 sec and is cleared at t=0.07 sec by the simultaneous opening of two breakers in line 2. Comment on the transient stability of the system under case 2 and case 3 and compare the severity of the faults; cases 1,2 and 3 from the point of view of maximum rotor swing and also by comparing the clearing time margin available.

6-12

6.5.3

Determine the steady-state stability margin (MW) available for the system under the given operating condition in exercise 6.5.1. Also determine the transient stability margin (MW) available for the operating condition given in exercise 6.5.1. for the three cases of fault, case 1, case 2 and case 3. Can the severity of the fault be measured using this margin? It is proposed to examine the small-signal stability characteristics of the system given in exercise 6.5.1. about the steady-state operating condition following the loss of line 2; Assume the damping coefficient KD = 1.5 p.u torque / p.u speed deviation. (a) Write the linearized swing equation of the system. Obtain the characteristic equation, its roots, damped frequency of oscillation in Hz, damping ratio and undamped natural frequency. Obtain also the force-free o and time response,

6.5.4

6.5.5

Repeat the small-signal stability analysis carried out using the software package in exercise 6.5.4 with the following parameters and comment on the relative stability of each case: (a) KD = 0 p.u and –1.5 p.u (b) KD = 1.5 p.u but with P = 1.2, 1.5 and 2.0 p.u

Ì Á Ë Â Ê¿É Ç » ÁÅ Æ ÂÅ¼ Â Ä Â Á À¿ ¾ ½¼ » · ° ² ± ° )5q¸Èha1Hqq{RHÃ1h1aRº¹¸§r¯ ¶ µ ³ ² ± ° ´©¯   §­Y'v­rH'ªqY¨''{x¥aYT1£3   ¡ ¢  ®  ¬  « © ¡ ¢¢ § ¡  ¦ ¤ ¢¢ ¡¢ ¡     
6-13