IGCSE Mathematics a Teachers Guide Issue 3[1] | Function (Mathematics) | Educational Assessment

Teacher’s guide

Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specifcation A) (4MA0)
First examination 2011
Issue 3

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system. This includes the ability to provide detailed performance data to teachers
and students which help to raise attainment.










This is an Issue 3 of the Teacher’s guide. Substantial changes have been made to
the Teacher’s guide through including; Differences in assessments, Appendices,
A/A* notes/tips and Textbook references.


Acknowledgements
This document has been produced by Edexcel on the basis of consultation with
teachers, examiners, consultants and other interested parties. Edexcel would like to
thank all those who contributed their time and expertise to its development.


References to third-party material made in this document are made in good faith.
Edexcel does not endorse, approve or accept responsibility for the content of
materials, which may be subject to change, or any opinions expressed therein.
(Material may include textbooks, journals, magazines and other publications and
websites.)

Authorised by Roger Beard
Prepared by Sharon Wood
Publications Code UG026781
All the material in this publication is copyright
© Edexcel Limited 2011

Introduction
The Edexcel International General Certificate of Secondary Education (IGCSE) in
Mathematics (Specification A) is designed for schools and colleges. It is part of a
suite of IGCSE qualifications offered by Edexcel.
About this Teacher’s guide
This Teacher’s guide is for teachers who are delivering, or planning to deliver, the
Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) qualification. The guide supports
you in delivering the course content and explains how to raise the achievement of
your students.
This guide:
- provides details of Assessment Objectives (AO)
- provides additional material on sets, functions and calculus
- provides a course planner showing how all the specification content could be
taught over two years
- offers you suggestions for a range of textbooks and other resources.


Contents
Why choose this qualification? 1
Support from Edexcel 2
Section A: Qualification content 5
Key subject aims 5
Unique features and benefits of the qualification 5
Assessment and progression 5
Content summary 6
Section B: Assessment 9
Assessment overview 9
Assessment Objectives and weightings 10
Assessment summary 11
Using the mark scheme 12
Tiers of entry 13
Formulae sheets 13
Calculators 14
Section C: Support for centres switching from GCSE Mathematics 15
Differences in Assessment 15
Differences in content 18
Omitted topics 18
Additional topics 19
Notes and sample assessment questions on the three major additional
topics 20
Section D: Planning and teaching 43
Course planner 43
Foundation tier content summary 45
Foundation tier 47
Higher tier content summary 79
Higher tier 81
Resources 125
Student and Practice Books 125
Endorsed books 126

Appendices 127
Appendix 1: References to past paper questions for students aiming
for top grades 129
Appendix 2: References to past paper questions for content not
currently assessed at GCSE Mathematics 131
Appendix 3: The use of the calculator 133



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Why choose this qualification?
The Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) includes:
- tiers of entry that allow students to be entered for a level appropriate to them
- questions that are accessible to students of all abilities within that tier
- papers that are balanced in terms of topics and difficulty
- standards that are equivalent to Edexcel’s UK GCSE in Mathematics
- a full range of teacher support and resources
- a solid basis for students wishing to progress to Edexcel AS and Advanced GCE
Level, or equivalent qualifications.
Go to www.edexcel.com/igcse2009 for more information about this IGCSE and
related sources.
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Support from Edexcel
We are dedicated to giving you exceptional customer service. Details of our main
support services are given below. They will all help you to keep up to date with this
qualification.
Mathematics Emporium
This is an exceptional service run by our in-house subject expert Graham Cumming.
- To stay ahead of all the latest developments sign-up to the IGCSE or Certificate
mailing list by emailing your details to mathsemporium@edexcel.com
- To access and download the specification, past papers, mark schemes and much
more register at www.edexcelmaths.com
- For any queries regarding this qualification, email
mathsemporium@edexcel.com
Website
Our dedicated microsite www.edexcel.com/igcse2009 is where you will find all the
information, support materials and resources you need to successfully deliver
IGCSE qualifications.
Ask Edexcel & Ask the Expert
To make it easier for you to raise a query with us, we have merged Ask Edexcel
and Ask the Expert into one online service. You can use it to ask any question
about the delivery or teaching of Edexcel qualifications. Search the database for
frequently asked questions or submit your enquiry directly to us using the easy-to-
use online enquiry form. You’ll receive a personal response sent to the email
address you provide from one of our administrative or teaching experts.
Visit http://www.edexcel.com/iwantto/Pages/ask-edexcel.aspx for more information
Regional offices
If you are an international centre interested in offering other Edexcel qualifications
your Regional Development Manager can help you. Go to
www.edexcel.com/international for details of our regional offices.
UK Customer Services
If you have a question about this qualification call our Customer Services Team on
0844 576 0027
Training
A programme of professional development and training courses, covering various
aspects of the specification and examination will be available. Go to
www.edexcel.com/training for details.
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ResultsPlus
The ResultsPlus service is our online exam results analysis tool and is available to
all Edexcel centres for free. ResultsPlus will provide head teachers with clear
information demonstrating how their centre has performed and teachers how
students have performed in each subject and or question paper. In addition,
Edexcel is offering students the opportunity to receive detailed results information
online via ResultsPlus. Centres may choose to opt into this service. To find out
more visit www.edexcel.com/resultsplus

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Section A: Qualification content
Key subject aims
- To develop knowledge and understanding of mathematical concepts and
techniques.
- To give students a foundation of mathematical skills for further study in the
subject or related areas.
- To enable students to enjoy using and applying mathematical techniques and
concepts, and become confident in using mathematics to solve problems.
- To give students an appreciation of the importance of mathematics in society,
employment and study.
Unique features and benefits of the qualification
- Tiers of entry that allow students to be assessed at the appropriate level.
- Standards that are equivalent to Edexcel’s UK GCSE in Mathematics.
- A full range of teacher support and resources.
Assessment and progression
- Two tiers – two papers accessible for all abilities within the appropriate tier.
- Grades A*-G available.
- Assessment opportunities in both January and June examination series. First
assessment in June 2011.
- Gives a foundation for Edexcel AS and Advanced GCE Level, or equivalent
qualifications.
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Content summary
The Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) gives students the opportunity
to develop their knowledge, understanding and skills in the areas of number,
algebra, geometry, and statistics.
The table below shows where the mathematical topics can be found in the
specification.

Mathematical topic Specification reference
Number, set notation and
language
Section 1.1 – Integers
Section 1.5 – Set language and notation
Squares, square roots and cubes Section 1.4 – Powers and roots
Directed numbers Section 1.1 – Integers
Fractions, percentages, mixed and
improper fractions, decimals
Section 1.2 – Fractions
Section 1.3 - Decimals
Ordering Section 1.1 – Integers
Section 2.8 – Inequalities
Standard form Section 1.9 – Standard form
The four rules Section 1.1 – Integers
Section 1.2 – Fractions
Estimation Section 1.8 – Degree of accuracy
Section 1.10 – Applying number
Limits of accuracy Section 1.8 – Degree of accuracy
Ratio, proportion, rate Section 1.7 – Ratio and proportion
Section 2.5 - Porportion
Percentages Section 1.6 – Percentages
Use of electronic calculator Section 1.11 – Electronic calculators
Measures Section 4.4 – Measures
Time Section 4.4 – Measures
Money Section 1.10 – Applying number
Personal and household finance Section 1.10 – Applying number
Graphs in practical situations Section 3.3 – Graphs
Graphs of functions Section 3.3 – Graphs
Straight line graphs Section 3.3 – Graphs
Algebraic representation and
formulae
Section 2.1 – Use of symbols
Section 2.3 – Expressions and formulae
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Mathematical topic Specification reference
Algebraic manipulation Section 2.2 – Algebraic manipulation
Sequences Section 3.1 - Sequences
Functions Section 3.2 – Functional notation
Indices Section 1.4 – Powers and roots
Solutions of equations and
inequalities
Section 2.4 – Linear equations
Section 2.6 – Simultaneous linear equations
Section 2.7 – Quadratic equations
Section 2.8 – Inequalities
Linear programming Section 2.8 – Inequalities
Geometrical terms and
relationships
Section 4.1 – Angles and triangles
Section 4.2 – Polygons
Section 4.6 – Circle properties
Section 4.11 – Similarity
Geometrical constructions Section 4.4 – Measures
Section 4.5 – Constructions
Symmetry Section 4.3 – Symmetry
Section 4.6 – Circle properties
Angle properties Section 4.1 – Angles and triangles
Section 4.2 – Polygons
Section 4.6 – Circle properties
Section 4.7 – Geometrical reasoning
Mensuration Section 4.9 – Mensuration of 2-D shapes
Section 4.10 – 3-D shapes and volume
Trigonometry Section 4.8 – Trigonometry and Pythagoras’s
Theorem
Statistics Section 6.1 – Graphical representation of
data
Section 6.2 – Statistical measures
Probability Section 6.3 – Probability
Vectors in two dimensions Section 5.1 – Vectors
Transformations Section 5.2 – Transformation geometry

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The topics shown below can be found in the Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics
(Specification B) (4MB0) specification content section.

Mathematical topic Specification
Loci Section 6 – Geometry
Matrices Section 5 – Matrices

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Section B: Assessment
This section provides all the information you need to understand the assessment
requirements of this qualification.
Assessment overview
The table below gives you an overview of the assessment for this course. We
recommend that you make this information available to students to help ensure
they are fully prepared and know exactly what to expect in each assessment.

Paper 1F Percentage Marks Time Availability
Foundation
tier
4MA0/1F
50 100 2 hours January and June series
First assessment June
2011
Paper 2F Percentage Marks Time Availability
Foundation
tier
4MA0/2F
50 100 2 hours January and June series
First assessment June
2011
Paper 3H Percentage Marks Time Availability
Higher tier
4MA0/3H
50 100 2 hours January and June series
First assessment June
2011
Paper 4H Percentage Marks Time Availability
Higher tier
4MA0/4H
50 100 2 hours January and June series
First assessment June
2011

This is a linear qualification. Students must take both papers, (1F and 2F) or (3H
and 4H), in the same series. Calculators are allowed for all papers.
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Assessment Objectives and weightings
% in IGCSE
AO1: demonstrate their knowledge, understanding and skills in
number and algebra:
- numbers and the numbering system
- calculations
- solving numerical problems
- equations, formulae and identities
- sequences, functions and graphs.
55%
AO2: demonstrate their knowledge, understanding and skills in
shape, space and measures:
- geometry
- vectors and transformation geometry.
25%
AO3: demonstrate their knowledge, understanding and skills in
handling data:
- statistics.
20%
TOTAL 100%
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Assessment summary
Paper 1F Description Knowledge and
skills
Foundation
tier
4MA0/1F
- Each paper is assessed through a
2-hour examination set and marked
by Edexcel.
- The total number of marks for each
paper is 100.
- Each paper will have approximately
equal marks available for each
targeted grade.
- Each paper will assess the full range
of targeted grades at Foundation tier,
C-G.
- There will be some common
questions targeted at grades C and
D, across papers 1F and 3H and 2F
and 4H, to aid standardisation and
comparability of award between the
tiers.
- The Foundation tier papers contain
slightly more number than algebra.
In all examination papers:
- diagrams will not necessarily be
drawn to scale and measurements
should not be taken from diagrams
unless instructions to this effect are
given
- students may need to use
mathematical instruments, for
example a pair of compasses, ruler
and protractor
- calculators and tracing paper may be
used
- formulae sheets will be provided.
The Assessment
Objectives covered
in this assessment
are:
AO1: 55%
AO2: 25%
AO3: 20%
This information is
available in the
specification.
Overview of
content:
- number
- algebra
- geometry
- statistics.
Paper 2F Description Knowledge and
skills
Foundation
tier
4MA0/2F
Same as above Same as above
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Paper 3H Description Knowledge and
skills
Higher tier
4MA0/3H
- Each paper is assessed through a
2-hour examination set and marked by
Edexcel.
- The total number of marks for each
paper is 100.
- Each paper will have approximately
equal marks available for each
targeted grade.
- Each paper will assess the full range of
targeted grades at Higher tier, A*-D.
- Questions will assume knowledge of
the Foundation tier subject content.
- There will be some common questions
targeted at grades C and D, across
papers 3H and 1F and 4H and 2F, to
aid standardisation and comparability
of award between the tiers.
- The Higher tier papers contain
considerably more algebra than
number.
In all examination papers:
- diagrams will not necessarily be drawn
to scale and measurements should not
be taken from diagrams unless
instructions to this effect are given
- students may need to use
mathematical instruments, for
example a pair of compasses, ruler
and protractor
- calculators and tracing paper may be
used
- formulae sheets will be provided.
The Assessment
Objectives covered
in this assessment
are:
AO1: 55%
AO2: 25%
AO3: 20%
This information is
available in the
specification.
Overview of
content:
- number
- algebra
- geometry
- statistics.

Paper 4H Description Knowledge and
skills
Higher tier
4MA0/4H
Same as above Same as above
Using the mark scheme
The mark scheme gives the responses expected from students. Indicative answers
are given but during the standardisation of examiners process, the mark scheme is
updated and expanded to cover unexpected, correct student responses.
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Tiers of entry
Students are entered for either Foundation tier or Higher tier.
Foundation tier papers are designed for students who are unlikely to achieve a
high grade but whose achievement can still be recognised with a grade at the
appropriate level. The highest grade Foundation tier students can be awarded is
grade C. Students who fail to achieve grade G will be awarded ‘Ungraded’.
Higher tier papers are designed for students who are likely to achieve at least a
grade C. Knowledge of all Foundation tier content is assumed, but material related
to grades below the range of the Higher tier will not be the focus of assessment.
Some questions are common to both tiers, but the remaining questions in these
papers test topics which are aimed at Higher tier students only, and are obviously
more demanding.
The highest grade which can be awarded on the Higher tier is A* – for the highest
achievers at the top of grade A. Questions in the Higher tier are targeted at grades
A* to D, but there is a ‘safety net’, grade E, for those students who are within a few
marks of grade D. Students who fail to achieve the safety net grade E will be
awarded ‘Ungraded’.
Foundation and Higher tier papers are sat at the same time and students cannot be
entered for both examinations. This means that you need to ensure that a student
is entered for the appropriate tier. Students who consistently achieve grade C in
practice tests could be entered for the Higher tier, where they have the opportunity
to achieve the higher grades. However, they would need to be taught the Higher
tier material.
Because of the overlap between the two tiers at grades C and D, there are some
questions common to both tiers. In this qualification, the overlap accounts for about
40% of the marks on a paper.

Formulae sheets
Formulae sheets are provided for each tier on the inside front cover of each
question/answer booklet. The formulae sheets appear as appendices in the
specification.
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Calculators
- Students will be expected to have access to a suitable electronic calculator for
all examination papers.
- Electronic calculators used by students sitting the Foundation tier examination
papers
(1F and 2F) should have the following functions as a minimum:
+, −, ×, ÷, x
2
,

√x, memory, brackets, ,
y
x
1
y
x sine, cosine, tangent and their
inverses.
- Electronic calculators used by students sitting Higher tier examination papers
(3H and 4H) should have the following functions as a minimum:
+, −, ×, ÷, x
2
,

√x, memory, brackets, ,
y
x
1
y
x , , x Σx, Σfx, standard form,
sine, cosine, tangent and their inverses

Calculators with any of the following facilities are not allowed in any examination:
- databanks
- retrieval of text or formulae
- QWERTY keyboards
- built-in symbolic algebraic manipulations
- symbolic differentiation or integration.

See Appendix 3 for more extensive notes on the use of the calculator.
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Section C: Support for centres switching from
GCSE Mathematics
Differences in Assessment
The table below gives an overview of the differences in the assessment models of
GCSE Mathematics (Specification A) and IGCSE Mathematics (Specification A)

GCSE Mathematics
(Specification A) (1MA0)
Assessment model
IGCSE Mathematics
(Specification A) (4MA0)
Assessment model
- Externally assessed
- Two written papers
- Each paper lasts:
– 1 hour 45 minutes (F)
– 1 hour 45 minutes (H).
- Each paper contains 100 marks
- Papers 1F and 1H: Non-Calculator
- Papers 2F and 2H: Calculator
- Tiered papers
- Externally assessed
- Two written papers
- Each paper lasts:
– 2 hours (F)
– 2 hours (H).
- Each paper contains 100 marks
- Papers 1F, 2F, 3H and 4H:
Calculator
- Tiered papers
- Foundation Tier:
– Grades C-G available
– Each paper will assess the full
range of targeted grades at
Foundation Tier
– There will be some common
questions targeted at grades C
and D across papers 1F and 3H,
and papers 2F and 4H, to aid
standardisation and
comparability of award between
tiers.
- Foundation Tier:
– Grades C-G available
– Each will have approximately
equal marks available for each
of the targeted grades
– Each paper will assess the full
range of targeted grades at
Foundation Tier
– There will be some common
questions targeted at grades C
and D across papers 1F and 3H,
and papers 2F and 4H, to aid
standardisation and
comparability of award between
tiers.
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GCSE Mathematics
(Specification A) (1MA0)
Assessment model
IGCSE Mathematics
(Specification A) (4MA0)
Assessment model
- Higher Tier:
– Grades A*-D available
(E allowed)
– Each will have approximately
equal marks available for each
of the targeted grades
– Each paper will assess the full
range of targeted grades at
Higher Tier






- Each paper assesses the functional
elements of mathematics:
– 30-40% on F tier papers
– 20-30% on H tier papers.
- Higher Tier:
– Grades A*-D available
(E allowed)
– Each will have approximately
equal marks available for each
of the targeted grades
– Each paper will assess the full
range of targeted grades at
Higher Tier
– Questions will assume
knowledge from the Foundation
Tier subject content
– There will be some common
questions targeted at grades C
and D across papers 1F and 3H
and papers 2F and 4H, to aid
standardisation and
comparability of award between
tiers.

Assessment Objectives and
Weightings
Assessment Objectives and
Weightings
AO1:
Recall and use their knowledge of the
prescribed content
(45-55%)






AO1:
Demonstrate their knowledge,
understanding and skills in number
and algebra: (55%)
- numbers and numbering system
- calculations
- solving numerical problems
- equations, formulae and identities
- sequences, functions and graphs.

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GCSE Mathematics
(Specification A) (1MA0)
Assessment model
IGCSE Mathematics
(Specification A) (4MA0)
Assessment model
Assessment Objectives and
Weightings
Assessment Objectives and
Weightings
AO2:
Select and apply mathematical
methods in a range of contexts
(25-35%)

AO2:
Demonstrate their knowledge,
understanding and skills in shape,
space and measures: (25%)
- geometry
- vectors and transformation
geometry.
AO3:
Interpret and analyse problems and
generate strategies to solve them
(15-25%)
AO3:
Demonstrate their knowledge,
understanding and skills in handling
data: (20%)
- statistics.
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Differences in content
Most of the content of this IGCSE Mathematics qualification is covered in the GCSE
Mathematics content. However, there are some differences in content between the
two qualifications.
There are some omitted topics; content that is included in GCSE Mathematics
content, but not in the content of the IGCSE Mathematics (Specification A).
There are also some additional topics included in the content of the IGCSE
Mathematics (Specification A) which are not in the GCSE Mathematics content.
Omitted topics
These topics are included in the GCSE, but are not included in the IGCSE.
- Exponential growth
- Checking by estimation
- Completing the square
- Trial and improvement
- Gradients of perpendicular lines
- Exponential functions
- Transformations of graphs
- Equation of a circle
- Side-angle-side triangles (SAS), Angle-angle-side triangles (AAS)
- Proofs of circle theorems
- Trigonometry graphs
- Angles greater than 180
o

- Frustum of a cone
- Construct a perpendicular from a point to a line
- Loci
- Negative scale factor
- Plans and elevations
- Metric/imperial conversion
- Collecting data
- Two-way tables
- Seasonality and trends
- Scatter graphs, including lines of best fit
- Correlation
- Box plot
- Stem and leaf.
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Additional topics
There are three major topics not included in Edexcel’s UK GCSE which feature in
the IGCSE in Mathematics A. These are:
- set language and notation (1.5 in the specification)
- function notation (3.2 in the specification)
- calculus (3.4 in the specification).

There are notes and sample assessment questions, for these three major topics, on
the following pages, which give supplementary information about how these topics
will be assessed.
These examples are not exhaustive. They are intended as an indication of
the level of difficulty and the types of questions which can be expected.

A few smaller topics have also been included in the IGCSE:
- The intersecting chords theorem
- Finding the gradient of a curve at a point by drawing a tangent
- Quadratic inequalities
- Simple conditional probability
- Modulus of a vector.
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Notes and sample assessment questions on the three major
additional topics
Notes on Set language and notation (1.5 in the specification)
1. Foundation and Higher tiers
Definition
In words, for example {Cats}, {Positive integers less than 10},
{Multiples of 3}, or as a list of members, for example {2, 4, 6, 8}, {chairs,
tables}.
Typical questions
- Given the definition of a set, list all the elements (or members).
- Given a list of all the elements of a set, write the definition.
Symbols: ℰ, Ø, e, , ·
Typical questions
- Given defined sets ℰ, A and B
– describe A · B
– list the members of A B
– what is meant by ‘6 eA’?
– is it true that A · B = Ø? Explain your answer.
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2. Higher tier only
Definition: Algebraic, for example {ℰ = Integers}, P = {x: 0 ≤ x < 10}
Venn diagrams: Different cases, for example





Symbols: A
/
(the complement of A), ⊂ (‘is a sub-set of’)
Typical questions
- Given defined sets ℰ, A, B, and C
– draw a Venn diagram
– shade A B · C
/

– list the members of B
/
· C
– is it true that A c B?
- Describe a given, shaded region in a Venn diagram.
- Draw a Venn diagram in which certain conditions are true.
Symbols: n(A) (the number of members in A)
Typical questions
- Given a Venn diagram (for example black animals, cats, dogs) with numbers
inserted
– how many black cats are there?
- Given two or three defined sets, find n(A B
/
).
- Given n(ℰ) = 23, n(A) = 16, n(B) = 10, n(AB) = 20
– draw a Venn diagram
– show the number of members in each region.
- Questions involving three sets, where an equation needs to be set up. See
Question 16 in the following sample questions.

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Sample assessment questions on set language and notation
Foundation and Higher tiers
1. List the members of the following sets.
(a) {Days of the week}
(b) {Even numbers between 1 and 9}
(c) {Factors of 18}
(d) {Colours of the rainbow}
(e) {Square numbers less than 100}



2. ℰ = {Positive integers less than 20}
P = {11, 13, 15, 17}
Q = {12, 14, 16}
R = {Multiples of 4}
(a) List the members of
(i) R
(ii) P Q
(iii) Q · R
(b) What is the set P · R?



3. ℰ = {The books in St John’s library}
M = {Mathematics books}
P = {Paperback books}
T = {Travel books}
(a) Describe the set M · P
(b) What is the set M · T?
(c) One book in St John’s library has the title ‘Explore’.
Given that ‘Explore’ e M T, what can you say about the book ‘Explore’?

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4. ℰ = {Polygons}
A = {Three-sided shapes}
B = {Shapes with two equal sides}
C = {Shapes with two parallel sides}
(a) What is the mathematical name for the members of A · B?
(b) Which of the following are true?
(i) Kite e A
(ii) Trapezium e C
(iii) A · C = Ø



5. R = {Positive odd numbers less than 10}
S = {Multiples of 3 between 4 and 20}
T = {Prime numbers}
(a) List the elements of
(i) R S
(ii) R · S
(b) You are told that x e R · T
Write down all the possible values of x
(c) Is it true that S · T = Ø?
Explain your answer

See Appendix 2 for references to past paper questions on this content.


UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0)
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Higher tier only
6. ℰ = {Positive integers less than 20}
A = {x: 0 < x ≤ 9}
B = {Even numbers}
C = {Multiples of 5}
(a) List the members of A · B
/

(b) Find the value of n(A C)
(c) Complete the statement A · B · C = . . .
(d) Is it true that (A · C
/
) c B? Explain your answer.



7. There are 30 people in a group. 17 own a car. 11 own a bicycle.
5 do not own a car or a bicycle.
How many people in this group own a car but not a bicycle.



8. Draw a Venn diagram with circles representing three sets, A, B and C.
Shade the region representing A · (B C
/
).


9.



Make two copies of this Venn diagram.
(a) On one diagram draw a circle to represent set C, such that
C ⊂ A and
C · B
/
= C
(b) On the other diagram draw a circle to represent set D, such that
D c A
/

D · B ≠ Ø and
D B ≠ D



B A
UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) –
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10. Draw a Venn diagram with circles representing three sets, A, B and C, such
that all the following are true:
A · C ≠ Ø, A · C
/
≠ Ø and B c (A C)
/




11. ℰ = { x: x is an integer and 1 ≤ x ≤ 30 }
A = {Multiples of 3}
B = {Multiples of 4}

(a) Find the value of n(A · B).
Sets A and B are represented by circles in the Venn diagram.





(b) C = {Odd numbers}
(i) Copy the Venn diagram, and draw a circle on it to represent set C.
(ii) Shade the region A · (B C)
/
.
(ii) Write down all the values of x such that x e A · (B C)
/
.


12. In the Venn diagram, the numbers of elements in several regions are shown.







You are also given that n(ℰ) = 25, n(B) = 12 and n(A) = 8.

(a) Find n(B · C)
(b) Find n(A · C · B
/
)



A
B
C



A
B

2 3 5



3 7
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13. ℰ = {Positive integers less than 15}
E = {Even numbers}
M = {Multiples of 3}





(a) Copy the Venn diagram and fill in each member of ℰ in the correct region.
(b) Write down the value of n(E · M
/
).

14. ℰ = {Quadrilaterals}
P = {Parallelograms}
K = {Kites}
S = {Squares}

(a) What is the mathematical name for a member of P · K?
(b) Complete the statement P S = . . .
(c) Draw a Venn diagram showing sets P, K and S.

15.






Use set notation to describe the shaded region.

16. There are 40 members in a sports club. Two play all three sports. 23 play
squash. 24 play tennis. 18 play golf. 14 play squash and tennis. Eight play
tennis and golf. One member makes the refreshments and does not play any
sport. How many members play squash and golf?

See Appendix 2 for references to past paper questions on this content.

C
B
A


M E
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Answers
1. (a) Sunday, Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, Friday, Saturday
(b) 2, 4, 6, 8
(c) 1, 2, 3, 6, 9, 18
(d) Red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, violet
(e) 1, 4, 9, 16, 25, 36, 49, 64, 81

2. (a) (i) 4, 8, 12, 16 (ii) 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17 (iii) 12, 16
(b) Ø

3. (a) Paperback mathematics books in St John’s library.
(b) Ø
(c) It is either a mathematics or travel book.

4. (a) Isosceles triangles
(b) ii and iii

5. (a) (i) 1, 3, 5, 6, 7, 9, 12, 15, 18 (ii) 9
(b) 3, 5, 7
(c) Yes. No members of S are prime.

6. (a) 1, 3, 5, 7, 9
(b) 11
(c) Ø
(d) No. For example 3, 7 or 9

7. 14 8. 9. (a) (b)



10.



11. (a) 2 (b)(i), (ii) (iii) 6, 18, 30 12. (a) 4 (b) 1


A B D
A B

C
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13. (a) (b) 5





14. (a) Rhombus (b) P (c)




15. (A·B) ·C
/
or (A·C
/
)U(B·C
/
) 16. 6


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Notes on function notation (3.2 in the specification)
Notation and definitions: f(x) = x
2
f: x → x
2


Domain is all values of x to which the function is applied.
Range is all values of f(x)

Domain and/or range may be given in words, as a list,
or algebraically, for example 0 ≤ x < 10

If the domain is not given, it is assumed to be { x: x is any number}.

Which functions?
Usually, for example, linear, quadratic, cubic, x , 1/linear.
Sometimes harder functions, for example, √linear, 1/√linear, linear/linear,
√quadratic,
1/quadratic,
+
b
a
x
,
+
b
ax
x
, trigonometrical
Note: ‘√’ indicates the positive value of the square root.
Typical questions
- Given a function and its domain, find the range
- Given a function applied to all numbers, find the range
- Given a function, which values cannot be included in the domain?
- Given f(x), find f(-2)
- Given f(x) = 3, find the value(s) of x
- Composite functions
fg(x) means f(g(x)), ie do g first followed by f
Typical questions
- Given functions f and g, find fg(-3), gf(2)
- Given functions f and g, find fg in the form fg   x : or fg  = ) (x
- Given functions f and g, and the domain of f, find the range of gf
- Given functions f and g, which values need to be excluded from the
domain of gf?
Notation for particular sets
(eg Z is the set of integers, R
is the set of real numbers) is
not required.
Co-domain is
not required.
Vocabulary such as
‘One to one’ and
‘Many to one’ is not
required.
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Inverse functions
Functions required:
Usually, for example, linear, 1/linear, x
or x
2
(with domain restricted to positive
numbers)
Sometimes harder functions, for example, √linear, 1/√linear, linear/linear,
+
b
a
x
,
1/ x
Any method for finding f
–1
is acceptable, for example
- Algebraic: write as y = . . . ; rearrange to make x the subject; interchange x
and y
- Flow chart: reverse each operation, in reverse order.
Typical questions
- Given the function f, find f
–1
(3)
- Given the function f, find f
–1
in the form f
–1
:   x or f
–1
 = ) (x
- Without working, write down the value of ff
–1
(5)
- Given functions f and g, find the function f
–1
g
- Given functions f and g, solve the equation f (x) = g
–1
(x)
UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) –
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Sample assessment questions on function notation
1. Here are three functions:
f(x) = 3 – 2x g(x) =
2
1
÷ x
h(x) = 1 3 + x
(a) Find (i) f(–1) (ii) f(
4
3
) (iii) g(4.5) (iv) g(–2) (v) h(5)
(vi) h( )
3
2
2
(b) (i) Given that f(x) = –7, find x
(ii) Given that g(x) = 2, find x
(iii) Given that h(x) = 5, find x



2. Three functions, p, q and r, are defined as follows:
p(x) = x
2
– 3x + 4 q(x) =
1
3 2
+
÷
x
x
r(x) = sin x
o
(a) Find (i) p(–4) (ii) p(
4
3
) (iii) q(4) (iv) q(–2) (v) r(45) (vi) r(180)
(b) (i) Find the values of x for which p(x) = 2
(ii) Find the value of x for which q(x) =
4
3

(iii) Find the values of x, in the domain 0 ≤ x ≤ 180, for which r(x) = 0.5



3. State which values of x cannot be included in the domain of these functions:

(i) f: x  x ÷ 5 (ii) g:x 
7 2
5
÷ x
(iii) h: 
3
1
+ x


(iv) j: x ) ( 4
2
÷ x (v) l: x
x
x
1
2 + (vi) k: x
2
1
(3 2) x +


(vii) l: x→
x
x
÷
÷
6
3




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4. f: x  x
3
g: x
8
1
+ x


(a) Find (i) fg(–4), (ii) gf(5)
(b) Find (i) gf(x), (ii) fg(x)
(c) What value(s) must be excluded from the domain of (i) gf(x), (ii) fg(x)?
(d) Find and simplify gg(x)



5. Three functions are defined as follows:
p(x) = (x + 4)
2
with domain {x: x is any number}
q(x) = 8 – x with domain {x: x > 0}
r(x) = cos x
o
with domain {x: 0 ≤ x ≤ 180}

(a) Find the range of each of these functions
(b) Find the values of x such that p(x) = q(x)




6. Find the inverse function of each of the following functions:
(a) f(x) = 2x – 3 (b) g(x) = 5 – x (c) h(x) =
4 3
1
+ x
(d) j(x) = 3 –
x
2

(e) k(x) =
x
x
÷
+
5
1 2




7. Find the inverse function of each of the following functions.
(a) p: x 2 3 ÷ x (for x ≥
3
2
) (b) q: x
2
1
+ x
(for x > –2)
(c) r: xx
2

+ 5 (for x ≥ 0) (d) s: x(x – 3)
2
(for x ≥ 3)
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2
1
( 2) x +

8. The function f(x) is defined as f(x) =
1
2
+ x
.
Solve the equation f(x) = f
–1
(x)


9. Here are two functions:
f(x) =
x + 5
2
g(x) = x
2
+ 3

(a) Calculate g(–2)
(b) Given that f(z) =
8
1
, calculate the value of z
(c) Which value of x must be excluded from the domain of f(x)?
(d) Find the inverse function, f
–1
, in the form f
–1
: x. . .
(e) Calculate f
–1
g(1)


10. Functions f and g are defined as follows:
f: x  x + 4 g: x

(a) Calculate (i) f(25) (ii) g(0.5) (iii) fg(–1)
(b) Given that fg(x) = 4.04, find the value of x
(c) Find the function f
–1
(x)
(d) Calculate gf
–1
(4)


11. p(x) =
x
x
+
÷
3
2
q(x) =
x
x
+
÷
1
3 2


(a) Find the function pq(x)
(b) Describe the relationship between the functions p and q
(c) Write down the exact value of pq ) 2 (
See Appendix 2 for references to past paper questions on this content.

UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0)
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Answers
In the examination equivalent answers are acceptable, for example, appropriate
decimal instead of fraction.
1. (a)(i) 5 (ii)
2
1
1 (iii)
5
2
(iv) –0.25 (v) 4 (vi) 3 (b)(i) 5 (ii) 2.5 (iii) 8

2. (a)(i) 32 (ii)
16
5
2 (iii) 1 (iv) 7 (v) 0.707 (vi) 0 (b)(i) 1 or 2
(ii) 3 (iii) 30 or 150

3. (i) x > 5 (ii) x = 3.5 (iii) x ≤ –3 (iv) –2 < x < 2
(v) x = 0 (vi) x = –
3
2
(vii) x < 3 or x ≥ 6
4. (a)(i)
64
1
(ii)
133
1
(b)(i)
3
1
8 x +
(ii)
3
1
( 8) x +

(c)(i) x = –2 (ii) x = –8 (d)
8
8 65
x
x
+
+


5. (a) p: > 0; q: < 8; r: –1 to 1 (b) –8 or –1

6. (a)
2
3 + x
(b) 5 – x (c)
x
x
3
4 1÷
(d)
x ÷ 3
2
(e)
x
x
+
÷
2
1 5


7. (a)
2
2
3
x +
(b)
2
1 2
x
÷
(c) 5 ÷ x (d) 3 + x

8. 1 or –2
9. (a) 7 (b) 11 (c) –5 (d) 5
2
÷
x
(e) –
2
1
4
10. (a)(i) 9 (ii) 0.16 (iii) 5 (b) 23 (c) (x – 4)
2
(d)
4
1


11. (a) pq(x) = x (b) Inverses of each other (c) 2
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Notes on calculus (3.4 in the specification)
Basic concepts and notation
Ideas of gradient of tangent and gradient of curve.
y = x
n
¬ grad =
d
d
y
x
= nx
n-1
,
firstly for positive integer n; then also n = 0, –1, –2
Differentiation of polynomials.
Usually no rearrangement will be required.
If rearrangement is required, this will
usually be asked for explicitly.

Typical questions
- Differentiate x
5
– 3x
2
+ 5 or x
2
+ 3x – 4
- Given y =
2
3 5 + x
, find
d
d
y
x

- Given y = . . . , find the gradient for a given x
find x for a given gradient
- y = (x + 3)
2
. Expand and find
d
d
y
x


Turning points (TPs)

At turning points,
d
d
y
x
= 0

Find TPs for quadratic, cubic,
±
b
ax
x
.
Distinguish maximum/minimum by rough shape,
for example shape of y = ax
2
+ bx + c is · when a < 0.

For
±
b
ax
x
if distinguishing maximum/minimum is required,
the question will ask for the curve to be drawn first.
Differentiation from first principles is
not required.
If you wish to give an introduction
to the concept of a limiting gradient,
the following is adequate, but it will
NOT be tested:
On the curve y = x
2
,
P(3, 3
2
); Q
1
(3.1, (3.1)
2
);
Q
2
(3.01, (3.01)
2
); etc
Find gradients of PQ
1
, PQ
2
, PQ
3
. . .
The language used will be ‘turning
points’, ‘maximum’, ‘minimum’; not
‘stationary points’.
The notation f
/
(x) and the
terms ‘derivative’ and
‘derived function’ are not
required.
Consideration of the
gradient on either side
is not required.
d
2
y is not required.
dx
2

But students may use
these methods if they
wish.
UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0)
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Typical questions
- y = quadratic or cubic. Find the turning points(s). State, with a reason, whether
each is a maximum or a minimum.
- y = ax +
x
b
. See Question 13
Rate of change
Know that
d
d
y
x
is the rate of change of y with respect to x.
Typical question
See Question 14
Kinematics
Quadratic, cubic, ±
b
at
t
only. Notation
d
d
s
t
and
d
d
y
t

Typical questions
- Given s in terms of t, find v and/or a at time t or at given time.
- Find maximum distance from starting point.
- Find t for given s, v, or a (only requiring solutions of equations within the
specification).
Practical problems
Typical questions
- Easier type – See Question 12
- Hardest type – See Question 16
Applications to coordinate geometry
Only very simple applications will be tested, possibly requiring understanding of
y = mx + c
Usually, students will be led through step by step. See Questions 7 and 15
not
2
2
d
d
s
t

UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) –
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Sample assessment questions on calculus (3.4 in the specification)
1. Differentiate
(a) x
3
+ x
2
– 5x – 4 (b) 2x
4
– 5x
2
+ 2x – 3 (c) 3x
5
+ 7x
3
– x + 2.5
(d) 5 – 2x + 4x
2
– 2x
3
(e)
3
2
4
3
6
2 3
x x x
÷ + (f)
2
7
2
x ÷




2. Find
x
y
d
d
for the following.
(a) y = 2x
3
+ 4x
2
+ x
–1
(b) y = 6x + 3 – 4x
–1
+ 3x
–2
(c) y =
2
6 2
x x
÷



3. Find an expression for the gradient of each of these curves.
(a) y = x
5
– 3x
3
+ 2x – 4 (b) y = 3x +
2
4
x
(c) y =
2
3 2 4
3
x x + ÷




4. Find the gradient of the tangent at the given point on each of the following
curves.
(a) y = x
2
– 5x – 6, at the point where x = 2
(b) y = x
3
– 2x
2
– 3x, at the point (–4, –52)
(c) y = 3x –
2
4
x
, at the point where x =
2
1

(d) y =
2
3
12
x x +
at the point (3, 1.5)



5. Expand and differentiate
(a) (x + 3)
2
(b) (2x – 3)(x + 5) (c) (4 – x)(2 + 3x) (d) x
2
(4 – 2x)

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6. A curve has equation y = x
2
– 3x + 5
(a) Find
x
y
d
d

(b) Find the gradient of the curve at the point with coordinates (2, 3)
(c) Find the coordinates of the point on the curve where the gradient = –5


7. A curve has equation y = x
3
– 6x
2
+ 9x – 2
(a) Find the coordinates of the point on this curve at which the tangent is
parallel to the line y = –3x + 5
(b) Find the coordinates of the two turning points on this curve.


8. For the curve with equation y = x
2
– 4x + 5
(a) Find
x
y
d
d

(b) Find the turning point.
(c) State, with a reason, whether this turning point is a maximum or a
minimum.


9. Find the maximum value of y where y = 3 + 6x – 2x
2
. Explain how you know
that it is a maximum.


10. A publisher has to choose a price, £x, for a new book.
The total amount of money she will receive from sales is £y, where
y = 20 000x – 5000x
2
.
(a) Find the price which gives the maximum amount of money from sales.
(b) Find the maximum amount of money from sales.


11. The temperature, T
o
, of a liquid at time t seconds is t
2

– 6t + 9
(a) Find the rate of change of the temperature after 2 seconds.
(b) Find the time when the rate of change of temperature is –3
o
/second.
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12. A car is moving along a straight road. It passes a point O.
After t seconds its distance, s m, from O is given by
s = 10t – t
2
for 0 ≤ t ≤ 10

(a) Find the time when the car passes through O again.
(b) Find
d
d
s
t

(c) Find the maximum distance of the car from O.
(d) Find the speed of the car 3 seconds after passing O.
(e) Find the acceleration of the car.


13. A curve has equation y = 2x +
x
8

(a) Find the turning points.
(b) Copy and complete the table of values for y = 2x +
x
8
.

x
–4 –3 –2 –1 1 2 3 4
y
–8.7 –8 10

(c) Copy the grid and draw the curve for – 4 ≤ x ≤ 4.














(d) State which of the turning points is a maximum.
–4 –3 –2 –1 O 1 2 3 4
y
x
20
15
10
5
–5
–10
–15
–20
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14. A curve has equation y = x
3
– 3x
2
+ 2x.
(a) Find
x
y
d
d

(b) Find the x coordinates of the turning points, giving your answers correct
to 2 decimal places.

(c) Copy and complete the table of values for y = x
3
– 3x
2
+ 2x.
x 0 1 2
y

(d) Copy the grid and draw the graph of y = x
3
–3x
2
+ 2x for 0 ≤ x ≤ 2.










15. A curve has equation y = x
2
+ 3x + 2
(a) Find
x
y
d
d

The curve cuts the y axis at A.
(b) (i) Write down the coordinates of A.
(ii) Find the gradient of the tangent at A.
(iii) Write down the equation of the tangent at A.
UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) –
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16. Square corners, with side x cm, are cut from a square card with side 6 cm.
Then the edges are folded up to make a box.

(a) Show that the volume of the box is V cm
3
where V = 36x – 24x
2
+ 4x
3

(b) Find
d
d
V
x

(c) Find the maximum possible volume of the box.

See Appendix 2 for references to past paper questions on this content.

UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0)
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Answers
1. (a) 3x
2
+ 2x – 5 (b) 8x
3
– 10x + 2 (c) 15x
4
+ 21x
2
– 1 (d) –2 + 8x – 6x
2

(e)
3
2
2
3
2
2
÷ +
x x
(f) –x
2. (a) 6x
2
+ 8x – x

2

(b) 6 + 4x

2
– 6x

3
(c)
3 2
12 2
x x
+ ÷
3. (a) 5x
4
– 9x
2
+ 2 (b)
3
8
3
x
÷ (c)
3
2
2 + x
4. (a) –1 (b) 61 (c) 67 (d) 0.75 5. (a) 2x + 6 (b) 4x + 7 (c) 10 – 6x
(d) 8x – 6x
2

6. (a) 2x – 3 (b) 1 (c) (-1, 9) 7. (a) (2, 0) (b) (1, 2) (3, –2)
8. (a) 2x – 4 (b) (2, 1) (c) Minimum as quadratic with positive coeff of x
2

9. 7.5 Maximum because quadratic with negative coeff of x
2

10. (a) £2 (b) £20 000 11. (a) – 2
o
/sec (b) 1.5 secs
12. (a) 10s (b) 10 – 2t (c) 25m (d) 4m/s (e) – 2 m/s
2

13. (a) (–2, –8) (2, 8) (b) –10, –10, 8, 8.7, 10 (c) graph (d) (–2, –8)
14. (a) 3x
2
– 6x + 2 (b) 0.42, 1.58 (c) 0, 0, 0
(d)

15. (a) 2x + 3 (b)(i) (0, 2) (ii) 3 (iii) y = 3x + 2
16. (b) 36 – 48x + 12x
2
(c) 16 cm
3

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Section D: Planning and teaching
Course planner
This course planner lists the main teaching points which have to be covered to meet
the requirements of the specification.
For each tier, the planner is divided into three Assessment Objectives (AO):
- Number and algebra
- Shape, space and measures
- Handling data.
These Assessment Objectives are sub-divided into teaching modules. Some of
these are standalone whilst others must be preceded by earlier modules. The order
of these modules are linked directly to the order that the content appears in the
specification, therefore it may be unlikely that the topics would be taught in this
order. In addition many teachers will not cover topics consecutively in some of the
modules.
The course planner has been structured to include the following features (features
in bold have been explained further below):
- Content summary pages
- Module number
- Estimated teaching time
- Target grades
- Content
- Prior knowledge
- Notes – where appropriate
- A/A* notes/tips for Higher tier where appropriate
- Resources.
Content summary pages
The content summary pages give an overview of the modules in both the
Foundation tier and the Higher tier course planners. It is important to note that
much of the knowledge of the Foundation tier content is assumed for the Higher tier
content.
Estimated teaching time
This is an approximation, and it is given for guidance only, as the time allocated for
the teaching and learning of each topic area is determined by the needs and
abilities of the students. It can be adapted according to individual requirements.
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A/A* notes/tips
This guidance is aimed at students preparing for the top grades in their
examinations. Students working at this level should be encouraged to develop an
appropriate working knowledge of the Higher tier topics, together with the
foundation tier topics. In order to access questions at the top grades, students need
to have methods of solution at their immediate disposal, and this means that they
need to ensure that they do not neglect the learning aspect of the subject. This
should enable students to develop an appreciation of mathematics as a unified
whole, rather than a series of discrete topics or facts. It is also important that
students set their work out clearly, through maintaining the appropriate structure of
their solutions.
Resources
The textbook references are from the Edexcel two-book series written for students
following the IGCSE Higher tier specification (see titles in the table below). It
comprises of a Student’s Book for each year of the course. For Foundation tier, it is
advisable to use additional resource materials, although the non-starred exercises
in these textbooks are designed for students working towards IGCSE grades B/C.


Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 1
D A Turner, I A Potts, W R J Waite, B V Hony
ISBN 978-0 435966 91 1


Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 2
D A Turner, I A Potts, W R J Waite, B V Hony
ISBN 978-0 435966 92 8


It is important to note that specific issues, such as the sequence in which
topics are covered, the time allocated to each one and the extent to which
a calculator is used for arithmetic, will depend on the needs and abilities of
students.

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Foundation tier content summary
The table below is a summary of modules in the IGCSE Mathematics Foundation tier
course planner.
Teachers should be aware that the estimated teaching hours are approximate and
should only be used as a guideline.

Module number Title
Estimated
teaching
hours
1 Integers 4
2 Decimals 4
3 Special numbers and powers 7
4 Fractions 7
5 Percentages 5
6 Ratio and proportion 7
7 Approximation 5
Number
8 Set language and notation 5
1 Algebraic manipulation 5
2 Expressions and formulae 5
3 Linear equations and simultaneous linear equations 7
4 Coordinates and graphs 5
5 Linear graphs 5
6 Integer sequences 5
7 Inequalities 5
Algebra
8 Indices 5
1 Measures 5
2 2-D shapes 4
3 Symmetry 5
4 Construction 5
5 Geometry 7
6 Transformations 7
7 Circles 5
8 Area and perimeter 5
9 3-D shapes and volume 7
10 Pythagoras’ theorem 5
11 Trigonometry 7
Shape,
space
and
measures
12 Similar shapes 5
1 Graphical representation of data 7
2 Statistical measures 7
3 Probability 1 7
Handling
data
4 Probability 2 6
Total 180 hours

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Foundation tier
NUMBER
Module 1 — Integers Time: 3 – 5 hours
Target grades: E/F/G
Content Area of specification
Understanding place value in whole numbers 1.1
Reading, writing and ordering whole numbers 1.1
Addition, subtraction, multiplication and division of whole numbers 1.1
Problems involving the four rules with whole numbers 1.1
Calculations involving time 1.10
Order of operations (excluding powers) 1.1
Using a calculator efficiently 1.11
Interpreting a calculator display 1.11
Directed numbers in context 1.1
Understanding integers both as positions and as translations on
a number line 1.1
Using the four rules with directed numbers 1.1
Prior knowledge
The ability to order numbers
Appreciation of place value to at least 1000s
Experience of the four rules of whole numbers
Notes
Present all working out clearly, emphasise that all working is to be shown
Resources
Textbook References
Edexcel IGCSE
Mathematics A Student
Book 1
Unit 1: Number 1 page 2
Unit 1: Number 1 page 117-119

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Module 2 — Decimals Time: 3 – 5 hours
Target grades: E/F/G
Content Area of specification
Understanding place value in decimal numbers 1.3
Ordering decimals 1.3
Applying the four rules with decimals 1.10
Writing decimal numbers to the nearest whole number
and to one or two decimal places 1.8
Writing decimal numbers to one, two or three significant figures 1.8
Converting simple fractions to decimals, including recurring decimals 1.2
Converting terminating decimals to fractions 1.3
Prior knowledge
Number: Module 1
Experience of the four rules of whole numbers
The basic concepts of a fraction and a decimal
Notes
Present all working out clearly with decimal points in line, and emphasise that all
working is to be shown
Resources
Textbook References
Edexcel IGCSE
Mathematics A Student
Book 1
Unit 1: Number 1 page 7
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Module 3 — Special numbers and powers Time: 6 – 8 hours
Target grades: C/D/E
Content Area of specification
Even and odd numbers 1.1
Factors and multiples, including common factors and common multiples 1.1
Prime numbers and prime factors 1.1
Square and cube numbers 1.4
Squares and square roots 1.4
Cubes and cube roots 1.4
Using a calculator effectively to evaluate powers and roots 1.11
Powers of numbers – using index notation 1.4
Order of operations including powers (BIDMAS)* 1.1
Expressing a number as the product of powers of its prime factors 1.4
Using laws of indices for multiplication and division of positive integer powers 1.4
Simplifying expressions using the laws of indices 1.4
*BIDMAS = Brackets, Indices, Division, Multiplication, Addition, Subtraction
Prior knowledge
Basic number bonds and multiplication/division facts
Ability to recognise basic number patterns
Resources
Textbook References
Edexcel IGCSE
Mathematics A Student
Book 1
Unit 3: Number 3 page 114
Unit 1: Number 1 page 2
Unit 1: Number 2 page 60
Unit 3: Number 3 page 117-119
Unit 2: Algebra 2 page 73-74

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Module 4 — Fractions Time: 6 – 8 hours
Target grades: C/D/E
Content Area of specification
Using diagrams to find equivalent fractions 1.2
Simplifying (cancelling) fractions 1.2
Simplest form (lowest terms) 1.2
Conversion between improper fractions and mixed
numbers (vulgar fractions) 1.2
Conversion between fractions and decimals 1.2
Ordering fractions using common denominators or by conversion to decimals 1.2
Adding and subtracting fractions using common denominators 1.2
Multiplying and dividing fractions by an integer, by a unit fraction and by a
general fraction 1.2
Using fractions in problems 1.2
Calculating a fraction of a quantity 1.2
Expressing one quantity as a fraction of another 1.2
Prior knowledge
Number: Modules 1, 2 and 3
A basic understanding of fractions as ‘parts of a whole’
Notes
An understanding of equivalent fractions is fundamental to this module. This topic
needs to be constantly revisited. Every working stage should be shown
Resources
Textbook References
Edexcel IGCSE
Mathematics A Student
Book 1
Unit 2: Number 2 page 57-58
Unit 1: Number 1 page 1

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Module 5 — Percentages Time: 4 – 6 hours
Target grades: C/D/E
Content Area of specification
Understanding that percentage means ‘number of parts per hundred’ 1.6
Converting between percentages, fractions and decimals 1.6
Calculating percentages of quantities 1.6
Increasing or decreasing quantities by a given percentage 1.6
Expressing one quantity as a percentage of another 1.6
Finding 100% when another percentage is given 1.6
Calculating percentage increases or decreases (percentage profit or loss) 1.6
Understanding the multiplicative nature of percentages as operators 1.6
Efficient use of a calculator to solve problems involving percentages,
for example simple interest 1.6
Prior knowledge
Number: Modules 1, 2 and 4
An awareness that percentages are used in everyday life
A basic understanding of the concept of a percentage
An understanding of the concept of interest in a financial context
Notes
All workings should be shown
Applications of percentages to solve real-world problems
Resources
Textbook References
Edexcel IGCSE
Mathematics A Student
Book 1
Unit 1: Number 1 page 3


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Module 6 — Ratio and proportion Time: 6 – 8 hours
Target grades: C/D/E
Content: Area of specification
Basic ideas of ratio 1.7
Simplifying ratios including simplest form 1.7
Expressing a ratio in the form 1 : n 1.7
Relating ratio to fractions 1.7
If one of the two quantities in a given ratio is known, finding the other,
including the use of the unitary method 1.7
Dividing a quantity in a given ratio into two or three parts 1.7
Problems involving ratio, including scale diagrams and maps 1.7
Using direct proportion, including recipes and currency conversion 1.7
Prior knowledge
Number: Modules 1, 2 and 4
Basic number skills and ability to recognise common factors
Calculator skills
Resources
Textbook References
Edexcel IGCSE
Mathematics A Student
Book 1
Unit 2: Number 2 page 59
Unit 2: Number 2 page 61

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Module 7 — Approximation Time: 4 – 6 hours
Target grades: C/D/E/F/G
Content Area of specification
Rounding numbers to the nearest 10, 100 and 1000
and use for estimating 1.8
Rounding numbers to one significant figure and use for estimating 1.8
Rounding numbers to two or three significant figures 1.8
Rounding numbers to one, two or three decimal places 1.8
Carrying out rounding appropriate to a context 1.8
Expressing a calculator display to an appropriate degree of accuracy 1.8
Finding upper and lower bounds, ie maximum and minimum
values for rounded values 1.8
Prior knowledge
Number: Modules 1 and 2
Notes
To ensure they achieve marks for correct calculations, even if there is a rounding,
error students should be encouraged to include more accurate answers in their
working before rounding.
Students should be aware that correct rounding will give a number of the same
order of magnitude as the original.
The need to round to an appropriate level of accuracy should be emphasised
throughout this module.
Resources
Textbook References
Edexcel IGCSE
Mathematics A Student
Book 1
Unit 4: Number 4 page 169-172



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Module 8 — Set language and notation Time: 4 – 6 hours
Target grades: C/D/E
Content Area of specification
Meaning of ‘set’ 1.5
Defining sets of numbers by describing, for example {first four odd numbers},
{x : x is a factor of 12}or by listing, eg {1, 3, 5, 7} 1.5
Understanding the meaning of the universal set ℰ 1.5
Understanding the meaning of the null or empty set Ø or { } 1.5
Membership of a set including the notation e and e 1.5
Intersection and union of sets including the notation ∩ and ∪ 1.5
Prior knowledge
Number: Module 3
Resources
Textbook References
Edexcel IGCSE
Mathematics A Student
Book 1
Unit 1: Sets 1 page 39-41

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ALGEBRA
Module 1 — Algebraic manipulation Time: 4 – 6 hours
Target grades: C/D/E/F
Content Area of specification
Using letters to represent numbers 2.1
Collecting like terms 2.2
Simplifying products 2.1
Multiplying a single term over a bracket 2.2
Factorising by taking out a single common factor 2.2
Finding and simplifying the product of two simple linear expressions,
ie of the form (x + a)(x + b), where a and b are integers 2.2
Prior knowledge
The concept that letters can be used instead of numbers
Notes
Emphasise importance of using the correct symbolic notation, for example 3a rather
than 3 x a or a3
Resources
Textbook References
Edexcel IGCSE
Mathematics A Student
Book1
Unit 1: Algebra 1 page 9-11
Unit 1: Algebra 1 page 11-12
Unit 3: Algebra 3 page 121-122
Unit 5: Algebra 5 page 241-243



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Module 2 — Expressions and formulae Time: 4 – 6 hours
Target grades: C/D/E/F/G
Content Area of specification
Substituting positive and negative integers, then fractions
and decimals, into expressions, word formulae and algebraic
formulae 2.3
Using formulae from mathematics, and other subjects,
expressed initially in words or diagrammatic form and
converting to variables or algebraic form 2.3
Deriving formulae 2.3
Prior knowledge
Number: Modules 1, 2, 3 and 4
Resources
Textbook References
Edexcel IGCSE
Mathematics A Student
Book 1
Unit 4: Algebra 4 page 180-181

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Module 3 — Linear equations and
simultaneous linear equations Time: 6 - 8 hours
Target grades: C/D/E/F
Content Area of specification
Inverse operations 2.4
Understanding and use of ‘balancing’ methods 2.4
Solving simple linear equations 2.4
Solving linear equations:
- with two or more operations 2.4
- with the unknown on both sides 2.4
- with brackets 2.4
- with negative or fractional coefficients 2.4
- with combinations of these 2.4
Setting up and solving simple linear equations to solve problems, including
finding the value of a variable which is not the subject of a formula 2.4
Solving simple simultaneous linear equations, either by elimination
or by substitution 2.6
Prior knowledge
Algebra: Modules 1 and 2
The idea that some operations are ‘opposite’ to each other.
Notes
Students need to realise that not all linear equations can be solved easily by either
observation or trial and improvement; a formal method is often needed
Students should leave their answers in fractional form where appropriate
Resources
Textbook References
Edexcel IGCSE
Mathematics A Student
Book 1
Unit 1: Algebra 1 page 12-18
Unit 3: Algebra 3 page 126

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Module 4 — Coordinates and graphs Time: 4 – 6 hours
Target grade: D/E/F
Content Area of specification
Drawing and interpreting linear conversion graphs 3.3
Plotting or stating the coordinates of points in all four quadrants 3.3
Determining the coordinates of points identified by geometrical information 3.3
Determining the coordinates of the midpoint of a line segment, given the
coordinates of the two end points 3.3
Drawing and interpreting linear graphs representing real-life situations,
including speed/time and distance/time graphs 3.3
Drawing and interpreting non-linear graphs representing real-life situations 3.3
Prior knowledge
Experience of plotting points
Directed numbers
Resources
Textbook References
Edexcel IGCSE
Mathematics A Student
Book 1
Unit 3: Graphs 3 page 134, 137



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Module 5 — Linear graphs Time: 4 – 6 hours
Target grades: C/D/E
Content Area of specification
Recognising that equations of the form x = a and y = b correspond to
straight line graphs parallel to the y-axis and to the x-axis respectively 3.3
Completing tables of values and drawing graphs with equations of the form
y = mx + c, where the values of m and c are given and m may be an integer
or a fraction 3.3
Recognising that graphs with equations of the form y = mx + c are
straight lines 3.3
Having an informal understanding of the concept of gradient as the
steepness of a line, and recognising the link with m in y = mx + c 3.3
Drawing straight line graphs with equations in which y is given implicitly in
terms of x, for example x + y = 7 3.3
Prior knowledge
Algebra: Modules 1, 2, 3 and 4
Notes
Axes should be labelled on graphs and a ruler should be used to draw linear graphs
Science experiments or work can provide results which give linear graphs
Resources
Textbook References
Edexcel IGCSE
Mathematics A Student
Book 1
Unit 1: Graphs 1 page 19-27

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Module 6 — Integer sequences Time: 4 – 6 hours
Target grades: E/F/G
Content Area of specification
Continuing diagrammatic sequences 3.1
Continuing number sequences 3.1
Describing the terms of a sequence in words 3.1
Finding rules to describe sequences 3.1
Using term-to-term and position-to-term definitions to generate
the terms of a sequence 3.1
Prior knowledge
Algebra: Modules 1 and 2
Some experience of sequences of numbers which follow a rule, for example even
and odd numbers
The ability to follow a series of instructions
Resources
Textbook References
Edexcel IGCSE
Mathematics A Student
Book 1
Unit 5: Sequences 5
page 254-255


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Module 7 — Inequalities Time: 4 – 6 hours
Target grade: B/C/D
Content Area of specification
Understanding and using the symbols >, <, ≥ and ≤ 2.8
Understanding and using the convention for open and closed intervals on
a number line 2.8
Solving simple linear inequalities in one variable, including ‘double-ended’
inequalities 2.8
Representing on a number line the solution set of simple linear inequalities 2.8
Finding the integer solutions of simple linear inequalities 2.8
Using regions to represent simple linear inequalities in one variable 2.8
Using regions to represent the solution set to several linear inequalities in
one or two variables 2.8
Prior knowledge
Algebra: Modules 3 and 5
Resources
Textbook References
Edexcel IGCSE
Mathematics A Student
Book 1
Unit 2: Algebra 2 page 74-77
Unit 2: Graphs 2 page 81-86

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Module 8 — Indices Time: 4 – 6 hours
Target grades: C/D/E
Content Area of specification
Using index notation for positive integer powers 2.1
Substituting positive and negative numbers into expressions and formulae
with quadratic and/or cubic terms 2.1
Completing tables of values and drawing graphs of quadratic functions 3.3
Using laws of indices with positive integer powers to simplify expressions 2.1
Substituting positive and negative numbers into expressions
and formulae with quadratic and/or cubic terms 2.3
Prior knowledge
Algebra: Modules 2 and 4
Resources
Textbook References
Edexcel IGCSE
Mathematics A Student
Book 1
Unit 2: Algebra 2 page 73
Unit 2: Algebra 2 page 74
Unit 4: Graphs 4 page 185-188

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SHAPE, SPACE AND MEASURES
Module 1 — Measures Time: 4 – 6 hours
Target grades: C/D/E/F/G
Content Area of specification
Choosing and using appropriate metric units of measure 4.4
Making sensible estimate of lengths, capacities and weights 4.4
Interpreting scales and dials on a range of measuring instruments 4.4
Telling the time from digital and analogue clocks 4.4
Converting between times, and calculating time intervals in 12-hour and
24-hour clocks, for example reading timetables 4.4
Understanding and using the relationship between average speed,
distance and time 4.4
Prior knowledge
Number: Module 2
Basic concepts of units, for example height in metres, weight in kilograms
Notes
Measurement is essentially a practical activity. Use a range of everyday objects to
make the lesson more relevant
Resources
Textbook References
Edexcel IGCSE
Mathematics A Student
Book 1
Unit 4: Number 4 page 172


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Module 2 — 2-D shapes Time: 3 – 5 hours
Target grades: E/F/G
Content Area of specification
Estimating the size of an angle in degrees 4.1
Recognising and naming acute, obtuse, reflex and right angles 4.1
Recognising and giving the names of different types of triangle
(right-angled, isosceles and equilateral) 4.1
Recognising and giving the names of different types of quadrilateral
(parallelogram, rectangle, square, rhombus, trapezium, kite) 4.2
Recognising and giving the names of different types of polygon
(pentagon, hexagon, octagon) 4.2
Recognising regular polygons 4.2
Understanding congruence as meaning the same shape and size 4.2
Understanding that two or more polygons with the same shape and
size are said to be congruent to each other 4.2
Resources
Textbook References
Edexcel IGCSE
Mathematics A Student
Book 1
Unit 1: Shape and space 1
page 28
Unit 1: Shape and space 1
page 29

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Module 3 — Symmetry Time: 4 – 6 hours
Target grades: E/F/G
Content Area of specification
Recognising line symmetry and rotational symmetry 4.3
Identifying and drawing lines of symmetry for a 2-D shape 4.3
Stating the order of rotational symmetry of a 2-D shape 4.3
Recognising all the symmetries of a 2-D shape 4.3
Resources
Textbook References
Edexcel IGCSE
Mathematics A Student
Book 1
Unit 1: Shape and space 1
page 28

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Module 4 — Construction Time: 4 – 6 hours
Target grades: C/D/E/F/G
Content Area of specification
Measuring and drawing lines to the nearest millimetre 4.5
Measuring and drawing angles to the nearest degree 4.4
Constructing triangles and other 2-D shapes using a ruler,
protractor and compasses 4.5
Using three-figure bearings to specify direction 4.4
Using scale drawings to solve problems in 2-D or 3-D 4.5
Using straight edge and compasses to construct
(i) the perpendicular bisector of a line segment
(ii) the bisector of an angle 4.5
Prior knowledge
An understanding of angle as a measure of turn; experience of drawing and
measuring using a ruler
Notes
Encourage students to use sharp pencils to improve the neatness and accuracy of
their drawings
A tolerance of 2° is reasonable for angles
A sturdy pair of compasses is essential
When measuring angles larger than 90° on a diagram. students are often confused
about the direction from which a bearing is measured
Resources
Textbook References
Edexcel IGCSE
Mathematics A Student
Book 1
Edexcel IGCSE
Mathematics A Student
Book 2
Unit 1: Shape and space 1
page 32
Unit 4: Shape and space 4
page 292

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Module 5 — Geometry Time: 6 – 8 hours
Target grades: C/D/E/F/G
Content Area of specification
Calculating angles on a straight line and at a point 4.1
Recognising vertically opposite angles 4.1
Recognising parallel and perpendicular lines 4.1
Using parallel lines, alternate angles and corresponding angles 4.1
Using the angle sum of a triangle to calculate angles in triangles 4.1
Using angle properties of isosceles, equilateral and right-angled triangles 4.1
Understanding that the exterior angle of a triangle is equal to the
sum of the interior angles at the other two vertices 4.1
Using the angle sum of a quadrilateral to calculate angles in quadrilaterals 4.2
Understanding and using the properties of the parallelogram,
rectangle, square, rhombus, trapezium and kite 4.2
Calculating and using the sums of the interior angles of polygons 4.2
Calculating and using the sum of the exterior angles of polygons 4.2
Calculating the interior and exterior angles of regular polygons 4.2
Giving informal reasons, where required, when arriving
at numerical solutions to geometrical problems 4.7
Prior knowledge
Shape, space and measures: Modules 1 and 2
Understanding the concept of parallel lines
Resources
Textbook References
Edexcel IGCSE
Mathematics A Student
Book 1
Unit 1: Shape and space
page 28
Unit 1: Shape and space
page 29
Unit 1: Shape and space
page 31

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Module 6 — Transformations Time: 6 – 8 hours
Target grades: C/D/E/F/G
Content Area of specification
Understanding that rotations are specified by a centre and an angle 5.2
Rotating a shape about a point, measuring the angle of rotation
in right angles, degrees or simple fractions of a turn 5.2
Understanding that an anti-clockwise rotation is a positive angle rotation and
a clockwise rotation is a negative angle rotation 5.2
Understanding that reflections are specified by a mirror line,
for example x = 1, y = x on a coordinate grid 5.2
Reflecting shapes in a mirror line 5.2
Constructing a mirror line, given a shape and its reflection 5.2
Understanding that translations are specified by a distance and direction 5.2
Translating a shape, given the distance and direction of the translation 5.2
Recognising that rotations, reflections and translations preserve length and
angle so that a transformed shape under any of these transformations is
congruent to the original shape 5.2
Understanding that enlargements are specified by a centre and
a scale factor, including fractions 5.2
Constructing enlargements of shapes with positive scale factors 5.2
Identifying the scale factor of an enlargement as the ratio
of the lengths of any two corresponding line segments 5.2
Recognising that enlargements preserve angle but not length 5.2
Describing transformations in full 5.2
Prior knowledge
Shape, space and measures: Module 2
The ability to recognise the symmetries in a shape
Notes
Students often lose marks as in the examination they do not give a complete
description of a transformation. For example, the centre of rotation is often omitted
and the name of the transformation itself left out
Resources
Textbook References
Edexcel IGCSE
Mathematics A Student
Book 1
Unit 5: Shape and space 5
page 265-278

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Module 7 — Circles Time: 4 – 6 hours
Target grades: C/D/E/F/G
Content Area of specification
Understanding the terms centre, radius, chord, diameter, circumference,
tangent, arc, sector and segment of a circle 4.6
Knowing and using these circle properties:
- two tangents from a point to a circle are equal in length 4.6
- tangents are perpendicular to the radius at the point of contact 4.6
- the line from the centre of a circle which is perpendicular to a chord
bisects the chord (and the converse is true) 4.6

Resources
Textbook References
Edexcel IGCSE
Mathematics A Student
Book 1
Unit 4: Shape and space 4
page 194-199, 207

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Module 8 — Area and perimeter Time: 4 – 6 hours
Target grades: D/E/F/G
Content Area of specification
Finding the perimeter of rectangles and triangles and shapes
made from them 4.9
Finding area by counting squares 4.9
Finding the areas of rectangles, triangles, parallelograms and trapezia,
using relevant formulae 4.9
Finding circumferences and areas of circles, using relevant formulae 4.9
Finding the areas of compound shapes made from rectangles and triangles 4.9
Converting between units of length and of area within the metric system,
for example m
2
and cm
2
4.9
Prior knowledge
Shape, space and measures: Module 2
Some concept of area as the amount of surface covered
Notes
Ensure that students can distinguish between perimeter and area
Resources
Textbook References
Edexcel IGCSE
Mathematics A Student
Book 1
Unit 2: Algebra 2 page 69-71

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Module 9 — 3-D shapes and volume Time: 6 – 8 hours
Target grades: C/D/E/F/G
Content Area of specification
Recognising and giving the names of solids (cube, cuboid, prism, pyramid,
cylinder, cone, sphere) 4.9
Understanding the terms face, edge and vertex in the context of a 3-D solid 4.9
Finding volumes by counting cubes 4.9
Finding the volumes of right prisms, including cuboids and cylinders,
using appropriate formulae 4.9
Finding the surface areas of solids with rectangular and triangular faces 4.9
Finding the surface area of a cylinder 4.9
Converting between units of volume within the metric system,
for example, cm
3
and litres 4.9
Prior knowledge
Shape, space and measures: Module 8
Some concept of the volume of a solid as the amount of space it occupies
Notes
Many students have little real understanding of perimeter, area and volume.
Practical experience is essential in order to clarify these concepts
Resources
Textbook References
Edexcel IGCSE
Mathematics A Student
Book 2
Unit 2: Number 2 page 63
Unit 2: Shape and space 2
page 112-113, 117

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Module 10 — Pythagoras’s theorem Time: 4 – 6 hours
Target grade: B/C/D
Content Area of specification
Identifying the hypotenuse of a right-angled triangle 4.8
Understanding and using Pythagoras’ theorem in 2-D to find the length of
the hypotenuse or that of one of the shorter sides of a right-angled triangle 4.8
Using Pythagoras’ theorem to solve problems 4.8
Prior knowledge
Shape, space and measures: Modules 2, 5 and 8
Knowledge of different types of triangle
Ability to use a calculator to find squares and square roots.
Notes
Students will avoid making mistakes if they remember that the hypotenuse
is the longest side
Some students find questions on this topic much more difficult if the orientation
of the triangle is unusual
Resources
Textbook References
Edexcel IGCSE
Mathematics A Student
Book 1
Unit 4: Shape and space 4
page 212-214

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Module 11 — Trigonometry Time: 6 – 8 hours
Target grade: B/C/D
Content Area of specification
Identifying the various sides of a right-angled triangle as the
hypotenuse, opposite and adjacent 4.8
Understanding and using sine, cosine and tangent of acute angles to
find lengths and angles in a right-angled triangle 4.8
Using trigonometry to solve problems, including bearings 4.8
Using Pythagoras’ theorem and trigonometry to solve problems 4.8
Prior knowledge
Shape, space and measures: Modules 2, 5 and 10
Knowledge of the basic concept of ratio (Number: Module 6)
Ability to use a calculator to convert fractions to decimals (Number: Module 4)
Notes
Students should ensure that their calculators are in ‘degree mode’ before tackling
trigonometry questions
Resources
Textbook References
Edexcel IGCSE
Mathematics A Student
Book 1
Unit 2: Shape and space 2
page 87-94
Unit 3: Shape and space 3 page
142-153

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Module 12 — Similar shapes Time: 4 – 6 hours
Target grade: B/C/D
Content Area of specification
Understanding that, if two shapes are similar their corresponding angles
are equal and all their corresponding lengths are in the same ratio 4.10
Using similarity to find lengths of sides 4.10
Resources
Textbook References
Edexcel IGCSE
Mathematics A Student
Book 1
Unit 4: Shape and space 4
page 205-209

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HANDLING DATA
Module 1 — Graphical representation of data Time: 6 – 8 hours
Target grades: E/F/G
Content Area of specification
Grouping data in tally tables and frequency tables including grouped data 6.1
Obtaining data from a list, a table (including two way) or a database 6.1
Drawing and using bar charts 6.1
Drawing and using pictograms 6.1
Drawing pie charts 6.1
Using pie charts to calculate:
- the fraction, percentage or decimal of the total represented by each
sector 6.1
- the number of items represented by each sector 6.1
Prior knowledge
Shape, space and measures: Module 5
Measuring and drawing angles (Shape, space and measures: Module 4)
Fractions of simple quantities (Number: Module 4)
Notes
Students should label axes of pictograms and bar charts, and sectors of pie charts
The need for accurate drawing skills, particularly for pie charts, should be
emphasised
Resources
Textbook References
Edexcel IGCSE
Mathematics A Student
Book 1
Unit 2: Handling data 2
page 99-103

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Module 2 — Statistical measures Time: 6 – 8 hours
Target grades: C/D/E/F/G
Content Area of specification
Understanding the concept of average as a value which is
representative of a set of data 6.2
Finding the mean, median, mode and range for a discrete data
set either from a list or frequency table 6.2
Selecting the most appropriate average 6.2
Finding the modal class for grouped data 6.2
Calculating an estimate for the mean for grouped data, using halfway values 6.2
Notes
Students often understand techniques used to find mean, median and mode but
confuse the three names
It should be emphasised that the range is a single value
Students sometimes identify the modal class by the frequency instead of the class
description
Resources
Textbook References
Edexcel IGCSE
Mathematics A Student
Book 1
Unit 2: Handling data 2
page 97-98

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Module 3 — Probability 1 Time: 6 – 8 hours
Target grades: E/F/G
Content Area of specification
Using the language of probability, informally, for example ‘likely’
and then technical terms such as ‘outcomes’, ‘equal likelihood’,
‘events’ and ‘random’ 6.3
Using a probability scale from 0 to 1 6.3
Understanding that an impossible event has a probability
of 0 and one which is certain has a probability of 1 6.3
Writing probabilities as numbers (fractions, decimals or percentages only) 6.3
Estimating probabilities from previously collected data 6.3
The probability of an event happening or not happening 6.3
Understanding and using estimates or measures of probability
from theoretical models 6.3
Prior knowledge
Some concept of ‘chance’ and the likelihood of an event occurring and recognition
that some events are more likely to occur than others
Notes
Where possible, introduce practical work to support theoretical work
Students can be unsure of the relationship P(not n) = 1 – P(n)
Resources
Textbook References
Edexcel IGCSE
Mathematics A Student
Book 1
Unit 4: Handling data 4
page 218-226

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Module 4 — Probability 2 Time: 5 – 7 hours
Target grades: C/D/E/F
Content Area of specification
Understanding sample spaces and using them to find the
probability that an event will occur 6.3
Listing all the outcomes for single events systematically, or
for two successive events, and using lists to find the probability
that an event will occur 6.3
Using the sum of probabilities of all possible outcomes equalling one 6.3
Understanding the meaning of ‘equally likely’ and ‘mutually exclusive’ 6.3
Using the addition rule for probability for mutually exclusive events 6.3
Understanding and using expected frequency to calculate an estimate
for the number of times an event will occur 6.3
Prior knowledge
Handling data: Module 3
Notes
You may need to remind students that only fractions, decimals and percentages can
be used for probability. Answers like ‘2 in 3’, ‘2 out of 3’ and ‘2 : 3’ would be
penalised in the examination
Resources
Textbook References
Edexcel IGCSE
Mathematics A Student
Book 2
Unit 4: Handling data 4
page 315-316

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Higher tier content summary
The table below is a summary of modules in the IGCSE Mathematics Higher tier
course planner.
Teachers should be aware that the estimated teaching hours are approximate and
should only be used as a guideline.
Module
number
Title
Estimated
teaching
hours
1 Decimals 3
2 Powers and roots 4
3 Fractions 2
4 Percentages 3
5 Ratio and proportion 3
6 Standard form 4
7 Degree of accuracy 6
Number
8 Set language and notation 6
1 Algebraic manipulation 4
2 Expressions and formulae 6
3 Linear equations and simultaneous linear equations 6
4 Coordinates and graphs 5
5 Linear graphs 5
6 Integer sequences 4
7 Quadratic equations 7
8 Inequalities 5
9 Indices 5
10 Proportion 5
11 Function notation 7
12 Harder graphs 7
Algebra
13 Calculus 7
1 Average speed 3
2 Construction 4
3 Geometry 4
4 Transformations 5
5 Circle properties 7
6 Area and perimeter 5
7 3-D shapes and volume 5
8 Pythagoras’ theorem 4
9 Trigonometry 4
10 Similar shapes 7
11 Advanced trigonometry 7
Shape,
space
and
measures
12 Vectors 6
1 Graphical representation of data 5
2 Statistical measures 4
Data
Handling
3 Probability 6
Total 180 hours

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Higher tier
It is assumed that students being prepared for the Higher tier will have knowledge
of all of the Foundation tier content.
NUMBER
Module 1 — Decimals Time: 2 – 4 hours
Target grades: A/B/C/D
Content Area of specification
Applying the four rules of operation with decimals 1.10
Using a calculator efficiently 1.11
Interpreting a calculator display 1.11
Writing decimal numbers to the nearest whole number
and to one or two decimal places 1.8
Writing decimal numbers to one, two or three significant figures 1.8
Converting simple fractions to decimals including recurring decimals 1.2
Converting terminating decimals to fractions 1.3
Converting recurring decimals to fractions 1.3
Resources
Textbook References
Edexcel IGCSE
Mathematics A Student
Book 1
Unit 5: Number 5 page 238
Unit 5: Number 5 page 239
Unit 1: Number 1 page 7
Unit 3: Number 3 page 117-119
Edexcel IGCSE
Mathematics A Student
Book 2
Unit 1: Number 1 page 5-7


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Module 2 — Powers and roots Time: 3 – 5 hours
Target grades: A*/A/B/C
Content Area of specification
Squares and square roots 1.4
Cubes and cube roots 1.4
Using a calculator effectively to evaluate powers and roots 1.1
Powers of numbers – using index notation 1.4
Order of operations including powers (BIDMAS*) 1.1
Expressing a number as the product of powers of its prime factors 1.4
Using prime factors to evaluate Highest Common Factors (HCF) and Lowest
Common Multiples (LCM) 1.4
Understanding and using powers which are zero, negative or fractions 1.4
Recognising the relationship between fractional powers and roots 1.4
Using laws of indices to simplify and evaluate numerical expressions involving
integer, fractional and negative powers 1.4
Understanding the meaning of surds 1.4
Manipulating surds, including rationalising the denominator 1.4
*BIDMAS = Brackets, Indices, Division, Multiplication, Addition, Subtraction
A/A* notes/tips
- In order for students to aspire to the top grades, it is essential that they are
able to use algebraic manipulation and index notation confidently
- Remind students that when writing fractions, it is not usual to write surds in the
denominator, because without a calculator, it is not always easy to work out the
value of the fraction, eg
2
1
, but ‘rationalising’ the denominator will help clear
the surds from the denominator
Resources
Textbook References
Edexcel IGCSE
Mathematics A Student
Book 1
Unit 3: Number 3 page 117
Unit 3: Number 3 page 114-116
Edexcel IGCSE
Mathematics A Student
Book 2
Unit 2: Number 2 page 66-70
See Appendix 1 for references to past paper questions for students aiming for top
grades in this module

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Module 3 — Fractions Time: 1 – 3 hours
Target grades: B/C/D
Content Area of specification
Converting between fractions and decimals 1.2
Ordering fractions using common denominators or by conversion to decimals 1.2
Adding and subtracting fractions using common denominators 1.2
Multiplying and dividing fractions by an integer, by a unit fraction and by a
general fraction 1.2
Using fractions in problems 1.2
Calculating a fraction of a quantity 1.2
Expressing one quantity as a fraction of another 1.2
Resources
Textbook References
Edexcel IGCSE
Mathematics A Student
Book 1
Unit 2: Number 2 page 57-58
Edexcel IGCSE
Mathematics A Student
Book 2
Unit 5: Number 5 (Revision)
page 334, 339-345 (selected
questions)

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Module 4 — Percentages Time: 2 – 4 hours
Target grades: A*/A/B/C/D
Content Area of specification
Understanding that percentage means ‘number of parts per hundred’ 1.6
Converting between percentages, fractions and decimals 1.6
Calculating percentages of quantities 1.6
Increasing or decreasing quantities by a given percentage 1.6
Expressing one quantity as a percentage of another 1.6
Finding 100 per cent when another percentage is given 1.6
Calculating percentage increases or decreases (percentage profit or loss) 1.6
Understanding the multiplicative nature of percentages as operators 1.6
Efficient use of a calculator to solve problems involving percentages,
for example simple interest and compound interest, including depreciation 1.6
Solving reverse percentage problems by carrying out an appropriate division 1.6
Solving problems involving repeated percentage change 1.6
Prior knowledge
Number: Modules 1 and 3
Notes
All working out should be shown
A/A* notes/tips
- This is an opportunity to focus on financial arithmetic through using simple and
compound interest through using:
– Simple interest )
100
1 (
Rn
P A + =
– Compound interest
n
R
P A )
100
1 ( + =
- Questions which involve savings, credit and loans, inflation and exchange rates
offer many opportunities to ensure that the students have a confident working
knowledge of this material
Resources
Textbook References
Edexcel IGCSE
Mathematics A Student
Book 2
Unit 3: Number 3 page 110-113
Unit 4: Number 4 page 167-169
Unit 5: Number 5 (Revision)
page 345 (selected questions)
See Appendix 1 for references to past paper questions for students aiming for top
grades in this module
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Module 5 — Ratio and proportion Time: 2 – 4 hours
Target grades: B/C/D
Content Area of specification
Basic idea of ratio 1.7
Simplifying ratios including simplest form 1.7
Expressing a ratio in the form 1 : n 1.7
Relating ratio to fractions 1.7
If one of the two quantities in a given ratio is known, find the other,
including using the unitary method 1.7
Dividing a quantity in a given ratio into two or three parts 1.7
Problems involving ratio, including scale diagrams and maps 1.7
Using direct proportion, including recipes and currency conversion 1.7
Prior knowledge
Number: Modules 1 and 3
Calculator skills
Resources
Textbook References
Edexcel IGCSE
Mathematics A Student
Book 1
Unit 2: Number 2 page 59
Unit 2: Number 2 page 61-63
Edexcel IGCSE
Mathematics A Student
Book 2
Unit 5: Number 5 (Revision)
page 338, 339-345 (selected
questions)

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Module 6 — Standard form Time: 3 – 5 hours
Target grades: A/B/C
Content Area of specification
Expressing numbers in standard form 1.9
Writing numbers expressed in standard form as ordinary numbers 1.9
Calculating with numbers in standard form 1.9
Solving problems involving standard form 1.9
Notes
Although students can, where appropriate, use their calculators for questions
involving standard form, their answers should be expressed in conventional
standard form, for example 2.3 x 10
5
, not as a calculator display such as 2.5
05

Resources
Textbook References
Edexcel IGCSE
Mathematics A Student
Book 1
Unit 1: Number 1 page 5-6
Unit 2: Number 2 page 55-57
Edexcel IGCSE
Mathematics A Student
Book 1
Unit 5: Number 5 (Revision)
page 335, 339-345 (selected
questions)

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Module 7 — Degree of accuracy Time: 5 – 7 hours
Target grades: A*/A/B/C/D
Content Area of specification
Rounding numbers to one significant figure and use for estimating 1.8
Rounding numbers to two or three significant figures 1.8
Rounding numbers to one, two or three decimal places 1.8
Carrying out rounding appropriate to a context 1.8
Expressing a calculator display to an appropriate degree of accuracy 1.8
Finding upper and lower bounds, ie maximum and minimum
values for rounded values 1.8
Solving problems using upper and lower bounds where
values are given to a degree of accuracy 1.8
Selecting and justifying appropriate degrees of accuracy 1.8
Notes
Students should be encouraged to include more accurate answers in their working
before rounding to ensure they receive marks for correct calculations even if there
is a rounding error.
Students should be aware that correct rounding will give a number of the same
magnitude as the original.
Rounding to a level of accuracy should be emphasised continually.
A/A* notes/tips
- Remind students that upper and lower bounds can be worked out for quantities
that have been rounded to a given level of accuracy
- Students should be reminded that typically questions involving degrees of
accuracy often require careful analysis, as information is often given that is not
exact
- It is helpful for students to know that least value is the same as lower bound or
minimum value. Similarly greatest value is the same as upper bound or
maximum value
- Remind students that sometimes the prolem is less straightforward when
working with compound measures involving division
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Resources
Textbook References
Edexcel IGCSE
Mathematics A Student
Book 1
Unit 4: Number 4 page 170-172

Edexcel IGCSE
Mathematics A Student
Book 2
Unit 5: Number 5 (Revision)
page 334
See Appendix 1 for references to past paper questions for students aiming for top
grades in this module

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Module 8 — Set language and notation
Time: 5 – 7 hours
Target grades: A/B/C/D
Content Area of specification
Meaning of ‘set’ 1.5
Defining sets of numbers by describing, for example {first four odd numbers},
{x: x is a factor of 12 or by listing, eg {1, 3, 5, 7} 1.5
Understanding the meaning of the universal set ℰ 1.5
Understanding the meaning of the null or empty set Ø or { } 1.5
Membership of a set including the notation e and e 1.5
Intersection and union of sets including the notation ∩ and ∪ 1.5
Understanding sets defined in algebraic terms 1.5
Understanding and using subsets, including c notation 1.5
Understanding and using the complement of a set (A
/
) 1.5
Using Venn diagrams to represent sets and the number of elements in sets 1.5
Using the notation n(A) for the number of elements in the set A 1.5
Using sets in practical situations 1.5
Notes
Inequality notation may be used, {eg x: 2 ≤ x < 5}
A/A* notes/tips
- Students should recognise that to score all the marks in Venn diagram
problems, the layout of the sets needs to be correct, and appropriately labelled
- Common mistakes occur when students do not fully understand or know set
theory notation, in particular the meaning of n
Resources
Textbook References
Edexcel IGCSE
Mathematics A Student
Book 1
Unit 1: Sets 1 page 39-47

Edexcel IGCSE
Mathematics A Student
Book 2
Unit 1: Sets 1 page 45-53


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ALGEBRA
Module 1 — Algebraic manipulation Time: 3 – 5 hours
Target grades: A*/A/B/C/D
Content Area of specification
Multiplying a single term over a bracket 2.2
Factorising by taking out a single common factor 2.2
Finding and simplifying the product of two linear expressions,
eg (2x + 3)(3x – 1), (3x – 2y)(5x + 3y) 2.2
Factorising quadratic expressions, including the difference
of two squares 2.2
Adding and subtracting algebraic fractions, including simplifying
algebraic fractions by cancelling common factors 2.2
Numerator and/or the denominator may be numeric, linear or quadratic 2.2
Notes
Emphasise importance of using the correct symbolic notation, for example 3a rather
than
3 x a or a3. Students should be aware that there may be a need to remove the
numerical HCF of a quadratic expression before factorising it in order to make
factorisation more obvious
A/A* notes/tips for Higher tier
- Students need to be reminded that they should always factorise algebraic
expressions completely, setting their work out clearly
- In order for students to work towards to the top grades, it is essential that they
are confidently able to manipulate algebraic expressions in a variety of
situations
- When simplifying algebraic fractions, students should be encouraged to fully
factorise both the numerator and the denominator, where possible
- A typical common error is for students to ‘cancel out’ the terms in x
- Simplifying algebraic fractions is usually a challenging topic for many students.
A key point is that algebraic fractions are actually generalised arithmetic, and
that the same rules apply

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Resources
Textbook References
Edexcel IGCSE
Mathematics A Student
Book 1
Unit 1: Algebra 1 page 11-12
Unit 2: Algebra 2 page 65-67
Unit 3: Algebra 3 page 121-123
Edexcel IGCSE
Mathematics A Student
Book 2
Unit 5: Algebra 5 (Revision)
page 346-347
See Appendix 1 for references to past paper questions for students aiming for top
grades in this module
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Module 2 — Expressions and formulae Time: 5 – 7 hours
Target grades: A*/A/B/C/D
Content Area of specification
Substituting positive and negative numbers, then fractions and decimals,
into expressions, word formulae and algebraic formulae 2.3
Using formulae from mathematics, and other subjects,
expressed initially in words or diagrammatic form and
converting to variables or algebraic form 2.3
Deriving formulae 2.3
Manipulating formulae to change the subject, including cases
where the subject occurs twice or where a power of the subject
appears 2.3
A/A* notes/tips
- Students need to be reminded that changing the subject of the formula is
identical to the process of solving an equation
- Students should be encouraged to set their work out clearly, in particular,
keeping a careful check on the substitution of negative numbers into
expressions and formulae, and to make use of brackets where necessary
Resources
Textbook References
Edexcel IGCSE
Mathematics A Student
Book 1
Unit 2: Algebra 2 page 69-72
Unit 4: Algebra 4 page 177-184
See Appendix 1 for references to past paper questions for students aiming for top
grades in this module


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Module 3 — Linear equations and simultaneous linear equations

Time: 5 – 7 hours
Target grades: B/C/D
Content Area of specification
Inverse operations 2.4
Understanding and use of ‘balancing’ methods 2.4
Solving simple linear equations 2.4
Solving linear equations:
- with two or more operations 2.4
- with the unknown on both sides 2.4
- with brackets 2.4
- with negative or fractional coefficients 2.4
- with combinations of these 2.4
Setting up and solving simple linear equations to solve problems, including
finding the value of a variable which is not the subject of the formula 2.4
Solving simple simultaneous linear equations, including cases
where one or both of the equations must be multiplied 2.6
Interpreting the equations as lines and their common solution
as the point of intersection 2.6
Prior knowledge
Algebra: Modules 1 and 2
The idea that some operations are ‘opposite’ to each other
Notes
Students need to realise that not all linear equations can be solved easily by either
observation or trial and improvement; a formal method is often needed
Students should leave their answers in fractional form where appropriate
Resources
Textbook References
Edexcel IGCSE
Mathematics A Student
Book 1
Unit 1: Algebra 1 page 12-17
Unit 2: Graphs 2 page 79-80
Unit 3: Algebra 3 page 126-130




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Module 4 — Coordinates and graphs Time: 4 – 6 hours
Target grade: C/D/E
Content Area of specification
Determining the coordinates of points identified by geometrical information 3.3
Determining the coordinates of the midpoint of a line segment, given the
coordinates of the two end points 3.3
Drawing and interpreting linear graphs representing real-life situations,
including speed/time and distance/time graphs 3.3
Drawing and interpreting non-linear graphs representing real-life situations 3.3
Resources
Textbook References
Edexcel IGCSE
Mathematics A Student
Book 1
Unit 3: Graphs 3 page 134-141

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Module 5 — Linear graphs Time: 4 – 6 hours
Target grades: A/B/C/D
Content Area of specification
Recognising that equations of the form x = a and y = b correspond to
straight line graphs parallel to the y-axis and to the x-axis respectively 3.3
Completing tables of values and drawing graphs with equations of the form
y = mx + c where the values of m and c are given and m may be an integer or
a fraction 3.3
Drawing straight line graphs with equations in which y is given implicitly in
terms of x, for example x + y = 7 3.3
Calculating the gradient of a straight line given its equation of the
coordinates of two points on the line 3.3
Recognising that graphs with equations of the form y = mx + c
are straight line graphs with gradient m and intercept (0, c) on the y-axis 3.3
Finding the equation of a straight line given the coordinates of two points
on the line 3.3
Finding the equation of a straight line parallel to a given line 3.3
Prior knowledge
Algebra: Modules 1, 2, 3 and 4
Notes
Axes should be labelled on graphs and a ruler should be used to draw linear graphs
Science experiments/work could provide results which give linear graphs
Resources
Textbook References
Edexcel IGCSE
Mathematics A Student
Book 1
Unit 1: Graphs 1 page 19-27

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Module 6 — Integer sequences Time: 3 – 5 hours
Target grades: B/C/D
Content Area of specification
Using term-to-term and position-to-term definitions to generate
the terms of a sequence 3.1
Finding and using linear expressions to describe the nth term
of an arithmetic sequence 3.1
Resources
Textbook References
Edexcel IGCSE
Mathematics A Student
Book1
Unit 5: Sequences 5
page 254-264

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Module 7 — Quadratic equations Time: 6 – 8 hours
Target grade: A*/A/B/C
Content Area of specification
Solving quadratic equations by factorisation 2.7
Solving quadratic equations by using the quadratic formula 2.7
Setting up and solving quadratic equations from data given in a context 2.7
Solving exactly, by elimination of an unknown, two simultaneous equations
in two unknowns, one of which is linear in each unknown and the other is
linear in one unknown and quadratic in the other 2.7
Solving exactly, by elimination of an unknown, two simultaneous equations
in two unknowns, one of which is linear in each unknown and the other is
linear in one unknown and the other is of the form x
2
+ y
2
= r
2
2.7
Prior knowledge
Algebra: Modules 1 and 3
Notes
Remind students that they should factorise a quadratic before using the formula
A/A* notes/tips
- Remind students that it is important to always factorise completely before
resorting to using the quadratic formula
- When applying the quadratic formula, students must substitute the correct
values into the formula. They should be reminded that rounding or truncating
during the process leads to inaccurate solutions
- Often solving equations with algebraic fractions is a challenge for most students,
however they should be encouraged to show their working out through using a
few lines of correct algebra. Remind students of the value of retaining the
structure of the equation throughout their working, rather than merely treating
the algebra as an expression to be simplified
Resources
Textbook References
Edexcel IGCSE
Mathematics A Student
Book 1
Unit 5: Algebra 5 page 248-251
Edexcel IGCSE
Mathematics A Student
Book 2
Unit 2: Algebra 2 page 71-80
Unit 3: Algebra 3 page 176-182
See Appendix 1 for references to past paper questions for students aiming for top
grades in this module


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Module 8 — Inequalities Time: 4 – 6 hours
Target grades: A/B/C
Content Area of specification
Understanding and using the symbols >, <, ≥ and ≤ 2.8
Understanding and using the convention for open and closed intervals on
a number line 2.8
Solving simple linear inequalities in one variable, including ‘double-ended’
inequalities 2.8
Representing on a number line the solution set of simple linear inequalities 2.8
Finding the integer solutions of simple linear inequalities 2.8
Using regions to represent simple linear inequalities in one variable 2.8
Using regions to represent the solution set to several linear inequalities
in one or two variables 2.8
Solving quadratic inequalities in one unknown and representing the solution
set on a number line 2.8
Prior knowledge
Algebra: Modules 3, 5 and 7
Resources
Textbook References
Edexcel IGCSE
Mathematics A Student
Book 1
Unit 2: Algebra 2 page 74-78,
81-86
Edexcel IGCSE
Mathematics A Student
Book 2
Unit 2: Algebra 2 page 81-84
Unit 5: Algebra 5 page 356

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Module 9 — Indices Time: 4 – 6 hours
Target grades: A/B/C/D
Content Area of specification
Using index notation for positive integer powers 2.1
Substituting positive and negative numbers into expressions and formulae
with quadratic and/or cubic terms 2.1
Completing tables of values and drawing graphs of quadratic functions 3.3
Using index notation with positive, negative and fractional powers to
simplify expressions 2.1
Prior knowledge
Algebra: Modules 2 and 4
Resources
Textbook References
Edexcel IGCSE
Mathematics A Student
Book 1
Unit 2: Number 2 page 60, 73-74
Unit 4: Graphs 4 page 185-190
Edexcel IGCSE
Mathematics A Student
Book 2
Unit 2: Number 2 page 66-70


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Module 10 — Proportion Time: 4 – 6 hours
Target grade: A*/A/B
Content Area of specification
Setting up and using equations to solve problems involving direct or
inverse proportion 2.5
Relating algebraic solutions to graphical representation of the equations 2.5
Prior knowledge
Algebra: Modules 1, 2 and 3
A/A* notes/tips
- Students need to be reminded that precision is required when setting up the
formula. It is essential that they take note of the key words used in the question
- Common errors tend to be confusing direct and indirect (inverse)
proportionality, leading to using the wrong formulae. This is indicative of
mathematical misunderstanding rather than misreading, and no credit will be
received
Resources
Textbook References
Edexcel IGCSE
Mathematics A Student
Book 1
Unit 2: Number 2 page 61-63
Unit 5: Number 5 page 233-238
Edexcel IGCSE
Mathematics A Student
Book 2
Unit 1: Number 1 page 8-18
Unit 5 Number 5 page 338-345
(selected questions)
See Appendix 1 for references to past paper questions for students aiming for top
grades in this module


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Module 11 — Function notation Time: 6 – 8 hours
Target grades: A*/A/B
Content Area of specification
Understanding the concept that a function is a mapping between
elements of two sets 3.2
Using function notation of the form f(x) = … and f   x : 3.2
Understanding the terms domain and range 3.2
Understanding which parts of the domain may need to be excluded 3.2
Understanding and using composite function fg and inverse function f
–1
3.2
Prior knowledge
Algebra: Modules 1, 2 and 3
A/A* notes/tips
- This tends to be demanding topic for students and in order to deepen their
understanding of how to apply their knowledge of functions in different types of
questions, they should be given plenty of practice
- Students may need to be reminded that f(x) = y
- When solving f(x) = g(x), given the graphs of both functions, remind students
that they should give their answers as solutions of x
- Remind students that when one function is followed by another, the result is a
composite function, eg fg(x) means do f first followed by g, where the domain of
f is the range of g
- Students need to understand, and be able to, use the concepts of domain and
range, as this will enable them to develop an appropriate working knowledge of
functions. In particular, students must be familiar with the concept that division
by zero is undefined, eg for g(x) =
2
1
÷ x
, 0 2 = ÷ x , which means x = 2 must be
excluded from the domain of g
- For inverse functions, remind students that the inverse of f(x) is the function
that ‘undoes’ whatever f(x) has done, and that the notation f
1 ÷
(x) is used
- It is helpful to remind students that if the inverse function is not obvious then:
– Step 1: write the function as y =…
– Step 2: change any x to y, and any y to x
– Step 3: make y the subject, giving the inverse function




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Resources
Textbook References
Edexcel IGCSE
Mathematics A Student
Book 2
Unit 3: Algebra 3 page 183-197
See Appendix 1 for references to past paper questions for students aiming for top
grades in this module



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Module 12 — Harder graphs Time: 6 – 8 hours
Target grades: A*/A/B
Content Area of specification
Plotting and drawing graphs with equation y = Ax
3
+ Bx
2
+ Cx + D in which
(i) the constants are integers and some could be zero
(ii) the letters x and y can be replaced with any other two letters 3.3
Plotting and drawing graphs with equation
3 2
2
= + + + + +
E F
y Ax Bx Cx D
x x

in which
(i) the constants are integers and at least three of them are zero
(ii) the letters x and y can be replaced with any other two letters 3.3
Finding the gradients of non-linear graphs by drawing a tangent 3.3
Finding the intersection points of two graphs, one linear (y
1
) and one
non-linear (y
2
) and recognising that the solutions correspond to y
2
– y
1
= 0 3.3
Prior knowledge
Algebra: Modules 1, 2, 3, 5 and 9
Notes
Students should be made aware that they should not use rulers to join plotted
points on
non-linear graphs
When plotting points or reading off values from a graph, the scales on the axes
should be checked carefully
A/A* notes/tips
- Remind students that when finding an estimate for the gradient of a
graph y = f(x) at given point, a tangent drawn at this point is helpful, although
a related, correct division, to find the gradient, is required to gain top marks in
a question
- Students should recognise that cubic graphs have distinctive shapes that
depend on the coefficient of
3
x
- Students should recognise that reciprocal graphs have x as the denominator,
and that they produce a type of curve called a hyperbola. An awareness of the
concept of the smallest (minimum) value of y, and the value of x where this
happens on the graph, is helpful
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- Students should appreciate that an accurately drawn graph can be used to solve
equations that may prove difficult to solve by other methods. They should also
appreciate that most graphs of real-life situations are curves rather than
straight lines. Information on rates of change can still be found by drawing a
tangent to a curve, and using this to estimate the gradient of the curve at this
point
- Students should recognise that the algebraic method is more accurate than the
graphical method of solving simultaneous equations, in particular when one
equation is linear and the other equation is nonlinear
Resources
Textbook References
Edexcel IGCSE
Mathematics A Student
Book 2
Unit 1: Graphs 1 page 19-27
Unit 3: Graphs 3 page 198-209
See Appendix 1 for references to past paper questions for students aiming for top
grades in this module

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Module 13 — Calculus Time: 6 – 8 hours
Target grades: A*/A/B
Content Area of specification
Understanding the concept of a variable rate of change 3.4
Differentiating integer powers of x 3.4
Determining gradients, rates of change, maxima and minima by
differentiation and relating these to graphs 3.4
Applying calculus to linear kinematics and to other simple practical problems 3.4
Prior knowledge
Algebra; Modules 1, 2, 5, 9 and 12
Notes
When applying calculus to linear kinematics, the reverse of differentiation will not
be required
A/A* notes/tips
- Student should understand that the process of finding the gradient of a curve is
called differentiation, where the result is the derivative or the gradient function,
and that the gradient of a curve can also be represented by
dx
dy

- Students should be encouraged to set their work out appropriately, maintaining
the structure of their solution, as this will aid their understanding, and revision,
of the topic, particularly as it increases in complexity
- Students need to understand the turning points are points on the curve where
the gradient is zero. They should also be able to distinguish between a minimum
turning point and a maximum turning point
- Students need to be able to apply their knowledge of differentiation to the
motion of a particle in a straight line, including speed and acceleration
Resources
Textbook References
Edexcel IGCSE
Mathematics A Student
Book 2
Unit 4: Graphs 4 page 268-287
See Appendix 1 for references to past paper questions for students aiming for top
grades in this module


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SHAPE, SPACE AND MEASURES
Module 1 — Average speed Time: 2 – 4 hours
Target grades: B/C/D
Content Area of specification
Understanding and using the relationship between average
speed, distance and time 4.4
Resources
Textbook References
Edexcel IGCSE
Mathematics A Student
Book 2
Unit 5: Graphs 5 page 365



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Module 2 — Construction Time: 3 – 5 hours
Target grades: B/C/D
Content Area of specification
Constructing triangles and other 2-D shapes using a ruler,
protractor and compasses 4.5
Using three-figure bearings to specify direction 4.4
Using scale drawings to solve problems 4.5
Using straight edge and compasses to construct the perpendicular bisector
of a line segment the bisector of an angle 4.5
Notes
Encourage students to use sharp pencils to improve the neatness and accuracy of
their drawings
A tolerance of 2° is reasonable for angles
A sturdy pair of compasses is essential
Students often confuse
(i) the direction from which a bearing is measured
(ii) measuring angles larger than 90° on a diagram
Resources
Text book title Text book ref
Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A
Student Book 1
Unit 1: Shape and space 1
page 32-33, 52
Unit 2: Shape and space 2
page 91

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Module 3 — Geometry Time: 3 – 5 hours
Target grades: B/C/D
Content Area of specification
Using parallel lines, alternate angles and corresponding angles 4.1
Using the angle sum of a triangle to calculate angles in triangles 4.1
Using angle properties of isosceles, equilateral and right-angled triangles 4.1
Understanding that the exterior angle of a triangle is equal to the
sum of the interior angles at the other two vertices 4.1
Using the angle sum of a quadrilateral to calculate angles in quadrilaterals 4.2
Understanding and using the properties of the parallelogram,
rectangle, square, rhombus, trapezium and kite 4.2
Calculating and using the sums of the interior angles of polygons 4.2
Calculating and using the sum of the exterior angles of polygons 4.2
Calculating the interior and exterior angles of regular polygons 4.2
Providing reasons, using standard geometrical statements to
support numerical values for angles obtained in any geometrical
context involving lines and polygons 4.7
Notes
Students should be made aware that given diagrams will not be drawn to scale and
that they should not assume geometrical facts that are not given in the question
Resources
Textbook References
Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A
Student Book 1
Unit 1: Shape and space 1
page 28-30
Unit 1: Shape and space 1
page 31

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Module 4 — Transformations Time: 4 – 6 hours
Target grades: A/B/C/D
Content Area of specification
Understanding that rotations are specified by a centre and an angle 5.2
Rotating a shape about a point, measuring the angle of rotation in
right angles, degrees or simple fractions of a turn 5.2
Understanding that an anti-clockwise rotation is a positive angle rotation and
a clockwise rotation is a negative angle rotation 5.2
Understanding that reflections are specified by a mirror line,
for example x = 1, y = x on a coordinate grid 5.2
Reflecting shapes in a mirror line 5.2
Constructing a mirror line, given a shape and its reflection 5.2
Understanding that translations are specified by vectors 5.2
Translating a shape, given the vector 5.2
Recognising that rotations, reflections and translations preserve length and
angle so that a transformed shape under any of these transformations is
congruent to the original shape 5.2
Understanding that enlargements are specified by a centre and a scale factor 5.2
Constructing enlargements of shapes with positive and fractional scale factors 5.2
Identifying the scale factor of an enlargement as the ratio of the
lengths of any two corresponding line segments 5.2
Recognising that enlargements preserve angle but not length 5.2
Describing transformations in full 5.2
Describing a single transformation which is equivalent to a combination
of transformations 5.2
Notes
Students often lose marks in the examination because they do not give a complete
description of a transformation. For example, the centre of rotation is often omitted
and the name of the transformation itself left out
Resources
Textbook References
Edexcel IGCSE
Mathematics A Student
Book 1
Unit 5: Shape and space 5
page 265-278
Edexcel IGCSE
Mathematics A Student
Book 2
Unit 5: Shape and space 5
(Revision) page 378

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Module 5 — Circle properties Time: 6 – 8 hours
Target grades: A*/A/B/C/D
Content Area of specification
Knowing and using these circle properties:
- two tangents from a point to a circle are equal in length 4.6
- tangents are perpendicular to the radius at the point of contact 4.6
- the line from the centre of a circle which is perpendicular to a chord
bisects the chord (and the converse is true) 4.6
Recognising the term cyclic quadrilateral 4.6
Understanding and using angle properties of the circle including:
- an angle subtended by an arc at the centre of a circle is twice the angle
subtended at any point on the remaining part of the circumference 4.6
- an angle subtended at the circumference by a diameter is a right angle 4.6
- angles in the same segment are equal 4.6
- the sum of the opposite angles of a cyclic quadrilateral is 180° 4.6
- the alternate segment theorem 4.6
Understanding and using the internal and external intersecting chord
properties 4.6
Providing reasons, using standard geometrical statements, to support
numerical values for angles obtained in any geometrical context involving
circles 4.7
Notes
Students should be made aware that diagrams on examination papers will not
be drawn to scale and that they should not assume geometrical facts that are not
given in the question
A/A* notes/tips
- Student should be encouraged to always draw a neat diagram, using all the
given facts. They should remember to use the basic geometrical facts to help
them move through the problem
- Students should know that a figure is cyclic if a circle can be drawn through its
vertices, and that the vertices are the concyclic points
- It is helpful if students are familiar with the terminology associated with circle
theorems
- Students should develop the habit of giving a reason, in brackets, after each
geometrical statement



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Resources
Textbook References
Edexcel IGCSE
Mathematics A Student
Book 1
Unit 4: Shape and space 4
page 194-204
Edexcel IGCSE
Mathematics A Student
Book 2
Unit 1: Shape and space 1
page 28-44
Unit 5: Shape and space 5
(Revision) page 379
See Appendix 1 for references to past paper questions for students aiming for top
grades in this module

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Module 6 — Area and perimeter Time: 4 – 6 hours
Target grades: A/B/C/D
Content Area of specification
Finding the areas of rectangles, triangles, parallelograms and trapezia,
using relevant formulae 4.9
Finding circumferences and areas of circles using relevant formulae 4.9
Finding the areas of compound shapes made from rectangles and triangles 4.9
Finding perimeters and areas of sectors of circles 4.9
Converting between units of length and of area within the metric
system, for example m
2
and cm
2
4.9
Resources
Textbook References
Edexcel IGCSE
Mathematics A Student
Book 2
Unit 2: shape and space
page 98-139
Unit 2: Number 2
page 60-62

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Module 7 — 3-D shapes and volume Time: 4 – 6 hours
Target grades: A/B/C/D
Content Area of specification
Understanding the terms face, edge and vertex in the context of a 3-D solid 4.9
Finding the volumes of right prisms, including cuboids and cylinders,
using appropriate formulae 4.9
Finding the surface areas of solids with rectangular and triangular faces 4.9
Finding the surface area and/or volume of a sphere and of a right
circular cone using relevant formulae 4.9
Converting between units of volume within the metric system,
for example cm
3
and litres, m
3
and cm
3
4.9
Prior knowledge
Shape, space and measures: Module 6
Resources
Textbook References
Edexcel IGCSE
Mathematics A Student
Book 2
Unit 2: Number 2 page 63
Unit 2: Shape and space
page 112-123



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Module 8 — Pythagoras’ theorem Time: 3 – 5 hours
Target grade: B/C/D
Content Area of specification
Understanding and using Pythagoras’ theorem in 2-D to find the length
of the hypotenuse or that of one of the shorter sides of a right-angled
triangle 4.8
Using Pythagoras’ theorem to solve problems 4.8
Notes
When producing their answers students should remember that:
- the hypotenuse is the longest side
- the hypotenuse is less than the sum of the lengths of the other two sides
Some students find questions on this topic much more difficult if the orientation of
the triangle is unusual
Resources
Textbook References
Edexcel IGCSE
Mathematics A Student
Book 1
Unit 4: Shape and space 4
page 212-215
Edexcel IGCSE
Mathematics A Student
Book 2
Unit 5: Shape and space 5
(Revision) page 380

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Module 9 — Trigonometry Time: 3 – 5 hours
Target grade: B/C/D
Content Area of specification
Identifying the various sides of a right-angled triangle as the
hypotenuse, opposite and adjacent 4.8
Understanding and using sine, cosine and tangent of acute angles to
find lengths and angles in a right-angled triangle 4.8
Using trigonometry to solve problems, including bearings 4.8
Using Pythagoras’ theorem and trigonometry to solve problems 4.8
Notes
Students should ensure that their calculators are in ‘degree mode’ before tackling
trigonometry questions
Resources
Textbook References
Edexcel IGCSE
Mathematics A Student
Book 1
Unit 2: Shape and space 2
page 87-94
Unit 3: Shape and space 3
page 142-153

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Module 10 — Similar shapes Time: 6 – 8 hours
Target grade: A*/A/B/C
Content Area of specification
Understanding that, if two shapes are similar their corresponding angles
are equal and all their corresponding lengths are in the same ratio 4.10
Using similarity to find lengths of sides 4.10
Understanding that areas of similar figures are in the ratio of the
square of corresponding sides 4.10
Understanding that the volumes of similar figures are in the ratio
of the cube of corresponding sides 4.10
Using areas and volumes of similar figures in solving problems 4.10
Notes
Some students have difficulty in identifying correct ratios of quantities (lengths,
areas, volumes) particularly when an area or a volume ratio of similar figures is
given
A/A* notes/tips
- When working with similar shapes, a common error is the use of the
slant height of a 3-D shape, instead of the vertical height, when calculating
volumes
Resources
Textbook References
Edexcel IGCSE
Mathematics A Student
Book 1
Unit 4: Shape and space 4
page 205-212
Edexcel IGCSE
Mathematics A Student
Book 2
Unit 2: Shape and space 2
page 112-139
See Appendix 1 for references to past paper questions for students aiming for top
grades in this module


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Module 11 — Advanced trigonometry Time: 6 – 8 hours
Target grade: A*/A/B/C
Content Area of specification
Understanding and using sine, cosine and tangent of obtuse angles 4.8
Understanding and using angles of elevation and depression 4.8
Using Pythagoras’ theorem in 3-D 4.8
Understanding and using
1
2
ab sin C for the area of a triangle 4.8
Understanding and using the sine rule and the cosine rule for any triangle 4.8
Applying trigonometrical methods to solve problems in 3-D, including
finding the angle between a line and a plane but not the angle between
two planes 4.8
Prior knowledge
Shape, space and measures: Modules 8 and 9
Notes
The concept that angles of elevation and depression are measured from the
horizontal should be emphasised
Arithmetical methods in handling the cosine rule, particularly with obtuse angles,
should be emphasised
A/A* notes/tips
- Student will need to recognise when to use trigonometry, in particular they
need to recognise when it is more appropriate to use the cosine rule, rather
than the sine rule. In these instances, this skill is essential when tackling the
more non-routine questions aimed at the top grades
- Often students recognise that using the cosine rule is the more appropriate
problem-solving technique; however a common error is misquoting it. Students
should be able to confidently use the cosine rule, in terms of both sides and
angles
- In order to access the top grades, students should appreciate the need to
analyse the question carefully and then choose the appropriate method of
solution first time.
- This means that students need to develop the skill of manipulating the cosine
rule with confident ease. They should set out their solutions clearly, maintaining
the correct structure of their solutions, as this will assist with developing this
important skill
- Students also need to develop an awareness of the value of an ‘exact’ value,
and they need to be able to demonstrate this awareness in their working out,
and not assume that by writing down all the decimal points from their calculator
display that this indicates exactness. They should be confident to use functions,
surds or algebra to show their working out, and they should be able to retain
values written as sin(a) or cos(b)
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Resources
Textbook References
Edexcel IGCSE
Mathematics A Student
Book 2
Unit 4: Shape and space 4
page 288-314
See Appendix 1 for references to past paper questions for students aiming for top
grades in this module


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Module 12 — Vectors Time: 5 – 7 hours
Target grade: A*/A/B
Content Area of specification
Understanding that a vector has both magnitude and direction 5.1
Understanding and using vector notation 5.1
Multiplying vectors by scalar quantities 5.1
Adding and subtracting vectors 5.1
Calculating the modulus (magnitude) of a vector 5.1
Finding the resultant of two or more vectors 5.1
Applying vector methods for simple geometrical proofs in 2-D 5.1
A/A* notes/tips
- It is usual for students to find the initial stages of a vector question quite
straightforward, with the last stage rather more challenging
- Students should be encouraged to use geometrical properties to enable them to
solve the more demanding aspects of vector questions. Students should develop
the habit of maintaining the structure of their solutions, and applying simple
algebraic manipulations where necessary
- Students should be able to make use of the result of adding a set of vectors, as
well as the use of geometrical properties and algebraic manipulation, in order to
solve the more demanding aspects of the questions. At this level, it is about
analysing the question, combined with an awareness of selecting the most
appropriate methods of solution
Resources
Textbook References
Edexcel IGCSE
Mathematics A Student
Book 2
Unit 3: Shape and space
page 210-225
See Appendix 1 for references to past paper questions for students aiming for top
grades in this module


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HANDLING DATA
Module 1 — Graphical representation of data Time: 4 – 6 hours
Target grades: A*/A/B
Content Area of specification
Constructing cumulative frequency diagrams from tabulated data 6.1
Using cumulative frequency diagrams 6.1
Constructing and interpreting histograms for unequal class intervals 6.1
Notes
Students need to be aware that the upper bound of the class interval is used to plot
points in a cumulative frequency diagram
A/A* notes/tips
- Student need to understand that in a histogram, frequency is proportional to the
area of the bar
- When working with histograms, students should be encouraged to work with the
most successful and shortest method, which is to calculate and then mark on
the vertical axis, the frequency densities. This approach often leads onto using
efficient methods for working with histograms
Resources
Textbook References
Edexcel IGCSE
Mathematics A Student
Book 1
Unit 5: Handling data 5
page 282-291
Edexcel IGCSE
Mathematics A Student
Book 2
Unit 3: Handling data 3
page 226-235
See Appendix 1 for references to past paper questions for students aiming for top
grades in this module


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Module 2 — Statistical measures Time: 3 – 5 hours
Target grades: B/C/D
Content Area of specification
Understanding the concept of average as a value which is
representative of a set of data 6.2
Finding the mean, median, mode and range for a discrete data
set from a frequency table 6.2
Selecting the most appropriate average 6.2
Finding the modal class for grouped data 6.2
Calculating an estimate for the mean for grouped data, using halfway values 6.2
Estimating the median from a cumulative frequency diagram 6.2
Understanding the concept of a measure of spread 6.2
Estimating the quartiles and the interquartile range from given data
or from a cumulative frequency diagram 6.2
Notes
Students need to be aware that the median and quartiles are read off as values
from the y-axis
Resources
Textbook References
Edexcel IGCSE
Mathematics A Student
Book 1
Unit 2: Handling data 2
page 97-98, 107, 164
Unit 3: Handling data 3
page 154-160
Unit 5: Handling data 5
page 279-281

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Module 3 — Probability Time: 5 – 7 hours
Target grades: A*/A/B/C/D
Content Area of specification
Understanding sample spaces and using them to find the
probability that an event will occur 6.3
Listing all the outcomes for single events systematically, or for
two successive events, and using lists to find the probability that
an event will occur 6.3
Using the sum of probabilities of all possible outcomes equalling one 6.3
Understanding the meanings of ‘equally likely’ and ‘mutually exclusive’ 6.3
Using the addition rule for probability for mutually exclusive events 6.3
Understanding and using expected frequency to calculate an estimate
for the number of times an event will occur 6.3
Determining the probability that two or more independent events will
both occur 6.3
Knowing when to add or multiply probabilities 6.3
Using simple conditional probability when combining events 6.3
Drawing tree diagrams to show the outcomes of two or more successive
events and related probabilities 6.3
Using tree diagrams to solve probability problems 6.3
Notes
You may need to remind students that only fractions, decimals and percentages can
be used for probability. Answers such as ‘2 in 3’, ‘2 out of 3’ and ‘2 : 3’ would be
penalised in the examination
A/A* notes/tips
- Student should be able to handle the ‘at least’ situation through using efficient
methods, eg by using P( E ) + P( E ) = 1
- Students should recognise when it is necessary to consider additional
combinations when solving problems. A common error tends to be considering
only one combination instead of all the necessary combinations
- Students need to be able to use tree diagrams, with confidence. If tree
diagrams are used, students need to include the necessary labels and
appropriate values
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Resources
Textbook References
Edexcel IGCSE
Mathematics A Student
Book 2
Unit 2: Handling data 2
page 140-151
Unit 4: Handling data 4
page 315-325
See Appendix 1 for references to past paper questions for students aiming for top
grades in this module
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Resources
Student and Practice Books
Edexcel’s own Student Books and Practice Books published specifically for the
following specifications
- IGCSE 2009 Mathematics A
- The Edexcel Level 1/Level 2 Certificate in Mathematics
provide complete coverage of the specification and plenty of exercises and practice
exam questions in addition to a FREE ActiveBook CD.
- Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 1
D A Turner, I A Potts, W R J Waite, B V Hony
ISBN 978-0 435966 91 1
- Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 2
D A Turner, I A Potts, W R J Waite, B V Hony
ISBN 978-0 435966 92 8
- Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Practice Book 1
D A Turner, I A Potts
ISBN 978-0 435044 16 9
- Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Practice Book 2
D A Turner, I A Potts
ISBN 978-0 435044 15 2
Visit www.pearsonglobalschools.com/igcse for more information and to order your
copies now.
These texts are the updated versions of the Longman Mathematics for IGCSE
resources below which were published in 2005-2007.
- Turner D, Potts I, Waite W and Hony V – Longman Mathematics for IGCSE
Book 1 ISBN 9781405802116
- Turner D, Potts I, Waite W and Hony V – Longman Mathematics for IGCSE
Book 2 ISBN 9781405802123
- Turner D and Potts I – Longman Mathematics for IGCSE Practice Book 2
ISBN 9781405865043
- Turner D and Potts I – Longman Mathematics for IGCSE Practice Book 1
ISBN 9781405865036
- Turner D, Potts I, Waite W and Hony V – Longman Mathematics for IGCSE
ActiveTeach 1 ISBN 9781405865876
- Turner D, Potts I, Waite W and Hony V – Longman Mathematics for IGCSE
ActiveTeach 2 ISBN 9781405865883

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Endorsed books
For the Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A specification, the additional titles below have
been endorsed by Edexcel and could be used as teaching aids. The internet is also
valuable as a tool for research and learning.
Please note that while resources are checked at the time of publication,
materials may be withdrawn from circulation and website locations may
change at any time.
There are no content changes between the IGCSE Mathematics A and the Edexcel
Certificate in Mathematics specifications. This means that the following titles are
also suitable for the Certificate.
- Appleton M, Demetriou D, Huby D and Kranat J – IGCSE Mathematics for
Edexcel (Oxford University Press, 2007) ISBN 9780199152629
- Johnson T and Clough T – Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics Practice (Hodder Murray
2008) ISBN 9780340966273
- Metcalf P – IGCSE Mathematics for Edexcel (Collins Education, 2006)
ISBN 9780007755486
- Smith A – IGCSE Mathematics for Edexcel (Hodder Murray 2008)
ISBN 9780340945414
- Revision Guide for IGCSE Maths Higher Tier (ZigZag Education)
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Appendices

Appendix 1: References to past paper questions for students aiming
for top grades 129
Appendix 2: References to past paper questions for content not
currently assessed at GCSE Mathematics 131
Appendix 3: The use of the calculator 133


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Appendix 1: References to past paper questions for
students aiming for top grades
The table below gives references to past papers. The questions can be used to
focus on the more demanding topics for the students aiming at the top grades.
Module
number
Topic area Past question references
IGCSE (4400)
2 Powers and roots November 2009 3H Q25
May 2010 3H Q 16
Number
7 Degrees of accuracy May 2009 3H Q20
November 2009 3H Q23
1 Algebraic manipulation November 2009 3H Q19
May 2010 3H Q18
2 Expressions and formulae November 2004 3H Q 18
May 2006 3H Q20
7 Quadratic expressions May 2009 4H Q16
May 2009 4H Q21
10 Proportion November 2009 3H Q21
November 2009 4H Q20
May 2010 3H Q15
11 Function notation November 2009 3H Q24
May 2010 4H Q15
12 Graphs of functions November 2009 3H Q15
Algebra
13 Calculus May 2009 4H Q17
November 2009 4H Q19
5 Circle properties November 2008 3H Q20
November 2009 4H Q21
10 Similar shapes May 2007 3H Q18
May 2009 3H Q16
11 Advanced trigonometry November 2009 3H Q22
May 2010 4H Q18
Shape,
space and
measures
12 Vectors May 2009 4H Q18
May 2010 4H Q21
1 Graphical representation
of data
May 2009 4H Q19
May 2010 4H Q15
Data
handling
3 Probability November 2009 3H Q20
November 2009 4H Q16
May 2009 3H Q17
May 2010 3H Q19

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Appendix 2: References to past paper questions for
content not currently assessed at GCSE Mathematics
These topics are not included in GCSE Mathematics, but are included in IGCSE
Mathematics.
Module
number
Topic area Past question references
IGCSE (4400)
Number 8 Set language and
notation
November 2010 1F Q20
November 2010 3H Q7
May 2010 4H Q6
8 Quadratic inequalities November 2005 3H Q15
11 Function notation November 2009 3H Q24
November 2010 3H Q21
June 2010 4H Q20
12 Finding the gradient of a
curve at a point by
drawing a tangent
May 2008 3H Q21
Algebra
13 Calculus November 2009 4H Q19
November 2010 3H Q16
5 Intersecting chord
theorem
May 2008 4H Q18
November 2010 4H Q19
Shape,
space and
measures
12 Modulus of a vector May 2008 4H Q21
Data
handling
3 Simple conditional
probability
November 2010 1F Q13
November 2010 3H Q17
November 2010 4H Q14

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Appendix 3: The use of the calculator
The range of functions on calculators is increasing all the time. Current models can
be used to answer questions on a number of topics including fractions, surds,
standard form, recurring decimals and equations. It would clearly be unfair if
sophisticated calculators gave candidates an advantage in the examination.
In addition to ensuring fairness to candidates, another of our aims as examiners is
to encourage good classroom practice. Appropriate and efficient use of calculators
is desirable but reliance on them at the expense of understanding and learning
mathematical techniques is not.
The style of some questions on certain topics and the way in which they are marked
help us achieve these aims. To assist teachers preparing students for the
examination, examples of such questions are given below; model solutions, which
are not unique, are also provided.
Fractions

Example 1 (Foundation/Higher)
Show that
12
5
1
4
3
3
2
= +

(2 marks)
Solution
)
4
3
3
2
( +
12
9
12
8
+ =


12
17
=


)
12
5
1 ( =

Comment
The marks would be awarded for the unbracketed steps of the solution. Obviously,
when the answer is given, candidates must give every necessary step in the
working and it is better for them to err on the side of giving too much working
rather than too little.

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Surds
Example 2 (Higher)

Show that 3 4 7 ) 3 2 (
2
+ = +
(2 marks)
Solution
2 2
) 3 ( 3 2 3 2 4 ) 3 2 ( + + + = +
3 3 4 4 + + =
) 3 4 7 ( + =

Comment
3 3 × and 9 would be acceptable alternatives to
2
) 3 ( in the expansion but, as
the answer is given, 3 would not.


Standard form
Example 3 (Higher)

n
x 10 4× = where n is an integer.

Find an expression, in standard form, for x
2


Give your expression as simply as possible.
(3 marks)
Solution
2 2
) 10 4 (
n
x × =

2
) 10 ( 16
n
× =

n 2
10 16 × =

n 2
10 10 6 . 1 × × =

1 2
10 6 . 1
+
× =
n

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Equations
“Spotting” a solution and showing, by substitution, that it satisfies an equation will
not, in general, qualify as “sufficient working”. The example below shows two
possible methods and there will often be more than one acceptable method. We
advise teachers to consult past mark schemes for more examples of different
methods.
Example 4 (Higher)
Solve
3 2
4
2 7
+ =
÷
y
y y

(4 marks)
Solution 1
Step Notes

) 3 2 ( 4
4
2 7
4 + =
÷
× y
y

or ) 3 2 ( 4 2 7 + = ÷ y y
Demonstrates clear intention to multiply both sides
by 4 or a multiple of 4, for example,
4
2 7
4
y ÷
×
or y 2 7 ÷
= 4 × 2y + 3 or 8y + 3 or 2y + 3 × 4 or 2y + 12
12 8 2 7 + = ÷ y y or simpler
Correct expansion of brackets
(usually 12 7 2 8 ÷ = + y y ) or correct rearrangement of
correct terms eg 8y + 2y = 7 − 12
5 10 ÷ = y or 5 10 = ÷ y
Reduction to correct equation of form ay = b
2
1
= y

10
5
÷ and −0.5 are acceptable equivalents
but not −5 ÷ 10 etc


Solution 2
Step Notes
3 2
4
2
4
7
+ = ÷ y
y

Division of both terms on LHS by 4
4
2
2 3
4
7 y
y + = ÷

Correct rearrangement of correct terms
4
5
4
10
÷ =
y
or equivalent
Reduction to correct equation of form ay = b
2
1
÷ = y

10
5
÷ and −0.5 are acceptable equivalents
but not −5 ÷ 10 etc


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Example 5 (Higher)
Solve 3x
2
− 8x + 2 = 0
Give your solutions correct to 3 significant figures.
(3 marks)
Solution
Step Notes
3 2
2 3 4 ) 8 ( 8
2
×
× × ÷ ÷ ±
= x


Correct substitution in the quadratic formula
6
24 64 8 ÷ ±
= x
6
40 8 ±
= x

Correct simplification of the quadratic formula
x = 2.39 or x = 0.279 Statement of solutions correct to 3 significant figures


2 Geometrical Reasoning
Centres should ensure that candidates are aware that the terms F angles, Z angles
and C angles will receive no credit when given in geometrical reasons. The terms
accepted are corresponding angles, alternate angles and allied (or co-interior)
angles respectively, although knowledge of only the first two of these is required by
the specification.


3 Set Language and Notation
Centres should also ensure that candidates are aware that, in lists of the members
of the union of sets, the repetition of members is penalised.










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Publications Code UG026781 March 2011

For more information on Edexcel and BTEC qualifications
please visit our website: www.edexcel.com

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Edexcel, a Pearson company, is the UK’s largest awarding body, offering academic and vocational qualifications and testing to more than 25,000 schools, colleges, employers and other places of learning in the UK and in over 100 countries worldwide. Qualifications include GCSE, IGCSE, AS and A Level, NVQ and our BTEC suite of vocational qualifications from entry level to BTEC Higher National Diplomas, recognised by employers and higher education institutions worldwide. We deliver 9.4 million exam scripts each year, with more than 90% of exam papers marked onscreen annually. As part of Pearson, Edexcel continues to invest in cutting-edge technology that has revolutionised the examinations and assessment system. This includes the ability to provide detailed performance data to teachers and students which help to raise attainment.

This is an Issue 3 of the Teacher’s guide. Substantial changes have been made to the Teacher’s guide through including; Differences in assessments, Appendices, A/A* notes/tips and Textbook references.

Acknowledgements This document has been produced by Edexcel on the basis of consultation with teachers, examiners, consultants and other interested parties. Edexcel would like to thank all those who contributed their time and expertise to its development.

References to third-party material made in this document are made in good faith. Edexcel does not endorse, approve or accept responsibility for the content of materials, which may be subject to change, or any opinions expressed therein. (Material may include textbooks, journals, magazines and other publications and websites.)

Authorised by Roger Beard Prepared by Sharon Wood Publications Code UG026781 All the material in this publication is copyright © Edexcel Limited 2011

Introduction
The Edexcel International General Certificate of Secondary Education (IGCSE) in Mathematics (Specification A) is designed for schools and colleges. It is part of a suite of IGCSE qualifications offered by Edexcel.

About this Teacher’s guide
This Teacher’s guide is for teachers who are delivering, or planning to deliver, the Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) qualification. The guide supports you in delivering the course content and explains how to raise the achievement of your students. This guide:     provides details of Assessment Objectives (AO) provides additional material on sets, functions and calculus provides a course planner showing how all the specification content could be taught over two years offers you suggestions for a range of textbooks and other resources.

.

Contents Why choose this qualification? Support from Edexcel Section A: Qualification content Key subject aims Unique features and benefits of the qualification Assessment and progression Content summary 1 2 5 5 5 5 6 Section B: Assessment Assessment overview Assessment Objectives and weightings Assessment summary Using the mark scheme Tiers of entry Formulae sheets Calculators 9 9 10 11 12 13 13 14 Section C: Support for centres switching from GCSE Mathematics 15 Differences in Assessment Differences in content Omitted topics Additional topics Notes and sample assessment questions on the three major additional topics 15 18 18 19 20 Section D: Planning and teaching Course planner Foundation tier content summary Foundation tier Higher tier content summary Higher tier 43 43 45 47 79 81 Resources Student and Practice Books Endorsed books 125 125 126 .

Appendices Appendix 1: References to past paper questions for students aiming for top grades Appendix 2: References to past paper questions for content not currently assessed at GCSE Mathematics Appendix 3: The use of the calculator 127 129 131 133 .

edexcel. Go to www.com/igcse2009 for more information about this IGCSE and related sources. UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) – Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 1 .Why choose this qualification? The Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) includes:       tiers of entry that allow students to be entered for a level appropriate to them questions that are accessible to students of all abilities within that tier papers that are balanced in terms of topics and difficulty standards that are equivalent to Edexcel’s UK GCSE in Mathematics a full range of teacher support and resources a solid basis for students wishing to progress to Edexcel AS and Advanced GCE Level. or equivalent qualifications.

Mathematics Emporium This is an exceptional service run by our in-house subject expert Graham Cumming. we have merged Ask Edexcel and Ask the Expert into one online service.edexcel. 2 UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 . Go to www.com To access and download the specification.edexcelmaths. They will all help you to keep up to date with this qualification.Support from Edexcel We are dedicated to giving you exceptional customer service.com/igcse2009 is where you will find all the information. You’ll receive a personal response sent to the email address you provide from one of our administrative or teaching experts.edexcel. Search the database for frequently asked questions or submit your enquiry directly to us using the easy-touse online enquiry form.com For any queries regarding this qualification.com/iwantto/Pages/ask-edexcel.aspx for more information Regional offices If you are an international centre interested in offering other Edexcel qualifications your Regional Development Manager can help you.com/international for details of our regional offices.com Website Our dedicated microsite www. You can use it to ask any question about the delivery or teaching of Edexcel qualifications. Go to www. Visit http://www. covering various aspects of the specification and examination will be available. Details of our main support services are given below.    To stay ahead of all the latest developments sign-up to the IGCSE or Certificate mailing list by emailing your details to mathsemporium@edexcel.com/training for details. past papers.edexcel. email mathsemporium@edexcel.edexcel. mark schemes and much more register at www. Ask Edexcel & Ask the Expert To make it easier for you to raise a query with us. support materials and resources you need to successfully deliver IGCSE qualifications. UK Customer Services If you have a question about this qualification call our Customer Services Team on 0844 576 0027 Training A programme of professional development and training courses.

ResultsPlus The ResultsPlus service is our online exam results analysis tool and is available to all Edexcel centres for free.edexcel. In addition.com/resultsplus UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) – Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 3 . To find out more visit www. ResultsPlus will provide head teachers with clear information demonstrating how their centre has performed and teachers how students have performed in each subject and or question paper. Edexcel is offering students the opportunity to receive detailed results information online via ResultsPlus. Centres may choose to opt into this service.

4 UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 .

To give students an appreciation of the importance of mathematics in society. Assessment and progression     Two tiers – two papers accessible for all abilities within the appropriate tier. Assessment opportunities in both January and June examination series. To give students a foundation of mathematical skills for further study in the subject or related areas. Gives a foundation for Edexcel AS and Advanced GCE Level. Grades A*-G available. To enable students to enjoy using and applying mathematical techniques and concepts. UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) – Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 5 . First assessment in June 2011. Unique features and benefits of the qualification    Tiers of entry that allow students to be assessed at the appropriate level. Standards that are equivalent to Edexcel’s UK GCSE in Mathematics. A full range of teacher support and resources. or equivalent qualifications.Section A: Qualification content Key subject aims     To develop knowledge and understanding of mathematical concepts and techniques. and become confident in using mathematics to solve problems. employment and study.

3 .5 – Set language and notation Section 1. decimals Ordering Specification reference Section 1. and statistics.10 – Applying number Limits of accuracy Ratio. proportion.9 – Standard form Section 1. Mathematical topic Number.Content summary The Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) gives students the opportunity to develop their knowledge.2 – Fractions Estimation Section 1.7 – Ratio and proportion Section 2.8 – Inequalities Standard form The four rules Section 1.3 – Graphs Section 3.1 – Integers Section 1.8 – Degree of accuracy Section 1.3 – Graphs Section 2.8 – Degree of accuracy Section 1.3 – Graphs Section 3.4 – Measures Section 4.1 – Integers Section 1. The table below shows where the mathematical topics can be found in the specification. square roots and cubes Directed numbers Fractions.1 – Use of symbols Section 2. rate Section 1.Porportion Percentages Use of electronic calculator Measures Time Money Personal and household finance Graphs in practical situations Graphs of functions Straight line graphs Algebraic representation and formulae Section 1. set notation and language Squares.1 – Integers Section 1. understanding and skills in the areas of number.3 – Expressions and formulae 6 UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 .2 – Fractions Section 1.11 – Electronic calculators Section 4.4 – Powers and roots Section 1.Decimals Section 1. geometry.6 – Percentages Section 1. percentages.10 – Applying number Section 1.5 . algebra.4 – Measures Section 1. mixed and improper fractions.1 – Integers Section 2.10 – Applying number Section 3.

2 – Transformation geometry UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) – Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 7 .6 – Circle properties Section 4.1 – Graphical representation of data Section 6.1 – Angles and triangles Section 4.2 – Polygons Section 4.4 – Linear equations Section 2.8 – Inequalities Section 4.10 – 3-D shapes and volume Trigonometry Statistics Section 4.2 – Functional notation Section 1.4 – Powers and roots Section 2.6 – Simultaneous linear equations Section 2.Sequences Section 3.3 – Symmetry Section 4.6 – Circle properties Section 4.9 – Mensuration of 2-D shapes Section 4.8 – Trigonometry and Pythagoras’s Theorem Section 6.1 – Angles and triangles Section 4.7 – Geometrical reasoning Mensuration Section 4.4 – Measures Section 4.6 – Circle properties Angle properties Section 4.11 – Similarity Geometrical constructions Section 4.2 – Polygons Section 4.3 – Probability Section 5.7 – Quadratic equations Section 2.8 – Inequalities Linear programming Geometrical terms and relationships Section 2.1 .2 – Algebraic manipulation Section 3.2 – Statistical measures Probability Vectors in two dimensions Transformations Section 6.5 – Constructions Symmetry Section 4.Mathematical topic Algebraic manipulation Sequences Functions Indices Solutions of equations and inequalities Specification reference Section 2.1 – Vectors Section 5.

Mathematical topic Loci Matrices Specification Section 6 – Geometry Section 5 – Matrices 8 UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 .The topics shown below can be found in the Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification B) (4MB0) specification content section.

UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) – Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 9 . We recommend that you make this information available to students to help ensure they are fully prepared and know exactly what to expect in each assessment.Section B: Assessment This section provides all the information you need to understand the assessment requirements of this qualification. Students must take both papers. Assessment overview The table below gives you an overview of the assessment for this course. in the same series. Calculators are allowed for all papers. Paper 1F Foundation tier 4MA0/1F Paper 2F Foundation tier 4MA0/2F Paper 3H Higher tier 4MA0/3H Paper 4H Higher tier 4MA0/4H Percentage 50 Marks 100 Time 2 hours Availability January and June series First assessment June 2011 Percentage 50 Marks 100 Time 2 hours Availability January and June series First assessment June 2011 Percentage 50 Marks 100 Time 2 hours Availability January and June series First assessment June 2011 Percentage 50 Marks 100 Time 2 hours Availability January and June series First assessment June 2011 This is a linear qualification. (1F and 2F) or (3H and 4H).

TOTAL 100% 20% 25% 55% 10 UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 . space and measures:  geometry  vectors and transformation geometry.Assessment Objectives and weightings % in IGCSE AO1: demonstrate their knowledge. AO2: demonstrate their knowledge. functions and graphs. understanding and skills in number and algebra:  numbers and the numbering system  calculations  solving numerical problems  equations. formulae and identities  sequences. understanding and skills in shape. understanding and skills in handling data:  statistics. AO3: demonstrate their knowledge.

Each paper will assess the full range of targeted grades at Foundation tier. for example a pair of compasses. to aid standardisation and comparability of award between the tiers. C-G.Assessment summary Paper 1F Foundation tier 4MA0/1F   Description  Each paper is assessed through a 2-hour examination set and marked by Edexcel. The Foundation tier papers contain slightly more number than algebra. Knowledge and skills Same as above    Paper 2F Foundation tier 4MA0/2F Description Same as above UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) – Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 11 . ruler and protractor calculators and tracing paper may be used formulae sheets will be provided. The total number of marks for each paper is 100. across papers 1F and 3H and 2F and 4H. Overview of content:     number algebra geometry statistics. Each paper will have approximately equal marks available for each targeted grade. There will be some common questions targeted at grades C and D.    In all examination papers:  diagrams will not necessarily be drawn to scale and measurements should not be taken from diagrams unless instructions to this effect are given students may need to use mathematical instruments. Knowledge and skills The Assessment Objectives covered in this assessment are: AO1: 55% AO2: 25% AO3: 20% This information is available in the specification.

Indicative answers are given but during the standardisation of examiners process. There will be some common questions targeted at grades C and D. the mark scheme is updated and expanded to cover unexpected. Each paper will have approximately equal marks available for each targeted grade. correct student responses. to aid standardisation and comparability of award between the tiers. The total number of marks for each paper is 100. across papers 3H and 1F and 4H and 2F. ruler and protractor calculators and tracing paper may be used formulae sheets will be provided. Knowledge and skills The Assessment Objectives covered in this assessment are: AO1: 55% AO2: 25% AO3: 20% This information is available in the specification. A*-D.Paper 3H Higher tier 4MA0/3H Description  Each paper is assessed through a 2-hour examination set and marked by Edexcel. Each paper will assess the full range of targeted grades at Higher tier. Overview of content:     number algebra geometry statistics. 12 UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 . for example a pair of compasses. The Higher tier papers contain considerably more algebra than number.       In all examination papers:  diagrams will not necessarily be drawn to scale and measurements should not be taken from diagrams unless instructions to this effect are given students may need to use mathematical instruments. Knowledge and skills Same as above    Paper 4H Higher tier 4MA0/4H Description Same as above Using the mark scheme The mark scheme gives the responses expected from students. Questions will assume knowledge of the Foundation tier subject content.

UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) – Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 13 . In this qualification. Foundation tier papers are designed for students who are unlikely to achieve a high grade but whose achievement can still be recognised with a grade at the appropriate level.Tiers of entry Students are entered for either Foundation tier or Higher tier. The formulae sheets appear as appendices in the specification. The highest grade Foundation tier students can be awarded is grade C. there are some questions common to both tiers. Formulae sheets Formulae sheets are provided for each tier on the inside front cover of each question/answer booklet. Questions in the Higher tier are targeted at grades A* to D. grade E. they would need to be taught the Higher tier material. However. Foundation and Higher tier papers are sat at the same time and students cannot be entered for both examinations. but material related to grades below the range of the Higher tier will not be the focus of assessment. Some questions are common to both tiers. Because of the overlap between the two tiers at grades C and D. but the remaining questions in these papers test topics which are aimed at Higher tier students only. Students who fail to achieve the safety net grade E will be awarded ‘Ungraded’. for those students who are within a few marks of grade D. The highest grade which can be awarded on the Higher tier is A* – for the highest achievers at the top of grade A. Knowledge of all Foundation tier content is assumed. and are obviously more demanding. but there is a ‘safety net’. where they have the opportunity to achieve the higher grades. the overlap accounts for about 40% of the marks on a paper. Higher tier papers are designed for students who are likely to achieve at least a grade C. Students who fail to achieve grade G will be awarded ‘Ungraded’. This means that you need to ensure that a student is entered for the appropriate tier. Students who consistently achieve grade C in practice tests could be entered for the Higher tier.

√x. x .  .Calculators   Students will be expected to have access to a suitable electronic calculator for all examination papers. tangent and their inverses.  . brackets. √x. tangent and their inverses Calculators with any of the following facilities are not allowed in any examination:      databanks retrieval of text or formulae QWERTY keyboards built-in symbolic algebraic manipulations symbolic differentiation or integration. cosine. x2. Σfx. brackets.   . See Appendix 3 for more extensive notes on the use of the calculator. 14 UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 . memory. x y . 2 y 1 y sine. x . −. x . −. x . Σx. Electronic calculators used by students sitting Higher tier examination papers (3H and 4H) should have the following functions as a minimum: +. standard form. x y sine. Electronic calculators used by students sitting the Foundation tier examination papers (1F and 2F) should have the following functions as a minimum: 1 +.  . cosine. memory.

Section C: Support for centres switching from GCSE Mathematics
Differences in Assessment
The table below gives an overview of the differences in the assessment models of GCSE Mathematics (Specification A) and IGCSE Mathematics (Specification A) GCSE Mathematics (Specification A) (1MA0) Assessment model    Externally assessed Two written papers Each paper lasts: – –      1 hour 45 minutes (F) 1 hour 45 minutes (H).     IGCSE Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) Assessment model    Externally assessed Two written papers Each paper lasts: – – 2 hours (F) 2 hours (H).

Each paper contains 100 marks Papers 1F and 1H: Non-Calculator Papers 2F and 2H: Calculator Tiered papers Foundation Tier: – – Grades C-G available Each paper will assess the full range of targeted grades at Foundation Tier There will be some common questions targeted at grades C and D across papers 1F and 3H, and papers 2F and 4H, to aid standardisation and comparability of award between tiers.

Each paper contains 100 marks Papers 1F, 2F, 3H and 4H: Calculator Tiered papers Foundation Tier: – – Grades C-G available Each will have approximately equal marks available for each of the targeted grades Each paper will assess the full range of targeted grades at Foundation Tier There will be some common questions targeted at grades C and D across papers 1F and 3H, and papers 2F and 4H, to aid standardisation and comparability of award between tiers.

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GCSE Mathematics (Specification A) (1MA0) Assessment model  Higher Tier: – – Grades A*-D available (E allowed) Each will have approximately equal marks available for each of the targeted grades Each paper will assess the full range of targeted grades at Higher Tier

IGCSE Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) Assessment model  Higher Tier: – – Grades A*-D available (E allowed) Each will have approximately equal marks available for each of the targeted grades Each paper will assess the full range of targeted grades at Higher Tier Questions will assume knowledge from the Foundation Tier subject content There will be some common questions targeted at grades C and D across papers 1F and 3H and papers 2F and 4H, to aid standardisation and comparability of award between tiers.

Each paper assesses the functional elements of mathematics: – – 30-40% on F tier papers 20-30% on H tier papers. Assessment Objectives and Weightings AO1: Demonstrate their knowledge, understanding and skills in number and algebra: (55%)      numbers and numbering system calculations solving numerical problems equations, formulae and identities sequences, functions and graphs.

Assessment Objectives and Weightings AO1: Recall and use their knowledge of the prescribed content (45-55%)

16

UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011

GCSE Mathematics (Specification A) (1MA0) Assessment model Assessment Objectives and Weightings AO2: Select and apply mathematical methods in a range of contexts (25-35%)

IGCSE Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) Assessment model Assessment Objectives and Weightings AO2: Demonstrate their knowledge, understanding and skills in shape, space and measures: (25%)   geometry vectors and transformation geometry.

AO3: Interpret and analyse problems and generate strategies to solve them (15-25%)

AO3: Demonstrate their knowledge, understanding and skills in handling data: (20%)  statistics.

UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) – Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011

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but are not included in the IGCSE. including lines of best fit Correlation Box plot Stem and leaf. There are some omitted topics. 18 UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 . content that is included in GCSE Mathematics content. Angle-angle-side triangles (AAS) Proofs of circle theorems Trigonometry graphs Angles greater than 180o Frustum of a cone Construct a perpendicular from a point to a line Loci Negative scale factor Plans and elevations Metric/imperial conversion Collecting data Two-way tables Seasonality and trends Scatter graphs.                          Exponential growth Checking by estimation Completing the square Trial and improvement Gradients of perpendicular lines Exponential functions Transformations of graphs Equation of a circle Side-angle-side triangles (SAS). There are also some additional topics included in the content of the IGCSE Mathematics (Specification A) which are not in the GCSE Mathematics content.Differences in content Most of the content of this IGCSE Mathematics qualification is covered in the GCSE Mathematics content. there are some differences in content between the two qualifications. but not in the content of the IGCSE Mathematics (Specification A). However. Omitted topics These topics are included in the GCSE.

which give supplementary information about how these topics will be assessed.4 in the specification). for these three major topics.2 in the specification) calculus (3. These examples are not exhaustive. These are:    set language and notation (1. A few smaller topics have also been included in the IGCSE:      The intersecting chords theorem Finding the gradient of a curve at a point by drawing a tangent Quadratic inequalities Simple conditional probability Modulus of a vector.5 in the specification) function notation (3. They are intended as an indication of the level of difficulty and the types of questions which can be expected. on the following pages. UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) – Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 19 .Additional topics There are three major topics not included in Edexcel’s UK GCSE which feature in the IGCSE in Mathematics A. There are notes and sample assessment questions.

4.  . Ø.  .  Typical questions  Given defined sets ℰ. Symbols: ℰ.5 in the specification) 1. 20 UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 . tables}. Given a list of all the elements of a set. Foundation and Higher tiers Definition In words.Notes and sample assessment questions on the three major additional topics Notes on Set language and notation (1. for example {2. A and B – describe A  B – list the members of A  B – what is meant by ‘6  A’? – is it true that A  B = Ø? Explain your answer. for example {Cats}. write the definition. {Multiples of 3}. 6. {Positive integers less than 10}. {chairs. or as a list of members. Typical questions   Given the definition of a set. list all the elements (or members). 8}.

A. dogs) with numbers inserted – how many black cats are there?   Given two or three defined sets. where an equation needs to be set up. UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) – Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 21 . B. shaded region in a Venn diagram.  Questions involving three sets. See Question 16 in the following sample questions. for example Symbols: A/ (the complement of A). Given n(ℰ) = 23. ⊂ (‘is a sub-set of’) Typical questions  Given defined sets ℰ. P = {x: 0 ≤ x < 10} Venn diagrams: Different cases. cats. and C – draw a Venn diagram – shade A  B  C / – list the members of B/  C – is it true that A  B?   Describe a given. find n(A  B/). Higher tier only Definition: Algebraic. n(A) = 16. for example {ℰ = Integers}. Symbols: n(A) (the number of members in A) Typical questions  Given a Venn diagram (for example black animals. n(A  B) = 20 – draw a Venn diagram – show the number of members in each region. Draw a Venn diagram in which certain conditions are true.2. n(B) = 10.

List the members of the following sets.Sample assessment questions on set language and notation Foundation and Higher tiers 1. 13. 16} R = {Multiples of 4} (a) List the members of (i) (ii) (iii) R P Q Q  R (b) What is the set P  R? 3. 15. ℰ = {The books in St John’s library} M = {Mathematics books} P = {Paperback books} T = {Travel books} (a) Describe the set M  P (b) What is the set M  T? (c) One book in St John’s library has the title ‘Explore’. what can you say about the book ‘Explore’? 22 UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 . 17} Q = {12. 14. Given that ‘Explore’  M  T. ℰ = {Positive integers less than 20} P = {11. (a) {Days of the week} (b) {Even numbers between 1 and 9} (c) {Factors of 18} (d) {Colours of the rainbow} (e) {Square numbers less than 100} 2.

UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) – Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 23 . ℰ = {Polygons} A = {Three-sided shapes} B = {Shapes with two equal sides} C = {Shapes with two parallel sides} (a) What is the mathematical name for the members of A  B? (b) Which of the following are true? (i) (ii) (iii) Kite A C Trapezium A  C=Ø 5.4. R = {Positive odd numbers less than 10} S = {Multiples of 3 between 4 and 20} T = {Prime numbers} (a) List the elements of (i) R (ii) R  S  S R T (b) You are told that x Write down all the possible values of x (c) Is it true that S  T = Ø? Explain your answer See Appendix 2 for references to past paper questions on this content.

B and C. How many people in this group own a car but not a bicycle. There are 30 people in a group. ℰ A B Make two copies of this Venn diagram.. such that C ⊂ A and C  B/ = C (b) On the other diagram draw a circle to represent set D. 9. Shade the region representing A  (B  C/).  C) (c) Complete the statement A (d) Is it true that (A  C /)  B? Explain your answer. 7.. ℰ = {Positive integers less than 20} A = {x: 0 < x ≤ 9} B = {Even numbers} C = {Multiples of 5} (a) List the members of A (b) Find the value of n(A  B/  B  C=. Draw a Venn diagram with circles representing three sets. A. 5 do not own a car or a bicycle.Higher tier only 6. such that D  A/ D  B ≠ Ø and D  B≠D 24 UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 . 8. (a) On one diagram draw a circle to represent set C. 17 own a car. 11 own a bicycle.

Draw a Venn diagram with circles representing three sets. ℰ A B (b) C = {Odd numbers} (i) Copy the Venn diagram.10. Sets A and B are represented by circles in the Venn diagram. and draw a circle on it to represent set C. (ii) Write down all the values of x such that x  A  (B  C)/. (a) Find n(B (b) Find n(A  C)  C  B/) UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) – Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 25 . A  C/ ≠ Ø and B  (A  C)/ 11. 12. In the Venn diagram. A. ℰ = { x: x is an integer and 1 ≤ x ≤ 30 } A = {Multiples of 3} B = {Multiples of 4} (a) Find the value of n(A  B). the numbers of elements in several regions are shown. B and C. ℰ A 2 3 5 B 3 7 C You are also given that n(ℰ) = 25. such that all the following are true: A  C ≠ Ø. n(B) = 12 and n(A) = 8. (ii) Shade the region A  (B  C)/.

Eight play tennis and golf. 14 play squash and tennis. 23 play squash. ℰ A B C Use set notation to describe the shaded region. 18 play golf. (b) Write down the value of n(E  M /). 24 play tennis. Two play all three sports.ℰ = {Quadrilaterals} P = {Parallelograms} K = {Kites} S = {Squares} (a) What is the mathematical name for a member of P  K? (b) Complete the statement P  S = . 16.13.ℰ = {Positive integers less than 15} E = {Even numbers} M = {Multiples of 3} ℰ E M (a) Copy the Venn diagram and fill in each member of ℰ in the correct region. (c) Draw a Venn diagram showing sets P. . How many members play squash and golf? See Appendix 2 for references to past paper questions on this content. . 14. One member makes the refreshments and does not play any sport.There are 40 members in a sports club. K and S. 26 UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 . 15.

(ii) (iii) 6. 12. 9 (b) 11 (c) Ø (d) No. (b) Ø (c) It is either a mathematics or travel book. 14 8. 9. (a) Isosceles triangles (b) ii and iii 5. 4. 18. 16 7. For example 3. A B C 11. 9. 15. 3. (a) (b) A B D 10. 8 (c) 1. (a) (i) 4. yellow. orange. 9. 25. 64. (a) 4 (b) 1 UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) – Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 27 . 7 or 9 (ii) 9 (ii) 11. 3. 6. green. indigo. 15. 3. Monday.(a) 2 (b)(i). 49. Saturday (b) 2. Tuesday. 7. 18 (d) Red. blue. No members of S are prime. 4. 5. 18 (b) 3. Friday. 5. 6. 30 12. (a) Sunday. 36. (a) 1. Wednesday. 4. 2. 81 2. 8. 7. 16. violet (e) 1. Thursday. 16. (a) Paperback mathematics books in St John’s library. (a) (i) 1. 9. 7 (c) Yes. 14. 17 (iii) 12.Answers 1. 16 (b) Ø 3. 5. 6. 13. 12. 6. 12.

13.(a) (b) 5 14. (a) Rhombus (b) P (c) 15. (A  B)  C/ or (A  C/)U(B  C/) 16. 6 28 UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 .

a+ b b . √quadratic.2 in the specification) Notation and definitions: f(x) = x 2 f: x → x 2 Notation for particular sets (eg Z is the set of integers. find fg(-3). Domain and/or range may be given in words. trigonometrical x x Note: ‘√’ indicates the positive value of the square root. R is the set of real numbers) is not required. for example. Usually. gf(2) Given functions f and g.Notes on function notation (3. or algebraically. find the range Given a function applied to all numbers. as a list. √linear. Sometimes harder functions. ie do g first followed by f Typical questions     Given functions f and g. find the value(s) of x Composite functions fg(x) means f(g(x)). find the range Given a function. If the domain is not given. for example 0 ≤ x < 10 Co-domain is not required. Which functions? x . it is assumed to be { x: x is any number}. find f(-2) Given f(x) = 3. 1/linear. Domain is all values of x to which the function is applied. cubic. ax + . which values need to be excluded from the domain of gf? UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) – Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 29 . linear/linear. Typical questions       Given a function and its domain. linear. and the domain of f. for example. quadratic. Range is all values of f(x) Vocabulary such as ‘One to one’ and ‘Many to one’ is not required. find the range of gf Given functions f and g. find fg in the form fg : x  or fg (x )  Given functions f and g. 1/quadratic. 1/√linear. which values cannot be included in the domain? Given f(x).

for example Algebraic: write as y = . write down the value of ff Given functions f and g. . interchange x and y Flow chart: reverse each operation. 1/√linear.Inverse functions Functions required: Usually. linear/linear. √linear. . 1/linear. in reverse order. . find f –1 (3) Given the function f. solve the equation f (x) = g –1(x) 30 UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 . rearrange to make x the subject. linear. numbers) x or x (with domain restricted to positive 2 Sometimes harder functions. find f –1 in the form f –1: x   or f Without working. x x –1 Any method for finding f   is acceptable. 1/ a+ b . for example. for example. Typical questions      Given the function f. find the function f –1 –1 (x )   (5) –1 g Given functions f and g.

Sample assessment questions on function notation
1. Here are three functions:

f(x) = 3 – 2x
(a) Find (i) f(–1) (vi) h 2

g(x) =

1 x2
(iii) g(4.5)

h(x) =

3x  1

 
2 3

(ii) f( 3 ) 4

(iv) g(–2) (v) h(5)

(b) (i) Given that f(x) = –7, find x (ii) Given that g(x) = 2, find x (iii) Given that h(x) = 5, find x

2. Three functions, p, q and r, are defined as follows:

p(x) = x2 – 3x + 4
(a) Find (i) p(–4)

q(x) =

2x  3 x 1
3

r(x) = sin xo
(iv) q(–2) (v) r(45) (vi) r(180)

(ii) p( 4 )

(iii) q(4)

(b) (i) Find the values of x for which p(x) = 2 (ii) Find the value of x for which q(x) = 3 4 (iii) Find the values of x, in the domain 0 ≤

x ≤ 180, for which r(x) = 0.5

3. State which values of

x cannot be included in the domain of these functions:

(i) f:

x

5 x

(ii) g:x 

5 2x  7
1 x

(iii) h: 

1 x3
1 (3 x  2) 2

(iv) j:

x  ( x 2  4)

(v) l:

x  2x 

(vi) k:

x

(vii) l:

x→

x3 6 x

UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) – Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011

31

4.

f: x  x3 g: x 

1 x8
(ii) gf(5)

(a) Find (i) fg(–4),

(b) Find (i) gf(x), (ii) fg(x) (c) What value(s) must be excluded from the domain of (i) gf(x), (ii) fg(x)? (d) Find and simplify gg(x)

5. Three functions are defined as follows:

p(x) = (x + 4)2 with domain {x: x is any number} q(x) = 8 – x with domain {x: x > 0} r(x) = cos xo with domain {x: 0 ≤ x ≤ 180}
(a) Find the range of each of these functions (b) Find the values of x such that p(x) = q(x)

6. Find the inverse function of each of the following functions: (a) f(x) = 2x – 3 (b) g(x) = 5 – x (c) h(x) = (e) k(x) =

1 3x  4

(d) j(x) = 3 –

2 x

2x  1 5 x

7. Find the inverse function of each of the following functions. (a) p: x 
2

3 x  2 (for x ≥

2 3

) (b) q: x 

1 x2
2

(for x > –2)

(c) r: x  x + 5 (for x ≥ 0)

(d) s: x  (x – 3) (for x ≥ 3)

32

UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011

8. The function f(x) is defined as f(x) = Solve the equation f(x) = f
–1

2 . x 1

(x)

9. Here are two functions:

f(x) =

2 g(x) = x2 + 3 5 x

(a) Calculate g(–2) (b) Given that f(z) =
1 8

, calculate the value of z

(c) Which value of x must be excluded from the domain of f(x)? (d) Find the inverse function, f (e) Calculate f
–1 –1

, in the form f

–1

: x . . .

g(1)

10.

Functions f and g are defined as follows:

f: x  4  x

g: x 

1 ( x  2) 2
(iii) fg(–1)

(a) Calculate (i) f(25)

(ii) g(0.5)

(b) Given that fg(x) = 4.04, find the value of x (c) Find the function f (d) Calculate gf
–1 –1

(x)

(4)

11.

p(x) =

2 x 2  3x q(x) = 3 x 1 x

(a) Find the function pq(x) (b) Describe the relationship between the functions p and q (c) Write down the exact value of pq (

2)

See Appendix 2 for references to past paper questions on this content.

UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) – Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011

33

1. for example. 1 or –2 (a) 7 (b) 11 (ii) 0. r: –1 to 1 (b) –8 or –1 6.5 (vi) x = – 2 3 (ii) 133 (ii) x = –8 1 (iii) x ≤ –3 (vii) x < 3 or x ≥ 6 (b)(i) (iv) –2 < x < 2 1 1 (ii) ( x  8)3 x 8 3 (d) x 8 8 x  65 5. (a) (b) 1 2 x2 (c) (d) 8. appropriate decimal instead of fraction.707 (vi) 0 (b)(i) 1 or 2 (iii) 30 or 150 (ii) x = 3. (a) pq(x) = x (b) Inverses of each other (c) 2 34 UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 . (a) p:  0. (a) x3 2 x2  2 3 (b) 5 – x (c) 1  4x 3x x5 (d) 2 3 x x 3 (e) 5x  1 2 x 7. (a)(i) 32 (ii) 3 3. (i) x > 5 (v) x = 0 4. q: < 8.Answers In the examination equivalent answers are acceptable. (a)(i) 5 (ii) 11 2 (iii) 5 (ii) 2 (iv) –0. (a)(i) 64 (c)(i) x = –2 1 5 2 16 (iii) 1 (iv) 7 (v) 0. 9.16 (c) –5 (iii) 5 (d) 2 5 x (e) – 4 1 2 (c) (x – 4)2 (d) 4 1 10. (a)(i) 9 (b) 23 11.5 (iii) 8 2.25 (v) 4 (vi) 3 (b)(i) 5 (ii) 2.

Expand and find dy dx The language used will be ‘turning points’. d2y is not required. . –1. UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) – Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 35 . dy 5x  3 . the following is adequate. this will usually be asked for explicitly. PQ3 . –2 Differentiation of polynomials. dx2 But students may use these methods if they wish. . x Distinguish maximum/minimum by rough shape. 32). Usually no rearrangement will be required. PQ2. but it will NOT be tested: On the curve y = x2. ‘maximum’.1. ax ± b . If rearrangement is required. (3. . dy dx =0 Find TPs for quadratic. Consideration of the gradient on either side is not required. for example shape of y = ax2 + bx + c is  when a < 0.01)2). . y = xn  grad = dy n-1 = nx . then also n = 0. cubic.01. P(3. Typical questions    Differentiate x5 – 3x2 + 5 or x2 + 3x – 4 Given y = The notation f /(x) and the terms ‘derivative’ and ‘derived function’ are not required. ‘minimum’. Differentiation from first principles is not required. dx firstly for positive integer n.4 in the specification) Basic concepts and notation Ideas of gradient of tangent and gradient of curve. find dx 2 Given y = . If you wish to give an introduction to the concept of a limiting gradient. x the question will ask for the curve to be drawn first. find the gradient for a given x find x for a given gradient  y = (x + 3)2. Q1(3.1)2). Q2(3.Notes on calculus (3. not ‘stationary points’. (3. . etc Find gradients of PQ1. Turning points (TPs) At turning points. For ax ± b if distinguishing maximum/minimum is required.

State. Notation and t dt dt not d2s dt 2 Practical problems Typical questions   Easier type – See Question 12 Hardest type – See Question 16 Applications to coordinate geometry Only very simple applications will be tested. See Question 13 x Rate of change Know that dy dx is the rate of change of y with respect to x. v. with a reason. whether each is a maximum or a minimum. Find maximum distance from starting point. or a (only requiring solutions of equations within the specification).Typical questions  y = quadratic or cubic. possibly requiring understanding of y = mx + c Usually. Find t for given s. cubic. Typical question See Question 14 Kinematics Quadratic. at ± Typical questions    Given s in terms of t. find v and/or a at time t or at given time. Find the turning points(s). See Questions 7 and 15 36 UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 . y = ax +  b . ds dy b only. students will be led through step by step.

4 in the specification) 1. at the point where x = 2 (b) y = x – 2x – 3x. 1.5) 12 5. (a) y = x – 5x – 6. (b) y = 6x + 3 – 4x –1 (a) y = 2x3 + 4x2 + x –1 + 3x –2 (c) y = 2 6  x x2 3. –52) (c) y = 3x – 3 2 2 4 . at the point (–4. Find an expression for the gradient of each of these curves. Find the gradient of the tangent at the given point on each of the following curves. at the point where x = x2 1 2 x 2  3x (d) y = at the point (3.5 (f) (d) 5 – 2x + 4x2 – 2x3 (e) x 3 3x 2 2 x   6 4 3 7  x2 2 2. Expand and differentiate (a) (x + 3) 2 (b) (2x – 3)(x + 5) (c) (4 – x)(2 + 3x) (d) x (4 – 2x) 2 UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) – Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 37 . Differentiate (a) x3 + x2 – 5x – 4 (b) 2x4 – 5x2 + 2x – 3 (c) 3x5 + 7x3 – x + 2.Sample assessment questions on calculus (3. (a) y = x – 3x + 2x – 4 5 3 4 (b) y = 3x + 2 x 3x 2  2 x  4 (c) y = 3 4. Find dy dx for the following.

10. of a liquid at time t seconds is t – 6t + 9 (a) (b) Find the rate of change of the temperature after 2 seconds. 11. for a new book. 3 2 8. For the curve with equation y = x – 4x + 5 (a) (b) (c) Find 2 dy dx Find the turning point. Explain how you know that it is a maximum. (a) (b) Find the price which gives the maximum amount of money from sales.6. The temperature. State. whether this turning point is a maximum or a minimum. 9. Find the time when the rate of change of temperature is –3 o/second. £x. with a reason. 2 38 UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 . A curve has equation y = x – 6x + 9x – 2 (a) (b) Find the coordinates of the point on this curve at which the tangent is parallel to the line y = –3x + 5 Find the coordinates of the two turning points on this curve. A curve has equation y = x2 – 3x + 5 (a) (b) (c) Find dy dx Find the gradient of the curve at the point with coordinates (2. where y = 20 000x – 5000x2. The total amount of money she will receive from sales is £y. T o. 3) Find the coordinates of the point on the curve where the gradient = –5 7. Find the maximum amount of money from sales. Find the maximum value of y where y = 3 + 6x – 2x2. A publisher has to choose a price.

s m. (d) Find the speed of the car 3 seconds after passing O. After t seconds its distance. A curve has equation y = 2x + (a) Find the turning points. 8 x 8 (b) Copy and complete the table of values for y = 2x + x . from O is given by s = 10t – t2 for 0 ≤ t ≤ 10 (a) Find the time when the car passes through O again. 13. (b) Find ds dt (c) Find the maximum distance of the car from O. 4 x y –4 –3 –8. y 1 2 3 4 x UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) – Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 39 . (e) Find the acceleration of the car.7 –2 –8 –1 1 10 2 3 (c) Copy the grid and draw the curve for – 4 ≤ x ≤ 4. It passes a point O. A car is moving along a straight road.12. 20 15 10 5 –4 –3 –2 –1 O –5 –10 –15 –20 (d) State which of the turning points is a maximum.

giving your answers correct to 2 decimal places. x y 0 1 2 (d) Copy the grid and draw the graph of y = x3 –3x2 + 2x for 0 ≤ x ≤ 2. (ii) Find the gradient of the tangent at A. 40 UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 . (a) Find 3 2 dy dx (b) Find the x coordinates of the turning points.14. (iii) Write down the equation of the tangent at A. A curve has equation y = x2 + 3x + 2 (a) Find dy dx The curve cuts the y axis at A. 15. (b) (i) Write down the coordinates of A. A curve has equation y = x – 3x + 2x. (c) Copy and complete the table of values for y = x3 – 3x2 + 2x.

16. See Appendix 2 for references to past paper questions on this content. with side x cm. Then the edges are folded up to make a box. UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) – Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 41 . are cut from a square card with side 6 cm. (a) Show that the volume of the box is V cm3 where V = 36x – 24x + 4x (b) Find 2 3 dV dx (c) Find the maximum possible volume of the box. Square corners.

(a) 6x + 8x – x (b) 6 + 4x (b) 3  –2 – 6x –3 (c)  2 12  x2 x3 3. (a) – 2 o/sec (b) 1. 8) 14. 8. 0. 1.5 secs 12. (a) 3x + 2x – 5 (b) 8x – 10x + 2 (c) 15x4 + 21x – 1 (e) 2 3 2 (d) –2 + 8x – 6x 2 x 2 3x 2   (f) –x 2 2 3 2 –2 2. –10.42. (a) 10s (b) 10 – 2t 13. (a) 2x + 3 2 (c) 25m (d) 4m/s (e) – 2 m/s2 (b) –10. –8) (2. 0) 2 (c) Minimum as quadratic with positive coeff of x 9.58 (c) 0. 10 (b) 0. (a) –1 (b) 61 2 (d) 8x – 6x (c) 67 (d) 0.Answers 1. 7. (a) 2x – 3 (b) 1 8. (a) £2 (b) £20 000 11.7. (a) (–2. 2) (3. –2) 2 5. (a) (2. 0 (c) graph (d) (–2.5 Maximum because quadratic with negative coeff of x 10. (a) 5x4 – 9x2 + 2 4. (b) 36 – 48x + 12x (c) 16 cm3 42 UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 . 9) 7. (a) 2x + 6 (b) 4x + 7 6. –8) (b)(i) (0. 8.75 8 x3 (c) 2 x  2 3 (c) 10 – 6x (b) (1. (a) 3x – 6x + 2 (d) 15. 1) (c) (-1. (a) 2x – 4 (b) (2. 2) (ii) 3 (iii) y = 3x + 2 2 16.

therefore it may be unlikely that the topics would be taught in this order. the planner is divided into three Assessment Objectives (AO):    Number and algebra Shape. For each tier. The order of these modules are linked directly to the order that the content appears in the specification. Estimated teaching time This is an approximation. Some of these are standalone whilst others must be preceded by earlier modules. space and measures Handling data. UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) – Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 43 .Section D: Planning and teaching Course planner This course planner lists the main teaching points which have to be covered to meet the requirements of the specification. Content summary pages The content summary pages give an overview of the modules in both the Foundation tier and the Higher tier course planners. In addition many teachers will not cover topics consecutively in some of the modules. The course planner has been structured to include the following features (features in bold have been explained further below):          Content summary pages Module number Estimated teaching time Target grades Content Prior knowledge Notes – where appropriate A/A* notes/tips for Higher tier where appropriate Resources. and it is given for guidance only. These Assessment Objectives are sub-divided into teaching modules. as the time allocated for the teaching and learning of each topic area is determined by the needs and abilities of the students. It is important to note that much of the knowledge of the Foundation tier content is assumed for the Higher tier content. It can be adapted according to individual requirements.

Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 1 D A Turner. through maintaining the appropriate structure of their solutions. It is also important that students set their work out clearly. B V Hony ISBN 978-0 435966 91 1 Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 2 D A Turner. Resources The textbook references are from the Edexcel two-book series written for students following the IGCSE Higher tier specification (see titles in the table below). will depend on the needs and abilities of students. For Foundation tier. the time allocated to each one and the extent to which a calculator is used for arithmetic. students need to have methods of solution at their immediate disposal. I A Potts. In order to access questions at the top grades. such as the sequence in which topics are covered. This should enable students to develop an appreciation of mathematics as a unified whole. it is advisable to use additional resource materials.A/A* notes/tips This guidance is aimed at students preparing for the top grades in their examinations. although the non-starred exercises in these textbooks are designed for students working towards IGCSE grades B/C. It comprises of a Student’s Book for each year of the course. together with the foundation tier topics. Students working at this level should be encouraged to develop an appropriate working knowledge of the Higher tier topics. W R J Waite. 44 UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 . rather than a series of discrete topics or facts. I A Potts. W R J Waite. B V Hony ISBN 978-0 435966 92 8 It is important to note that specific issues. and this means that they need to ensure that they do not neglect the learning aspect of the subject.

Module number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 1 2 3 4 Title Integers Decimals Special numbers and powers Fractions Percentages Ratio and proportion Approximation Set language and notation Algebraic manipulation Expressions and formulae Linear equations and simultaneous linear equations Coordinates and graphs Linear graphs Integer sequences Inequalities Indices Measures 2-D shapes Symmetry Construction Geometry Transformations Circles Area and perimeter 3-D shapes and volume Pythagoras’ theorem Trigonometry Similar shapes Graphical representation of data Statistical measures Probability 1 Probability 2 Total Estimated teaching hours 4 4 7 7 5 7 5 5 5 5 7 5 5 5 5 5 5 4 5 5 7 7 5 5 7 5 7 5 7 7 7 6 180 hours Number Algebra Shape. space and measures Handling data UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) – Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 45 .Foundation tier content summary The table below is a summary of modules in the IGCSE Mathematics Foundation tier course planner. Teachers should be aware that the estimated teaching hours are approximate and should only be used as a guideline.

46 UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 .

1 1.10 1.11 1. emphasise that all working is to be shown Resources Textbook Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 1 References Unit 1: Number 1 page 2 Unit 1: Number 1 page 117-119 UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) – Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 47 .1 1.1 1.1 Prior knowledge The ability to order numbers Appreciation of place value to at least 1000s Experience of the four rules of whole numbers Notes Present all working out clearly.1 1.1 1.1 1.1 1. subtraction. multiplication and division of whole numbers Problems involving the four rules with whole numbers Calculations involving time Order of operations (excluding powers) Using a calculator efficiently Interpreting a calculator display Directed numbers in context Understanding integers both as positions and as translations on a number line Using the four rules with directed numbers Time: 3 – 5 hours Area of specification 1.11 1.Foundation tier NUMBER Module 1 — Integers Target grades: E/F/G Content Understanding place value in whole numbers Reading. writing and ordering whole numbers Addition.

and emphasise that all working is to be shown Resources Textbook Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 1 References Unit 1: Number 1 page 7 48 UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 .3 1.2 1.8 1.10 1.3 Writing decimal numbers to one.Module 2 — Decimals Target grades: E/F/G Content Understanding place value in decimal numbers Ordering decimals Applying the four rules with decimals Writing decimal numbers to the nearest whole number and to one or two decimal places Time: 3 – 5 hours Area of specification 1. including recurring decimals Converting terminating decimals to fractions Prior knowledge Number: Module 1 Experience of the four rules of whole numbers The basic concepts of a fraction and a decimal Notes Present all working out clearly with decimal points in line.8 1. two or three significant figures Converting simple fractions to decimals.3 1.

4 1.4 Simplifying expressions using the laws of indices *BIDMAS = Brackets.4 1.4 Factors and multiples.1 1. Division. Subtraction 1. including common factors and common multiples Prime numbers and prime factors Square and cube numbers Squares and square roots Cubes and cube roots Using a calculator effectively to evaluate powers and roots Powers of numbers – using index notation Order of operations including powers (BIDMAS)* Expressing a number as the product of powers of its prime factors Using laws of indices for multiplication and division of positive integer powers 1. Addition.4 1.1 1.11 1. Indices.4 1.1 1.Module 3 — Special numbers and powers Target grades: C/D/E Content Even and odd numbers Time: 6 – 8 hours Area of specification 1.1 1. Multiplication.4 Prior knowledge Basic number bonds and multiplication/division facts Ability to recognise basic number patterns Resources Textbook Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 1 References Unit Unit Unit Unit Unit 3: 1: 1: 3: 2: Number 3 page 114 Number 1 page 2 Number 2 page 60 Number 3 page 117-119 Algebra 2 page 73-74 UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) – Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 49 .

2 1. by a unit fraction and by a general fraction Using fractions in problems Calculating a fraction of a quantity Expressing one quantity as a fraction of another 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2 Adding and subtracting fractions using common denominators Multiplying and dividing fractions by an integer. Every working stage should be shown Resources Textbook Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 1 References Unit 2: Number 2 page 57-58 Unit 1: Number 1 page 1 50 UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 .2 1. This topic needs to be constantly revisited. 2 and 3 A basic understanding of fractions as ‘parts of a whole’ Notes An understanding of equivalent fractions is fundamental to this module.Module 4 — Fractions Target grades: C/D/E Content Using diagrams to find equivalent fractions Simplifying (cancelling) fractions Simplest form (lowest terms) Conversion between improper fractions and mixed numbers (vulgar fractions) Conversion between fractions and decimals Time: 6 – 8 hours Area of specification 1.2 Ordering fractions using common denominators or by conversion to decimals 1.2 1.2 Prior knowledge Number: Modules 1.

for example simple interest Prior knowledge Number: Modules 1.6 1.6 1.6 1. 2 and 4 An awareness that percentages are used in everyday life A basic understanding of the concept of a percentage An understanding of the concept of interest in a financial context Notes All workings should be shown Applications of percentages to solve real-world problems Resources Textbook Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 1 References Unit 1: Number 1 page 3 UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) – Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 51 .Module 5 — Percentages Target grades: C/D/E Content Converting between percentages.6 1.6 Understanding that percentage means ‘number of parts per hundred’ Calculating percentage increases or decreases (percentage profit or loss) Understanding the multiplicative nature of percentages as operators Efficient use of a calculator to solve problems involving percentages.6 1. fractions and decimals Calculating percentages of quantities Increasing or decreasing quantities by a given percentage Expressing one quantity as a percentage of another Finding 100% when another percentage is given Time: 4 – 6 hours Area of specification 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.

7 1. including recipes and currency conversion Prior knowledge Number: Modules 1.7 1.7 If one of the two quantities in a given ratio is known.7 1.7 1. including the use of the unitary method Dividing a quantity in a given ratio into two or three parts Problems involving ratio.7 1.7 1. 2 and 4 Basic number skills and ability to recognise common factors Calculator skills Resources Textbook Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 1 References Unit 2: Number 2 page 59 Unit 2: Number 2 page 61 52 UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 .Module 6 — Ratio and proportion Target grades: C/D/E Content: Basic ideas of ratio Simplifying ratios including simplest form Expressing a ratio in the form 1 : n Relating ratio to fractions Time: 6 – 8 hours Area of specification 1. including scale diagrams and maps Using direct proportion. finding the other.7 1.

two or three decimal places Carrying out rounding appropriate to a context Expressing a calculator display to an appropriate degree of accuracy Finding upper and lower bounds.8 1. Students should be aware that correct rounding will give a number of the same order of magnitude as the original. ie maximum and minimum values for rounded values Prior knowledge Number: Modules 1 and 2 Notes To ensure they achieve marks for correct calculations.8 1.8 1.Module 7 — Approximation Target grades: C/D/E/F/G Content Rounding numbers to the nearest 10.8 1. error students should be encouraged to include more accurate answers in their working before rounding. 100 and 1000 and use for estimating Time: 4 – 6 hours Area of specification 1.8 1.8 1.8 Rounding numbers to one significant figure and use for estimating Rounding numbers to two or three significant figures Rounding numbers to one. even if there is a rounding. The need to round to an appropriate level of accuracy should be emphasised throughout this module. Resources Textbook Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 1 References Unit 4: Number 4 page 169-172 UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) – Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 53 .

5 1.5 Defining sets of numbers by describing.Module 8 — Set language and notation Target grades: C/D/E Content Meaning of ‘set’ Time: 4 – 6 hours Area of specification 1. eg {1.5 Prior knowledge Number: Module 3 Resources Textbook Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 1 References Unit 1: Sets 1 page 39-41 54 UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 . {x : x is a factor of 12}or by listing.5 1. for example {first four odd numbers}.5 Understanding the meaning of the universal set ℰ Understanding the meaning of the null or empty set Ø or { } Membership of a set including the notation  and  Intersection and union of sets including the notation ∩ and ∪ 1. 7} 1. 5. 3.5 1.

ie of the form (x + a)(x + b).2 Prior knowledge The concept that letters can be used instead of numbers Notes Emphasise importance of using the correct symbolic notation.1 2.2 2.ALGEBRA Module 1 — Algebraic manipulation Target grades: C/D/E/F Content Using letters to represent numbers Collecting like terms Simplifying products Multiplying a single term over a bracket Factorising by taking out a single common factor Finding and simplifying the product of two simple linear expressions. for example 3a rather than 3 x a or a3 Resources Textbook Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book1 References Unit Unit Unit Unit 1: 1: 3: 5: Algebra Algebra Algebra Algebra 1 1 3 5 page page page page 9-11 11-12 121-122 241-243 UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) – Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 55 . where a and b are integers Time: 4 – 6 hours Area of specification 2.1 2.2 2.2 2.

then fractions and decimals. word formulae and algebraic formulae Using formulae from mathematics.3 Prior knowledge Number: Modules 1.3 2. into expressions.3 2. 3 and 4 Resources Textbook Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 1 References Unit 4: Algebra 4 page 180-181 56 UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 . expressed initially in words or diagrammatic form and converting to variables or algebraic form Deriving formulae 2. and other subjects. 2.Module 2 — Expressions and formulae Target grades: C/D/E/F/G Content Time: 4 – 6 hours Area of specification Substituting positive and negative integers.

8 hours Area of specification 2.4 2.6 Setting up and solving simple linear equations to solve problems.4 2. including finding the value of a variable which is not the subject of a formula Solving simple simultaneous linear equations.4 2.4 2. either by elimination or by substitution Prior knowledge Algebra: Modules 1 and 2 The idea that some operations are ‘opposite’ to each other. a formal method is often needed Students should leave their answers in fractional form where appropriate Resources Textbook Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 1 References Unit 1: Algebra 1 page 12-18 Unit 3: Algebra 3 page 126 UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) – Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 57 .4 2. Notes Students need to realise that not all linear equations can be solved easily by either observation or trial and improvement.4 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.Module 3 — Linear equations and simultaneous linear equations Target grades: C/D/E/F Content Inverse operations Understanding and use of ‘balancing’ methods Solving simple linear equations Solving linear equations:      with two or more operations with the unknown on both sides with brackets with negative or fractional coefficients with combinations of these Time: 6 .

given the coordinates of the two end points Drawing and interpreting linear graphs representing real-life situations. including speed/time and distance/time graphs Drawing and interpreting non-linear graphs representing real-life situations Prior knowledge Experience of plotting points Directed numbers Resources Textbook Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 1 References Unit 3: Graphs 3 page 134.3 3.3 3.3 3.3 3. 137 58 UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 .3 3.Module 4 — Coordinates and graphs Target grade: D/E/F Content Drawing and interpreting linear conversion graphs Time: 4 – 6 hours Area of specification 3.3 Plotting or stating the coordinates of points in all four quadrants Determining the coordinates of points identified by geometrical information Determining the coordinates of the midpoint of a line segment.

3 Prior knowledge Algebra: Modules 1. and recognising the link with m in y = mx + c Drawing straight line graphs with equations in which y is given implicitly in terms of x.3 Recognising that equations of the form x = a and y = b correspond to straight line graphs parallel to the y-axis and to the x-axis respectively Completing tables of values and drawing graphs with equations of the form y = mx + c. 3 and 4 Notes Axes should be labelled on graphs and a ruler should be used to draw linear graphs Science experiments or work can provide results which give linear graphs Resources Textbook Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 1 References Unit 1: Graphs 1 page 19-27 UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) – Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 59 .3 3.Module 5 — Linear graphs Target grades: C/D/E Content Time: 4 – 6 hours Area of specification 3.3 3.3 3. for example x + y = 7 3. 2. where the values of m and c are given and m may be an integer or a fraction Recognising that graphs with equations of the form y = mx + c are straight lines Having an informal understanding of the concept of gradient as the steepness of a line.

for example even and odd numbers The ability to follow a series of instructions Resources Textbook Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 1 References Unit 5: Sequences 5 page 254-255 60 UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 .Module 6 — Integer sequences Target grades: E/F/G Content Continuing diagrammatic sequences Continuing number sequences Describing the terms of a sequence in words Finding rules to describe sequences Time: 4 – 6 hours Area of specification 3.1 3.1 3.1 3.1 3.1 Using term-to-term and position-to-term definitions to generate the terms of a sequence Prior knowledge Algebra: Modules 1 and 2 Some experience of sequences of numbers which follow a rule.

≥ and ≤ Time: 4 – 6 hours Area of specification 2.8 2.8 2.8 2. <. including ‘double-ended’ inequalities Representing on a number line the solution set of simple linear inequalities Finding the integer solutions of simple linear inequalities Using regions to represent simple linear inequalities in one variable Using regions to represent the solution set to several linear inequalities in one or two variables Prior knowledge Algebra: Modules 3 and 5 Resources Textbook Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 1 References Unit 2: Algebra 2 page 74-77 Unit 2: Graphs 2 page 81-86 UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) – Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 61 .8 2.8 2.8 2.Module 7 — Inequalities Target grade: B/C/D Content Understanding and using the symbols >.8 Understanding and using the convention for open and closed intervals on a number line Solving simple linear inequalities in one variable.

3 2.1 2.1 2.3 Substituting positive and negative numbers into expressions and formulae with quadratic and/or cubic terms Completing tables of values and drawing graphs of quadratic functions Using laws of indices with positive integer powers to simplify expressions Substituting positive and negative numbers into expressions and formulae with quadratic and/or cubic terms Prior knowledge Algebra: Modules 2 and 4 Resources Textbook Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 1 References Unit 2: Algebra 2 page 73 Unit 2: Algebra 2 page 74 Unit 4: Graphs 4 page 185-188 62 UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 .1 3.Module 8 — Indices Target grades: C/D/E Content Using index notation for positive integer powers Time: 4 – 6 hours Area of specification 2.

4 4.SHAPE. for example height in metres. for example reading timetables Understanding and using the relationship between average speed. Use a range of everyday objects to make the lesson more relevant Resources Textbook Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 1 References Unit 4: Number 4 page 172 UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) – Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 63 .4 4.4 4. distance and time Time: 4 – 6 hours Area of specification 4. SPACE AND MEASURES Module 1 — Measures Target grades: C/D/E/F/G Content Choosing and using appropriate metric units of measure Making sensible estimate of lengths.4 4. capacities and weights Interpreting scales and dials on a range of measuring instruments Telling the time from digital and analogue clocks Converting between times.4 Prior knowledge Number: Module 2 Basic concepts of units. weight in kilograms Notes Measurement is essentially a practical activity.4 4. and calculating time intervals in 12-hour and 24-hour clocks.

isosceles and equilateral) Time: 3 – 5 hours Area of specification 4.2 4. rhombus.2 4.1 4.1 4. obtuse. rectangle.1 4. square.2 4. hexagon. octagon) Recognising regular polygons Understanding congruence as meaning the same shape and size Understanding that two or more polygons with the same shape and size are said to be congruent to each other Resources Textbook Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 1 References Unit 1: Shape and space 1 page 28 Unit 1: Shape and space 1 page 29 64 UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 .Module 2 — 2-D shapes Target grades: E/F/G Content Estimating the size of an angle in degrees Recognising and naming acute. trapezium.2 4.2 Recognising and giving the names of different types of quadrilateral (parallelogram. reflex and right angles Recognising and giving the names of different types of triangle (right-angled. kite) Recognising and giving the names of different types of polygon (pentagon.

Module 3 — Symmetry Target grades: E/F/G Content Recognising line symmetry and rotational symmetry Identifying and drawing lines of symmetry for a 2-D shape Stating the order of rotational symmetry of a 2-D shape Recognising all the symmetries of a 2-D shape Time: 4 – 6 hours Area of specification 4.3 4.3 4.3 Resources Textbook Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 1 References Unit 1: Shape and space 1 page 28 UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) – Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 65 .3 4.

protractor and compasses Using three-figure bearings to specify direction Using scale drawings to solve problems in 2-D or 3-D Using straight edge and compasses to construct (i) the perpendicular bisector of a line segment (ii) the bisector of an angle Time: 4 – 6 hours Area of specification 4.5 4. students are often confused about the direction from which a bearing is measured Resources Textbook Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 1 Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 2 References Unit 1: Shape and space 1 page 32 Unit 4: Shape and space 4 page 292 66 UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 .5 4.Module 4 — Construction Target grades: C/D/E/F/G Content Measuring and drawing lines to the nearest millimetre Measuring and drawing angles to the nearest degree Constructing triangles and other 2-D shapes using a ruler. experience of drawing and measuring using a ruler Notes Encourage students to use sharp pencils to improve the neatness and accuracy of their drawings A tolerance of 2° is reasonable for angles A sturdy pair of compasses is essential When measuring angles larger than 90° on a diagram.5 Prior knowledge An understanding of angle as a measure of turn.4 4.5 4.4 4.

1 4.1 4.2 4.Module 5 — Geometry Target grades: C/D/E/F/G Content Calculating angles on a straight line and at a point Recognising vertically opposite angles Recognising parallel and perpendicular lines Using parallel lines.7 Using the angle sum of a triangle to calculate angles in triangles Using angle properties of isosceles.1 4.2 4. trapezium and kite Calculating and using the sums of the interior angles of polygons Calculating and using the sum of the exterior angles of polygons Calculating the interior and exterior angles of regular polygons Giving informal reasons. alternate angles and corresponding angles Time: 6 – 8 hours Area of specification 4. when arriving at numerical solutions to geometrical problems Prior knowledge Shape. rectangle. equilateral and right-angled triangles Understanding that the exterior angle of a triangle is equal to the sum of the interior angles at the other two vertices Using the angle sum of a quadrilateral to calculate angles in quadrilaterals Understanding and using the properties of the parallelogram.1 4.2 4.2 4.1 4.1 4.1 4.2 4. space and measures: Modules 1 and 2 Understanding the concept of parallel lines Resources Textbook Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 1 References Unit 1: Shape and space page 28 Unit 1: Shape and space page 29 Unit 1: Shape and space page 31 UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) – Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 67 . rhombus. where required. square.

space and measures: Module 2 The ability to recognise the symmetries in a shape Notes Students often lose marks as in the examination they do not give a complete description of a transformation.2 Prior knowledge Shape. y = x on a coordinate grid Reflecting shapes in a mirror line Constructing a mirror line.2 Understanding that rotations are specified by a centre and an angle Rotating a shape about a point.Module 6 — Transformations Target grades: C/D/E/F/G Content Time: 6 – 8 hours Area of specification 5.2 5.2 5.2 5.2 5. reflections and translations preserve length and angle so that a transformed shape under any of these transformations is congruent to the original shape Understanding that enlargements are specified by a centre and a scale factor.2 5.2 5.2 5. given a shape and its reflection Understanding that translations are specified by a distance and direction Translating a shape. degrees or simple fractions of a turn Understanding that an anti-clockwise rotation is a positive angle rotation and a clockwise rotation is a negative angle rotation 5. measuring the angle of rotation in right angles. for example x = 1. including fractions Constructing enlargements of shapes with positive scale factors Identifying the scale factor of an enlargement as the ratio of the lengths of any two corresponding line segments Recognising that enlargements preserve angle but not length Describing transformations in full 5. For example.2 5.2 5.2 5. the centre of rotation is often omitted and the name of the transformation itself left out Resources Textbook Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 1 References Unit 5: Shape and space 5 page 265-278 68 UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 .2 5. given the distance and direction of the translation Recognising that rotations.2 Understanding that reflections are specified by a mirror line.

tangent. 207 UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) – Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 69 . radius. sector and segment of a circle Knowing and using these circle properties:    two tangents from a point to a circle are equal in length tangents are perpendicular to the radius at the point of contact the line from the centre of a circle which is perpendicular to a chord bisects the chord (and the converse is true) 4. arc.6 4.6 4.Module 7 — Circles Target grades: C/D/E/F/G Content Time: 4 – 6 hours Area of specification 4. diameter.6 Understanding the terms centre. chord. circumference.6 Resources Textbook Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 1 References Unit 4: Shape and space 4 page 194-199.

using relevant formulae Finding the areas of compound shapes made from rectangles and triangles Converting between units of length and of area within the metric system. for example m2 and cm2 Prior knowledge Shape. parallelograms and trapezia. triangles. space and measures: Module 2 Some concept of area as the amount of surface covered Notes Ensure that students can distinguish between perimeter and area Resources Textbook Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 1 References Unit 2: Algebra 2 page 69-71 70 UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 .9 4.9 Finding the perimeter of rectangles and triangles and shapes made from them Finding area by counting squares Finding the areas of rectangles. using relevant formulae Finding circumferences and areas of circles.9 4.9 4.9 4.9 4.Module 8 — Area and perimeter Target grades: D/E/F/G Content Time: 4 – 6 hours Area of specification 4.

area and volume. cone.9 Recognising and giving the names of solids (cube. pyramid. for example.9 4. cylinder. 117 UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) – Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 71 .9 4.9 4.9 4. prism. space and measures: Module 8 Some concept of the volume of a solid as the amount of space it occupies Notes Many students have little real understanding of perimeter.Module 9 — 3-D shapes and volume Target grades: C/D/E/F/G Content Time: 6 – 8 hours Area of specification 4. cm3 and litres Prior knowledge Shape. including cuboids and cylinders. edge and vertex in the context of a 3-D solid Finding volumes by counting cubes Finding the volumes of right prisms. Practical experience is essential in order to clarify these concepts Resources Textbook Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 2 References Unit 2: Number 2 page 63 Unit 2: Shape and space 2 page 112-113. using appropriate formulae Finding the surface areas of solids with rectangular and triangular faces Finding the surface area of a cylinder Converting between units of volume within the metric system. cuboid.9 4.9 4. sphere) Understanding the terms face.

Notes Students will avoid making mistakes if they remember that the hypotenuse is the longest side Some students find questions on this topic much more difficult if the orientation of the triangle is unusual Resources Textbook Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 1 References Unit 4: Shape and space 4 page 212-214 72 UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 .8 4. 5 and 8 Knowledge of different types of triangle Ability to use a calculator to find squares and square roots.Module 10 — Pythagoras’s theorem Target grade: B/C/D Content Identifying the hypotenuse of a right-angled triangle Time: 4 – 6 hours Area of specification 4.8 4. space and measures: Modules 2.8 Understanding and using Pythagoras’ theorem in 2-D to find the length of the hypotenuse or that of one of the shorter sides of a right-angled triangle Using Pythagoras’ theorem to solve problems Prior knowledge Shape.

Module 11 — Trigonometry Target grade: B/C/D Content Time: 6 – 8 hours Area of specification 4. 5 and 10 Knowledge of the basic concept of ratio (Number: Module 6) Ability to use a calculator to convert fractions to decimals (Number: Module 4) Notes Students should ensure that their calculators are in ‘degree mode’ before tackling trigonometry questions Resources Textbook Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 1 References Unit 2: Shape and space 2 page 87-94 Unit 3: Shape and space 3 page 142-153 UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) – Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 73 . opposite and adjacent Understanding and using sine.8 Identifying the various sides of a right-angled triangle as the hypotenuse.8 4. space and measures: Modules 2. including bearings Using Pythagoras’ theorem and trigonometry to solve problems Prior knowledge Shape. cosine and tangent of acute angles to find lengths and angles in a right-angled triangle Using trigonometry to solve problems.8 4.8 4.

if two shapes are similar their corresponding angles are equal and all their corresponding lengths are in the same ratio Using similarity to find lengths of sides Resources Textbook Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 1 References Unit 4: Shape and space 4 page 205-209 74 UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 .10 4.Module 12 — Similar shapes Target grade: B/C/D Content Time: 4 – 6 hours Area of specification 4.10 Understanding that.

1 6.1 6. space and measures: Module 4) Fractions of simple quantities (Number: Module 4) Notes Students should label axes of pictograms and bar charts. percentage or decimal of the total represented by each sector the number of items represented by each sector 6. a table (including two way) or a database Drawing and using bar charts Drawing and using pictograms Drawing pie charts Using pie charts to calculate:   the fraction. should be emphasised Resources Textbook Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 1 References Unit 2: Handling data 2 page 99-103 UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) – Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 75 .1 6.HANDLING DATA Module 1 — Graphical representation of data Target grades: E/F/G Content Area of specification 6. space and measures: Module 5 Measuring and drawing angles (Shape.1 6.1 6.1 Prior knowledge Shape. particularly for pie charts. and sectors of pie charts The need for accurate drawing skills.1 Time: 6 – 8 hours Grouping data in tally tables and frequency tables including grouped data Obtaining data from a list.

Module 2 — Statistical measures Target grades: C/D/E/F/G Content
Understanding the concept of average as a value which is representative of a set of data Finding the mean, median, mode and range for a discrete data set either from a list or frequency table Selecting the most appropriate average Finding the modal class for grouped data

Time: 6 – 8 hours

Area of specification
6.2 6.2 6.2 6.2 6.2

Calculating an estimate for the mean for grouped data, using halfway values

Notes
Students often understand techniques used to find mean, median and mode but confuse the three names It should be emphasised that the range is a single value Students sometimes identify the modal class by the frequency instead of the class description

Resources
Textbook Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 1 References Unit 2: Handling data 2 page 97-98

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Module 3 — Probability 1 Target grades: E/F/G Content

Time: 6 – 8 hours

Area of specification

Using the language of probability, informally, for example ‘likely’ and then technical terms such as ‘outcomes’, ‘equal likelihood’, ‘events’ and ‘random’ Using a probability scale from 0 to 1 Understanding that an impossible event has a probability of 0 and one which is certain has a probability of 1 Writing probabilities as numbers (fractions, decimals or percentages only) Estimating probabilities from previously collected data The probability of an event happening or not happening Understanding and using estimates or measures of probability from theoretical models

6.3 6.3 6.3 6.3 6.3 6.3 6.3

Prior knowledge
Some concept of ‘chance’ and the likelihood of an event occurring and recognition that some events are more likely to occur than others

Notes
Where possible, introduce practical work to support theoretical work Students can be unsure of the relationship P(not n) = 1 – P(n)

Resources
Textbook Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 1 References Unit 4: Handling data 4 page 218-226

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Module 4 — Probability 2 Target grades: C/D/E/F Content
Understanding sample spaces and using them to find the probability that an event will occur Listing all the outcomes for single events systematically, or for two successive events, and using lists to find the probability that an event will occur

Time: 5 – 7 hours

Area of specification
6.3

6.3 6.3 6.3 6.3 6.3

Using the sum of probabilities of all possible outcomes equalling one Understanding the meaning of ‘equally likely’ and ‘mutually exclusive’ Using the addition rule for probability for mutually exclusive events Understanding and using expected frequency to calculate an estimate for the number of times an event will occur

Prior knowledge
Handling data: Module 3

Notes
You may need to remind students that only fractions, decimals and percentages can be used for probability. Answers like ‘2 in 3’, ‘2 out of 3’ and ‘2 : 3’ would be penalised in the examination

Resources
Textbook Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 2 References Unit 4: Handling data 4 page 315-316

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Teachers should be aware that the estimated teaching hours are approximate and should only be used as a guideline. Module number 1 2 3 Number 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 Algebra 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 1 2 3 4 Shape.Higher tier content summary The table below is a summary of modules in the IGCSE Mathematics Higher tier course planner. space and measures 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Data Handling 1 2 3 Title Decimals Powers and roots Fractions Percentages Ratio and proportion Standard form Degree of accuracy Set language and notation Algebraic manipulation Expressions and formulae Linear equations and simultaneous linear equations Coordinates and graphs Linear graphs Integer sequences Quadratic equations Inequalities Indices Proportion Function notation Harder graphs Calculus Average speed Construction Geometry Transformations Circle properties Area and perimeter 3-D shapes and volume Pythagoras’ theorem Trigonometry Similar shapes Advanced trigonometry Vectors Graphical representation of data Statistical measures Probability Total Estimated teaching hours 3 4 2 3 3 4 6 6 4 6 6 5 5 4 7 5 5 5 7 7 7 3 4 4 5 7 5 5 4 4 7 7 6 5 4 6 180 hours UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) – Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 79 .

80 UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 .

NUMBER Module 1 — Decimals Target grades: A/B/C/D Content Applying the four rules of operation with decimals Using a calculator efficiently Interpreting a calculator display Writing decimal numbers to the nearest whole number and to one or two decimal places Writing decimal numbers to one.2 1.Higher tier It is assumed that students being prepared for the Higher tier will have knowledge of all of the Foundation tier content.3 Resources Textbook Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 1 References Unit Unit Unit Unit 5: 5: 1: 3: Number Number Number Number 5 5 1 3 page page page page 238 239 7 117-119 Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 2 Unit 1: Number 1 page 5-7 UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) – Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 81 .8 1.3 1.11 1.8 1.11 1. two or three significant figures Converting simple fractions to decimals including recurring decimals Converting terminating decimals to fractions Converting recurring decimals to fractions Time: 2 – 4 hours Area of specification 1.10 1.

fractional and negative powers Understanding the meaning of surds Manipulating surds. including rationalising the denominator *BIDMAS = Brackets. Indices.4 1.Module 2 — Powers and roots Target grades: A*/A/B/C Content Squares and square roots Cubes and cube roots Using a calculator effectively to evaluate powers and roots Powers of numbers – using index notation Order of operations including powers (BIDMAS*) Time: 3 – 5 hours Area of specification 1. Division. eg 1 2 .4 1.4 A/A* notes/tips   In order for students to aspire to the top grades. Multiplication.4 Expressing a number as the product of powers of its prime factors Using prime factors to evaluate Highest Common Factors (HCF) and Lowest Common Multiples (LCM) Understanding and using powers which are zero. it is not usual to write surds in the denominator. Addition. it is not always easy to work out the value of the fraction. it is essential that they are able to use algebraic manipulation and index notation confidently Remind students that when writing fractions.1 1. Subtraction 1.4 1.4 1.4 integer. negative or fractions Recognising the relationship between fractional powers and roots Using laws of indices to simplify and evaluate numerical expressions involving 1.4 1.4 1. because without a calculator.1 1. but ‘rationalising’ the denominator will help clear the surds from the denominator Resources Textbook Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 1 Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 2 References Unit 3: Number 3 page 117 Unit 3: Number 3 page 114-116 Unit 2: Number 2 page 66-70 See Appendix 1 for references to past paper questions for students aiming for top grades in this module 82 UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 .4 1.

2 Adding and subtracting fractions using common denominators Multiplying and dividing fractions by an integer.Module 3 — Fractions Target grades: B/C/D Content Converting between fractions and decimals Time: 1 – 3 hours Area of specification 1.2 1. 339-345 (selected questions) UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) – Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 83 .2 Resources Textbook Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 1 Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 2 References Unit 2: Number 2 page 57-58 Unit 5: Number 5 (Revision) page 334.2 1.2 Ordering fractions using common denominators or by conversion to decimals 1.2 1.2 1. by a unit fraction and by a general fraction Using fractions in problems Calculating a fraction of a quantity Expressing one quantity as a fraction of another 1.

6 1. inflation and exchange rates offer many opportunities to ensure that the students have a confident working knowledge of this material Resources Textbook Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 2 References Unit 3: Number 3 page 110-113 Unit 4: Number 4 page 167-169 Unit 5: Number 5 (Revision) page 345 (selected questions) See Appendix 1 for references to past paper questions for students aiming for top grades in this module 84 UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 . fractions and decimals Calculating percentages of quantities Increasing or decreasing quantities by a given percentage Expressing one quantity as a percentage of another Finding 100 per cent when another percentage is given Time: 2 – 4 hours Area of specification 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.6 1. credit and loans. for example simple interest and compound interest.6 1.Module 4 — Percentages Target grades: A*/A/B/C/D Content Converting between percentages.6 1.6 1. including depreciation Solving reverse percentage problems by carrying out an appropriate division Solving problems involving repeated percentage change Prior knowledge Number: Modules 1 and 3 Notes All working out should be shown A/A* notes/tips  This is an opportunity to focus on financial arithmetic through using simple and compound interest through using: – Simple interest – Compound interest  A  P(1  A  P(1  Rn ) 100 R n ) 100 Questions which involve savings.6 1.6 1.6 Understanding that percentage means ‘number of parts per hundred’ Calculating percentage increases or decreases (percentage profit or loss) Understanding the multiplicative nature of percentages as operators Efficient use of a calculator to solve problems involving percentages.

7 1. find the other.7 1.Module 5 — Ratio and proportion Target grades: B/C/D Content Basic idea of ratio Simplifying ratios including simplest form Expressing a ratio in the form 1 : n Relating ratio to fractions Time: 2 – 4 hours Area of specification 1.7 1.7 1. 339-345 (selected questions) UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) – Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 85 .7 1. including using the unitary method Dividing a quantity in a given ratio into two or three parts Problems involving ratio.7 1. including scale diagrams and maps Using direct proportion. including recipes and currency conversion Prior knowledge Number: Modules 1 and 3 Calculator skills Resources Textbook Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 1 Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 2 References Unit 2: Number 2 page 59 Unit 2: Number 2 page 61-63 Unit 5: Number 5 (Revision) page 338.7 If one of the two quantities in a given ratio is known.7 1.

339-345 (selected questions) 86 UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 .9 1.9 1. not as a calculator display such as 2. for example 2. where appropriate. use their calculators for questions involving standard form.505 Resources Textbook Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 1 Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 1 References Unit 1: Number 1 page 5-6 Unit 2: Number 2 page 55-57 Unit 5: Number 5 (Revision) page 335.9 1. their answers should be expressed in conventional standard form.3 x 105.Module 6 — Standard form Target grades: A/B/C Content Expressing numbers in standard form Time: 3 – 5 hours Area of specification 1.9 Writing numbers expressed in standard form as ordinary numbers Calculating with numbers in standard form Solving problems involving standard form Notes Although students can.

Students should be aware that correct rounding will give a number of the same magnitude as the original.8 1. as information is often given that is not exact It is helpful for students to know that least value is the same as lower bound or minimum value.8 1.Module 7 — Degree of accuracy Target grades: A*/A/B/C/D Content Rounding numbers to two or three significant figures Rounding numbers to one.8 1. Similarly greatest value is the same as upper bound or maximum value Remind students that sometimes the prolem is less straightforward when working with compound measures involving division   UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) – Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 87 .8 1.8 1.8 1. ie maximum and minimum values for rounded values Solving problems using upper and lower bounds where values are given to a degree of accuracy Selecting and justifying appropriate degrees of accuracy Notes Students should be encouraged to include more accurate answers in their working before rounding to ensure they receive marks for correct calculations even if there is a rounding error.8 1. Rounding to a level of accuracy should be emphasised continually. two or three decimal places Carrying out rounding appropriate to a context Time: 5 – 7 hours Area of specification 1.8 Rounding numbers to one significant figure and use for estimating Expressing a calculator display to an appropriate degree of accuracy Finding upper and lower bounds. A/A* notes/tips   Remind students that upper and lower bounds can be worked out for quantities that have been rounded to a given level of accuracy Students should be reminded that typically questions involving degrees of accuracy often require careful analysis.

Resources Textbook Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 1 Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 2 References Unit 4: Number 4 page 170-172 Unit 5: Number 5 (Revision) page 334 See Appendix 1 for references to past paper questions for students aiming for top grades in this module 88 UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 .

5 1.5 1. 3.5 1. including  notation Understanding and using the complement of a set (A ) Using Venn diagrams to represent sets and the number of elements in sets Using the notation n(A) for the number of elements in the set A Using sets in practical situations / Notes Inequality notation may be used.5 1.5 1.5  and  Intersection and union of sets including the notation ∩ and ∪ Understanding sets defined in algebraic terms Understanding and using subsets. {eg x: 2 ≤ x < 5} A/A* notes/tips   Students should recognise that to score all the marks in Venn diagram problems. the layout of the sets needs to be correct.5 1.Module 8 — Set language and notation Time: 5 – 7 hours Target grades: A/B/C/D Content Meaning of ‘set’ Area of specification 1.5 1.5 1. 7} 1. in particular the meaning of n Resources Textbook Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 1 Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 2 References Unit 1: Sets 1 page 39-47 Unit 1: Sets 1 page 45-53 UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) – Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 89 . eg {1. for example {first four odd numbers}.5 1.5 Defining sets of numbers by describing. 5. {x: x is a factor of 12 or by listing.5 Understanding the meaning of the universal set ℰ Understanding the meaning of the null or empty set Ø or { } Membership of a set including the notation 1. and appropriately labelled Common mistakes occur when students do not fully understand or know set theory notation.

students should be encouraged to fully factorise both the numerator and the denominator. for example 3a rather than 3 x a or a3.2 2. linear or quadratic Time: 3 – 5 hours Area of specification 2. eg (2x + 3)(3x – 1). where possible A typical common error is for students to ‘cancel out’ the terms in x Simplifying algebraic fractions is usually a challenging topic for many students. A key point is that algebraic fractions are actually generalised arithmetic.2 2.2 2.ALGEBRA Module 1 — Algebraic manipulation Target grades: A*/A/B/C/D Content Multiplying a single term over a bracket Factorising by taking out a single common factor Finding and simplifying the product of two linear expressions. (3x – 2y)(5x + 3y) Factorising quadratic expressions.2 Notes Emphasise importance of using the correct symbolic notation.2 2. setting their work out clearly In order for students to work towards to the top grades. it is essential that they are confidently able to manipulate algebraic expressions in a variety of situations When simplifying algebraic fractions. including the difference of two squares Adding and subtracting algebraic fractions. Students should be aware that there may be a need to remove the numerical HCF of a quadratic expression before factorising it in order to make factorisation more obvious A/A* notes/tips for Higher tier   Students need to be reminded that they should always factorise algebraic expressions completely.2 2. including simplifying algebraic fractions by cancelling common factors Numerator and/or the denominator may be numeric. and that the same rules apply    90 UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 .

Resources Textbook Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 1 Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 2 References Unit 1: Algebra 1 page 11-12 Unit 2: Algebra 2 page 65-67 Unit 3: Algebra 3 page 121-123 Unit 5: Algebra 5 (Revision) page 346-347 See Appendix 1 for references to past paper questions for students aiming for top grades in this module UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) – Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 91 .

including cases where the subject occurs twice or where a power of the subject appears 2. and other subjects.3 2.3 Substituting positive and negative numbers. into expressions. keeping a careful check on the substitution of negative numbers into expressions and formulae.Module 2 — Expressions and formulae Target grades: A*/A/B/C/D Content Time: 5 – 7 hours Area of specification 2.3 2. word formulae and algebraic formulae Using formulae from mathematics. expressed initially in words or diagrammatic form and converting to variables or algebraic form Deriving formulae Manipulating formulae to change the subject. then fractions and decimals.3 A/A* notes/tips   Students need to be reminded that changing the subject of the formula is identical to the process of solving an equation Students should be encouraged to set their work out clearly. and to make use of brackets where necessary Resources Textbook Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 1 References Unit 2: Algebra 2 page 69-72 Unit 4: Algebra 4 page 177-184 See Appendix 1 for references to past paper questions for students aiming for top grades in this module 92 UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 . in particular.

6 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.4 2. a formal method is often needed Students should leave their answers in fractional form where appropriate Resources Textbook Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 1 References Unit 1: Algebra 1 page 12-17 Unit 2: Graphs 2 page 79-80 Unit 3: Algebra 3 page 126-130 UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) – Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 93 .4 2.Module 3 — Linear equations and simultaneous linear equations Time: 5 – 7 hours Target grades: B/C/D Content Inverse operations Understanding and use of ‘balancing’ methods Solving simple linear equations Solving linear equations:      with two or more operations with the unknown on both sides with brackets with negative or fractional coefficients with combinations of these 2.4 Setting up and solving simple linear equations to solve problems. including cases where one or both of the equations must be multiplied Interpreting the equations as lines and their common solution as the point of intersection Prior knowledge Algebra: Modules 1 and 2 The idea that some operations are ‘opposite’ to each other Notes Students need to realise that not all linear equations can be solved easily by either observation or trial and improvement.6 Area of specification 2.4 2. including finding the value of a variable which is not the subject of the formula Solving simple simultaneous linear equations.4 2.4 2.

3 3.3 3.3 3.3 Determining the coordinates of points identified by geometrical information Determining the coordinates of the midpoint of a line segment.Module 4 — Coordinates and graphs Target grade: C/D/E Content Time: 4 – 6 hours Area of specification 3. given the coordinates of the two end points Drawing and interpreting linear graphs representing real-life situations. including speed/time and distance/time graphs Drawing and interpreting non-linear graphs representing real-life situations Resources Textbook Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 1 References Unit 3: Graphs 3 page 134-141 94 UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 .

2.3 3.3 3.3 Recognising that equations of the form x = a and y = b correspond to straight line graphs parallel to the y-axis and to the x-axis respectively Completing tables of values and drawing graphs with equations of the form y = mx + c where the values of m and c are given and m may be an integer or a fraction 3. for example x + y = 7 Calculating the gradient of a straight line given its equation of the coordinates of two points on the line Recognising that graphs with equations of the form y = mx + c are straight line graphs with gradient m and intercept (0.3 3.3 Drawing straight line graphs with equations in which y is given implicitly in terms of x.Module 5 — Linear graphs Target grades: A/B/C/D Content Time: 4 – 6 hours Area of specification 3. c) on the y-axis Finding the equation of a straight line given the coordinates of two points on the line Finding the equation of a straight line parallel to a given line 3. 3 and 4 Notes Axes should be labelled on graphs and a ruler should be used to draw linear graphs Science experiments/work could provide results which give linear graphs Resources Textbook Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 1 References Unit 1: Graphs 1 page 19-27 UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) – Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 95 .3 Prior knowledge Algebra: Modules 1.3 3.

1 Using term-to-term and position-to-term definitions to generate the terms of a sequence Finding and using linear expressions to describe the nth term of an arithmetic sequence Resources Textbook Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book1 References Unit 5: Sequences 5 page 254-264 96 UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 .Module 6 — Integer sequences Target grades: B/C/D Content Time: 3 – 5 hours Area of specification 3.1 3.

7 Setting up and solving quadratic equations from data given in a context Solving exactly. one of which is linear in each unknown and the other is linear in one unknown and quadratic in the other Solving exactly. two simultaneous equations in two unknowns.7 2.7 2. one of which is linear in each unknown and the other is linear in one unknown and the other is of the form x2 + y2 = r2 2. by elimination of an unknown. rather than merely treating the algebra as an expression to be simplified  Resources Textbook Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 1 Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 2 References Unit 5: Algebra 5 page 248-251 Unit 2: Algebra 2 page 71-80 Unit 3: Algebra 3 page 176-182 See Appendix 1 for references to past paper questions for students aiming for top grades in this module UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) – Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 97 .7 Prior knowledge Algebra: Modules 1 and 3 Notes Remind students that they should factorise a quadratic before using the formula A/A* notes/tips   Remind students that it is important to always factorise completely before resorting to using the quadratic formula When applying the quadratic formula.7 2. however they should be encouraged to show their working out through using a few lines of correct algebra. by elimination of an unknown.Module 7 — Quadratic equations Target grade: A*/A/B/C Content Solving quadratic equations by factorisation Solving quadratic equations by using the quadratic formula Time: 6 – 8 hours Area of specification 2. two simultaneous equations in two unknowns. They should be reminded that rounding or truncating during the process leads to inaccurate solutions Often solving equations with algebraic fractions is a challenge for most students. Remind students of the value of retaining the structure of the equation throughout their working. students must substitute the correct values into the formula.

8 2.8 2.Module 8 — Inequalities Target grades: A/B/C Content Understanding and using the symbols >. including ‘double-ended’ inequalities Representing on a number line the solution set of simple linear inequalities Finding the integer solutions of simple linear inequalities Using regions to represent simple linear inequalities in one variable Using regions to represent the solution set to several linear inequalities in one or two variables Solving quadratic inequalities in one unknown and representing the solution set on a number line Prior knowledge Algebra: Modules 3.8 2.8 2. 81-86 Unit 2: Algebra 2 page 81-84 Unit 5: Algebra 5 page 356 98 UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 .8 Understanding and using the convention for open and closed intervals on a number line Solving simple linear inequalities in one variable.8 2.8 2. ≥ and ≤ Time: 4 – 6 hours Area of specification 2. <. 5 and 7 Resources Textbook Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 1 Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 2 References Unit 2: Algebra 2 page 74-78.8 2.

1 3.1 Substituting positive and negative numbers into expressions and formulae with quadratic and/or cubic terms Completing tables of values and drawing graphs of quadratic functions Using index notation with positive.3 2. negative and fractional powers to simplify expressions Prior knowledge Algebra: Modules 2 and 4 Resources Textbook Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 1 Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 2 References Unit 2: Number 2 page 60.Module 9 — Indices Target grades: A/B/C/D Content Using index notation for positive integer powers Time: 4 – 6 hours Area of specification 2.1 2. 73-74 Unit 4: Graphs 4 page 185-190 Unit 2: Number 2 page 66-70 UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) – Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 99 .

It is essential that they take note of the key words used in the question Common errors tend to be confusing direct and indirect (inverse) proportionality. 2 and 3 A/A* notes/tips   Students need to be reminded that precision is required when setting up the formula. leading to using the wrong formulae. This is indicative of mathematical misunderstanding rather than misreading.5 2.5 Setting up and using equations to solve problems involving direct or inverse proportion Relating algebraic solutions to graphical representation of the equations Prior knowledge Algebra: Modules 1.Module 10 — Proportion Target grade: A*/A/B Content Time: 4 – 6 hours Area of specification 2. and no credit will be received Resources Textbook Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 1 Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 2 References Unit 2: Number 2 page 61-63 Unit 5: Number 5 page 233-238 Unit 1: Number 1 page 8-18 Unit 5 Number 5 page 338-345 (selected questions) See Appendix 1 for references to past paper questions for students aiming for top grades in this module 100 UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 .

2 Understanding the concept that a function is a mapping between elements of two sets Using function notation of the form f(x) = … and Understanding the terms domain and range Understanding which parts of the domain may need to be excluded Understanding and using composite function fg and inverse function f : x  f –1 3. the result is a composite function. as this will enable them to develop an appropriate working knowledge of functions. and be able to. students must be familiar with the concept that division by zero is undefined. use the concepts of domain and range. remind students that they should give their answers as solutions of x Remind students that when one function is followed by another. x  2  0 . given the graphs of both functions.2 3.Module 11 — Function notation Target grades: A*/A/B Content Time: 6 – 8 hours Area of specification 3. In particular. giving the inverse function UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) – Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 101 . where the domain of f is the range of g Students need to understand. eg fg(x) means do f first followed by g. and that the notation It is helpful to remind students that if the inverse function is not obvious then: – – – Step 1: write the function as y =… Step 2: change any x to y. and any y to x Step 3: make y the subject.2 Prior knowledge Algebra: Modules 1.2 3. eg for g(x) = excluded from the domain of       1 . remind students that the inverse of f(x) is the function that ‘undoes’ whatever f(x) has done. which means x = 2 must be x2 g f 1 (x) is used For inverse functions. 2 and 3 A/A* notes/tips  This tends to be demanding topic for students and in order to deepen their understanding of how to apply their knowledge of functions in different types of questions. they should be given plenty of practice Students may need to be reminded that f(x) = y When solving f(x) = g(x).2 3.

Resources Textbook Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 2 References Unit 3: Algebra 3 page 183-197 See Appendix 1 for references to past paper questions for students aiming for top grades in this module 102 UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 .

3 3. 5 and 9 Notes Students should be made aware that they should not use rulers to join plotted points on non-linear graphs When plotting points or reading off values from a graph. and that they produce a type of curve called a hyperbola. although a related.3 Prior knowledge Algebra: Modules 1. to find the gradient. a tangent drawn at this point is helpful.3 y = Ax 3 + Bx 2 + Cx + D + in which E F + x x2 (i) the constants are integers and at least three of them are zero (ii) the letters x and y can be replaced with any other two letters Finding the gradients of non-linear graphs by drawing a tangent Finding the intersection points of two graphs. correct division. the scales on the axes should be checked carefully A/A* notes/tips  Remind students that when finding an estimate for the gradient of a graph y = f(x) at given point. one linear (y1) and one non-linear (y2) and recognising that the solutions correspond to y2 – y1 = 0 3. is helpful UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) – Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 103 .Module 12 — Harder graphs Target grades: A*/A/B Content (i) the constants are integers and some could be zero Time: 6 – 8 hours Area of specification Plotting and drawing graphs with equation y = Ax3 + Bx2 + Cx + D in which (ii) the letters x and y can be replaced with any other two letters Plotting and drawing graphs with equation 3. is required to gain top marks in a question Students should recognise that cubic graphs have distinctive shapes that depend on the coefficient of   x3 Students should recognise that reciprocal graphs have x as the denominator. 2. and the value of x where this happens on the graph. An awareness of the concept of the smallest (minimum) value of y. 3.3 3.

 Students should appreciate that an accurately drawn graph can be used to solve equations that may prove difficult to solve by other methods. in particular when one equation is linear and the other equation is nonlinear  Resources Textbook Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 2 References Unit 1: Graphs 1 page 19-27 Unit 3: Graphs 3 page 198-209 See Appendix 1 for references to past paper questions for students aiming for top grades in this module 104 UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 . and using this to estimate the gradient of the curve at this point Students should recognise that the algebraic method is more accurate than the graphical method of solving simultaneous equations. They should also appreciate that most graphs of real-life situations are curves rather than straight lines. Information on rates of change can still be found by drawing a tangent to a curve.

Module 13 — Calculus Target grades: A*/A/B Content Understanding the concept of a variable rate of change Differentiating integer powers of x Time: 6 – 8 hours Area of specification 3. including speed and acceleration   Resources Textbook Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 2 References Unit 4: Graphs 4 page 268-287 See Appendix 1 for references to past paper questions for students aiming for top grades in this module UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) – Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 105 . where the result is the derivative or the gradient function.4 3. as this will aid their understanding. 5. particularly as it increases in complexity Students need to understand the turning points are points on the curve where the gradient is zero. rates of change. maxima and minima by differentiation and relating these to graphs Applying calculus to linear kinematics and to other simple practical problems Prior knowledge Algebra. Modules 1. They should also be able to distinguish between a minimum turning point and a maximum turning point Students need to be able to apply their knowledge of differentiation to the motion of a particle in a straight line.4 3.4 3. and that the gradient of a curve can also be represented by  dy dx Students should be encouraged to set their work out appropriately. of the topic. and revision. maintaining the structure of their solution. the reverse of differentiation will not be required A/A* notes/tips  Student should understand that the process of finding the gradient of a curve is called differentiation. 2.4 Determining gradients. 9 and 12 Notes When applying calculus to linear kinematics.

SPACE AND MEASURES Module 1 — Average speed Target grades: B/C/D Content Understanding and using the relationship between average speed.SHAPE.4 Resources Textbook Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 2 References Unit 5: Graphs 5 page 365 106 UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 . distance and time Time: 2 – 4 hours Area of specification 4.

4 4. protractor and compasses Using three-figure bearings to specify direction Using scale drawings to solve problems Time: 3 – 5 hours Area of specification 4.5 4.5 4.Module 2 — Construction Target grades: B/C/D Content Constructing triangles and other 2-D shapes using a ruler. 52 Unit 2: Shape and space 2 page 91 UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) – Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 107 .5 Using straight edge and compasses to construct the perpendicular bisector of a line segment the bisector of an angle Notes Encourage students to use sharp pencils to improve the neatness and accuracy of their drawings A tolerance of 2° is reasonable for angles A sturdy pair of compasses is essential Students often confuse (i) the direction from which a bearing is measured (ii) measuring angles larger than 90° on a diagram Resources Text book title Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 1 Text book ref Unit 1: Shape and space 1 page 32-33.

1 4.7 Notes Students should be made aware that given diagrams will not be drawn to scale and that they should not assume geometrical facts that are not given in the question Resources Textbook Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 1 References Unit 1: Shape and space 1 page 28-30 Unit 1: Shape and space 1 page 31 108 UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 .1 4. trapezium and kite Calculating and using the sums of the interior angles of polygons Calculating and using the sum of the exterior angles of polygons Calculating the interior and exterior angles of regular polygons Providing reasons.2 4.1 4.1 4. square.2 4. alternate angles and corresponding angles Using the angle sum of a triangle to calculate angles in triangles Using angle properties of isosceles. rectangle. rhombus. using standard geometrical statements to support numerical values for angles obtained in any geometrical context involving lines and polygons 4.Module 3 — Geometry Target grades: B/C/D Content Time: 3 – 5 hours Area of specification 4.2 4. equilateral and right-angled triangles Understanding that the exterior angle of a triangle is equal to the sum of the interior angles at the other two vertices Using the angle sum of a quadrilateral to calculate angles in quadrilaterals Understanding and using the properties of the parallelogram.2 4.2 Using parallel lines.

given a shape and its reflection Understanding that translations are specified by vectors Translating a shape. measuring the angle of rotation in right angles.2 Identifying the scale factor of an enlargement as the ratio of the lengths of any two corresponding line segments Recognising that enlargements preserve angle but not length Describing transformations in full Describing a single transformation which is equivalent to a combination of transformations 5.2 5.2 5.2 Understanding that enlargements are specified by a centre and a scale factor 5.2 5. the centre of rotation is often omitted and the name of the transformation itself left out Resources Textbook Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 1 Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 2 References Unit 5: Shape and space 5 page 265-278 Unit 5: Shape and space 5 (Revision) page 378 UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) – Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 109 .2 Understanding that rotations are specified by a centre and an angle Rotating a shape about a point.2 Notes Students often lose marks in the examination because they do not give a complete description of a transformation. y = x on a coordinate grid Reflecting shapes in a mirror line Constructing a mirror line. degrees or simple fractions of a turn Understanding that an anti-clockwise rotation is a positive angle rotation and a clockwise rotation is a negative angle rotation 5.2 5. given the vector Recognising that rotations.Module 4 — Transformations Target grades: A/B/C/D Content Time: 4 – 6 hours Area of specification 5.2 Understanding that reflections are specified by a mirror line. reflections and translations preserve length and angle so that a transformed shape under any of these transformations is congruent to the original shape 5.2 5.2 Constructing enlargements of shapes with positive and fractional scale factors 5.2 5.2 5. for example x = 1.2 5.2 5. For example.

6 tangents are perpendicular to the radius at the point of contact the line from the centre of a circle which is perpendicular to a chord bisects the chord (and the converse is true) Recognising the term cyclic quadrilateral Understanding and using angle properties of the circle including:      an angle subtended by an arc at the centre of a circle is twice the angle subtended at any point on the remaining part of the circumference an angle subtended at the circumference by a diameter is a right angle angles in the same segment are equal the sum of the opposite angles of a cyclic quadrilateral is 180° the alternate segment theorem 4.Module 5 — Circle properties Target grades: A*/A/B/C/D Content Knowing and using these circle properties:    two tangents from a point to a circle are equal in length Time: 6 – 8 hours Area of specification 4.6 4. in brackets. and that the vertices are the concyclic points It is helpful if students are familiar with the terminology associated with circle theorems Students should develop the habit of giving a reason.6 4.6 4. to support numerical values for angles obtained in any geometrical context involving circles 4.6 4. using all the given facts.6 4.7 Notes Students should be made aware that diagrams on examination papers will not be drawn to scale and that they should not assume geometrical facts that are not given in the question A/A* notes/tips  Student should be encouraged to always draw a neat diagram.6 4. after each geometrical statement    110 UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 .6 4.6 Understanding and using the internal and external intersecting chord properties Providing reasons. using standard geometrical statements.6 4. They should remember to use the basic geometrical facts to help them move through the problem Students should know that a figure is cyclic if a circle can be drawn through its vertices.

Resources Textbook Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 1 Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 2 References Unit 4: Shape and space 4 page 194-204 Unit 1: Shape and space 1 page 28-44 Unit 5: Shape and space 5 (Revision) page 379 See Appendix 1 for references to past paper questions for students aiming for top grades in this module UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) – Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 111 .

9 Finding the areas of rectangles. for example m2 and cm2 Resources Textbook Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 2 References Unit 2: shape and space page 98-139 Unit 2: Number 2 page 60-62 112 UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 .9 4.9 4.Module 6 — Area and perimeter Target grades: A/B/C/D Content Time: 4 – 6 hours Area of specification 4. parallelograms and trapezia. triangles. using relevant formulae Finding circumferences and areas of circles using relevant formulae Finding the areas of compound shapes made from rectangles and triangles Finding perimeters and areas of sectors of circles Converting between units of length and of area within the metric system.9 4.9 4.

space and measures: Module 6 Resources Textbook Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 2 References Unit 2: Number 2 page 63 Unit 2: Shape and space page 112-123 UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) – Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 113 .9 4.9 Understanding the terms face. m3 and cm3 Prior knowledge Shape.9 4. using appropriate formulae Finding the surface areas of solids with rectangular and triangular faces Finding the surface area and/or volume of a sphere and of a right circular cone using relevant formulae Converting between units of volume within the metric system. edge and vertex in the context of a 3-D solid Finding the volumes of right prisms.Module 7 — 3-D shapes and volume Target grades: A/B/C/D Content Time: 4 – 6 hours Area of specification 4.9 4.9 4. for example cm3 and litres. including cuboids and cylinders.

8 Notes When producing their answers students should remember that:   the hypotenuse is the longest side the hypotenuse is less than the sum of the lengths of the other two sides Some students find questions on this topic much more difficult if the orientation of the triangle is unusual Resources Textbook Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 1 Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 2 References Unit 4: Shape and space 4 page 212-215 Unit 5: Shape and space 5 (Revision) page 380 114 UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 .Module 8 — Pythagoras’ theorem Target grade: B/C/D Content Time: 3 – 5 hours Area of specification Understanding and using Pythagoras’ theorem in 2-D to find the length of the hypotenuse or that of one of the shorter sides of a right-angled triangle Using Pythagoras’ theorem to solve problems 4.8 4.

including bearings Using Pythagoras’ theorem and trigonometry to solve problems Notes Students should ensure that their calculators are in ‘degree mode’ before tackling trigonometry questions Resources Textbook Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 1 References Unit 2: Shape and space 2 page 87-94 Unit 3: Shape and space 3 page 142-153 UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) – Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 115 .8 4.8 Identifying the various sides of a right-angled triangle as the hypotenuse.8 4. cosine and tangent of acute angles to find lengths and angles in a right-angled triangle Using trigonometry to solve problems. opposite and adjacent Understanding and using sine.Module 9 — Trigonometry Target grade: B/C/D Content Time: 3 – 5 hours Area of specification 4.8 4.

areas.10 4.Module 10 — Similar shapes Target grade: A*/A/B/C Content Time: 6 – 8 hours Area of specification 4. instead of the vertical height. if two shapes are similar their corresponding angles are equal and all their corresponding lengths are in the same ratio Using similarity to find lengths of sides Understanding that areas of similar figures are in the ratio of the square of corresponding sides Understanding that the volumes of similar figures are in the ratio of the cube of corresponding sides Using areas and volumes of similar figures in solving problems Notes Some students have difficulty in identifying correct ratios of quantities (lengths.10 4. a common error is the use of the slant height of a 3-D shape.10 Understanding that. volumes) particularly when an area or a volume ratio of similar figures is given A/A* notes/tips  When working with similar shapes.10 4. when calculating volumes Resources Textbook Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 1 Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 2 References Unit 4: Shape and space 4 page 205-212 Unit 2: Shape and space 2 page 112-139 See Appendix 1 for references to past paper questions for students aiming for top grades in this module 116 UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 .10 4.

and not assume that by writing down all the decimal points from their calculator display that this indicates exactness. as this will assist with developing this important skill Students also need to develop an awareness of the value of an ‘exact’ value. They should be confident to use functions. and they need to be able to demonstrate this awareness in their working out. This means that students need to develop the skill of manipulating the cosine rule with confident ease.8 4. in particular they need to recognise when it is more appropriate to use the cosine rule.8 4.8 4.8 Understanding and using sine. including finding the angle between a line and a plane but not the angle between two planes 4. students should appreciate the need to analyse the question carefully and then choose the appropriate method of solution first time. They should set out their solutions clearly. Students should be able to confidently use the cosine rule. space and measures: Modules 8 and 9 Notes The concept that angles of elevation and depression are measured from the horizontal should be emphasised Arithmetical methods in handling the cosine rule. however a common error is misquoting it. rather than the sine rule. In these instances. this skill is essential when tackling the more non-routine questions aimed at the top grades Often students recognise that using the cosine rule is the more appropriate problem-solving technique. cosine and tangent of obtuse angles Understanding and using angles of elevation and depression Using Pythagoras’ theorem in 3-D Understanding and using 1 ab sin C for the area of a triangle 2 Understanding and using the sine rule and the cosine rule for any triangle Applying trigonometrical methods to solve problems in 3-D.8 Prior knowledge Shape. maintaining the correct structure of their solutions. in terms of both sides and angles In order to access the top grades. and they should be able to retain values written as sin(a) or cos(b)     UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) – Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 117 .8 4.Module 11 — Advanced trigonometry Target grade: A*/A/B/C Content Time: 6 – 8 hours Area of specification 4. surds or algebra to show their working out. should be emphasised A/A* notes/tips  Student will need to recognise when to use trigonometry. particularly with obtuse angles.

Resources Textbook Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 2 References Unit 4: Shape and space 4 page 288-314 See Appendix 1 for references to past paper questions for students aiming for top grades in this module 118 UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 .

1 5.1 5.1 5. At this level.1 Understanding that a vector has both magnitude and direction Applying vector methods for simple geometrical proofs in 2-D A/A* notes/tips   It is usual for students to find the initial stages of a vector question quite straightforward. in order to solve the more demanding aspects of the questions. it is about analysing the question.1 5.1 5. with the last stage rather more challenging Students should be encouraged to use geometrical properties to enable them to solve the more demanding aspects of vector questions. Students should develop the habit of maintaining the structure of their solutions.1 5. combined with an awareness of selecting the most appropriate methods of solution  Resources Textbook Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 2 References Unit 3: Shape and space page 210-225 See Appendix 1 for references to past paper questions for students aiming for top grades in this module UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) – Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 119 . and applying simple algebraic manipulations where necessary Students should be able to make use of the result of adding a set of vectors. as well as the use of geometrical properties and algebraic manipulation.Module 12 — Vectors Target grade: A*/A/B Content Understanding and using vector notation Multiplying vectors by scalar quantities Adding and subtracting vectors Calculating the modulus (magnitude) of a vector Finding the resultant of two or more vectors Time: 5 – 7 hours Area of specification 5.

1 6. frequency is proportional to the area of the bar When working with histograms. which is to calculate and then mark on the vertical axis.HANDLING DATA Module 1 — Graphical representation of data Target grades: A*/A/B Content Using cumulative frequency diagrams Constructing and interpreting histograms for unequal class intervals Time: 4 – 6 hours Area of specification 6. the frequency densities.1 6. students should be encouraged to work with the most successful and shortest method. This approach often leads onto using efficient methods for working with histograms Resources Textbook Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 1 Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 2 References Unit 5: Handling data 5 page 282-291 Unit 3: Handling data 3 page 226-235 See Appendix 1 for references to past paper questions for students aiming for top grades in this module 120 UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 .1 Constructing cumulative frequency diagrams from tabulated data Notes Students need to be aware that the upper bound of the class interval is used to plot points in a cumulative frequency diagram A/A* notes/tips   Student need to understand that in a histogram.

Module 2 — Statistical measures Target grades: B/C/D Content Understanding the concept of average as a value which is representative of a set of data Finding the mean. median.2 Calculating an estimate for the mean for grouped data.2 6. 164 Unit 3: Handling data 3 page 154-160 Unit 5: Handling data 5 page 279-281 UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) – Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 121 .2 6.2 6.2 6. 107. mode and range for a discrete data set from a frequency table Selecting the most appropriate average Finding the modal class for grouped data Time: 3 – 5 hours Area of specification 6.2 6.2 6. using halfway values Estimating the median from a cumulative frequency diagram Understanding the concept of a measure of spread Estimating the quartiles and the interquartile range from given data or from a cumulative frequency diagram Notes Students need to be aware that the median and quartiles are read off as values from the y-axis Resources Textbook Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 1 References Unit 2: Handling data 2 page 97-98.2 6.

3 6.3 6.3 6. with confidence.3 6.Module 3 — Probability Target grades: A*/A/B/C/D Content Understanding sample spaces and using them to find the probability that an event will occur Time: 5 – 7 hours Area of specification 6. or for two successive events. students need to include the necessary labels and appropriate values  122 UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 . A common error tends to be considering only one combination instead of all the necessary combinations Students need to be able to use tree diagrams. If tree diagrams are used. ‘2 out of 3’ and ‘2 : 3’ would be penalised in the examination A/A* notes/tips   Student should be able to handle the ‘at least’ situation through using efficient methods.3 6. eg by using P( E ) + P( E ) = 1 Students should recognise when it is necessary to consider additional combinations when solving problems. and using lists to find the probability that an event will occur Using the sum of probabilities of all possible outcomes equalling one Understanding the meanings of ‘equally likely’ and ‘mutually exclusive’ Using the addition rule for probability for mutually exclusive events Understanding and using expected frequency to calculate an estimate for the number of times an event will occur Determining the probability that two or more independent events will both occur Knowing when to add or multiply probabilities Using simple conditional probability when combining events Drawing tree diagrams to show the outcomes of two or more successive events and related probabilities Using tree diagrams to solve probability problems 6. decimals and percentages can be used for probability.3 6.3 Notes You may need to remind students that only fractions.3 Listing all the outcomes for single events systematically.3 6. Answers such as ‘2 in 3’.3 6.3 6.

Resources Textbook Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 2 References Unit 2: Handling data 2 page 140-151 Unit 4: Handling data 4 page 315-325 See Appendix 1 for references to past paper questions for students aiming for top grades in this module UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) – Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 123 .

124 UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 .

B V Hony ISBN 978-0 435966 91 1 Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 2 D A Turner. Waite W and Hony V – Longman Mathematics for IGCSE Book 1 ISBN 9781405802116 Turner D. Waite W and Hony V – Longman Mathematics for IGCSE ActiveTeach 2 ISBN 9781405865883 UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) – Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 125 . I A Potts. B V Hony ISBN 978-0 435966 92 8 Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Practice Book 1 D A Turner.pearsonglobalschools.Resources Student and Practice Books Edexcel’s own Student Books and Practice Books published specifically for the following specifications   IGCSE 2009 Mathematics A The Edexcel Level 1/Level 2 Certificate in Mathematics provide complete coverage of the specification and plenty of exercises and practice exam questions in addition to a FREE ActiveBook CD. Waite W and Hony V – Longman Mathematics for IGCSE ActiveTeach 1 ISBN 9781405865876 Turner D.       Turner D. Potts I. W R J Waite. I A Potts ISBN 978-0 435044 16 9 Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Practice Book 2 D A Turner. Potts I. Potts I. Waite W and Hony V – Longman Mathematics for IGCSE Book 2 ISBN 9781405802123 Turner D and Potts I – Longman Mathematics for IGCSE Practice Book 2 ISBN 9781405865043 Turner D and Potts I – Longman Mathematics for IGCSE Practice Book 1 ISBN 9781405865036 Turner D. W R J Waite. I A Potts. These texts are the updated versions of the Longman Mathematics for IGCSE resources below which were published in 2005-2007. I A Potts ISBN 978-0 435044 15 2    Visit www.com/igcse for more information and to order your copies now.  Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 1 D A Turner. Potts I.

Endorsed books For the Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A specification. Huby D and Kranat J – IGCSE Mathematics for Edexcel (Oxford University Press. Please note that while resources are checked at the time of publication. materials may be withdrawn from circulation and website locations may change at any time. the additional titles below have been endorsed by Edexcel and could be used as teaching aids. There are no content changes between the IGCSE Mathematics A and the Edexcel Certificate in Mathematics specifications. 2006) ISBN 9780007755486 Smith A – IGCSE Mathematics for Edexcel (Hodder Murray 2008) ISBN 9780340945414 Revision Guide for IGCSE Maths Higher Tier (ZigZag Education) 126 UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 . Demetriou D. This means that the following titles are also suitable for the Certificate.      Appleton M. 2007) ISBN 9780199152629 Johnson T and Clough T – Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics Practice (Hodder Murray 2008) ISBN 9780340966273 Metcalf P – IGCSE Mathematics for Edexcel (Collins Education. The internet is also valuable as a tool for research and learning.

Appendices Appendix 1: References to past paper questions for students aiming for top grades Appendix 2: References to past paper questions for content not currently assessed at GCSE Mathematics Appendix 3: The use of the calculator 129 131 133 UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) – Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 127 .

128 UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 .

Appendix 1: References to past paper questions for students aiming for top grades The table below gives references to past papers. space and measures 5 10 11 12 Data handling 1 3 Function notation Graphs of functions Calculus Circle properties Similar shapes Advanced trigonometry Vectors Graphical representation of data Probability UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) – Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 129 . Module number Number 2 Topic area Powers and roots Past question references IGCSE (4400) November 2009 3H Q25 May 2010 3H Q 16 May 2009 3H Q20 November 2009 3H Q23 November 2009 3H Q19 May 2010 3H Q18 November 2004 3H Q 18 May 2006 3H Q20 May 2009 4H Q16 May 2009 4H Q21 November 2009 3H Q21 November 2009 4H Q20 May 2010 3H Q15 November 2009 3H Q24 May 2010 4H Q15 November 2009 3H Q15 May 2009 4H Q17 November 2009 4H Q19 November 2008 3H Q20 November 2009 4H Q21 May 2007 3H Q18 May 2009 3H Q16 November 2009 3H Q22 May 2010 4H Q18 May 2009 4H Q18 May 2010 4H Q21 May 2009 4H Q19 May 2010 4H Q15 November 2009 3H Q20 November 2009 4H Q16 May 2009 3H Q17 May 2010 3H Q19 7 Algebra 1 2 7 10 Degrees of accuracy Algebraic manipulation Expressions and formulae Quadratic expressions Proportion 11 12 13 Shape. The questions can be used to focus on the more demanding topics for the students aiming at the top grades.

130 UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 .

Module number Number 8 Topic area Set language and notation Quadratic inequalities Function notation Past question references IGCSE (4400) November 2010 1F Q20 November 2010 3H Q7 May 2010 4H Q6 November 2005 3H Q15 November 2009 3H Q24 November 2010 3H Q21 June 2010 4H Q20 May 2008 3H Q21 Algebra 8 11 12 Finding the gradient of a curve at a point by drawing a tangent Calculus Intersecting chord theorem Modulus of a vector Simple conditional probability 13 Shape.Appendix 2: References to past paper questions for content not currently assessed at GCSE Mathematics These topics are not included in GCSE Mathematics. but are included in IGCSE Mathematics. space and measures Data handling 5 12 3 November 2009 4H Q19 November 2010 3H Q16 May 2008 4H Q18 November 2010 4H Q19 May 2008 4H Q21 November 2010 1F Q13 November 2010 3H Q17 November 2010 4H Q14 UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) – Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 131 .

132 UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 .

recurring decimals and equations. Appropriate and efficient use of calculators is desirable but reliance on them at the expense of understanding and learning mathematical techniques is not. are also provided. Current models can be used to answer questions on a number of topics including fractions. UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) – Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 133 . The style of some questions on certain topics and the way in which they are marked help us achieve these aims. surds. candidates must give every necessary step in the working and it is better for them to err on the side of giving too much working rather than too little. model solutions. It would clearly be unfair if sophisticated calculators gave candidates an advantage in the examination. when the answer is given. In addition to ensuring fairness to candidates. Obviously. examples of such questions are given below. standard form.Appendix 3: The use of the calculator The range of functions on calculators is increasing all the time. To assist teachers preparing students for the examination. Fractions Example 1 (Foundation/Higher) Show that 2 3 5  1 3 4 12 (2 marks) Solution ( 8 9 2 3   )  12 12 3 4  17 12 5 ) 12  (1 Comment The marks would be awarded for the unbracketed steps of the solution. another of our aims as examiners is to encourage good classroom practice. which are not unique.

6  10  10 2 n  1 .6  10 2 n 1 134 UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 . Standard form Example 3 (Higher) x  4  10 n where n is an integer. for x2 Give your expression as simply as possible. as the answer is given. 3 would not.Surds Example 2 (Higher) Show that (2  3)2  7  4 3 (2 marks) Solution (2  3)2  4  2 3  2 3  ( 3)2  44 33 ( 7  4 3 ) Comment 3  3 and 9 would be acceptable alternatives to ( 3 ) 2 in the expansion but. Find an expression. in standard form. (3 marks) Solution x  ( 4  10 ) 2 n 2  16  (10 n ) 2  16  10 2 n  1 .

Example 4 (Higher) Solve 7y  2y  2y  3 4 (4 marks) Solution 1 Step 7  2y  4 ( 2 y  3) 4 or 7  2 y  4 ( 2 y  3 ) 4 Notes Demonstrates clear intention to multiply both sides by 4 or a multiple of 4.Equations “Spotting” a solution and showing. for example. in general. that it satisfies an equation will not. 4 7  2y or 7  2 y 4 = 4 × 2y + 3 or 8y + 3 or 2y + 3 × 4 or 2y + 12 7  2 y  8 y  12 or simpler 10 y   5 or  10 y  5 Correct expansion of brackets (usually 8 y  2 y  7  12 ) or correct rearrangement of correct terms eg 8y + 2y = 7 − 12 Reduction to correct equation of form ay = b y 1 2  5 and −0.5 are acceptable equivalents 10 but not −5 ÷ 10 etc UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) – Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 135 . The example below shows two possible methods and there will often be more than one acceptable method. by substitution. We advise teachers to consult past mark schemes for more examples of different methods.5 are acceptable equivalents 10 but not −5 ÷ 10 etc Solution 2 Step Notes Division of both terms on LHS by 4 Correct rearrangement of correct terms Reduction to correct equation of form ay = b 7 2y   2y  3 4 4 7 2y  3  2y  4 4 10 y 5   or equivalent 4 4 y 1 2  5 and −0. qualify as “sufficient working”.

Z angles and C angles will receive no credit when given in geometrical reasons.Example 5 (Higher) Solve 3x2 − 8x + 2 = 0 Give your solutions correct to 3 significant figures. The terms accepted are corresponding angles.1-143/2 136 UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 . 3 Set Language and Notation Centres should also ensure that candidates are aware that. 4618sb150311S:\LT\PD\IGCSE TSM\UG026781 MATHEMATICS (SPEC A) TEACHERS GUIDE ISSUE 3. (3 marks) Solution Step Notes x  8 ( 8) 2  4  3  2 23 Correct substitution in the quadratic formula x x 8 8 6 64  24 6 40 Correct simplification of the quadratic formula x = 2.279 Statement of solutions correct to 3 significant figures 2 Geometrical Reasoning Centres should ensure that candidates are aware that the terms F angles. alternate angles and allied (or co-interior) angles respectively. although knowledge of only the first two of these is required by the specification.39 or x = 0. in lists of the members of the union of sets. the repetition of members is penalised.DOC.

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