HUMAN ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY Unit 5 Exam Digestive, Urinary, & Reproductive Systems MATCHING: A. Digestion B. Absorption C. Peristalsis 1. 2. 3. 4. D. Hydrolysis E.
Ingestion AB. Segmentation
Process by which the products of digestion pass through the lumen of the gastrointestinal tract into the blood or lymph. Sequential waves of contraction and relaxation of the muscularis externa layer, propelling food through the digestive tract. Chemical or mechanical process of breaking down foodstuffs to substances that can be absorbed. Chemical conversion of polymers to monomers.
Matching: Choose the answer that would fit the term. (quest. 5-8) A. Mouth E. Large intestine B. Esophagus AB. Pancreas C. Stomach AC. Liver D. Small intestine 5. 6. 7. 8. Villi Rugae Gastric pits Gall bladder
9. All of the following are subdivisions of the nephron, except: A. loop of Henle D. distal convoluted tubule B. glomerular capsule E. all of the above are subdivisions C. proximal convoluted tubule 10. Put the following in their correct order: 1. the gall bladder stores and concentrates the bile 2. the bile travels through the common bile duct to the small intestine 3. the liver produces bile 4. the bile travels through the hepatic ducts A. 1,2,3,4 B. 3,4,1,2 11. The gallbladder: A. produces and releases bile B. stores pancreatic enzymes E. stores CCK C. 2,1,4,3 D. 3,4,2,1 C. stores bile D. produces CCK and secretin
12. From the small intestine to the anus, the secretions of the large intestine are as follows: A. cecum, colon, appendix, rectum, anal canal B. colon, appendix, cecum, rectum, anal canal C. colon, cecum, rectum, appendix, anal canal D. cecum, appendix, colon, rectum, anal canal 13. This valve controls the movement of food from the stomach into the duodenum: A. gastric valve C. iliocecal valve B. pyloric valve D. duodenal valve TRUE/FALSE. Write 'T' if the statement is true and 'F' if the statement is false. 14. 15. 16. 17. Chemical digestion of lipids is initiated in the mouth. The function of the enzyme salivary amylase is to begin digesting proteins. The digestive function of the liver is to produce bile. The pancreas has both an endocrine and an exocrine function.
The storage and concentration area for bile is the gall bladder. and serosa 26. C. parietal cells of the duodenum. Chyme is created in the: A. small intestine. D. Inferior vena cava B. muscularis externa. duodenum. Which of the following accomplish this task? A. When we ingest large molecules such as lipids. carbohydrates D. parietal cells D. the rugae 27. 21. serosa. 20. is secreted by the: A. the walls of every organ of the alimentary canal are made up of the same four basic layers. proteins B. B. D. secretion. serosa. A.
The major stimulus for the release of CCK is fats in the diet. pyloric sphincter. muscularis externa. The absorptive effectiveness of the small intestine is enhanced by increasing the surface area of the mucosal lining. chief cells of the stomach. B. 22. B. and mucosa D. Brunner's glands D. C. goblet cells of the small intestine. 23. D. D. jugular vein
. absorption. Brunner's glands. B. plicae circulares and intestinal villi B. submucosa. Which vein is part of the hepatic portal system? A.
MULTIPLE CHOICE. mucous neck cells 29. Peristaltic waves are: A. and muscularis externa C. D. Bile and pancreatic juice is necessary for normal fat breakdown and digestion. mucosa. duodenum and the cecum. Arrange them in order from the lumen. 32. Renal vein C. B. serosa. carbohydrates. pendular movements of the gastrointestinal tract. stomach. 25. waves of muscular contractions that propel contents from one point to another. 19. The terminal portion of the small intestine is known as the: A. 30. The esophageal mucosa is composed of simple columnar epithelium. mechanical digestion. ileum. serous cells B. This series of reactions is called: A. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. Digestion of which of the following would be affected the most if the liver were severely damaged? A. jejunum. Pepsinogen. 31. mouth. 24. starches 33. mucosa. submucosa.18. Superior mesenteric vein D. The three sections of the small intestine are the ileum. chief cells C. esophagus. lipids C. C. chemical digestion. and proteins. 28. C. they must undergo catabolic reactions whereby enzymes split these molecules. From the esophagus to the anal canal. muscularis externa. a digestive enzyme. churning movements of the gastrointestinal tract. segmental regions of the gastrointestinal tract. C. mucosa. and submucosa B. submucosa. Pepsin is produced in the small intestine. the vast array of digestive enzymes C. Hydrochloric acid is secreted by which of the secretory cells of the stomach? A.
Collecting duct. C. The terminal portion of the urinary system is the urinary bladder. Urine passes through the: A. 44. Afferent arteriole. 50.
TRUE/FALSE. 47. 40. Transport of urine from the kidney to the urinary bladder is the function of the urethra. 39. 41. 43.
MULTIPLE CHOICE. 48. B. 37.
. The functional unit in urine formation is the nephron. Loop of Henle
Site of filtrate formation. match the following:
Glomerulus. Its inner membrane forms part of the filtration membrane. Write 'T' if the statement is true and 'F' if the statement is false. pelvis of the kidney to ureter to bladder to urethra. 45. B. 52.
MATCH THE TERMS BELOW WITH QUESTIONS 16-20. The outer layer of the kidney is the cortex.1 34.1. Structure distal to the distal convoluted tubule. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. Peritubular capillaries. Proximal convoluted tubule AB.SHORT ANSWER. Loop of Henle. Extends deep into the medulla of the kidney. 46. glomerulus to ureter to renal tubule. 42. A. D. 35. The ureter transports urine from the kidney to the urinary bladder. 36. Collecting tubule Glomerular capsule Peritubular capillaries Distal convoluted tubule E. kidney hilus to the bladder to the ureter.
Figure 25. 49.
25. Site where most of tubular reabsorption occurs. 51. The kidneys contain renal pyramids. D. C. 38. hilus to urethra to bladder. The proximal convoluted tubule is the portion of the nephron that attaches to the collecting duct. Write the word or phrase that best completes each statement or answers the question. The terminal portion of the urinary system is the urethra.
5. 1. B. minor calyx 3. glomerulus A. 3. B. 5 B. relative impermeability of the distal tubule to water. Which statement is correct? A. B. C. 4. All the above are correct. 2. 60. ovary B. the thickness of the capillary endothelium. 2. 5. distal convoluted tubule 5. 5. 2. B. Tubular secretions in the proximal convoluted tubules involve: A. C. 1 D. 2. D. B. B. 4. C. loop of Henle 3. 3. All of the above are correct. collecting duct A. 1. 5 E. C. Fertilization of the egg occurs in the: A. decreased ADH secretion. The excretion of sodium ions is one of the mechanisms that maintains the pH balance of the blood. the size of the pores in the basement membrane of the capillaries. regulating the rate of filtrate formation and controlling systemic blood pressure. 1. Reabsorption of water is hormonally controlled. The descending limb of the loop of Henle: A. reabsorption of organic molecules. 54. D. nephron 4. 4. 3. 1. 1. pulls water by osmosis into the lumen of the tubule. 5. 1. is not permeable to water. The descending limb of the loop of Henle: A. 3. Excretion of dilute urine requires: A. 2. D. 57. 2. vitamins. 1. D. impermeability of the collecting tubule to water. 6. urethra 6. 1 C. 5. 2. 5. major calyx 2. The functional and structural unit of the kidneys is: A. pulls water by osmosis into the lumen of the tubule. the nephron. C. Bowman's capsule. the secretion of drugs. 4. contains fluid that becomes more concentrated as it moves down into the medulla. fallopian tube
D. 6.53. C. 6. Most of the water passing through the kidney is eliminated as urine. 3. uterus C.
. the loop of Henle. the secretion of amino acids and glucose. is freely permeable to sodium and urea. 4. all are possible sites of fertilization
62. 3. D. Normal filtrate contains a large amount of protein. is not permeable to water. 55. 59. B. contains fluid becoming more concentrated as it moves down into the medulla. 2. 3. 1. D. the design and size of the podocytes. The chief force pushing water and solutes out of the blood across the filtration membrane is: A. 4 5. Place the following in correct sequence. 3. Place the following in correct sequence from the formation of a drop of urine to its elimination from the body. 4 C. 56. 4 B. C. 3. ureter
58. 2. 1. the basement membrane of the capillaries. 5
61. and water. 4 D. is freely permeable to sodium and urea. 6. glomerular hydrostatic pressure (glomerular blood pressure). collecting duct 4. proximal convoluted tubule 2. D. E.
Primordial follicle. Carbohydrates and proteins but not fats are digested. Trypsin. B. Foods are acted on for the first time in this organ by protein splitting enzymes. More than one of the above are correct. glucose. Gastrin C. feces. chyme. pepsin 65. 73. E. tubule is freely permeable to water. This enzyme begins protein hydrolysis at the stomach: A. This hormone slows down the movement through the digestive tract and causes the gallbladder to contract. A. 70. 64.
. regulate the release of bile. B. C. As the food in the stomach is repeatedly squeezed and mixed with gastric juice. D. C. cholecystokinin C. a bolus. 75. In the ascending limb of the loop of Henle the: A. serotonin B. 74.3. D.63. gastrin 69. Graafian follicle. tubule actively moves ions out into interstitial spaces. None of the above are correct. albumin D. Lipase. tubule is somewhat permeable to water. The stage called ovulation. Amylase. C. D. The fluid in the glomerular (Bowman's) capsule contains (choose all correct) A. D. C. secretin B.
27. cholecystokinin D. B. serotonin D. B. 72. C. Primary follicles. D. all of the above 66. C. match the following: 71.3 Figure 27. reabsorb most of the ingested water. 67. Which of the following apply to the small intestine? A. releasing bile into the duodenum. Which of the following enzymes is specific for lipids? A. One of the major functions of the large intestine is to: A. 68. bile. secrete digestive enzymes. Most of the water absorbed from the digestive tract occurs here. tubule is not permeable to sodium and chloride. Dextrinase. break down hemoglobin. it is converted into creamy paste called: A. amino acids B. ions E. Corpus luteum. B.
bulbourethral glands BC. Vas deferens BD. D. 77. The egg completes the second meiotic division only after it has been fertilized. Which of the following glands are responsible for 60% of the synthesis of semen? A. fallopian tube AB. spermatogenesis involves mitosis and meiosis. retain. the bulbourethral glands D. the mature ovum is n. Only one sperm cell will penetrate the egg surface to fertilize the egg. 80. during spermatogenesis two more polar bodies are produced. B. corpus spongiosum
. C. regulate the ovarian and menstrual cycles. The primary function of the uterus is to: A. 82. and nourish a fertilized ovum. 79. 76. 78. the pituitary 85. fundus of uterus AE. the seminal vesicles C. 83. vagina BE. prostatic urethra AD. The basic difference between spermatogenesis and oogenesis is that: A. in oogenesis. and in spermatogenesis four mature sperm are produced from the parent cell. Questions (87-92). while the sperm is 2n. resulting in a zygote that has 23 chromosomes. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.TRUE/FALSE. spongy urethra E. 86. the prostate B. epididymis D. The soft mucosal lining of the uterus is the endometrium. seminal vesicle C. B. synthesize female hormones. identify the labeled structures: A. receive. prostate gland B. Write 'T' if the statement is true and 'F' if the statement is false. cervix of uterus AC. MULTIPLE CHOICE. protect the ovaries. Using the terms below. but oogenesis involves meiosis only. 81. A human egg or sperm contains 23 pairs of chromosomes. It is necessary for the testes to be kept below body temperature. one mature ovum is produced. A zygote is formed by the union of egg and sperm. C. Oogenesis results in the formation of one ovum and three polar bodies. 84. D. The molecule that enhances the ability of testosterone to promote spermatogenesis is inhibin.
5. 3. 4. where the majority of the hydrolytic enzymes are produced AC. Match the functions with the structures: A. location of bile production
3 Extra Credit: 1 4 1. esophagus C. Using the terms below.
Questions 97-99. 2. identify the labeled structures: A. epididymis 93. Name the area identified by the #3. Bulbourethral gland E. Name the structure identified by the #1.Questions 93-96. 96. Name the area identified by the #4. Name the structure identified by the #2. larynx D. trachea B. seminal vesicle D.
. uterus AB. small intestine AB. Prostate gland B. Adds fructose to semen Releases a clear mucus Sustains fertilized egg releases an alkaline fluid with enzymes to activate the sperm. testes AC. 94. ovary C. Name the “functional unit” of the kidney. pharynx E. 95.
24. 20. 57. 25. 40. 4.Answers. 34. 35. 31. 3. 8. 56. 48. 45. 55. 1. 9. 60. 13. 39. 17. 43. 58. 33. 21. 26. 7. 5. 42. 52. 16. 53. 37. 47. 14. 19. 50. 11. 22. 2. 6. 15. 32. 38. 36. 30. 29. 41. 59. 54. 44. 51. 27. 28. 18. 12. B C A D D C C AC E B C D B F F T T T T F T F F C D A B B D A B A B C A B E D B A B E AB T F F T T T T F B D A A C D A D B
. 49. 10. 23. 46.
73. Arcuate Vein 4. 76. 63.
C C B D D D D A B B E C B A D F T T T T F T F A D C BC C A AD E AB C D E A B AC E
Extra Credit 1. 89. 96. 66. 94. 68. 67. 69. 92. Nephron
. 87. 65. 75. 82. Renal pelvis 5. 98. 78. Renal pyramids of the medulla 2. 79. 97. 70. 95. 77. 88. 90.61. Ureter 3. 81. 84. 64. 85. 71. 86. 62. 83. 74. 80. 91. 99. 93. 72.