India Heritage Literature What The Common Man Can Do

Sanskrit English Dictionary by * Sir.Monier-Williams 1872, 1899 * Sri.Vaman Shivram Apte 1890

kedarnath jonnalagadda 2011

Heritage Literature - Example Of What The Common Man Can Do - Part 1/2 Monier-Williams Sanskrit English Dictionary 1872 - 1899 & The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary by Vaman Shivram Apte 1890
Kedarnath Jonnalagadda - Vaidika Gramam © 2009 smartxpark@yahoo.com

[ Please note some of the contents of this document are mainly for readers in India. For details on comprehensive heritage archives in the USA See http://www.archives.gov/ ] (Baraha © transliteration software's scheme is used for Indian words. They are in square brackets. See http://www.baraha.com ) What is Heritage Literature? Literature of the past that is treasured by the present and likely to done so in future is Heritage Literature. There should be no confusion that it is the right of the future to decide what they ought to treasure. Nevertheless, it is the duty of the present at least to pass on what ever they received, as legacy. And this goes on generation after generation. Practically, it is the State or Government of a country and International organizations that in their wisdom decide items of literature that are Heritage Value. Here is where every person, like it or not is involved. The citizen has two education roles to play. The first, is for his own family and the second, for the society. What is the "value" of Heritage Literature? Literature on palm leaves or printed on paper, now yellow with age, may have Museum Value. It may be put away in glass cases. The common man can only look but not touch nor read. Items with Semi Museum value are those "Reference books" that you can read in libraries but not allowed to take home. And then we have a special class of Heritage Literature that can be used practically any day or even every day. Monier Williams Sanskrit English Dictionary belongs to this special class. Photocopying and Electronic Storage These technologies change the way we can access Heritage Literature. You can photocopy, or scan a "heritage" book and have a PDF file. This you can conveniently

use at leisure in your home computer. Anyway that is what you think. See section on PDF file sizes in Part2. The key need for research and analysis of Monier Williams Sanskrit English Dictionary and its PDF files is have searchable true to the original printed text. This is a major task that I am currently working on. Why don't I work with freed from pictures text of the dictionary? Such freed from pictures texts, unfortunately are not freed from claims to Copyright. And this is in spite of laws overseas freeing them after 100 years. Laws in India free them after 60 years. I suspect veracity of such e-text forms of ancient Sanskrit documents. Are they true to the original? Has there been typo errors or "doctoring" input in data are thoughts that go in my mind. OCR technology is satisfactory only for simple documents. It takes more time to correct the machine's mistakes than entering and verifying by trained persons. Anyway, reading and obtaining texts from PDFs is an invigorating experience. You have the picture of the original always before you. Monier-Williams Sanskrit English Dictionary Published in 1872 and revised 27 years later in 1899 the dictionary is a "unique", cross cultural phenomenon. It is related to India, its ancient Sanskrit, its culture and tradition, and its heritage in British India's English. As an Indian Hindu, I treasure this for a variety of reasons in 2009. It is a transparent, reliable and comprehensive compilation. It enables me to look at my language, my mother tongue and a number of things of my heritage methodically and objectively. That it is through the eyes of a long gone foreign scholar makes it all the more important for me. I appreciate and treasure my heritage better. Many might think "how can a dictionary be heritage value" and say "Dictionaries are commonplace... The more updated they are, the better". This is definitely not the case for Monier Williams Sanskrit English Dictionary. In the case of Sanskrit, what exactly is this updating - Example - [yantra] - Machine 1. Unique to Sanskrit and many Indian languages, new words coined need to be based, compulsorily, on rules that use an ancient [dhAtu] or elemental word form. This elemental word form has meaning! It is the core concept in the word ! [yantra] is Sanskrit word for "machine". We usually associate "machines" with progress, freedom from labour, fun, speed and so on. [yantra] is very different. At its core are concepts and associations with "restraint, curbing, checking, binding, fastening, confining... so on". And this is caution and wisdom. Inventing a fast car is

disaster if safety and braking systems are not meticulously conceived. Newer models are inherent with the problems of safely disposing older models. Problems of depletion of fossil fuels, traffic snarls, parking space and parking tickets are all manifestations of the reality of the core concept for restraint and sound planning for [yantra] . Does this mean we go back to some ancient and scared world. No, it implies greater dare with greater forethought at the drawing board. "Murphy's Law" is reality we need to have plan B, Plan C and D ready. This is imperative for builders of machines, hardware and software programmers. Robots in Isaac Asimov's books, and movies such as "Terminator" and "Matrix" all bring out the all time relevance of the meaning in [yantra] machine. The following shows the meanings of yantra given in First and Second Editions.

[yantr ] (more properly regarded as a Nom. fr. [yantra], p. 809, col. 2, cf.
[yantraya]), cl. I. 10. P. [yantrati], [yantrayati], &c., to restrain, curb, check, bind, fasten, confine ; to strain ; to force. [yantrana], am, n. the act of restraining, controlling,curbing, checking, binding, fastening, confining ; restraint, restriction, limitation, ([AhAra-yantraNa], restriction in diet) ; a means of fastening, bond, bandage; the application of a bandage (also d, f.) ; constraint, compulsion, force, torturing, pain, anguish, (in these senses also d, f.) ; guarding, protecting, protection ; (i), f. a wife's younger sister. First edition - Monier-Williams Sanskrit English Dictionary 1872

In 19th century British India, Sanskrit was used more and with greater chastity than now. Hence, Monier Williams Dictionary is more reliable than editions that may be compiled now.

[Yantra],

n. any instrument for holding or restraining or fastening, a prop, support, barrier, [{RV. &C.&C.}]; a fetter, band, tie, thong, rein, trace, [{Mn.}];[{MBh.}] ; a surgical instrument (esp. a blunt one, such as tweezers, a vice &c, opp. to [shAstra]), [{Susr.}] ; [{vAgbhATa}] ; any instrument or apparatus,mechanical contrivance, engine, machine, implement, appliance (as a bolt or lock on a door, oars or sails in a boat &c.), [{MBh.}] ; [{Kav.}] &c. (cf. [tufa-], [Jala-], [tailay]ibc. or ifc. often = mechanical, magical); restraint, force ([eNa], md. forcibly, violently), [{MW.}] ; an amulet mystical diagram supposed to possess occult powers! [{Kathas.}]; [{Paficar.}] (cf. [{RTL. 203}]). [-karandikS] f. a kind of magical basket, [{Kathas.}] [- karman], n the employment or application of instruments,[{Vagbh}] [ma-krit], m. a maker or employer of instruments a machinist, artisan, [{R.}] [-garuDa], m. an image of [garuDa] (mechanically contrived to move by itself), [{Pancat.}] [- griha], n. an oil-mill or any manufactory' L. ; a torture chamber, [{Divyav.}] [- gola], m. a kind of pea, L. - [cintAmaNi], m. N. of various wks. [ceshTita], n. anything effected by magical diagrams enchantment, [{Kathas.}] [-cchedya], n. N. of a partic. art, [{kAd.}] (prob. w.r. for [pattra-cch°]. [-ni] see [yantrana]. [- takshan].m. a constructor of machines or of magical diagrams, [{Kathas.}] [-torana], n a mechanical arch (fitted with contrivances to move A. [-drldha], it) mfn. secured by a lock or- bolt (as a door), [{Mricch}],- [dhara-g-riha], n. a room fitted up with a kind of shower-bath, a bath-room ([-tva], n.), [Megh.] - [nAla], n. a mechanical pipe or tube tubular instrument, [{MarkP.}] [- pattra], n. N. of wk. [- pida] … more not shown in this example

Second edition - Monier-Williams Sanskrit English Dictionary 1899 2. "A book not just a book. It is the life blood of a master spirit that needs to be cherished, preserved and passed on for a life beyond life". This is true of the written word. This is true of poetry and prose. This is true of the spoken word. This is true of the sounds of words. This is true of music in sounds. This is true of Sir Monier-Williams, M.A., K.C.I.E. and co authors of A Sanskrit English Dictionary. The Sanskrit and English in the Dictionary is as great a thing to be cherished as is the unique identity of the compilers, Sir Monier-Williams, M.A., K.C.I.E. and co authors.

They write, "The words and the meanings of the words of a Dictionary can scarcely be proved by its compilers to belong exclusively to themselves. It is not the mere aggregation of words and meanings, but the method of dealing with them and arranging them, which gives a Dictionary the best right to be called an original production... In saying this I am not claiming any superiority for my own method..." 3. The dictionary and whether we use it or not today is not the issue. The issue is that of denying the rights of a child in the future to decide what it can and cannot use. How evolved we are today is as fundamental to progress as what and who contributed to this evolution. Heritage is as much about identity of authors as are artifacts and works they may leave behind. 4. Monier-Williams Sanskrit English Dictionary 1872 & 1899 editions are not some commonplace dictionary that can be bettered today. And even if one did came up, neglect and obliteration of Monier-Williams Sanskrit English Dictionary is greater crime of trying to wipe out history. 5. If history is something that we can learn from, no better example can elucidate this. In 1890, a great Indian and Sanskrit scholar , Shri. Vaman Shivram Apte from Poona, India brought out, "A Practical Sanskrit English Dictionary", with the purpose of improving on the first edition of Monier-Williams Sanskrit English Dictionary. This also entered the portals of heritage literature of India with unique identity without attempting obliteration of anything. In the Preface, Vaman Shivram Apte wrote, "This Dictionary has been undertaken to supply a want long felt by the student, of a complete and at the same time cheap... The Dictionaries of Professors Wilson and Monier Williams are very useful and valuable works, but their prices—particularly of the latter- are prohibitively high, and they do not also meet many of the most ordinary wants of Sanskrit readers..." "... The Sanskrit—English Dictionary of Professor Monier Williams is the next work to which I have been greatly indebted. It has been a constant source of help to me, and I have frequently adopted his renderings of words, compound expressions &c., where I found them better than those I myself had to suggest. And though there is a good deal in this Dictionary that is not to be found in that work, and though the plan and scope of the two are essentially different, yet I must gratefully acknowledge the great assistance I

have often derived from the learned Professor’s invaluable Dictionary." In 1899, Monier Williams and co-authors brought out a revision to their publication and included many of Apte's inclusions. Is Monier-Williams Dictionary merely a Dictionary? For hours and hours, a deranged person would read printed on paper volumes of New York telephone directory. The doctor on his rounds asked, "You find that interesting?". The patient, with a gleam in his eyes, "Sure! Doc, you know what! This has a fabulous, fabulous cast! One of these days, I am going to figure out the plot!" Reading through Monier Williams Sanskrit English Dictionary may be considered by many to be something like that. It has a fabulous cast of words. But that is not all! Here are described roles too. Roles of men, their concepts, their works, their materials, their culture, their tradition, their history and geography. And their wisdom! It is a unique and wonderful short presentation of India. Only a thousand odd pages, and you have the big picture of India. It is concise data and information on the knowledge, wisdom, society, culture and traditions of India. It is an outstanding and singular cross cultural phenomenon. A Tribute To Sir Monier Williams and co authors Words are part of communication processes. Man communicates with his higher power or powers. Man communicates with himself, Man communicates with another Man. Man communicates with animals and even plants. And today on a regular, continuous basis, Man communicates with Machines of his own creation. Every word in any language has meaning. And meanings are not dead ends. They are means for greater meaning. This effort of mine is all about methods to derive greater meaning from meanings of Sanskrit words given in Monier Williams Sanskrit English Dictionary. This greater meaning is in the shell or envelope of concepts. And these concepts are precursors leading on to higher level concepts. Words have built in quality for "ringing bells" of associations to place, time, context, experience. It appears is as though words of a language have innateness to prompt for greater meaning and greater level of understanding. I wonder whether Sanskrit is not speaking to me when I am trying to speak Sanskrit! We can delve into words until the elements of words [dhAtu] reached. And that [dhAtu] is not lifeless nonsense. It is

living concept having meaning too. And from there a universe can be opened out or opened in to contemplate whether to reach out or reach within to the stars. How then can I not be grateful to Sir Monier Williams and co authors that enable me to reach words and words to reach me from across space and time? And a lot lot more... How to derive more than just meanings from Monier Williams Sanskrit English Dictionary Every word in any language has meaning. And meanings are not dead ends. They are means for greater meaning. This greater meaning leads to concepts. And concepts are precursors leading to higher level concepts. What am I talking about and how can one do all that ? It is in fact very, very simple. Use Abbreviations used by Sir Monier Williams et. al. in 1899

[Yantra],

n. any instrument for holding or restraining or fastening, a prop, support, barrier, [{RV. &C.&C.}]; a fetter, band, tie, thong, rein, trace, [{Mn.}];[{MBh.}] ; a surgical instrument (esp. a blunt one, such as tweezers, a vice &c, opp. to [shAstra]), [{Susr.}] ; [{vAgbhATa}] ; any instrument or apparatus,mechanical contrivance, engine, machine, implement, appliance (as a bolt or lock on a door, oars or sails in a boat &c.), [{MBh.}] ; [{Kav.}] &c. (cf. [tufa-], [Jala-], [taila-y]ibc. or ifc. often = mechanical, magical); restraint, force ([eNa], md. forcibly, violently), [{MW.}] ; an amulet mystical diagram supposed to possess occult powers! [{Kathas.}]; [{Pa~jcar.}] (cf. [{RTL. 203}]). [-karandikS] f. a kind of magical basket, [{Kathas.}] [karman], n the employment or application of instruments, [{Vagbh}] [ma-krit], m. a maker or employer of instruments a machinist, artisan, [{R.}] [-garuDa], m. an image of [garuDa] (mechanically contrived to move by itself), [{Pancat.}] [griha], n. an oil-mill or any manufactory' [{L.}] ; a torture chamber, [{Divyav.}] [- gola], m. a kind of pea, [{L.}] {[cintAmaNi]}, m. |N. of various wks.| [-ceshTita], n. anything effected by magical diagrams enchantment, [{Kathas.}] [cchedya], n. N. of a partic. art, [{kAd.}] (prob. w.r. for [pattra-cch°]. [-ni] see [yantrana]. [- takshan].m. a constructor of machines or of magical diagrams, [{Kathas.}] [torana], n a mechanical arch (fitted with contrivances to move |A.| [-drldha], it) mfn. secured by a lock or- bolt (as a door), [{Mricch}],- [dhara-g-riha], n. a room fitted up with a kind of shower-bath, a bath-room ([-tva], n.), [Megh.] [nAla], n. a mechanical pipe or tube tubular instrument, [{MarkP.}] {[- pattra]}, n. |N. of wk. [- pida] (...and more not shown in this example)

The above is but a very small extract from the Dictionary. This has the following statistics. 1. Count of single space = n= 275. words = (n-1) = total words 2. Count of [ characters = Sanskrit words = 274

50

0.18 0.08 0.74

18.00% 8.00% 74.00%

3. Count of { character = 23 Sanskrit Literature reference = 4. Count of English words giving meaning 201

This shows 8% of text in the sample are reference to other heritage literature. What would it be in the full dictionary? Thus, counting words in the dictionary and classifying them is not so mad, after all. Nor, same as counting waves in the ocean. This is science and scientific method. And could be very well be a number of scientific papers on a number of subjects.. First level - abbreviations - subject matter Sir Monier Williams et. al. in 1899 provided means to index many Sanskrit words for connotation to broad category subject matters relevant today. For example, they used arithm. for arithmetic, alg. for algebra, anat. for anatomy, astron for astronomy, astrol. for astrology, geom for geometry, math. for mathematics, medic for medicine and so on. With home computer facilities, it is possible for anybody to have a first level working subsets such as Monier- Williams Sanskrit - English Arithmetic Dictionary or MonierWilliams Sanskrit - English Algebra Dictionary or Monier- Williams Sanskrit - English Archeo Astronomy Dictionary. You can thus have comprehensive lead words used by ancient masters to propound concepts. It cannot be forgotten that from time immemorial great concepts went out of India and words of the language were incidental. Search facility in most PDF Readers, will give all occurrences of "arith" in the PDF file you are reading in a matter of minutes. And also all other PDF files in folder or folders specified. Thus it will be possible to know all Sanskrit words listed in the entire

dictionary for the concepts of "arith" (metic). To know, catalogue and assist preservation of other heritage literature of India. Sir Monier Williams Sanskrit English Dictionary cites more than 500 ancient works heritage literature of India in his LIST OF WORKS AND AUTHORS

. I did not know the existence ever of these works. Perhaps I couldn't hear the voices of scholars of Sanskrit. Perhaps the noise pollution was high. Outside or inside my head doesn't matter now. The sound of music lingers on and on musicians have left the stage, audience and applause fades away and I mingle with the crowd in a hurry to catch the bus home. In addition to these are given more than 5000 names of works in the text. All these are heritage literature.

The above snapshot is search results for "wk." abbreviation in a single huge file PDF file having the entire Dictionary in Adobe Reader v.9.1© from http://www.adobe.com. It reports 3890 instances. The following snapshot shows the results for abbreviation "wks." totaling with 2406 instances totaling (6296 - 1 used in Abbreviations list) indicating 6295 heritage works. Detailed individual look up is needed, which also I am doing.

The above open out opportunities for subsets of word meanings for individual works I have created subsets of Monier-Williams Dictionary for the author [caraka], [shushruta], [pANiNi], [Atharva veda], Sanskrit words and Latin scientific names of plants and animals. These are useful when studying the original Sanskrit texts and give correct meanings and interpretations. In pursuit of [vidya] knowledge there is tendency for increasing dependency on discourses, "commentaries", "guides" and "made easy" literature of original texts by scholarly people. While, I do not belittle this. I believe, it is no excuse for not reading the original. In my opinion this is like mastering libraries of books on the art and science of swimming without getting into water yourself. Abbreviations in Monier Williams Sanskrit English Dictionary categorized by me are

given below 1. Abbreviation - Grammar related 2. Abbreviation- Other languages 3. Abbreviation - Using the dictionary - positional reference 4. Abbreviation - Citation related 5. Abbreviation - Subject Matter 6. Abbreviation - Usage type 7. Abbreviation - Sanskrit literature type 8. Abbreviation - unknown category 9. Abbreviation -Sanskrit literary work End part 1/2 The next part deals with Methods or How to