# Testing Distance Protection Functions T ti Di t P t ti F ti Using Settings and Worksheets

(Part 1)

Jun Verzosa
Manager, Protection & Automation Engineering Services Doble Engineering C D bl E i i Company

Protection Testing Users Group Meeting g p g Austin, Texas
2010 October 10-15

Topics Covered
Introduction Distance (Impedance) Protection Function
– System Parameters, Settings, Characteristics

ProTesT Features - Settings and Worksheet Developing Reusable Generic Distance Functions and Test Macros Applying Generic Distance Functions to to Specific Relays Demonstration
Testing Distance Functions Using Settings and Worksheets
2

Power System Parameters and Impedance Function Settings
System and Line Parameters
– Ph Phase R t ti Rotation – Source and Line Impedances
• Positive-sequence (Z1S and Z1L) Positive sequence • Zero-sequence (Z0S and Z0L)

Testing Distance Functions Using Settings and Worksheets

3

Power System Parameters and Impedance Function Settings
Basic Distance Function Protection Settings
– – – – Number of Zones Zone Characteristics Direction Reach Settings
• Impedance reach • Reach Angle • R i i reach Resistive h

– Residual Compensation – Time Delay

Testing Distance Functions Using Settings and Worksheets

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Impedance Characteristics
Ohm Mho Offset Mho Quad Polygon Others
Z1

phi1

Testing Distance Functions Using Settings and Worksheets

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Ground Distance Residual Compensation

n
Es Z1S, Z0S R Ia . Z1, Z0 F

VaR V R

21G

A-N AN Fault

Residual Compensation

Zrelay = VaR / (Ia + kN•In) = n•Z1
kN = ( Z0/Z1 – 1) / 3
= residual compensation factor Residual Compensation is a technique that allows measurement
of the fault impedance in terms of positive-sequence impedance, by adding a p g portion, KN, of the residual current, In, to the phase current. , , , , p

Loop Impedance Calculation
In order to test the relay one needs to o de o es e e ay o e eeds o ZN impedance. = KN * Z1 know the Loop

ZLoop = Z1 + ZN =Z1 (1+KN)

Modeling Impedance Characteristics
Per Phase Loop

Testing Distance Functions Using Settings and Worksheets

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Some Formulas
kLoopMag = sqrt((1+Zn1PhNkNmag*cos(Zn1PhNkNang)^2 sqrt((1+Zn1PhNkNmag cos(Zn1PhNkNang) 2 +(Zn1PhNkNmag*sin(Zn1PhNkNang))^2) kLoopAng=atan((Zn1PhNkNmag*sin(Zn1PhNkNang)) p g (( g ( g)) /(1+Zn1PhNkNmag*cos(Zn1PhNkNang)))
FReach = if(LoopModel=1 Zn1PhNMhoMag*kLoopMag if(LoopModel 1, Zn1PhNMhoMag kLoopMag, Zn1PhNMhoMag) MTA = if(LoopModel=1, if(Direction=-1, if(Direction= 1 Zn1PhNMhoAng+180, Zn1PhNMhoAng)+kLoopAng, if(Direction 1, Zn1PhNMhoAng+180,Zn1PhNMhoAng)) if(Direction=-1, Zn1PhNMhoAng 180,Zn1PhNMhoAng))
Testing Distance Functions Using Settings and Worksheets
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ProTesT Settings and Worksheets
Protection Settings Calculated Settings Impedance Characteristic Modeling
– Type – Data

Macros and Worksheets

Testing Distance Functions Using Settings and Worksheets

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ProTesT Settings tab

Protection Settings

Calculated Settings

Characteristics

Characteristic Data
Testing Distance Functions Using Settings and Worksheets
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ProTesT Macro Worksheets

Source table Action table

Results t bl R lt table

Work table
Testing Distance Functions Using Settings and Worksheets
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Developing Generic and Reusable Test Plans
Should cater for majority of relays and settings
– T t at in-service relay settings Test t i i l tti

Should apply to various relay configurations
– Element is Enabled or Disabled – Direction is Forward, Reversed, Non-directional

Optimum Automation
– Calculation of – Relay Communications

Test Plans for:
– Commissioning – element testing and functional testing g g g – Periodic Maintenance – functional testing
14

Developing Test Plans for Specific Relay Models
Start with Generic Relay Test Plans Map the Protection Settings to the Calculated Settings, using formulas g, g

= k0M1

Testing Distance Functions Using Settings and Worksheets

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Developing Generic and Reusable Test Plans
Element and Functional Testing
• • • • • Element testing Functional testing is possible Pickup (Ssimul, Ramp) Stat c Characteristics Static C a acte st cs Timing

– Dynamic Testing
• Functional testing • Timing – as affected by source impedance • Characteristics? – Mho expansion, directional line
Testing Distance Functions Using Settings and Worksheets
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Demonstration
Generic Macros – reference the Characteristic Data table and basic d D bl d b i data f from the C l l d h Calculated Settings table Add F Formulas t Ch l to Characteristic D t t reference t i ti Data to f the Calculated settings table Import or Add Protection Settings and Add Formulas to Calculated Settings Table to Reference the Protection Settings Import one or two sets of Protection Settings file and view effect on characteristics and macros.
Testing Distance Functions Using Settings and Worksheets
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Demonstration

Testing Distance Functions Using Settings and Worksheets

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Demonstration

Testing Distance Functions Using Settings and Worksheets

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Maintenance Testing
Avoid Setting Changes (such as disabling elements, elements
changing output mapping that are used in actual operation)

Functional Testing g Use Dynamic Testing End-to-End Test (not covered in this presentation) ( p ) Transient Testing (not covered in this presentation) Other Tests (not covered in this presentation)

Testing Distance Functions Using Settings and Worksheets

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Running Same Test Plan with Elements Disabled

Test Result will give No g Op for disabled Zones. Normal Results for Enabled Zones

Testing Distance Functions Using Settings and Worksheets

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Other Test Plan Considerations
Importing Settings Files Pickup tests of current/voltage elements Effect of SEL negative-sequence directional elements on testing impedance characteristics; how to correctly test the relay with the directional y y elements. Testing the quad resistive settings

Testing Distance Functions Using Settings and Worksheets

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Use Loop Modeling

Automating characteristics calculation in ProTesT

Testing Distance Functions Using Settings and Worksheets

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Testing Distance Functions Using Settings and Worksheets

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SSIMUL Macro Worksheet

Calculate Current and Voltages Amplitudes and g p Phase Angles Calculate Ti C l l t Time Values

Work table
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SSIMUL Macro Worksheet
Automate Macro Creation
– Fault Calculations
• Voltages • Currents

– Time information
• Duration • L/R time constant • Expected times

More realistic dynamic testing

Testing Distance Functions Using Settings and Worksheets

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SSIMUL Dynamic Timing Tests

Testing Distance Functions Using Settings and Worksheets

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SSIMUL Dynamic Timing Tests

Testing Distance Functions Using Settings and Worksheets

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Dynamic Mho Expansion

Testing Distance Functions Using Settings and Worksheets

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Dynamic Mho Expansion