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# Ground Distance Relays – Understanding the Various Methods of Residual Compensation, Setting the Resistive Reach of Polygon Characteristics

**, and Ways of Modeling and Testing the Relay
**

Jun Verzosa Doble Engineering Company Watertown, Massachusetts, USA

Presented to Protection Testing User’s Group Salt Lake City, Utah 26-28 September 2005

Topics Covered

• Why this paper? • Residual compensation or Zero-sequence current compensation • Typical Polygon characteristics and resistive reach setting • Modeling and testing ground distance characteristics and influence of residual compensation

**Ground Distance Compensation Factors – Survey of Terminology (1)
**

Names • Residual compensation • Zero-sequence current compensation • Ground (or earth) – return compensation • Neutral (or earth or ground) impedance correction

**Ground Distance Compensation Factors – Survey of Terminology (2)
**

Symbols • KN • K0 • KE • KG • • • • KZN, KZPh Z0/Z1 RE/RL, XE/XL Etc.

Some relays have no factor setting but internally calculate compensation from: • R1, X1, R0, X0 • Z1 and Z0

**Power system – Phase A to Ground Fault
**

Es Z1S, Z0S

n

R Ia . Z1, Z0 F

VaR

21G

A-N Fault

**Symm. Component sequence circuit
**

Fault Location F, VF=0

I1 V1R

F1 F2 F0

I2 V2R

I0 V0R

**nZ1 Relay Location R ZS1 Pos. Seq. Network
**

N1

nZ2 = nZ1

nZ0

**ZS2 Neg. Seq. Network
**

N2

**ZS0 Zero. Seq. Network
**

N0

E1

I1 = I2 = I0 .

Symmetrical Component Network for SLG fault at F

Residual Compensation (1)

The voltage at the fault point F is zero (assuming a bolted fault), and the sequence voltages are:

**V1R = I1 n Z1 V2R = I2 n Z1 V0R = I0 n Z0
**

• • • • • •

And the PhA-N voltage at the relaying point is:

**VaR = V1R + V2R + V0R = I1 n Z1 + I2 n Z1 + I0 n Z0
**

• • • • • •

Residual Compensation (2)

The phase A current Ia at the relaying point is then

Ia = I1 + I2 + I0

and, since I1 = I2 = I0, the residual (neutral) current is

In = Ia + Ib + Ic = 3I0 I0 = In / 3 = Ia / 3

Residual Compensation (3)

If we add and subtract I0•n•Z1 in the voltage equation, factor out n•Z1 and I0, and substitute the Ia and I0 equations

VaR = I1•n•Z1 + I2•n•Z1 + I0•n•Z1 – I0•n•Z1 + I0•n•Z0 = ( I1 + I 2 + I0 ) • n•Z1 – I0•n•Z1 + I0•n•Z0 = Ia • n•Z1 + I0 • (Z0 – Z1) • n = Ia • n•Z1 + (Ia/3) • (Z0 – Z1) • n

Residual Compensation (4)

If we use the voltage VaR and the current Ia directly for measurement the apparent impedance that is measured is

**ZRapparent = VaR / Ia = n •Z1 + (Z0 – Z1)•n/3
**

The extra second term makes the result not very usable. To make the relay easier to use, the objective in the design of most ground distance relays is to make the relay measure only the first term, n•Z1

Residual Compensation (5)

If we substitute In/3 for I0 in the voltage equation and multiply the second term by Z1/Z1

**VaR = Ia• n•Z1 +(In/3)•(Z0 – Z1)•n•Z1/Z1
**

and simplify the equation to express the impedances as a factor of Z1, we obtain

**VaR = [Ia + In• (Z0 – Z1)/(3Z1)] • n•Z1
**

If we define a constant KN=

(Z0 – Z1)/(3Z1), VaR simplifies to

VaR = (Ia + KN•In) • n•Z1

Residual Compensation (6)

Zrelay = VaR / (Ia + KN•In) = n• Z1 where: KN = ( Z0 – Z1) / 3Z1 = ( Z0/Z1 – 1) / 3

Residual Compensation is a technique that allows measurement of the fault impedance in terms of positivesequence impedance, by adding a portion, KN, of the residual current In to the phase current.

KN = residual compensation factor

**Ground-return Impedance (1)
**

Considering the previous voltage equation

**VaR = [Ia + In• (Z0 – Z1)/(3Z1)] • n•Z1
**

If we express the voltage drops in terms of Z1

**VaR = Ia •n•Z1 + In• n•(Z0 – Z1)/3
**

This is the loop voltage from the relay terminal to the fault point and back, through a ground-return impedance

**n•ZN= n•(Z0-Z1)/3, to the neutral of the relay
**

location.

**Ground-return Impedance and Simplified Network Equivalent Circuit (2)
**

Hence, we can model the network as shown below Z n Z1 E

A

s

*

Relay Location

IA

F

IB = 0

EB

Zs

n Z1

*

VaR

EC

Zs

IC =0

n Z1

*

Ph A–N Fault

IN

ZNs

n ZN

*

=n (Z0 - Z1)/3

*

**Ground-return Impedance (3)
**

The impedance ZN is called the ground-return (or residual) impedance and is defined as

ZN = ( Z0 – Z1 ) / 3

Note also the relationships

ZN = KN • Z1

Or

KN = ZN / Z1

**Relay Implementation of Residual Compensation
**

A B C A-N Fault IA

Van Ia

Relay Comparator Circuits Replica Circuits

Z1

Z1

Z1

ZN

In

**Zero-sequence Current Compensation (1)
**

Considering the previous voltage equation and and if we replace In by 3•I0 we get

**VaR = [Ia + 3•I0• (Z0 – Z1)/(3•Z1)] • n•Z1 = [Ia + I0• (Z0 – Z1)/(Z1)] • n•Z1
**

We introduce K0 = (Z0-Z1)/Z1

VaR = (Ia + K0 • I0) • n•Z1

**Zero-sequence Current Compensation (2)
**

Zrelay = VaR / (Ia + K0•I0) = n• Z1 where: K0 = ( Z0 – Z1) / Z1 = Z0/Z1 – 1

Zero-sequence Current Compensation is a technique that allows measurement of the fault impedance in terms of positive-sequence impedance, by adding a portion, K0, of the zero-sequence current I0 to the phase current.

K0 = residual compensation factor

**Residual Compensation Factors – RE/RL and XE/XL (1)
**

xyz E

A

Relay Location

IA

*

Zs

IB = 0

ZL

F

=RL + j XL

EB

Zs

ZL

VaR

EC

Zs

IC =0

*

ZL

Ph A–N Fault

IN

ZNs

ZE

=RE + j XE =(Z0 - Z1)/3

**Residual Compensation Factors – RE/RL and XE/XL (2)
**

X

N =Z ZE

XE

RE XLoop

p oo ZL

Z1 ZL =

XL=X1

.

R

RL=R1

RLoop

**Residual Compensation Factors – RE/RL and XE/XL (3)
**

ZE = ZN = (Z0 – Z1) / 3 = [ (R0 – j X0) – (R1 + j X1) ] / 3 = (R0 – R1)/3 + j (X0 – X1)/3 = RE + j XE ZL = R1 + j X1 = RL + j XL

**Residual Compensation Factors – RE/RL and XE/XL (4)
**

If we express ZLoop into its resistive and reactive components, and express them in terms of RL and XL, we can introduce ratio constants RE/RL and XE/XL

ZLoop = RLoop + j XLoop RLoop = RL + RE = RL (1 + RE/RL) XLoop = XL + XE = XL (1 + XE/XL)

**Residual Compensation Factors – RE/RL and XE/XL (5)
**

The compensation constants can be derived from equations of RE, RL, XE and XL

RE 1 ⎛ R 0 ⎞ = ⎜ − 1⎟ RE/RL = [ (R0 – R1)/3 ] / R1 = RL 3 ⎝ R1 ⎠

XE/XL = [ (X0 – X1)/3 ] / X1 =

XE 1 ⎛ X 0 ⎞ = ⎜ − 1⎟ XL 3 ⎝ X 1 ⎠

Survey of Formulas, Names and Symbols

**Common factors and formulas (1)
**

• KN = (Z0/Z1 – 1) / 3 • K0 = (Z0/Z1 – 1) • K0 = Z0/Z1 • K0x = (X0/X1 – 1) / 3 magnitude & angle magnitude & angle magnitude & angle scalar

• K0ratio = Z0/Z1 magnitude and angles of Z1 & Z0

**Common factors and formulas (2)
**

• RE/RL=(R0/R1-1)/3

&

XE/XL=(X0/X1-1)/3

• Some relays do not require a compensation factor setting but internally calculate KN or K0 from from the positive- and zero-sequence impedance settings

- Z1 and Z0 - R1, X1, R0, X0 - ZN and Z1

Conversion from one form to another

**Conversion from one form to another Why Convert?
**

• Test system does not support form of compensation • Try testing with a different compensation form • Using existing relay setting on another relay • Replacing an existing relay

Spreadsheet (1) – mode selection

Spreadsheet (2) – data entry

Enter setting values

Spreadsheet (3) – converted values

Spreadsheet (4) – converted values

Spreadsheet (5) – converted values

Spreadsheet (6) – Z plot

**Loop impedance diagram
**

XLoop

ZN

XN

R1

ZNang

RN

ZN = KN*Z1 = 1/3 (Z0/Z1 – 1) K0 = (Z0/Z1 – 1) KN = K0 / 3 RL = R1 XL =X1 ZE = ZN

ZLoop = Z1 + ZN

Z1

X1

RE/RL = 1/3 (R0/R1 – 1) XE/XL = 1/3 (X0/X1 – 1)

ZLoopAng Z1ang

RLoop

Loop Impedance Calculation

Fault Resistance (1)

Z1 AN fault

21

IaR

VaR

Rarc

Rtf ZN

• Arc Resistance, Rarc • Tower Footing Resistance, Rtf

Fault Resistance (2)

RLoop

Rarc

Rtf

XLoop

**RFLoop = Rarc + Rtg
**

ZN

XN

R1

ZNang

RN

ZLoopAng = Z1 + ZN

**VaR/Ia = Z1 + ZN + Rarc + Rtf
**

X1

Z1

= ZLoop + RFLoop

RFLoop

ZLoopAng Z1ang

**Fault Resistance setting (1)
**

Z1 AN fault

21

IaR

VaR

Rarc

Rtf ZN

RFLoop = (1.1 to 1.2) * (Rarc + Rtf)

Fault Resistance setting with Remote Infeed (2)

Iremote ⎞ ⎛ RFLoop = (1.1to1.2) ⋅ ⎜1 + ⎟ ⋅ ( Rarc + Rtf ) IaR ⎠ ⎝

Characteristic Shapes, Residual Compensation and Resistive Reach (1)

No Resistive Reach Setting

Characteristic Shapes, Residual Compensation and Resistive Reach (2)

Characteristic Shapes, Residual Compensation and Resistive Reach (2)

⎛ Iremote ⎞ RFLoop = (1.1to1.2) ⋅ ⎜1 + ⎟ ⋅ (Rarc + Rtf ) Iar ⎠ ⎝

Characteristic Shapes, Residual Compensation and Resistive Reach (3)

⎛ Iremote ⎞ ⎜1 + ⎟ ⋅ (Rarc + Rtf ) Iar ⎠ ⎝ RFph = (1.1to1.2) ⋅ 1 + KNx

Characteristic Shapes, Residual Compensation and Resistive Reach (4)

Iremote ⎞ ⎛ ⎜1 + ⎟ ⋅ (Rarc + Rtf ) Iar ⎠ ⎝ RFph = (1.1to1.2) ⋅ RE 1+ RL

**Characteristic Shapes, Residual Compensation and Resistive Reach (5)
**

Regardless of the characteristic type the maximum resistive reach setting is affected by other factors

• • • • •

Relay maximum resistive setting, Maximum load Use of load encroachment feature, Relay current sensitivity, Tilting effect of remote infeed current.

**Fault Resistance Coverage (1)
**

XLoop

Less fault resistance coverage RFLoop = RFph*(1+KNx)

X1

Z1

RFph

RFLoop

ZL oo

p

XLoop = X1 * (1+KNx)

**Fault Resistance Coverage (2)
**

XLoop

Z Lo

Z1

Z1

ZL oop

X1

op

PhiLoop

PhiLoop

Phi1

Phi1

RFLoop

RFLoop

**Characteristic Modeling & Testing (1) KN = (Z0/Z1-1) / 3 ------ complex
**

Per-phase model

Z1L

Loop Characteristic

P2L

**Constant test current method VaR = Ia * ZFault * (1+KN) Constant test voltage method Ia = VaR / (ZFault * (1+KN))
**

P4L

Z1

P2

P3L

Per Phase Characteristic

P3 P4

Loop Model Constant test current method

O

VaR = Ia ZFltLoop

*

Constant test voltage method Ia = VaR / ZFltLoop

**Characteristic Modeling & Testing (1) KN = (Z0/Z1-1) / 3 ------ complex Per-phase model looks more like actual setting.
**

Z1L

Loop Characteristic

P2L

Z1

P2

P3L

**Both models work well.
**

P4L

Per Phase Characteristic

P3 P4

O

Loop model needs extra calculation of ZLoop reach and ZLoop angle.

P1

**Characteristic Modeling & Testing(2) K0x = (X0/X1-1) / 3 ------ Scalar Per-phase model looks more like actual setting.
**

P1L P2L P4L P3L

P2

P4

P3

P5L P5

X1

RFph

P6

P6L

**Both models work well.
**

Use Per-phase model Va/Ia = Zfault (1+ KNx)

**Characteristic Modeling & Testing (11)
**

Scalar factors -- RE/RL and XE/XL Per-phase model Loop Model

**Characteristic Modeling & Testing (11)
**

Scalar factors -- RE/RL and XE/XL Per-phase model Loop Model

• Per-phase model looks more like actual setting. • Both models work well. • Loop model requires extra complex calculations. • If software supports RE/RL & XE/XL compensation, use per-phase model.

**Characteristic Modeling & Testing(3)
**

KN = (Z0/Z1 – 1) / 3 &

+ Va

RFLoop

Ia n*Z1

RFLoop Ia n*Z1*KN

Z1 is per-phase

Z1

Phi1

RFLoop

is Loop

Characteristic does not include ground return impedance. It is included in the KN setting

**Characteristic Modeling & Testing(4)
**

Loop model

Z1L

RFLoop

Q

Loop model includes the ground return impedance. Resistive Reach is the same for per-phase and loop models and remains the same throughout.

Z1

ZLo op

PhiLoop

PhiLoop

RFLoop

Hence, we can model per-phase using separate fault resistance.

**Characteristic Modeling & Testing (5)
**

Z1L

RF P’L

PL

**Separate Fault Resistance – How to calculate loop impedance for testing
**

Start with P (Px,Pr) Draw horizontal line to the Zline to intersect at P’ P’x = Px P’r = P’x/tan(Phi1)

Z1 RF

P’

P

Phi1

RF = Pr – P’x P’L = P’ *(1+KN) PL = P’L + RF

Z1L

**Characteristic Modeling & Testing (6)
**

ZN

RF2

P’2L

P2L

Z1

RF3

P3L

P’2

RF3

RF2 P3

P2

RF4 P4

P4L

RF4

RF5

P5 = P5L

**Characteristic Modeling & Testing (7)
**

Allows testing using separate fault resistance for points -To the right of the line angle only -To the left of the line angle only - both left and right of line angle If not checked, ZPLoop = ZP (1 + KN)

**Characteristic Modeling & Testing (8)
**

Per-Phase Testing Loop Testing

**Characteristic Modeling & Testing (8a)
**

Per-Phase Testing Loop Testing

• Per-phase model looks more like actual setting. • Both models work well. • Loop model requires extra complex calculations. • If software supports complex KN compensation, use per-phase model, • if reactance line tilt is small

**Characteristic Modeling & Testing (9)
**

Tilt angle

RF

P’L

PL

Tilt angle

P’

RF

If tilt angle is more than +/-3 deg using separate fault resistance is erroneous. Use Loop Impedance model only.

Z Lo op

P

Rs1 Rs2

Characteristic Modeling & Testing (10) Angle of resistance blinder is different from loop angle, phiLoop. Use Loop Impedance model only

XN

Loop

phiN

oop ZL

Per-phase

X1

phiLoop

phi1

RFloop

phi1

Characteristic Modeling & Testing (11) Some test software allow selection of several types of compensation factors. Use these features if per-phase modeling and testing provides correct results for type of characteristic tested

Characteristic Modeling & Testing (12) User-interface helps in modeling using setting

Characteristic Modeling & Testing (12a) User-interface helps in modeling using setting

Characteristic Modeling & Testing (12b) User-interface helps in modeling using setting

**Characteristic Modeling & Testing (13)
**

Importing characteristics exported by relay software

**Characteristic Modeling & Testing (14)
**

Simultaneous testing of multiple zones with complex characteristics •Load encroachment •Directional Lines

Loop modeling and testing

Summary (1)

• Ground distance relays employ some form of compensation of the ground-return impedance in order to measure (and also to allow the relay to be set) in terms of positive-sequence impedance. A derivation these forms of compensation is presented.

Summary (2)

• The many names, symbols and formulas that are in use for residual or ground-return compensation pose a challenge to personnel who set and test the relays. • Some forms of compensation that use different formulas are called by the same name and symbol. This can result in applying the wrong setting if one is not careful and may result in either relay misoperation or failure to trip.

Summary (3)

• The fault resistance reach, for polygon-shaped characteristics, is set in Ohms per phase in some relays while in other relays it is set in Ohms per loop. In some relay manuals this fact is not explicitly indicated. • The ground-return compensation affects the fault resistance reach and the angle of the resistive blinder in different ways, depending on the design of the relay.

Summary (4)

• Each form of ground-return impedance compensation can be converted to another form. Formulas are derived to perform this conversion. These formulas are handy when a relay being tested has a compensation setting that is not supported by the relay test system. • A spreadsheet that implements these formulas makes conversion easy and avoids calculation errors.

Summary (5)

• Testing the reactance line and résistance blinder of polygon characteristics can be done

– Both in the per-phase impedance plane – Both in the loop impedance plane, – A 3rd test method models the reactance line in per-phase and treats the fault resistance separately from the main impedance.

Summary (6)

• Selecting the most suitable model for testing depends on assessment of – How the angle of the resistive blinder is affected by the residual compensation – Tilt angle of the reactance line. Testing

points for a reactance line that has a large tilt angle, using a separate fault resistance, will result in test errors.

Summary (7)

• Personnel who set relays and those who test them must have a good understanding of the methods of residual compensation, how the resistive reach is set and affected by the compensation and how the relay characteristics are modeled. • Cooperation between these personnel is very important to actually verify their understanding of the settings and relay behavior and that the models are suitable.

Summary (8)

• The relay operation in the 2nd and 4th quadrants of polygon characteristics is affected by additional factors – including the

– behavior of the directional lines, – the type of characteristic lines (straight lines or circular arcs), – and the source impedance.

Summary (9)

• Automated software allows easy modeling and correct testing of complex ground distance polygon characteristics with various forms of residual compensation factors.

Questions?