## Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

**Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specifcation A) (4MA0)
**

First examination 2011

Issue 3

Edexcel, a Pearson company, is the UK’s largest awarding body, offering academic

and vocational qualifications and testing to more than 25,000 schools, colleges,

employers and other places of learning in the UK and in over 100 countries

worldwide. Qualifications include GCSE, IGCSE, AS and A Level, NVQ and our BTEC

suite of vocational qualifications from entry level to BTEC Higher National Diplomas,

recognised by employers and higher education institutions worldwide.

We deliver 9.4 million exam scripts each year, with more than 90% of exam papers

marked onscreen annually. As part of Pearson, Edexcel continues to invest in

cutting-edge technology that has revolutionised the examinations and assessment

system. This includes the ability to provide detailed performance data to teachers

and students which help to raise attainment.

This is an Issue 3 of the Teacher’s guide. Substantial changes have been made to

the Teacher’s guide through including; Differences in assessments, Appendices,

A/A* notes/tips and Textbook references.

Acknowledgements

This document has been produced by Edexcel on the basis of consultation with

teachers, examiners, consultants and other interested parties. Edexcel would like to

thank all those who contributed their time and expertise to its development.

References to third-party material made in this document are made in good faith.

Edexcel does not endorse, approve or accept responsibility for the content of

materials, which may be subject to change, or any opinions expressed therein.

(Material may include textbooks, journals, magazines and other publications and

websites.)

Authorised by Roger Beard

Prepared by Sharon Wood

Publications Code UG026781

All the material in this publication is copyright

© Edexcel Limited 2011

Introduction

The Edexcel International General Certificate of Secondary Education (IGCSE) in

Mathematics (Specification A) is designed for schools and colleges. It is part of a

suite of IGCSE qualifications offered by Edexcel.

About this Teacher’s guide

This Teacher’s guide is for teachers who are delivering, or planning to deliver, the

Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) qualification. The guide supports

you in delivering the course content and explains how to raise the achievement of

your students.

This guide:

- provides details of Assessment Objectives (AO)

- provides additional material on sets, functions and calculus

- provides a course planner showing how all the specification content could be

taught over two years

- offers you suggestions for a range of textbooks and other resources.

Contents

Why choose this qualification? 1

Support from Edexcel 2

Section A: Qualification content 5

Key subject aims 5

Unique features and benefits of the qualification 5

Assessment and progression 5

Content summary 6

Section B: Assessment 9

Assessment overview 9

Assessment Objectives and weightings 10

Assessment summary 11

Using the mark scheme 12

Tiers of entry 13

Formulae sheets 13

Calculators 14

Section C: Support for centres switching from GCSE Mathematics 15

Differences in Assessment 15

Differences in content 18

Omitted topics 18

Additional topics 19

Notes and sample assessment questions on the three major additional

topics 20

Section D: Planning and teaching 43

Course planner 43

Foundation tier content summary 45

Foundation tier 47

Higher tier content summary 79

Higher tier 81

Resources 125

Student and Practice Books 125

Endorsed books 126

Appendices 127

Appendix 1: References to past paper questions for students aiming

for top grades 129

Appendix 2: References to past paper questions for content not

currently assessed at GCSE Mathematics 131

Appendix 3: The use of the calculator 133

UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) –

Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011

1

Why choose this qualification?

The Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) includes:

- tiers of entry that allow students to be entered for a level appropriate to them

- questions that are accessible to students of all abilities within that tier

- papers that are balanced in terms of topics and difficulty

- standards that are equivalent to Edexcel’s UK GCSE in Mathematics

- a full range of teacher support and resources

- a solid basis for students wishing to progress to Edexcel AS and Advanced GCE

Level, or equivalent qualifications.

Go to www.edexcel.com/igcse2009 for more information about this IGCSE and

related sources.

UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0)

Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011

2

Support from Edexcel

We are dedicated to giving you exceptional customer service. Details of our main

support services are given below. They will all help you to keep up to date with this

qualification.

Mathematics Emporium

This is an exceptional service run by our in-house subject expert Graham Cumming.

- To stay ahead of all the latest developments sign-up to the IGCSE or Certificate

mailing list by emailing your details to mathsemporium@edexcel.com

- To access and download the specification, past papers, mark schemes and much

more register at www.edexcelmaths.com

- For any queries regarding this qualification, email

mathsemporium@edexcel.com

Website

Our dedicated microsite www.edexcel.com/igcse2009 is where you will find all the

information, support materials and resources you need to successfully deliver

IGCSE qualifications.

Ask Edexcel & Ask the Expert

To make it easier for you to raise a query with us, we have merged Ask Edexcel

and Ask the Expert into one online service. You can use it to ask any question

about the delivery or teaching of Edexcel qualifications. Search the database for

frequently asked questions or submit your enquiry directly to us using the easy-to-

use online enquiry form. You’ll receive a personal response sent to the email

address you provide from one of our administrative or teaching experts.

Visit http://www.edexcel.com/iwantto/Pages/ask-edexcel.aspx for more information

Regional offices

If you are an international centre interested in offering other Edexcel qualifications

your Regional Development Manager can help you. Go to

www.edexcel.com/international for details of our regional offices.

UK Customer Services

If you have a question about this qualification call our Customer Services Team on

0844 576 0027

Training

A programme of professional development and training courses, covering various

aspects of the specification and examination will be available. Go to

www.edexcel.com/training for details.

UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) –

Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011

3

ResultsPlus

The ResultsPlus service is our online exam results analysis tool and is available to

all Edexcel centres for free. ResultsPlus will provide head teachers with clear

information demonstrating how their centre has performed and teachers how

students have performed in each subject and or question paper. In addition,

Edexcel is offering students the opportunity to receive detailed results information

online via ResultsPlus. Centres may choose to opt into this service. To find out

more visit www.edexcel.com/resultsplus

UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0)

Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011

4

UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) –

Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011

5

Section A: Qualification content

Key subject aims

- To develop knowledge and understanding of mathematical concepts and

techniques.

- To give students a foundation of mathematical skills for further study in the

subject or related areas.

- To enable students to enjoy using and applying mathematical techniques and

concepts, and become confident in using mathematics to solve problems.

- To give students an appreciation of the importance of mathematics in society,

employment and study.

Unique features and benefits of the qualification

- Tiers of entry that allow students to be assessed at the appropriate level.

- Standards that are equivalent to Edexcel’s UK GCSE in Mathematics.

- A full range of teacher support and resources.

Assessment and progression

- Two tiers – two papers accessible for all abilities within the appropriate tier.

- Grades A*-G available.

- Assessment opportunities in both January and June examination series. First

assessment in June 2011.

- Gives a foundation for Edexcel AS and Advanced GCE Level, or equivalent

qualifications.

UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0)

Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011

6

Content summary

The Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) gives students the opportunity

to develop their knowledge, understanding and skills in the areas of number,

algebra, geometry, and statistics.

The table below shows where the mathematical topics can be found in the

specification.

Mathematical topic Specification reference

Number, set notation and

language

Section 1.1 – Integers

Section 1.5 – Set language and notation

Squares, square roots and cubes Section 1.4 – Powers and roots

Directed numbers Section 1.1 – Integers

Fractions, percentages, mixed and

improper fractions, decimals

Section 1.2 – Fractions

Section 1.3 - Decimals

Ordering Section 1.1 – Integers

Section 2.8 – Inequalities

Standard form Section 1.9 – Standard form

The four rules Section 1.1 – Integers

Section 1.2 – Fractions

Estimation Section 1.8 – Degree of accuracy

Section 1.10 – Applying number

Limits of accuracy Section 1.8 – Degree of accuracy

Ratio, proportion, rate Section 1.7 – Ratio and proportion

Section 2.5 - Porportion

Percentages Section 1.6 – Percentages

Use of electronic calculator Section 1.11 – Electronic calculators

Measures Section 4.4 – Measures

Time Section 4.4 – Measures

Money Section 1.10 – Applying number

Personal and household finance Section 1.10 – Applying number

Graphs in practical situations Section 3.3 – Graphs

Graphs of functions Section 3.3 – Graphs

Straight line graphs Section 3.3 – Graphs

Algebraic representation and

formulae

Section 2.1 – Use of symbols

Section 2.3 – Expressions and formulae

UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) –

Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011

7

Mathematical topic Specification reference

Algebraic manipulation Section 2.2 – Algebraic manipulation

Sequences Section 3.1 - Sequences

Functions Section 3.2 – Functional notation

Indices Section 1.4 – Powers and roots

Solutions of equations and

inequalities

Section 2.4 – Linear equations

Section 2.6 – Simultaneous linear equations

Section 2.7 – Quadratic equations

Section 2.8 – Inequalities

Linear programming Section 2.8 – Inequalities

Geometrical terms and

relationships

Section 4.1 – Angles and triangles

Section 4.2 – Polygons

Section 4.6 – Circle properties

Section 4.11 – Similarity

Geometrical constructions Section 4.4 – Measures

Section 4.5 – Constructions

Symmetry Section 4.3 – Symmetry

Section 4.6 – Circle properties

Angle properties Section 4.1 – Angles and triangles

Section 4.2 – Polygons

Section 4.6 – Circle properties

Section 4.7 – Geometrical reasoning

Mensuration Section 4.9 – Mensuration of 2-D shapes

Section 4.10 – 3-D shapes and volume

Trigonometry Section 4.8 – Trigonometry and Pythagoras’s

Theorem

Statistics Section 6.1 – Graphical representation of

data

Section 6.2 – Statistical measures

Probability Section 6.3 – Probability

Vectors in two dimensions Section 5.1 – Vectors

Transformations Section 5.2 – Transformation geometry

UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0)

Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011

8

The topics shown below can be found in the Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics

(Specification B) (4MB0) specification content section.

Mathematical topic Specification

Loci Section 6 – Geometry

Matrices Section 5 – Matrices

UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) –

Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011

9

Section B: Assessment

This section provides all the information you need to understand the assessment

requirements of this qualification.

Assessment overview

The table below gives you an overview of the assessment for this course. We

recommend that you make this information available to students to help ensure

they are fully prepared and know exactly what to expect in each assessment.

Paper 1F Percentage Marks Time Availability

Foundation

tier

4MA0/1F

50 100 2 hours January and June series

First assessment June

2011

Paper 2F Percentage Marks Time Availability

Foundation

tier

4MA0/2F

50 100 2 hours January and June series

First assessment June

2011

Paper 3H Percentage Marks Time Availability

Higher tier

4MA0/3H

50 100 2 hours January and June series

First assessment June

2011

Paper 4H Percentage Marks Time Availability

Higher tier

4MA0/4H

50 100 2 hours January and June series

First assessment June

2011

This is a linear qualification. Students must take both papers, (1F and 2F) or (3H

and 4H), in the same series. Calculators are allowed for all papers.

UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0)

Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011

10

Assessment Objectives and weightings

% in IGCSE

AO1: demonstrate their knowledge, understanding and skills in

number and algebra:

- numbers and the numbering system

- calculations

- solving numerical problems

- equations, formulae and identities

- sequences, functions and graphs.

55%

AO2: demonstrate their knowledge, understanding and skills in

shape, space and measures:

- geometry

- vectors and transformation geometry.

25%

AO3: demonstrate their knowledge, understanding and skills in

handling data:

- statistics.

20%

TOTAL 100%

UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) –

Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011

11

Assessment summary

Paper 1F Description Knowledge and

skills

Foundation

tier

4MA0/1F

- Each paper is assessed through a

2-hour examination set and marked

by Edexcel.

- The total number of marks for each

paper is 100.

- Each paper will have approximately

equal marks available for each

targeted grade.

- Each paper will assess the full range

of targeted grades at Foundation tier,

C-G.

- There will be some common

questions targeted at grades C and

D, across papers 1F and 3H and 2F

and 4H, to aid standardisation and

comparability of award between the

tiers.

- The Foundation tier papers contain

slightly more number than algebra.

In all examination papers:

- diagrams will not necessarily be

drawn to scale and measurements

should not be taken from diagrams

unless instructions to this effect are

given

- students may need to use

mathematical instruments, for

example a pair of compasses, ruler

and protractor

- calculators and tracing paper may be

used

- formulae sheets will be provided.

The Assessment

Objectives covered

in this assessment

are:

AO1: 55%

AO2: 25%

AO3: 20%

This information is

available in the

specification.

Overview of

content:

- number

- algebra

- geometry

- statistics.

Paper 2F Description Knowledge and

skills

Foundation

tier

4MA0/2F

Same as above Same as above

UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0)

Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011

12

Paper 3H Description Knowledge and

skills

Higher tier

4MA0/3H

- Each paper is assessed through a

2-hour examination set and marked by

Edexcel.

- The total number of marks for each

paper is 100.

- Each paper will have approximately

equal marks available for each

targeted grade.

- Each paper will assess the full range of

targeted grades at Higher tier, A*-D.

- Questions will assume knowledge of

the Foundation tier subject content.

- There will be some common questions

targeted at grades C and D, across

papers 3H and 1F and 4H and 2F, to

aid standardisation and comparability

of award between the tiers.

- The Higher tier papers contain

considerably more algebra than

number.

In all examination papers:

- diagrams will not necessarily be drawn

to scale and measurements should not

be taken from diagrams unless

instructions to this effect are given

- students may need to use

mathematical instruments, for

example a pair of compasses, ruler

and protractor

- calculators and tracing paper may be

used

- formulae sheets will be provided.

The Assessment

Objectives covered

in this assessment

are:

AO1: 55%

AO2: 25%

AO3: 20%

This information is

available in the

specification.

Overview of

content:

- number

- algebra

- geometry

- statistics.

Paper 4H Description Knowledge and

skills

Higher tier

4MA0/4H

Same as above Same as above

Using the mark scheme

The mark scheme gives the responses expected from students. Indicative answers

are given but during the standardisation of examiners process, the mark scheme is

updated and expanded to cover unexpected, correct student responses.

UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) –

Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011

13

Tiers of entry

Students are entered for either Foundation tier or Higher tier.

Foundation tier papers are designed for students who are unlikely to achieve a

high grade but whose achievement can still be recognised with a grade at the

appropriate level. The highest grade Foundation tier students can be awarded is

grade C. Students who fail to achieve grade G will be awarded ‘Ungraded’.

Higher tier papers are designed for students who are likely to achieve at least a

grade C. Knowledge of all Foundation tier content is assumed, but material related

to grades below the range of the Higher tier will not be the focus of assessment.

Some questions are common to both tiers, but the remaining questions in these

papers test topics which are aimed at Higher tier students only, and are obviously

more demanding.

The highest grade which can be awarded on the Higher tier is A* – for the highest

achievers at the top of grade A. Questions in the Higher tier are targeted at grades

A* to D, but there is a ‘safety net’, grade E, for those students who are within a few

marks of grade D. Students who fail to achieve the safety net grade E will be

awarded ‘Ungraded’.

Foundation and Higher tier papers are sat at the same time and students cannot be

entered for both examinations. This means that you need to ensure that a student

is entered for the appropriate tier. Students who consistently achieve grade C in

practice tests could be entered for the Higher tier, where they have the opportunity

to achieve the higher grades. However, they would need to be taught the Higher

tier material.

Because of the overlap between the two tiers at grades C and D, there are some

questions common to both tiers. In this qualification, the overlap accounts for about

40% of the marks on a paper.

Formulae sheets

Formulae sheets are provided for each tier on the inside front cover of each

question/answer booklet. The formulae sheets appear as appendices in the

specification.

UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0)

Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011

14

Calculators

- Students will be expected to have access to a suitable electronic calculator for

all examination papers.

- Electronic calculators used by students sitting the Foundation tier examination

papers

(1F and 2F) should have the following functions as a minimum:

+, −, ×, ÷, x

2

,

√x, memory, brackets, ,

y

x

1

y

x sine, cosine, tangent and their

inverses.

- Electronic calculators used by students sitting Higher tier examination papers

(3H and 4H) should have the following functions as a minimum:

+, −, ×, ÷, x

2

,

√x, memory, brackets, ,

y

x

1

y

x , , x Σx, Σfx, standard form,

sine, cosine, tangent and their inverses

Calculators with any of the following facilities are not allowed in any examination:

- databanks

- retrieval of text or formulae

- QWERTY keyboards

- built-in symbolic algebraic manipulations

- symbolic differentiation or integration.

See Appendix 3 for more extensive notes on the use of the calculator.

UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) –

Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011

15

Section C: Support for centres switching from

GCSE Mathematics

Differences in Assessment

The table below gives an overview of the differences in the assessment models of

GCSE Mathematics (Specification A) and IGCSE Mathematics (Specification A)

GCSE Mathematics

(Specification A) (1MA0)

Assessment model

IGCSE Mathematics

(Specification A) (4MA0)

Assessment model

- Externally assessed

- Two written papers

- Each paper lasts:

– 1 hour 45 minutes (F)

– 1 hour 45 minutes (H).

- Each paper contains 100 marks

- Papers 1F and 1H: Non-Calculator

- Papers 2F and 2H: Calculator

- Tiered papers

- Externally assessed

- Two written papers

- Each paper lasts:

– 2 hours (F)

– 2 hours (H).

- Each paper contains 100 marks

- Papers 1F, 2F, 3H and 4H:

Calculator

- Tiered papers

- Foundation Tier:

– Grades C-G available

– Each paper will assess the full

range of targeted grades at

Foundation Tier

– There will be some common

questions targeted at grades C

and D across papers 1F and 3H,

and papers 2F and 4H, to aid

standardisation and

comparability of award between

tiers.

- Foundation Tier:

– Grades C-G available

– Each will have approximately

equal marks available for each

of the targeted grades

– Each paper will assess the full

range of targeted grades at

Foundation Tier

– There will be some common

questions targeted at grades C

and D across papers 1F and 3H,

and papers 2F and 4H, to aid

standardisation and

comparability of award between

tiers.

UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0)

Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011

16

GCSE Mathematics

(Specification A) (1MA0)

Assessment model

IGCSE Mathematics

(Specification A) (4MA0)

Assessment model

- Higher Tier:

– Grades A*-D available

(E allowed)

– Each will have approximately

equal marks available for each

of the targeted grades

– Each paper will assess the full

range of targeted grades at

Higher Tier

- Each paper assesses the functional

elements of mathematics:

– 30-40% on F tier papers

– 20-30% on H tier papers.

- Higher Tier:

– Grades A*-D available

(E allowed)

– Each will have approximately

equal marks available for each

of the targeted grades

– Each paper will assess the full

range of targeted grades at

Higher Tier

– Questions will assume

knowledge from the Foundation

Tier subject content

– There will be some common

questions targeted at grades C

and D across papers 1F and 3H

and papers 2F and 4H, to aid

standardisation and

comparability of award between

tiers.

Assessment Objectives and

Weightings

Assessment Objectives and

Weightings

AO1:

Recall and use their knowledge of the

prescribed content

(45-55%)

AO1:

Demonstrate their knowledge,

understanding and skills in number

and algebra: (55%)

- numbers and numbering system

- calculations

- solving numerical problems

- equations, formulae and identities

- sequences, functions and graphs.

UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) –

Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011

17

GCSE Mathematics

(Specification A) (1MA0)

Assessment model

IGCSE Mathematics

(Specification A) (4MA0)

Assessment model

Assessment Objectives and

Weightings

Assessment Objectives and

Weightings

AO2:

Select and apply mathematical

methods in a range of contexts

(25-35%)

AO2:

Demonstrate their knowledge,

understanding and skills in shape,

space and measures: (25%)

- geometry

- vectors and transformation

geometry.

AO3:

Interpret and analyse problems and

generate strategies to solve them

(15-25%)

AO3:

Demonstrate their knowledge,

understanding and skills in handling

data: (20%)

- statistics.

UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0)

Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011

18

Differences in content

Most of the content of this IGCSE Mathematics qualification is covered in the GCSE

Mathematics content. However, there are some differences in content between the

two qualifications.

There are some omitted topics; content that is included in GCSE Mathematics

content, but not in the content of the IGCSE Mathematics (Specification A).

There are also some additional topics included in the content of the IGCSE

Mathematics (Specification A) which are not in the GCSE Mathematics content.

Omitted topics

These topics are included in the GCSE, but are not included in the IGCSE.

- Exponential growth

- Checking by estimation

- Completing the square

- Trial and improvement

- Gradients of perpendicular lines

- Exponential functions

- Transformations of graphs

- Equation of a circle

- Side-angle-side triangles (SAS), Angle-angle-side triangles (AAS)

- Proofs of circle theorems

- Trigonometry graphs

- Angles greater than 180

o

- Frustum of a cone

- Construct a perpendicular from a point to a line

- Loci

- Negative scale factor

- Plans and elevations

- Metric/imperial conversion

- Collecting data

- Two-way tables

- Seasonality and trends

- Scatter graphs, including lines of best fit

- Correlation

- Box plot

- Stem and leaf.

UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) –

Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011

19

Additional topics

There are three major topics not included in Edexcel’s UK GCSE which feature in

the IGCSE in Mathematics A. These are:

- set language and notation (1.5 in the specification)

- function notation (3.2 in the specification)

- calculus (3.4 in the specification).

There are notes and sample assessment questions, for these three major topics, on

the following pages, which give supplementary information about how these topics

will be assessed.

These examples are not exhaustive. They are intended as an indication of

the level of difficulty and the types of questions which can be expected.

A few smaller topics have also been included in the IGCSE:

- The intersecting chords theorem

- Finding the gradient of a curve at a point by drawing a tangent

- Quadratic inequalities

- Simple conditional probability

- Modulus of a vector.

UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0)

Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011

20

Notes and sample assessment questions on the three major

additional topics

Notes on Set language and notation (1.5 in the specification)

1. Foundation and Higher tiers

Definition

In words, for example {Cats}, {Positive integers less than 10},

{Multiples of 3}, or as a list of members, for example {2, 4, 6, 8}, {chairs,

tables}.

Typical questions

- Given the definition of a set, list all the elements (or members).

- Given a list of all the elements of a set, write the definition.

Symbols: ℰ, Ø, e, , ·

Typical questions

- Given defined sets ℰ, A and B

– describe A · B

– list the members of A B

– what is meant by ‘6 eA’?

– is it true that A · B = Ø? Explain your answer.

UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) –

Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011

21

2. Higher tier only

Definition: Algebraic, for example {ℰ = Integers}, P = {x: 0 ≤ x < 10}

Venn diagrams: Different cases, for example

Symbols: A

/

(the complement of A), ⊂ (‘is a sub-set of’)

Typical questions

- Given defined sets ℰ, A, B, and C

– draw a Venn diagram

– shade A B · C

/

– list the members of B

/

· C

– is it true that A c B?

- Describe a given, shaded region in a Venn diagram.

- Draw a Venn diagram in which certain conditions are true.

Symbols: n(A) (the number of members in A)

Typical questions

- Given a Venn diagram (for example black animals, cats, dogs) with numbers

inserted

– how many black cats are there?

- Given two or three defined sets, find n(A B

/

).

- Given n(ℰ) = 23, n(A) = 16, n(B) = 10, n(AB) = 20

– draw a Venn diagram

– show the number of members in each region.

- Questions involving three sets, where an equation needs to be set up. See

Question 16 in the following sample questions.

UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0)

Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011

22

Sample assessment questions on set language and notation

Foundation and Higher tiers

1. List the members of the following sets.

(a) {Days of the week}

(b) {Even numbers between 1 and 9}

(c) {Factors of 18}

(d) {Colours of the rainbow}

(e) {Square numbers less than 100}

2. ℰ = {Positive integers less than 20}

P = {11, 13, 15, 17}

Q = {12, 14, 16}

R = {Multiples of 4}

(a) List the members of

(i) R

(ii) P Q

(iii) Q · R

(b) What is the set P · R?

3. ℰ = {The books in St John’s library}

M = {Mathematics books}

P = {Paperback books}

T = {Travel books}

(a) Describe the set M · P

(b) What is the set M · T?

(c) One book in St John’s library has the title ‘Explore’.

Given that ‘Explore’ e M T, what can you say about the book ‘Explore’?

UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) –

Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011

23

4. ℰ = {Polygons}

A = {Three-sided shapes}

B = {Shapes with two equal sides}

C = {Shapes with two parallel sides}

(a) What is the mathematical name for the members of A · B?

(b) Which of the following are true?

(i) Kite e A

(ii) Trapezium e C

(iii) A · C = Ø

5. R = {Positive odd numbers less than 10}

S = {Multiples of 3 between 4 and 20}

T = {Prime numbers}

(a) List the elements of

(i) R S

(ii) R · S

(b) You are told that x e R · T

Write down all the possible values of x

(c) Is it true that S · T = Ø?

Explain your answer

See Appendix 2 for references to past paper questions on this content.

UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0)

Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011

24

Higher tier only

6. ℰ = {Positive integers less than 20}

A = {x: 0 < x ≤ 9}

B = {Even numbers}

C = {Multiples of 5}

(a) List the members of A · B

/

(b) Find the value of n(A C)

(c) Complete the statement A · B · C = . . .

(d) Is it true that (A · C

/

) c B? Explain your answer.

7. There are 30 people in a group. 17 own a car. 11 own a bicycle.

5 do not own a car or a bicycle.

How many people in this group own a car but not a bicycle.

8. Draw a Venn diagram with circles representing three sets, A, B and C.

Shade the region representing A · (B C

/

).

9.

Make two copies of this Venn diagram.

(a) On one diagram draw a circle to represent set C, such that

C ⊂ A and

C · B

/

= C

(b) On the other diagram draw a circle to represent set D, such that

D c A

/

D · B ≠ Ø and

D B ≠ D

ℰ

B A

UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) –

Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011

25

10. Draw a Venn diagram with circles representing three sets, A, B and C, such

that all the following are true:

A · C ≠ Ø, A · C

/

≠ Ø and B c (A C)

/

11. ℰ = { x: x is an integer and 1 ≤ x ≤ 30 }

A = {Multiples of 3}

B = {Multiples of 4}

(a) Find the value of n(A · B).

Sets A and B are represented by circles in the Venn diagram.

(b) C = {Odd numbers}

(i) Copy the Venn diagram, and draw a circle on it to represent set C.

(ii) Shade the region A · (B C)

/

.

(ii) Write down all the values of x such that x e A · (B C)

/

.

12. In the Venn diagram, the numbers of elements in several regions are shown.

You are also given that n(ℰ) = 25, n(B) = 12 and n(A) = 8.

(a) Find n(B · C)

(b) Find n(A · C · B

/

)

ℰ

A

B

C

ℰ

A

B

2 3 5

3 7

UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0)

Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011

26

ℰ

13. ℰ = {Positive integers less than 15}

E = {Even numbers}

M = {Multiples of 3}

(a) Copy the Venn diagram and fill in each member of ℰ in the correct region.

(b) Write down the value of n(E · M

/

).

14. ℰ = {Quadrilaterals}

P = {Parallelograms}

K = {Kites}

S = {Squares}

(a) What is the mathematical name for a member of P · K?

(b) Complete the statement P S = . . .

(c) Draw a Venn diagram showing sets P, K and S.

15.

Use set notation to describe the shaded region.

16. There are 40 members in a sports club. Two play all three sports. 23 play

squash. 24 play tennis. 18 play golf. 14 play squash and tennis. Eight play

tennis and golf. One member makes the refreshments and does not play any

sport. How many members play squash and golf?

See Appendix 2 for references to past paper questions on this content.

C

B

A

ℰ

M E

UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) –

Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011

27

Answers

1. (a) Sunday, Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, Friday, Saturday

(b) 2, 4, 6, 8

(c) 1, 2, 3, 6, 9, 18

(d) Red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, violet

(e) 1, 4, 9, 16, 25, 36, 49, 64, 81

2. (a) (i) 4, 8, 12, 16 (ii) 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17 (iii) 12, 16

(b) Ø

3. (a) Paperback mathematics books in St John’s library.

(b) Ø

(c) It is either a mathematics or travel book.

4. (a) Isosceles triangles

(b) ii and iii

5. (a) (i) 1, 3, 5, 6, 7, 9, 12, 15, 18 (ii) 9

(b) 3, 5, 7

(c) Yes. No members of S are prime.

6. (a) 1, 3, 5, 7, 9

(b) 11

(c) Ø

(d) No. For example 3, 7 or 9

7. 14 8. 9. (a) (b)

10.

11. (a) 2 (b)(i), (ii) (iii) 6, 18, 30 12. (a) 4 (b) 1

A B D

A B

C

UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0)

Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011

28

13. (a) (b) 5

14. (a) Rhombus (b) P (c)

15. (A·B) ·C

/

or (A·C

/

)U(B·C

/

) 16. 6

UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) –

Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011

29

Notes on function notation (3.2 in the specification)

Notation and definitions: f(x) = x

2

f: x → x

2

Domain is all values of x to which the function is applied.

Range is all values of f(x)

Domain and/or range may be given in words, as a list,

or algebraically, for example 0 ≤ x < 10

If the domain is not given, it is assumed to be { x: x is any number}.

Which functions?

Usually, for example, linear, quadratic, cubic, x , 1/linear.

Sometimes harder functions, for example, √linear, 1/√linear, linear/linear,

√quadratic,

1/quadratic,

+

b

a

x

,

+

b

ax

x

, trigonometrical

Note: ‘√’ indicates the positive value of the square root.

Typical questions

- Given a function and its domain, find the range

- Given a function applied to all numbers, find the range

- Given a function, which values cannot be included in the domain?

- Given f(x), find f(-2)

- Given f(x) = 3, find the value(s) of x

- Composite functions

fg(x) means f(g(x)), ie do g first followed by f

Typical questions

- Given functions f and g, find fg(-3), gf(2)

- Given functions f and g, find fg in the form fg x : or fg = ) (x

- Given functions f and g, and the domain of f, find the range of gf

- Given functions f and g, which values need to be excluded from the

domain of gf?

Notation for particular sets

(eg Z is the set of integers, R

is the set of real numbers) is

not required.

Co-domain is

not required.

Vocabulary such as

‘One to one’ and

‘Many to one’ is not

required.

UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0)

Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011

30

Inverse functions

Functions required:

Usually, for example, linear, 1/linear, x

or x

2

(with domain restricted to positive

numbers)

Sometimes harder functions, for example, √linear, 1/√linear, linear/linear,

+

b

a

x

,

1/ x

Any method for finding f

–1

is acceptable, for example

- Algebraic: write as y = . . . ; rearrange to make x the subject; interchange x

and y

- Flow chart: reverse each operation, in reverse order.

Typical questions

- Given the function f, find f

–1

(3)

- Given the function f, find f

–1

in the form f

–1

: x or f

–1

= ) (x

- Without working, write down the value of ff

–1

(5)

- Given functions f and g, find the function f

–1

g

- Given functions f and g, solve the equation f (x) = g

–1

(x)

UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) –

Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011

31

Sample assessment questions on function notation

1. Here are three functions:

f(x) = 3 – 2x g(x) =

2

1

÷ x

h(x) = 1 3 + x

(a) Find (i) f(–1) (ii) f(

4

3

) (iii) g(4.5) (iv) g(–2) (v) h(5)

(vi) h( )

3

2

2

(b) (i) Given that f(x) = –7, find x

(ii) Given that g(x) = 2, find x

(iii) Given that h(x) = 5, find x

2. Three functions, p, q and r, are defined as follows:

p(x) = x

2

– 3x + 4 q(x) =

1

3 2

+

÷

x

x

r(x) = sin x

o

(a) Find (i) p(–4) (ii) p(

4

3

) (iii) q(4) (iv) q(–2) (v) r(45) (vi) r(180)

(b) (i) Find the values of x for which p(x) = 2

(ii) Find the value of x for which q(x) =

4

3

(iii) Find the values of x, in the domain 0 ≤ x ≤ 180, for which r(x) = 0.5

3. State which values of x cannot be included in the domain of these functions:

(i) f: x x ÷ 5 (ii) g:x

7 2

5

÷ x

(iii) h:

3

1

+ x

(iv) j: x ) ( 4

2

÷ x (v) l: x

x

x

1

2 + (vi) k: x

2

1

(3 2) x +

(vii) l: x→

x

x

÷

÷

6

3

UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0)

Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011

32

4. f: x x

3

g: x

8

1

+ x

(a) Find (i) fg(–4), (ii) gf(5)

(b) Find (i) gf(x), (ii) fg(x)

(c) What value(s) must be excluded from the domain of (i) gf(x), (ii) fg(x)?

(d) Find and simplify gg(x)

5. Three functions are defined as follows:

p(x) = (x + 4)

2

with domain {x: x is any number}

q(x) = 8 – x with domain {x: x > 0}

r(x) = cos x

o

with domain {x: 0 ≤ x ≤ 180}

(a) Find the range of each of these functions

(b) Find the values of x such that p(x) = q(x)

6. Find the inverse function of each of the following functions:

(a) f(x) = 2x – 3 (b) g(x) = 5 – x (c) h(x) =

4 3

1

+ x

(d) j(x) = 3 –

x

2

(e) k(x) =

x

x

÷

+

5

1 2

7. Find the inverse function of each of the following functions.

(a) p: x 2 3 ÷ x (for x ≥

3

2

) (b) q: x

2

1

+ x

(for x > –2)

(c) r: xx

2

+ 5 (for x ≥ 0) (d) s: x(x – 3)

2

(for x ≥ 3)

UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) –

Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011

33

2

1

( 2) x +

8. The function f(x) is defined as f(x) =

1

2

+ x

.

Solve the equation f(x) = f

–1

(x)

9. Here are two functions:

f(x) =

x + 5

2

g(x) = x

2

+ 3

(a) Calculate g(–2)

(b) Given that f(z) =

8

1

, calculate the value of z

(c) Which value of x must be excluded from the domain of f(x)?

(d) Find the inverse function, f

–1

, in the form f

–1

: x. . .

(e) Calculate f

–1

g(1)

10. Functions f and g are defined as follows:

f: x x + 4 g: x

(a) Calculate (i) f(25) (ii) g(0.5) (iii) fg(–1)

(b) Given that fg(x) = 4.04, find the value of x

(c) Find the function f

–1

(x)

(d) Calculate gf

–1

(4)

11. p(x) =

x

x

+

÷

3

2

q(x) =

x

x

+

÷

1

3 2

(a) Find the function pq(x)

(b) Describe the relationship between the functions p and q

(c) Write down the exact value of pq ) 2 (

See Appendix 2 for references to past paper questions on this content.

UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0)

Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011

34

Answers

In the examination equivalent answers are acceptable, for example, appropriate

decimal instead of fraction.

1. (a)(i) 5 (ii)

2

1

1 (iii)

5

2

(iv) –0.25 (v) 4 (vi) 3 (b)(i) 5 (ii) 2.5 (iii) 8

2. (a)(i) 32 (ii)

16

5

2 (iii) 1 (iv) 7 (v) 0.707 (vi) 0 (b)(i) 1 or 2

(ii) 3 (iii) 30 or 150

3. (i) x > 5 (ii) x = 3.5 (iii) x ≤ –3 (iv) –2 < x < 2

(v) x = 0 (vi) x = –

3

2

(vii) x < 3 or x ≥ 6

4. (a)(i)

64

1

(ii)

133

1

(b)(i)

3

1

8 x +

(ii)

3

1

( 8) x +

(c)(i) x = –2 (ii) x = –8 (d)

8

8 65

x

x

+

+

5. (a) p: > 0; q: < 8; r: –1 to 1 (b) –8 or –1

6. (a)

2

3 + x

(b) 5 – x (c)

x

x

3

4 1÷

(d)

x ÷ 3

2

(e)

x

x

+

÷

2

1 5

7. (a)

2

2

3

x +

(b)

2

1 2

x

÷

(c) 5 ÷ x (d) 3 + x

8. 1 or –2

9. (a) 7 (b) 11 (c) –5 (d) 5

2

÷

x

(e) –

2

1

4

10. (a)(i) 9 (ii) 0.16 (iii) 5 (b) 23 (c) (x – 4)

2

(d)

4

1

11. (a) pq(x) = x (b) Inverses of each other (c) 2

UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) –

Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011

35

Notes on calculus (3.4 in the specification)

Basic concepts and notation

Ideas of gradient of tangent and gradient of curve.

y = x

n

¬ grad =

d

d

y

x

= nx

n-1

,

firstly for positive integer n; then also n = 0, –1, –2

Differentiation of polynomials.

Usually no rearrangement will be required.

If rearrangement is required, this will

usually be asked for explicitly.

Typical questions

- Differentiate x

5

– 3x

2

+ 5 or x

2

+ 3x – 4

- Given y =

2

3 5 + x

, find

d

d

y

x

- Given y = . . . , find the gradient for a given x

find x for a given gradient

- y = (x + 3)

2

. Expand and find

d

d

y

x

Turning points (TPs)

At turning points,

d

d

y

x

= 0

Find TPs for quadratic, cubic,

±

b

ax

x

.

Distinguish maximum/minimum by rough shape,

for example shape of y = ax

2

+ bx + c is · when a < 0.

For

±

b

ax

x

if distinguishing maximum/minimum is required,

the question will ask for the curve to be drawn first.

Differentiation from first principles is

not required.

If you wish to give an introduction

to the concept of a limiting gradient,

the following is adequate, but it will

NOT be tested:

On the curve y = x

2

,

P(3, 3

2

); Q

1

(3.1, (3.1)

2

);

Q

2

(3.01, (3.01)

2

); etc

Find gradients of PQ

1

, PQ

2

, PQ

3

. . .

The language used will be ‘turning

points’, ‘maximum’, ‘minimum’; not

‘stationary points’.

The notation f

/

(x) and the

terms ‘derivative’ and

‘derived function’ are not

required.

Consideration of the

gradient on either side

is not required.

d

2

y is not required.

dx

2

But students may use

these methods if they

wish.

UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0)

Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011

36

Typical questions

- y = quadratic or cubic. Find the turning points(s). State, with a reason, whether

each is a maximum or a minimum.

- y = ax +

x

b

. See Question 13

Rate of change

Know that

d

d

y

x

is the rate of change of y with respect to x.

Typical question

See Question 14

Kinematics

Quadratic, cubic, ±

b

at

t

only. Notation

d

d

s

t

and

d

d

y

t

Typical questions

- Given s in terms of t, find v and/or a at time t or at given time.

- Find maximum distance from starting point.

- Find t for given s, v, or a (only requiring solutions of equations within the

specification).

Practical problems

Typical questions

- Easier type – See Question 12

- Hardest type – See Question 16

Applications to coordinate geometry

Only very simple applications will be tested, possibly requiring understanding of

y = mx + c

Usually, students will be led through step by step. See Questions 7 and 15

not

2

2

d

d

s

t

UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) –

Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011

37

Sample assessment questions on calculus (3.4 in the specification)

1. Differentiate

(a) x

3

+ x

2

– 5x – 4 (b) 2x

4

– 5x

2

+ 2x – 3 (c) 3x

5

+ 7x

3

– x + 2.5

(d) 5 – 2x + 4x

2

– 2x

3

(e)

3

2

4

3

6

2 3

x x x

÷ + (f)

2

7

2

x ÷

2. Find

x

y

d

d

for the following.

(a) y = 2x

3

+ 4x

2

+ x

–1

(b) y = 6x + 3 – 4x

–1

+ 3x

–2

(c) y =

2

6 2

x x

÷

3. Find an expression for the gradient of each of these curves.

(a) y = x

5

– 3x

3

+ 2x – 4 (b) y = 3x +

2

4

x

(c) y =

2

3 2 4

3

x x + ÷

4. Find the gradient of the tangent at the given point on each of the following

curves.

(a) y = x

2

– 5x – 6, at the point where x = 2

(b) y = x

3

– 2x

2

– 3x, at the point (–4, –52)

(c) y = 3x –

2

4

x

, at the point where x =

2

1

(d) y =

2

3

12

x x +

at the point (3, 1.5)

5. Expand and differentiate

(a) (x + 3)

2

(b) (2x – 3)(x + 5) (c) (4 – x)(2 + 3x) (d) x

2

(4 – 2x)

UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0)

Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011

38

6. A curve has equation y = x

2

– 3x + 5

(a) Find

x

y

d

d

(b) Find the gradient of the curve at the point with coordinates (2, 3)

(c) Find the coordinates of the point on the curve where the gradient = –5

7. A curve has equation y = x

3

– 6x

2

+ 9x – 2

(a) Find the coordinates of the point on this curve at which the tangent is

parallel to the line y = –3x + 5

(b) Find the coordinates of the two turning points on this curve.

8. For the curve with equation y = x

2

– 4x + 5

(a) Find

x

y

d

d

(b) Find the turning point.

(c) State, with a reason, whether this turning point is a maximum or a

minimum.

9. Find the maximum value of y where y = 3 + 6x – 2x

2

. Explain how you know

that it is a maximum.

10. A publisher has to choose a price, £x, for a new book.

The total amount of money she will receive from sales is £y, where

y = 20 000x – 5000x

2

.

(a) Find the price which gives the maximum amount of money from sales.

(b) Find the maximum amount of money from sales.

11. The temperature, T

o

, of a liquid at time t seconds is t

2

– 6t + 9

(a) Find the rate of change of the temperature after 2 seconds.

(b) Find the time when the rate of change of temperature is –3

o

/second.

UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) –

Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011

39

12. A car is moving along a straight road. It passes a point O.

After t seconds its distance, s m, from O is given by

s = 10t – t

2

for 0 ≤ t ≤ 10

(a) Find the time when the car passes through O again.

(b) Find

d

d

s

t

(c) Find the maximum distance of the car from O.

(d) Find the speed of the car 3 seconds after passing O.

(e) Find the acceleration of the car.

13. A curve has equation y = 2x +

x

8

(a) Find the turning points.

(b) Copy and complete the table of values for y = 2x +

x

8

.

x

–4 –3 –2 –1 1 2 3 4

y

–8.7 –8 10

(c) Copy the grid and draw the curve for – 4 ≤ x ≤ 4.

(d) State which of the turning points is a maximum.

–4 –3 –2 –1 O 1 2 3 4

y

x

20

15

10

5

–5

–10

–15

–20

UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0)

Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011

40

14. A curve has equation y = x

3

– 3x

2

+ 2x.

(a) Find

x

y

d

d

(b) Find the x coordinates of the turning points, giving your answers correct

to 2 decimal places.

(c) Copy and complete the table of values for y = x

3

– 3x

2

+ 2x.

x 0 1 2

y

(d) Copy the grid and draw the graph of y = x

3

–3x

2

+ 2x for 0 ≤ x ≤ 2.

15. A curve has equation y = x

2

+ 3x + 2

(a) Find

x

y

d

d

The curve cuts the y axis at A.

(b) (i) Write down the coordinates of A.

(ii) Find the gradient of the tangent at A.

(iii) Write down the equation of the tangent at A.

UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) –

Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011

41

16. Square corners, with side x cm, are cut from a square card with side 6 cm.

Then the edges are folded up to make a box.

(a) Show that the volume of the box is V cm

3

where V = 36x – 24x

2

+ 4x

3

(b) Find

d

d

V

x

(c) Find the maximum possible volume of the box.

See Appendix 2 for references to past paper questions on this content.

UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0)

Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011

42

Answers

1. (a) 3x

2

+ 2x – 5 (b) 8x

3

– 10x + 2 (c) 15x

4

+ 21x

2

– 1 (d) –2 + 8x – 6x

2

(e)

3

2

2

3

2

2

÷ +

x x

(f) –x

2. (a) 6x

2

+ 8x – x

–

2

(b) 6 + 4x

–

2

– 6x

–

3

(c)

3 2

12 2

x x

+ ÷

3. (a) 5x

4

– 9x

2

+ 2 (b)

3

8

3

x

÷ (c)

3

2

2 + x

4. (a) –1 (b) 61 (c) 67 (d) 0.75 5. (a) 2x + 6 (b) 4x + 7 (c) 10 – 6x

(d) 8x – 6x

2

6. (a) 2x – 3 (b) 1 (c) (-1, 9) 7. (a) (2, 0) (b) (1, 2) (3, –2)

8. (a) 2x – 4 (b) (2, 1) (c) Minimum as quadratic with positive coeff of x

2

9. 7.5 Maximum because quadratic with negative coeff of x

2

10. (a) £2 (b) £20 000 11. (a) – 2

o

/sec (b) 1.5 secs

12. (a) 10s (b) 10 – 2t (c) 25m (d) 4m/s (e) – 2 m/s

2

13. (a) (–2, –8) (2, 8) (b) –10, –10, 8, 8.7, 10 (c) graph (d) (–2, –8)

14. (a) 3x

2

– 6x + 2 (b) 0.42, 1.58 (c) 0, 0, 0

(d)

15. (a) 2x + 3 (b)(i) (0, 2) (ii) 3 (iii) y = 3x + 2

16. (b) 36 – 48x + 12x

2

(c) 16 cm

3

UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) –

Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011

43

Section D: Planning and teaching

Course planner

This course planner lists the main teaching points which have to be covered to meet

the requirements of the specification.

For each tier, the planner is divided into three Assessment Objectives (AO):

- Number and algebra

- Shape, space and measures

- Handling data.

These Assessment Objectives are sub-divided into teaching modules. Some of

these are standalone whilst others must be preceded by earlier modules. The order

of these modules are linked directly to the order that the content appears in the

specification, therefore it may be unlikely that the topics would be taught in this

order. In addition many teachers will not cover topics consecutively in some of the

modules.

The course planner has been structured to include the following features (features

in bold have been explained further below):

- Content summary pages

- Module number

- Estimated teaching time

- Target grades

- Content

- Prior knowledge

- Notes – where appropriate

- A/A* notes/tips for Higher tier where appropriate

- Resources.

Content summary pages

The content summary pages give an overview of the modules in both the

Foundation tier and the Higher tier course planners. It is important to note that

much of the knowledge of the Foundation tier content is assumed for the Higher tier

content.

Estimated teaching time

This is an approximation, and it is given for guidance only, as the time allocated for

the teaching and learning of each topic area is determined by the needs and

abilities of the students. It can be adapted according to individual requirements.

UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0)

Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011

44

A/A* notes/tips

This guidance is aimed at students preparing for the top grades in their

examinations. Students working at this level should be encouraged to develop an

appropriate working knowledge of the Higher tier topics, together with the

foundation tier topics. In order to access questions at the top grades, students need

to have methods of solution at their immediate disposal, and this means that they

need to ensure that they do not neglect the learning aspect of the subject. This

should enable students to develop an appreciation of mathematics as a unified

whole, rather than a series of discrete topics or facts. It is also important that

students set their work out clearly, through maintaining the appropriate structure of

their solutions.

Resources

The textbook references are from the Edexcel two-book series written for students

following the IGCSE Higher tier specification (see titles in the table below). It

comprises of a Student’s Book for each year of the course. For Foundation tier, it is

advisable to use additional resource materials, although the non-starred exercises

in these textbooks are designed for students working towards IGCSE grades B/C.

Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 1

D A Turner, I A Potts, W R J Waite, B V Hony

ISBN 978-0 435966 91 1

Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 2

D A Turner, I A Potts, W R J Waite, B V Hony

ISBN 978-0 435966 92 8

It is important to note that specific issues, such as the sequence in which

topics are covered, the time allocated to each one and the extent to which

a calculator is used for arithmetic, will depend on the needs and abilities of

students.

UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) –

Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011

45

Foundation tier content summary

The table below is a summary of modules in the IGCSE Mathematics Foundation tier

course planner.

Teachers should be aware that the estimated teaching hours are approximate and

should only be used as a guideline.

Module number Title

Estimated

teaching

hours

1 Integers 4

2 Decimals 4

3 Special numbers and powers 7

4 Fractions 7

5 Percentages 5

6 Ratio and proportion 7

7 Approximation 5

Number

8 Set language and notation 5

1 Algebraic manipulation 5

2 Expressions and formulae 5

3 Linear equations and simultaneous linear equations 7

4 Coordinates and graphs 5

5 Linear graphs 5

6 Integer sequences 5

7 Inequalities 5

Algebra

8 Indices 5

1 Measures 5

2 2-D shapes 4

3 Symmetry 5

4 Construction 5

5 Geometry 7

6 Transformations 7

7 Circles 5

8 Area and perimeter 5

9 3-D shapes and volume 7

10 Pythagoras’ theorem 5

11 Trigonometry 7

Shape,

space

and

measures

12 Similar shapes 5

1 Graphical representation of data 7

2 Statistical measures 7

3 Probability 1 7

Handling

data

4 Probability 2 6

Total 180 hours

UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0)

Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011

46

UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) –

Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011

47

Foundation tier

NUMBER

Module 1 — Integers Time: 3 – 5 hours

Target grades: E/F/G

Content Area of specification

Understanding place value in whole numbers 1.1

Reading, writing and ordering whole numbers 1.1

Addition, subtraction, multiplication and division of whole numbers 1.1

Problems involving the four rules with whole numbers 1.1

Calculations involving time 1.10

Order of operations (excluding powers) 1.1

Using a calculator efficiently 1.11

Interpreting a calculator display 1.11

Directed numbers in context 1.1

Understanding integers both as positions and as translations on

a number line 1.1

Using the four rules with directed numbers 1.1

Prior knowledge

The ability to order numbers

Appreciation of place value to at least 1000s

Experience of the four rules of whole numbers

Notes

Present all working out clearly, emphasise that all working is to be shown

Resources

Textbook References

Edexcel IGCSE

Mathematics A Student

Book 1

Unit 1: Number 1 page 2

Unit 1: Number 1 page 117-119

UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0)

Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011

48

Module 2 — Decimals Time: 3 – 5 hours

Target grades: E/F/G

Content Area of specification

Understanding place value in decimal numbers 1.3

Ordering decimals 1.3

Applying the four rules with decimals 1.10

Writing decimal numbers to the nearest whole number

and to one or two decimal places 1.8

Writing decimal numbers to one, two or three significant figures 1.8

Converting simple fractions to decimals, including recurring decimals 1.2

Converting terminating decimals to fractions 1.3

Prior knowledge

Number: Module 1

Experience of the four rules of whole numbers

The basic concepts of a fraction and a decimal

Notes

Present all working out clearly with decimal points in line, and emphasise that all

working is to be shown

Resources

Textbook References

Edexcel IGCSE

Mathematics A Student

Book 1

Unit 1: Number 1 page 7

UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) –

Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011

49

Module 3 — Special numbers and powers Time: 6 – 8 hours

Target grades: C/D/E

Content Area of specification

Even and odd numbers 1.1

Factors and multiples, including common factors and common multiples 1.1

Prime numbers and prime factors 1.1

Square and cube numbers 1.4

Squares and square roots 1.4

Cubes and cube roots 1.4

Using a calculator effectively to evaluate powers and roots 1.11

Powers of numbers – using index notation 1.4

Order of operations including powers (BIDMAS)* 1.1

Expressing a number as the product of powers of its prime factors 1.4

Using laws of indices for multiplication and division of positive integer powers 1.4

Simplifying expressions using the laws of indices 1.4

*BIDMAS = Brackets, Indices, Division, Multiplication, Addition, Subtraction

Prior knowledge

Basic number bonds and multiplication/division facts

Ability to recognise basic number patterns

Resources

Textbook References

Edexcel IGCSE

Mathematics A Student

Book 1

Unit 3: Number 3 page 114

Unit 1: Number 1 page 2

Unit 1: Number 2 page 60

Unit 3: Number 3 page 117-119

Unit 2: Algebra 2 page 73-74

UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0)

Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011

50

Module 4 — Fractions Time: 6 – 8 hours

Target grades: C/D/E

Content Area of specification

Using diagrams to find equivalent fractions 1.2

Simplifying (cancelling) fractions 1.2

Simplest form (lowest terms) 1.2

Conversion between improper fractions and mixed

numbers (vulgar fractions) 1.2

Conversion between fractions and decimals 1.2

Ordering fractions using common denominators or by conversion to decimals 1.2

Adding and subtracting fractions using common denominators 1.2

Multiplying and dividing fractions by an integer, by a unit fraction and by a

general fraction 1.2

Using fractions in problems 1.2

Calculating a fraction of a quantity 1.2

Expressing one quantity as a fraction of another 1.2

Prior knowledge

Number: Modules 1, 2 and 3

A basic understanding of fractions as ‘parts of a whole’

Notes

An understanding of equivalent fractions is fundamental to this module. This topic

needs to be constantly revisited. Every working stage should be shown

Resources

Textbook References

Edexcel IGCSE

Mathematics A Student

Book 1

Unit 2: Number 2 page 57-58

Unit 1: Number 1 page 1

UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) –

Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011

51

Module 5 — Percentages Time: 4 – 6 hours

Target grades: C/D/E

Content Area of specification

Understanding that percentage means ‘number of parts per hundred’ 1.6

Converting between percentages, fractions and decimals 1.6

Calculating percentages of quantities 1.6

Increasing or decreasing quantities by a given percentage 1.6

Expressing one quantity as a percentage of another 1.6

Finding 100% when another percentage is given 1.6

Calculating percentage increases or decreases (percentage profit or loss) 1.6

Understanding the multiplicative nature of percentages as operators 1.6

Efficient use of a calculator to solve problems involving percentages,

for example simple interest 1.6

Prior knowledge

Number: Modules 1, 2 and 4

An awareness that percentages are used in everyday life

A basic understanding of the concept of a percentage

An understanding of the concept of interest in a financial context

Notes

All workings should be shown

Applications of percentages to solve real-world problems

Resources

Textbook References

Edexcel IGCSE

Mathematics A Student

Book 1

Unit 1: Number 1 page 3

UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0)

Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011

52

Module 6 — Ratio and proportion Time: 6 – 8 hours

Target grades: C/D/E

Content: Area of specification

Basic ideas of ratio 1.7

Simplifying ratios including simplest form 1.7

Expressing a ratio in the form 1 : n 1.7

Relating ratio to fractions 1.7

If one of the two quantities in a given ratio is known, finding the other,

including the use of the unitary method 1.7

Dividing a quantity in a given ratio into two or three parts 1.7

Problems involving ratio, including scale diagrams and maps 1.7

Using direct proportion, including recipes and currency conversion 1.7

Prior knowledge

Number: Modules 1, 2 and 4

Basic number skills and ability to recognise common factors

Calculator skills

Resources

Textbook References

Edexcel IGCSE

Mathematics A Student

Book 1

Unit 2: Number 2 page 59

Unit 2: Number 2 page 61

UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) –

Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011

53

Module 7 — Approximation Time: 4 – 6 hours

Target grades: C/D/E/F/G

Content Area of specification

Rounding numbers to the nearest 10, 100 and 1000

and use for estimating 1.8

Rounding numbers to one significant figure and use for estimating 1.8

Rounding numbers to two or three significant figures 1.8

Rounding numbers to one, two or three decimal places 1.8

Carrying out rounding appropriate to a context 1.8

Expressing a calculator display to an appropriate degree of accuracy 1.8

Finding upper and lower bounds, ie maximum and minimum

values for rounded values 1.8

Prior knowledge

Number: Modules 1 and 2

Notes

To ensure they achieve marks for correct calculations, even if there is a rounding,

error students should be encouraged to include more accurate answers in their

working before rounding.

Students should be aware that correct rounding will give a number of the same

order of magnitude as the original.

The need to round to an appropriate level of accuracy should be emphasised

throughout this module.

Resources

Textbook References

Edexcel IGCSE

Mathematics A Student

Book 1

Unit 4: Number 4 page 169-172

UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0)

Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011

54

Module 8 — Set language and notation Time: 4 – 6 hours

Target grades: C/D/E

Content Area of specification

Meaning of ‘set’ 1.5

Defining sets of numbers by describing, for example {first four odd numbers},

{x : x is a factor of 12}or by listing, eg {1, 3, 5, 7} 1.5

Understanding the meaning of the universal set ℰ 1.5

Understanding the meaning of the null or empty set Ø or { } 1.5

Membership of a set including the notation e and e 1.5

Intersection and union of sets including the notation ∩ and ∪ 1.5

Prior knowledge

Number: Module 3

Resources

Textbook References

Edexcel IGCSE

Mathematics A Student

Book 1

Unit 1: Sets 1 page 39-41

UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) –

Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011

55

ALGEBRA

Module 1 — Algebraic manipulation Time: 4 – 6 hours

Target grades: C/D/E/F

Content Area of specification

Using letters to represent numbers 2.1

Collecting like terms 2.2

Simplifying products 2.1

Multiplying a single term over a bracket 2.2

Factorising by taking out a single common factor 2.2

Finding and simplifying the product of two simple linear expressions,

ie of the form (x + a)(x + b), where a and b are integers 2.2

Prior knowledge

The concept that letters can be used instead of numbers

Notes

Emphasise importance of using the correct symbolic notation, for example 3a rather

than 3 x a or a3

Resources

Textbook References

Edexcel IGCSE

Mathematics A Student

Book1

Unit 1: Algebra 1 page 9-11

Unit 1: Algebra 1 page 11-12

Unit 3: Algebra 3 page 121-122

Unit 5: Algebra 5 page 241-243

UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0)

Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011

56

Module 2 — Expressions and formulae Time: 4 – 6 hours

Target grades: C/D/E/F/G

Content Area of specification

Substituting positive and negative integers, then fractions

and decimals, into expressions, word formulae and algebraic

formulae 2.3

Using formulae from mathematics, and other subjects,

expressed initially in words or diagrammatic form and

converting to variables or algebraic form 2.3

Deriving formulae 2.3

Prior knowledge

Number: Modules 1, 2, 3 and 4

Resources

Textbook References

Edexcel IGCSE

Mathematics A Student

Book 1

Unit 4: Algebra 4 page 180-181

UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) –

Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011

57

Module 3 — Linear equations and

simultaneous linear equations Time: 6 - 8 hours

Target grades: C/D/E/F

Content Area of specification

Inverse operations 2.4

Understanding and use of ‘balancing’ methods 2.4

Solving simple linear equations 2.4

Solving linear equations:

- with two or more operations 2.4

- with the unknown on both sides 2.4

- with brackets 2.4

- with negative or fractional coefficients 2.4

- with combinations of these 2.4

Setting up and solving simple linear equations to solve problems, including

finding the value of a variable which is not the subject of a formula 2.4

Solving simple simultaneous linear equations, either by elimination

or by substitution 2.6

Prior knowledge

Algebra: Modules 1 and 2

The idea that some operations are ‘opposite’ to each other.

Notes

Students need to realise that not all linear equations can be solved easily by either

observation or trial and improvement; a formal method is often needed

Students should leave their answers in fractional form where appropriate

Resources

Textbook References

Edexcel IGCSE

Mathematics A Student

Book 1

Unit 1: Algebra 1 page 12-18

Unit 3: Algebra 3 page 126

UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0)

Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011

58

Module 4 — Coordinates and graphs Time: 4 – 6 hours

Target grade: D/E/F

Content Area of specification

Drawing and interpreting linear conversion graphs 3.3

Plotting or stating the coordinates of points in all four quadrants 3.3

Determining the coordinates of points identified by geometrical information 3.3

Determining the coordinates of the midpoint of a line segment, given the

coordinates of the two end points 3.3

Drawing and interpreting linear graphs representing real-life situations,

including speed/time and distance/time graphs 3.3

Drawing and interpreting non-linear graphs representing real-life situations 3.3

Prior knowledge

Experience of plotting points

Directed numbers

Resources

Textbook References

Edexcel IGCSE

Mathematics A Student

Book 1

Unit 3: Graphs 3 page 134, 137

UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) –

Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011

59

Module 5 — Linear graphs Time: 4 – 6 hours

Target grades: C/D/E

Content Area of specification

Recognising that equations of the form x = a and y = b correspond to

straight line graphs parallel to the y-axis and to the x-axis respectively 3.3

Completing tables of values and drawing graphs with equations of the form

y = mx + c, where the values of m and c are given and m may be an integer

or a fraction 3.3

Recognising that graphs with equations of the form y = mx + c are

straight lines 3.3

Having an informal understanding of the concept of gradient as the

steepness of a line, and recognising the link with m in y = mx + c 3.3

Drawing straight line graphs with equations in which y is given implicitly in

terms of x, for example x + y = 7 3.3

Prior knowledge

Algebra: Modules 1, 2, 3 and 4

Notes

Axes should be labelled on graphs and a ruler should be used to draw linear graphs

Science experiments or work can provide results which give linear graphs

Resources

Textbook References

Edexcel IGCSE

Mathematics A Student

Book 1

Unit 1: Graphs 1 page 19-27

UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0)

Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011

60

Module 6 — Integer sequences Time: 4 – 6 hours

Target grades: E/F/G

Content Area of specification

Continuing diagrammatic sequences 3.1

Continuing number sequences 3.1

Describing the terms of a sequence in words 3.1

Finding rules to describe sequences 3.1

Using term-to-term and position-to-term definitions to generate

the terms of a sequence 3.1

Prior knowledge

Algebra: Modules 1 and 2

Some experience of sequences of numbers which follow a rule, for example even

and odd numbers

The ability to follow a series of instructions

Resources

Textbook References

Edexcel IGCSE

Mathematics A Student

Book 1

Unit 5: Sequences 5

page 254-255

UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) –

Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011

61

Module 7 — Inequalities Time: 4 – 6 hours

Target grade: B/C/D

Content Area of specification

Understanding and using the symbols >, <, ≥ and ≤ 2.8

Understanding and using the convention for open and closed intervals on

a number line 2.8

Solving simple linear inequalities in one variable, including ‘double-ended’

inequalities 2.8

Representing on a number line the solution set of simple linear inequalities 2.8

Finding the integer solutions of simple linear inequalities 2.8

Using regions to represent simple linear inequalities in one variable 2.8

Using regions to represent the solution set to several linear inequalities in

one or two variables 2.8

Prior knowledge

Algebra: Modules 3 and 5

Resources

Textbook References

Edexcel IGCSE

Mathematics A Student

Book 1

Unit 2: Algebra 2 page 74-77

Unit 2: Graphs 2 page 81-86

UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0)

Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011

62

Module 8 — Indices Time: 4 – 6 hours

Target grades: C/D/E

Content Area of specification

Using index notation for positive integer powers 2.1

Substituting positive and negative numbers into expressions and formulae

with quadratic and/or cubic terms 2.1

Completing tables of values and drawing graphs of quadratic functions 3.3

Using laws of indices with positive integer powers to simplify expressions 2.1

Substituting positive and negative numbers into expressions

and formulae with quadratic and/or cubic terms 2.3

Prior knowledge

Algebra: Modules 2 and 4

Resources

Textbook References

Edexcel IGCSE

Mathematics A Student

Book 1

Unit 2: Algebra 2 page 73

Unit 2: Algebra 2 page 74

Unit 4: Graphs 4 page 185-188

UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) –

Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011

63

SHAPE, SPACE AND MEASURES

Module 1 — Measures Time: 4 – 6 hours

Target grades: C/D/E/F/G

Content Area of specification

Choosing and using appropriate metric units of measure 4.4

Making sensible estimate of lengths, capacities and weights 4.4

Interpreting scales and dials on a range of measuring instruments 4.4

Telling the time from digital and analogue clocks 4.4

Converting between times, and calculating time intervals in 12-hour and

24-hour clocks, for example reading timetables 4.4

Understanding and using the relationship between average speed,

distance and time 4.4

Prior knowledge

Number: Module 2

Basic concepts of units, for example height in metres, weight in kilograms

Notes

Measurement is essentially a practical activity. Use a range of everyday objects to

make the lesson more relevant

Resources

Textbook References

Edexcel IGCSE

Mathematics A Student

Book 1

Unit 4: Number 4 page 172

UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0)

Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011

64

Module 2 — 2-D shapes Time: 3 – 5 hours

Target grades: E/F/G

Content Area of specification

Estimating the size of an angle in degrees 4.1

Recognising and naming acute, obtuse, reflex and right angles 4.1

Recognising and giving the names of different types of triangle

(right-angled, isosceles and equilateral) 4.1

Recognising and giving the names of different types of quadrilateral

(parallelogram, rectangle, square, rhombus, trapezium, kite) 4.2

Recognising and giving the names of different types of polygon

(pentagon, hexagon, octagon) 4.2

Recognising regular polygons 4.2

Understanding congruence as meaning the same shape and size 4.2

Understanding that two or more polygons with the same shape and

size are said to be congruent to each other 4.2

Resources

Textbook References

Edexcel IGCSE

Mathematics A Student

Book 1

Unit 1: Shape and space 1

page 28

Unit 1: Shape and space 1

page 29

UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) –

Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011

65

Module 3 — Symmetry Time: 4 – 6 hours

Target grades: E/F/G

Content Area of specification

Recognising line symmetry and rotational symmetry 4.3

Identifying and drawing lines of symmetry for a 2-D shape 4.3

Stating the order of rotational symmetry of a 2-D shape 4.3

Recognising all the symmetries of a 2-D shape 4.3

Resources

Textbook References

Edexcel IGCSE

Mathematics A Student

Book 1

Unit 1: Shape and space 1

page 28

UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0)

Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011

66

Module 4 — Construction Time: 4 – 6 hours

Target grades: C/D/E/F/G

Content Area of specification

Measuring and drawing lines to the nearest millimetre 4.5

Measuring and drawing angles to the nearest degree 4.4

Constructing triangles and other 2-D shapes using a ruler,

protractor and compasses 4.5

Using three-figure bearings to specify direction 4.4

Using scale drawings to solve problems in 2-D or 3-D 4.5

Using straight edge and compasses to construct

(i) the perpendicular bisector of a line segment

(ii) the bisector of an angle 4.5

Prior knowledge

An understanding of angle as a measure of turn; experience of drawing and

measuring using a ruler

Notes

Encourage students to use sharp pencils to improve the neatness and accuracy of

their drawings

A tolerance of 2° is reasonable for angles

A sturdy pair of compasses is essential

When measuring angles larger than 90° on a diagram. students are often confused

about the direction from which a bearing is measured

Resources

Textbook References

Edexcel IGCSE

Mathematics A Student

Book 1

Edexcel IGCSE

Mathematics A Student

Book 2

Unit 1: Shape and space 1

page 32

Unit 4: Shape and space 4

page 292

UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) –

Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011

67

Module 5 — Geometry Time: 6 – 8 hours

Target grades: C/D/E/F/G

Content Area of specification

Calculating angles on a straight line and at a point 4.1

Recognising vertically opposite angles 4.1

Recognising parallel and perpendicular lines 4.1

Using parallel lines, alternate angles and corresponding angles 4.1

Using the angle sum of a triangle to calculate angles in triangles 4.1

Using angle properties of isosceles, equilateral and right-angled triangles 4.1

Understanding that the exterior angle of a triangle is equal to the

sum of the interior angles at the other two vertices 4.1

Using the angle sum of a quadrilateral to calculate angles in quadrilaterals 4.2

Understanding and using the properties of the parallelogram,

rectangle, square, rhombus, trapezium and kite 4.2

Calculating and using the sums of the interior angles of polygons 4.2

Calculating and using the sum of the exterior angles of polygons 4.2

Calculating the interior and exterior angles of regular polygons 4.2

Giving informal reasons, where required, when arriving

at numerical solutions to geometrical problems 4.7

Prior knowledge

Shape, space and measures: Modules 1 and 2

Understanding the concept of parallel lines

Resources

Textbook References

Edexcel IGCSE

Mathematics A Student

Book 1

Unit 1: Shape and space

page 28

Unit 1: Shape and space

page 29

Unit 1: Shape and space

page 31

UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0)

Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011

68

Module 6 — Transformations Time: 6 – 8 hours

Target grades: C/D/E/F/G

Content Area of specification

Understanding that rotations are specified by a centre and an angle 5.2

Rotating a shape about a point, measuring the angle of rotation

in right angles, degrees or simple fractions of a turn 5.2

Understanding that an anti-clockwise rotation is a positive angle rotation and

a clockwise rotation is a negative angle rotation 5.2

Understanding that reflections are specified by a mirror line,

for example x = 1, y = x on a coordinate grid 5.2

Reflecting shapes in a mirror line 5.2

Constructing a mirror line, given a shape and its reflection 5.2

Understanding that translations are specified by a distance and direction 5.2

Translating a shape, given the distance and direction of the translation 5.2

Recognising that rotations, reflections and translations preserve length and

angle so that a transformed shape under any of these transformations is

congruent to the original shape 5.2

Understanding that enlargements are specified by a centre and

a scale factor, including fractions 5.2

Constructing enlargements of shapes with positive scale factors 5.2

Identifying the scale factor of an enlargement as the ratio

of the lengths of any two corresponding line segments 5.2

Recognising that enlargements preserve angle but not length 5.2

Describing transformations in full 5.2

Prior knowledge

Shape, space and measures: Module 2

The ability to recognise the symmetries in a shape

Notes

Students often lose marks as in the examination they do not give a complete

description of a transformation. For example, the centre of rotation is often omitted

and the name of the transformation itself left out

Resources

Textbook References

Edexcel IGCSE

Mathematics A Student

Book 1

Unit 5: Shape and space 5

page 265-278

UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) –

Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011

69

Module 7 — Circles Time: 4 – 6 hours

Target grades: C/D/E/F/G

Content Area of specification

Understanding the terms centre, radius, chord, diameter, circumference,

tangent, arc, sector and segment of a circle 4.6

Knowing and using these circle properties:

- two tangents from a point to a circle are equal in length 4.6

- tangents are perpendicular to the radius at the point of contact 4.6

- the line from the centre of a circle which is perpendicular to a chord

bisects the chord (and the converse is true) 4.6

Resources

Textbook References

Edexcel IGCSE

Mathematics A Student

Book 1

Unit 4: Shape and space 4

page 194-199, 207

UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0)

Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011

70

Module 8 — Area and perimeter Time: 4 – 6 hours

Target grades: D/E/F/G

Content Area of specification

Finding the perimeter of rectangles and triangles and shapes

made from them 4.9

Finding area by counting squares 4.9

Finding the areas of rectangles, triangles, parallelograms and trapezia,

using relevant formulae 4.9

Finding circumferences and areas of circles, using relevant formulae 4.9

Finding the areas of compound shapes made from rectangles and triangles 4.9

Converting between units of length and of area within the metric system,

for example m

2

and cm

2

4.9

Prior knowledge

Shape, space and measures: Module 2

Some concept of area as the amount of surface covered

Notes

Ensure that students can distinguish between perimeter and area

Resources

Textbook References

Edexcel IGCSE

Mathematics A Student

Book 1

Unit 2: Algebra 2 page 69-71

UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) –

Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011

71

Module 9 — 3-D shapes and volume Time: 6 – 8 hours

Target grades: C/D/E/F/G

Content Area of specification

Recognising and giving the names of solids (cube, cuboid, prism, pyramid,

cylinder, cone, sphere) 4.9

Understanding the terms face, edge and vertex in the context of a 3-D solid 4.9

Finding volumes by counting cubes 4.9

Finding the volumes of right prisms, including cuboids and cylinders,

using appropriate formulae 4.9

Finding the surface areas of solids with rectangular and triangular faces 4.9

Finding the surface area of a cylinder 4.9

Converting between units of volume within the metric system,

for example, cm

3

and litres 4.9

Prior knowledge

Shape, space and measures: Module 8

Some concept of the volume of a solid as the amount of space it occupies

Notes

Many students have little real understanding of perimeter, area and volume.

Practical experience is essential in order to clarify these concepts

Resources

Textbook References

Edexcel IGCSE

Mathematics A Student

Book 2

Unit 2: Number 2 page 63

Unit 2: Shape and space 2

page 112-113, 117

UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0)

Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011

72

Module 10 — Pythagoras’s theorem Time: 4 – 6 hours

Target grade: B/C/D

Content Area of specification

Identifying the hypotenuse of a right-angled triangle 4.8

Understanding and using Pythagoras’ theorem in 2-D to find the length of

the hypotenuse or that of one of the shorter sides of a right-angled triangle 4.8

Using Pythagoras’ theorem to solve problems 4.8

Prior knowledge

Shape, space and measures: Modules 2, 5 and 8

Knowledge of different types of triangle

Ability to use a calculator to find squares and square roots.

Notes

Students will avoid making mistakes if they remember that the hypotenuse

is the longest side

Some students find questions on this topic much more difficult if the orientation

of the triangle is unusual

Resources

Textbook References

Edexcel IGCSE

Mathematics A Student

Book 1

Unit 4: Shape and space 4

page 212-214

UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) –

Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011

73

Module 11 — Trigonometry Time: 6 – 8 hours

Target grade: B/C/D

Content Area of specification

Identifying the various sides of a right-angled triangle as the

hypotenuse, opposite and adjacent 4.8

Understanding and using sine, cosine and tangent of acute angles to

find lengths and angles in a right-angled triangle 4.8

Using trigonometry to solve problems, including bearings 4.8

Using Pythagoras’ theorem and trigonometry to solve problems 4.8

Prior knowledge

Shape, space and measures: Modules 2, 5 and 10

Knowledge of the basic concept of ratio (Number: Module 6)

Ability to use a calculator to convert fractions to decimals (Number: Module 4)

Notes

Students should ensure that their calculators are in ‘degree mode’ before tackling

trigonometry questions

Resources

Textbook References

Edexcel IGCSE

Mathematics A Student

Book 1

Unit 2: Shape and space 2

page 87-94

Unit 3: Shape and space 3 page

142-153

UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0)

Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011

74

Module 12 — Similar shapes Time: 4 – 6 hours

Target grade: B/C/D

Content Area of specification

Understanding that, if two shapes are similar their corresponding angles

are equal and all their corresponding lengths are in the same ratio 4.10

Using similarity to find lengths of sides 4.10

Resources

Textbook References

Edexcel IGCSE

Mathematics A Student

Book 1

Unit 4: Shape and space 4

page 205-209

UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) –

Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011

75

HANDLING DATA

Module 1 — Graphical representation of data Time: 6 – 8 hours

Target grades: E/F/G

Content Area of specification

Grouping data in tally tables and frequency tables including grouped data 6.1

Obtaining data from a list, a table (including two way) or a database 6.1

Drawing and using bar charts 6.1

Drawing and using pictograms 6.1

Drawing pie charts 6.1

Using pie charts to calculate:

- the fraction, percentage or decimal of the total represented by each

sector 6.1

- the number of items represented by each sector 6.1

Prior knowledge

Shape, space and measures: Module 5

Measuring and drawing angles (Shape, space and measures: Module 4)

Fractions of simple quantities (Number: Module 4)

Notes

Students should label axes of pictograms and bar charts, and sectors of pie charts

The need for accurate drawing skills, particularly for pie charts, should be

emphasised

Resources

Textbook References

Edexcel IGCSE

Mathematics A Student

Book 1

Unit 2: Handling data 2

page 99-103

UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0)

Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011

76

Module 2 — Statistical measures Time: 6 – 8 hours

Target grades: C/D/E/F/G

Content Area of specification

Understanding the concept of average as a value which is

representative of a set of data 6.2

Finding the mean, median, mode and range for a discrete data

set either from a list or frequency table 6.2

Selecting the most appropriate average 6.2

Finding the modal class for grouped data 6.2

Calculating an estimate for the mean for grouped data, using halfway values 6.2

Notes

Students often understand techniques used to find mean, median and mode but

confuse the three names

It should be emphasised that the range is a single value

Students sometimes identify the modal class by the frequency instead of the class

description

Resources

Textbook References

Edexcel IGCSE

Mathematics A Student

Book 1

Unit 2: Handling data 2

page 97-98

UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) –

Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011

77

Module 3 — Probability 1 Time: 6 – 8 hours

Target grades: E/F/G

Content Area of specification

Using the language of probability, informally, for example ‘likely’

and then technical terms such as ‘outcomes’, ‘equal likelihood’,

‘events’ and ‘random’ 6.3

Using a probability scale from 0 to 1 6.3

Understanding that an impossible event has a probability

of 0 and one which is certain has a probability of 1 6.3

Writing probabilities as numbers (fractions, decimals or percentages only) 6.3

Estimating probabilities from previously collected data 6.3

The probability of an event happening or not happening 6.3

Understanding and using estimates or measures of probability

from theoretical models 6.3

Prior knowledge

Some concept of ‘chance’ and the likelihood of an event occurring and recognition

that some events are more likely to occur than others

Notes

Where possible, introduce practical work to support theoretical work

Students can be unsure of the relationship P(not n) = 1 – P(n)

Resources

Textbook References

Edexcel IGCSE

Mathematics A Student

Book 1

Unit 4: Handling data 4

page 218-226

UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0)

Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011

78

Module 4 — Probability 2 Time: 5 – 7 hours

Target grades: C/D/E/F

Content Area of specification

Understanding sample spaces and using them to find the

probability that an event will occur 6.3

Listing all the outcomes for single events systematically, or

for two successive events, and using lists to find the probability

that an event will occur 6.3

Using the sum of probabilities of all possible outcomes equalling one 6.3

Understanding the meaning of ‘equally likely’ and ‘mutually exclusive’ 6.3

Using the addition rule for probability for mutually exclusive events 6.3

Understanding and using expected frequency to calculate an estimate

for the number of times an event will occur 6.3

Prior knowledge

Handling data: Module 3

Notes

You may need to remind students that only fractions, decimals and percentages can

be used for probability. Answers like ‘2 in 3’, ‘2 out of 3’ and ‘2 : 3’ would be

penalised in the examination

Resources

Textbook References

Edexcel IGCSE

Mathematics A Student

Book 2

Unit 4: Handling data 4

page 315-316

UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) –

Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011

79

Higher tier content summary

The table below is a summary of modules in the IGCSE Mathematics Higher tier

course planner.

Teachers should be aware that the estimated teaching hours are approximate and

should only be used as a guideline.

Module

number

Title

Estimated

teaching

hours

1 Decimals 3

2 Powers and roots 4

3 Fractions 2

4 Percentages 3

5 Ratio and proportion 3

6 Standard form 4

7 Degree of accuracy 6

Number

8 Set language and notation 6

1 Algebraic manipulation 4

2 Expressions and formulae 6

3 Linear equations and simultaneous linear equations 6

4 Coordinates and graphs 5

5 Linear graphs 5

6 Integer sequences 4

7 Quadratic equations 7

8 Inequalities 5

9 Indices 5

10 Proportion 5

11 Function notation 7

12 Harder graphs 7

Algebra

13 Calculus 7

1 Average speed 3

2 Construction 4

3 Geometry 4

4 Transformations 5

5 Circle properties 7

6 Area and perimeter 5

7 3-D shapes and volume 5

8 Pythagoras’ theorem 4

9 Trigonometry 4

10 Similar shapes 7

11 Advanced trigonometry 7

Shape,

space

and

measures

12 Vectors 6

1 Graphical representation of data 5

2 Statistical measures 4

Data

Handling

3 Probability 6

Total 180 hours

UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0)

Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011

80

UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) –

Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011

81

Higher tier

It is assumed that students being prepared for the Higher tier will have knowledge

of all of the Foundation tier content.

NUMBER

Module 1 — Decimals Time: 2 – 4 hours

Target grades: A/B/C/D

Content Area of specification

Applying the four rules of operation with decimals 1.10

Using a calculator efficiently 1.11

Interpreting a calculator display 1.11

Writing decimal numbers to the nearest whole number

and to one or two decimal places 1.8

Writing decimal numbers to one, two or three significant figures 1.8

Converting simple fractions to decimals including recurring decimals 1.2

Converting terminating decimals to fractions 1.3

Converting recurring decimals to fractions 1.3

Resources

Textbook References

Edexcel IGCSE

Mathematics A Student

Book 1

Unit 5: Number 5 page 238

Unit 5: Number 5 page 239

Unit 1: Number 1 page 7

Unit 3: Number 3 page 117-119

Edexcel IGCSE

Mathematics A Student

Book 2

Unit 1: Number 1 page 5-7

UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0)

Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011

82

Module 2 — Powers and roots Time: 3 – 5 hours

Target grades: A*/A/B/C

Content Area of specification

Squares and square roots 1.4

Cubes and cube roots 1.4

Using a calculator effectively to evaluate powers and roots 1.1

Powers of numbers – using index notation 1.4

Order of operations including powers (BIDMAS*) 1.1

Expressing a number as the product of powers of its prime factors 1.4

Using prime factors to evaluate Highest Common Factors (HCF) and Lowest

Common Multiples (LCM) 1.4

Understanding and using powers which are zero, negative or fractions 1.4

Recognising the relationship between fractional powers and roots 1.4

Using laws of indices to simplify and evaluate numerical expressions involving

integer, fractional and negative powers 1.4

Understanding the meaning of surds 1.4

Manipulating surds, including rationalising the denominator 1.4

*BIDMAS = Brackets, Indices, Division, Multiplication, Addition, Subtraction

A/A* notes/tips

- In order for students to aspire to the top grades, it is essential that they are

able to use algebraic manipulation and index notation confidently

- Remind students that when writing fractions, it is not usual to write surds in the

denominator, because without a calculator, it is not always easy to work out the

value of the fraction, eg

2

1

, but ‘rationalising’ the denominator will help clear

the surds from the denominator

Resources

Textbook References

Edexcel IGCSE

Mathematics A Student

Book 1

Unit 3: Number 3 page 117

Unit 3: Number 3 page 114-116

Edexcel IGCSE

Mathematics A Student

Book 2

Unit 2: Number 2 page 66-70

See Appendix 1 for references to past paper questions for students aiming for top

grades in this module

UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) –

Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011

83

Module 3 — Fractions Time: 1 – 3 hours

Target grades: B/C/D

Content Area of specification

Converting between fractions and decimals 1.2

Ordering fractions using common denominators or by conversion to decimals 1.2

Adding and subtracting fractions using common denominators 1.2

Multiplying and dividing fractions by an integer, by a unit fraction and by a

general fraction 1.2

Using fractions in problems 1.2

Calculating a fraction of a quantity 1.2

Expressing one quantity as a fraction of another 1.2

Resources

Textbook References

Edexcel IGCSE

Mathematics A Student

Book 1

Unit 2: Number 2 page 57-58

Edexcel IGCSE

Mathematics A Student

Book 2

Unit 5: Number 5 (Revision)

page 334, 339-345 (selected

questions)

UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0)

Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011

84

Module 4 — Percentages Time: 2 – 4 hours

Target grades: A*/A/B/C/D

Content Area of specification

Understanding that percentage means ‘number of parts per hundred’ 1.6

Converting between percentages, fractions and decimals 1.6

Calculating percentages of quantities 1.6

Increasing or decreasing quantities by a given percentage 1.6

Expressing one quantity as a percentage of another 1.6

Finding 100 per cent when another percentage is given 1.6

Calculating percentage increases or decreases (percentage profit or loss) 1.6

Understanding the multiplicative nature of percentages as operators 1.6

Efficient use of a calculator to solve problems involving percentages,

for example simple interest and compound interest, including depreciation 1.6

Solving reverse percentage problems by carrying out an appropriate division 1.6

Solving problems involving repeated percentage change 1.6

Prior knowledge

Number: Modules 1 and 3

Notes

All working out should be shown

A/A* notes/tips

- This is an opportunity to focus on financial arithmetic through using simple and

compound interest through using:

– Simple interest )

100

1 (

Rn

P A + =

– Compound interest

n

R

P A )

100

1 ( + =

- Questions which involve savings, credit and loans, inflation and exchange rates

offer many opportunities to ensure that the students have a confident working

knowledge of this material

Resources

Textbook References

Edexcel IGCSE

Mathematics A Student

Book 2

Unit 3: Number 3 page 110-113

Unit 4: Number 4 page 167-169

Unit 5: Number 5 (Revision)

page 345 (selected questions)

See Appendix 1 for references to past paper questions for students aiming for top

grades in this module

UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) –

Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011

85

Module 5 — Ratio and proportion Time: 2 – 4 hours

Target grades: B/C/D

Content Area of specification

Basic idea of ratio 1.7

Simplifying ratios including simplest form 1.7

Expressing a ratio in the form 1 : n 1.7

Relating ratio to fractions 1.7

If one of the two quantities in a given ratio is known, find the other,

including using the unitary method 1.7

Dividing a quantity in a given ratio into two or three parts 1.7

Problems involving ratio, including scale diagrams and maps 1.7

Using direct proportion, including recipes and currency conversion 1.7

Prior knowledge

Number: Modules 1 and 3

Calculator skills

Resources

Textbook References

Edexcel IGCSE

Mathematics A Student

Book 1

Unit 2: Number 2 page 59

Unit 2: Number 2 page 61-63

Edexcel IGCSE

Mathematics A Student

Book 2

Unit 5: Number 5 (Revision)

page 338, 339-345 (selected

questions)

UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0)

Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011

86

Module 6 — Standard form Time: 3 – 5 hours

Target grades: A/B/C

Content Area of specification

Expressing numbers in standard form 1.9

Writing numbers expressed in standard form as ordinary numbers 1.9

Calculating with numbers in standard form 1.9

Solving problems involving standard form 1.9

Notes

Although students can, where appropriate, use their calculators for questions

involving standard form, their answers should be expressed in conventional

standard form, for example 2.3 x 10

5

, not as a calculator display such as 2.5

05

Resources

Textbook References

Edexcel IGCSE

Mathematics A Student

Book 1

Unit 1: Number 1 page 5-6

Unit 2: Number 2 page 55-57

Edexcel IGCSE

Mathematics A Student

Book 1

Unit 5: Number 5 (Revision)

page 335, 339-345 (selected

questions)

UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) –

Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011

87

Module 7 — Degree of accuracy Time: 5 – 7 hours

Target grades: A*/A/B/C/D

Content Area of specification

Rounding numbers to one significant figure and use for estimating 1.8

Rounding numbers to two or three significant figures 1.8

Rounding numbers to one, two or three decimal places 1.8

Carrying out rounding appropriate to a context 1.8

Expressing a calculator display to an appropriate degree of accuracy 1.8

Finding upper and lower bounds, ie maximum and minimum

values for rounded values 1.8

Solving problems using upper and lower bounds where

values are given to a degree of accuracy 1.8

Selecting and justifying appropriate degrees of accuracy 1.8

Notes

Students should be encouraged to include more accurate answers in their working

before rounding to ensure they receive marks for correct calculations even if there

is a rounding error.

Students should be aware that correct rounding will give a number of the same

magnitude as the original.

Rounding to a level of accuracy should be emphasised continually.

A/A* notes/tips

- Remind students that upper and lower bounds can be worked out for quantities

that have been rounded to a given level of accuracy

- Students should be reminded that typically questions involving degrees of

accuracy often require careful analysis, as information is often given that is not

exact

- It is helpful for students to know that least value is the same as lower bound or

minimum value. Similarly greatest value is the same as upper bound or

maximum value

- Remind students that sometimes the prolem is less straightforward when

working with compound measures involving division

UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0)

Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011

88

Resources

Textbook References

Edexcel IGCSE

Mathematics A Student

Book 1

Unit 4: Number 4 page 170-172

Edexcel IGCSE

Mathematics A Student

Book 2

Unit 5: Number 5 (Revision)

page 334

See Appendix 1 for references to past paper questions for students aiming for top

grades in this module

UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) –

Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011

89

Module 8 — Set language and notation

Time: 5 – 7 hours

Target grades: A/B/C/D

Content Area of specification

Meaning of ‘set’ 1.5

Defining sets of numbers by describing, for example {first four odd numbers},

{x: x is a factor of 12 or by listing, eg {1, 3, 5, 7} 1.5

Understanding the meaning of the universal set ℰ 1.5

Understanding the meaning of the null or empty set Ø or { } 1.5

Membership of a set including the notation e and e 1.5

Intersection and union of sets including the notation ∩ and ∪ 1.5

Understanding sets defined in algebraic terms 1.5

Understanding and using subsets, including c notation 1.5

Understanding and using the complement of a set (A

/

) 1.5

Using Venn diagrams to represent sets and the number of elements in sets 1.5

Using the notation n(A) for the number of elements in the set A 1.5

Using sets in practical situations 1.5

Notes

Inequality notation may be used, {eg x: 2 ≤ x < 5}

A/A* notes/tips

- Students should recognise that to score all the marks in Venn diagram

problems, the layout of the sets needs to be correct, and appropriately labelled

- Common mistakes occur when students do not fully understand or know set

theory notation, in particular the meaning of n

Resources

Textbook References

Edexcel IGCSE

Mathematics A Student

Book 1

Unit 1: Sets 1 page 39-47

Edexcel IGCSE

Mathematics A Student

Book 2

Unit 1: Sets 1 page 45-53

UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0)

Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011

90

ALGEBRA

Module 1 — Algebraic manipulation Time: 3 – 5 hours

Target grades: A*/A/B/C/D

Content Area of specification

Multiplying a single term over a bracket 2.2

Factorising by taking out a single common factor 2.2

Finding and simplifying the product of two linear expressions,

eg (2x + 3)(3x – 1), (3x – 2y)(5x + 3y) 2.2

Factorising quadratic expressions, including the difference

of two squares 2.2

Adding and subtracting algebraic fractions, including simplifying

algebraic fractions by cancelling common factors 2.2

Numerator and/or the denominator may be numeric, linear or quadratic 2.2

Notes

Emphasise importance of using the correct symbolic notation, for example 3a rather

than

3 x a or a3. Students should be aware that there may be a need to remove the

numerical HCF of a quadratic expression before factorising it in order to make

factorisation more obvious

A/A* notes/tips for Higher tier

- Students need to be reminded that they should always factorise algebraic

expressions completely, setting their work out clearly

- In order for students to work towards to the top grades, it is essential that they

are confidently able to manipulate algebraic expressions in a variety of

situations

- When simplifying algebraic fractions, students should be encouraged to fully

factorise both the numerator and the denominator, where possible

- A typical common error is for students to ‘cancel out’ the terms in x

- Simplifying algebraic fractions is usually a challenging topic for many students.

A key point is that algebraic fractions are actually generalised arithmetic, and

that the same rules apply

UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) –

Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011

91

Resources

Textbook References

Edexcel IGCSE

Mathematics A Student

Book 1

Unit 1: Algebra 1 page 11-12

Unit 2: Algebra 2 page 65-67

Unit 3: Algebra 3 page 121-123

Edexcel IGCSE

Mathematics A Student

Book 2

Unit 5: Algebra 5 (Revision)

page 346-347

See Appendix 1 for references to past paper questions for students aiming for top

grades in this module

UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0)

Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011

92

Module 2 — Expressions and formulae Time: 5 – 7 hours

Target grades: A*/A/B/C/D

Content Area of specification

Substituting positive and negative numbers, then fractions and decimals,

into expressions, word formulae and algebraic formulae 2.3

Using formulae from mathematics, and other subjects,

expressed initially in words or diagrammatic form and

converting to variables or algebraic form 2.3

Deriving formulae 2.3

Manipulating formulae to change the subject, including cases

where the subject occurs twice or where a power of the subject

appears 2.3

A/A* notes/tips

- Students need to be reminded that changing the subject of the formula is

identical to the process of solving an equation

- Students should be encouraged to set their work out clearly, in particular,

keeping a careful check on the substitution of negative numbers into

expressions and formulae, and to make use of brackets where necessary

Resources

Textbook References

Edexcel IGCSE

Mathematics A Student

Book 1

Unit 2: Algebra 2 page 69-72

Unit 4: Algebra 4 page 177-184

See Appendix 1 for references to past paper questions for students aiming for top

grades in this module

UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) –

Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011

93

Module 3 — Linear equations and simultaneous linear equations

Time: 5 – 7 hours

Target grades: B/C/D

Content Area of specification

Inverse operations 2.4

Understanding and use of ‘balancing’ methods 2.4

Solving simple linear equations 2.4

Solving linear equations:

- with two or more operations 2.4

- with the unknown on both sides 2.4

- with brackets 2.4

- with negative or fractional coefficients 2.4

- with combinations of these 2.4

Setting up and solving simple linear equations to solve problems, including

finding the value of a variable which is not the subject of the formula 2.4

Solving simple simultaneous linear equations, including cases

where one or both of the equations must be multiplied 2.6

Interpreting the equations as lines and their common solution

as the point of intersection 2.6

Prior knowledge

Algebra: Modules 1 and 2

The idea that some operations are ‘opposite’ to each other

Notes

Students need to realise that not all linear equations can be solved easily by either

observation or trial and improvement; a formal method is often needed

Students should leave their answers in fractional form where appropriate

Resources

Textbook References

Edexcel IGCSE

Mathematics A Student

Book 1

Unit 1: Algebra 1 page 12-17

Unit 2: Graphs 2 page 79-80

Unit 3: Algebra 3 page 126-130

UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0)

Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011

94

Module 4 — Coordinates and graphs Time: 4 – 6 hours

Target grade: C/D/E

Content Area of specification

Determining the coordinates of points identified by geometrical information 3.3

Determining the coordinates of the midpoint of a line segment, given the

coordinates of the two end points 3.3

Drawing and interpreting linear graphs representing real-life situations,

including speed/time and distance/time graphs 3.3

Drawing and interpreting non-linear graphs representing real-life situations 3.3

Resources

Textbook References

Edexcel IGCSE

Mathematics A Student

Book 1

Unit 3: Graphs 3 page 134-141

UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) –

Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011

95

Module 5 — Linear graphs Time: 4 – 6 hours

Target grades: A/B/C/D

Content Area of specification

Recognising that equations of the form x = a and y = b correspond to

straight line graphs parallel to the y-axis and to the x-axis respectively 3.3

Completing tables of values and drawing graphs with equations of the form

y = mx + c where the values of m and c are given and m may be an integer or

a fraction 3.3

Drawing straight line graphs with equations in which y is given implicitly in

terms of x, for example x + y = 7 3.3

Calculating the gradient of a straight line given its equation of the

coordinates of two points on the line 3.3

Recognising that graphs with equations of the form y = mx + c

are straight line graphs with gradient m and intercept (0, c) on the y-axis 3.3

Finding the equation of a straight line given the coordinates of two points

on the line 3.3

Finding the equation of a straight line parallel to a given line 3.3

Prior knowledge

Algebra: Modules 1, 2, 3 and 4

Notes

Axes should be labelled on graphs and a ruler should be used to draw linear graphs

Science experiments/work could provide results which give linear graphs

Resources

Textbook References

Edexcel IGCSE

Mathematics A Student

Book 1

Unit 1: Graphs 1 page 19-27

UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0)

Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011

96

Module 6 — Integer sequences Time: 3 – 5 hours

Target grades: B/C/D

Content Area of specification

Using term-to-term and position-to-term definitions to generate

the terms of a sequence 3.1

Finding and using linear expressions to describe the nth term

of an arithmetic sequence 3.1

Resources

Textbook References

Edexcel IGCSE

Mathematics A Student

Book1

Unit 5: Sequences 5

page 254-264

UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) –

Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011

97

Module 7 — Quadratic equations Time: 6 – 8 hours

Target grade: A*/A/B/C

Content Area of specification

Solving quadratic equations by factorisation 2.7

Solving quadratic equations by using the quadratic formula 2.7

Setting up and solving quadratic equations from data given in a context 2.7

Solving exactly, by elimination of an unknown, two simultaneous equations

in two unknowns, one of which is linear in each unknown and the other is

linear in one unknown and quadratic in the other 2.7

Solving exactly, by elimination of an unknown, two simultaneous equations

in two unknowns, one of which is linear in each unknown and the other is

linear in one unknown and the other is of the form x

2

+ y

2

= r

2

2.7

Prior knowledge

Algebra: Modules 1 and 3

Notes

Remind students that they should factorise a quadratic before using the formula

A/A* notes/tips

- Remind students that it is important to always factorise completely before

resorting to using the quadratic formula

- When applying the quadratic formula, students must substitute the correct

values into the formula. They should be reminded that rounding or truncating

during the process leads to inaccurate solutions

- Often solving equations with algebraic fractions is a challenge for most students,

however they should be encouraged to show their working out through using a

few lines of correct algebra. Remind students of the value of retaining the

structure of the equation throughout their working, rather than merely treating

the algebra as an expression to be simplified

Resources

Textbook References

Edexcel IGCSE

Mathematics A Student

Book 1

Unit 5: Algebra 5 page 248-251

Edexcel IGCSE

Mathematics A Student

Book 2

Unit 2: Algebra 2 page 71-80

Unit 3: Algebra 3 page 176-182

See Appendix 1 for references to past paper questions for students aiming for top

grades in this module

UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0)

Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011

98

Module 8 — Inequalities Time: 4 – 6 hours

Target grades: A/B/C

Content Area of specification

Understanding and using the symbols >, <, ≥ and ≤ 2.8

Understanding and using the convention for open and closed intervals on

a number line 2.8

Solving simple linear inequalities in one variable, including ‘double-ended’

inequalities 2.8

Representing on a number line the solution set of simple linear inequalities 2.8

Finding the integer solutions of simple linear inequalities 2.8

Using regions to represent simple linear inequalities in one variable 2.8

Using regions to represent the solution set to several linear inequalities

in one or two variables 2.8

Solving quadratic inequalities in one unknown and representing the solution

set on a number line 2.8

Prior knowledge

Algebra: Modules 3, 5 and 7

Resources

Textbook References

Edexcel IGCSE

Mathematics A Student

Book 1

Unit 2: Algebra 2 page 74-78,

81-86

Edexcel IGCSE

Mathematics A Student

Book 2

Unit 2: Algebra 2 page 81-84

Unit 5: Algebra 5 page 356

UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) –

Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011

99

Module 9 — Indices Time: 4 – 6 hours

Target grades: A/B/C/D

Content Area of specification

Using index notation for positive integer powers 2.1

Substituting positive and negative numbers into expressions and formulae

with quadratic and/or cubic terms 2.1

Completing tables of values and drawing graphs of quadratic functions 3.3

Using index notation with positive, negative and fractional powers to

simplify expressions 2.1

Prior knowledge

Algebra: Modules 2 and 4

Resources

Textbook References

Edexcel IGCSE

Mathematics A Student

Book 1

Unit 2: Number 2 page 60, 73-74

Unit 4: Graphs 4 page 185-190

Edexcel IGCSE

Mathematics A Student

Book 2

Unit 2: Number 2 page 66-70

UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0)

Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011

100

Module 10 — Proportion Time: 4 – 6 hours

Target grade: A*/A/B

Content Area of specification

Setting up and using equations to solve problems involving direct or

inverse proportion 2.5

Relating algebraic solutions to graphical representation of the equations 2.5

Prior knowledge

Algebra: Modules 1, 2 and 3

A/A* notes/tips

- Students need to be reminded that precision is required when setting up the

formula. It is essential that they take note of the key words used in the question

- Common errors tend to be confusing direct and indirect (inverse)

proportionality, leading to using the wrong formulae. This is indicative of

mathematical misunderstanding rather than misreading, and no credit will be

received

Resources

Textbook References

Edexcel IGCSE

Mathematics A Student

Book 1

Unit 2: Number 2 page 61-63

Unit 5: Number 5 page 233-238

Edexcel IGCSE

Mathematics A Student

Book 2

Unit 1: Number 1 page 8-18

Unit 5 Number 5 page 338-345

(selected questions)

See Appendix 1 for references to past paper questions for students aiming for top

grades in this module

UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) –

Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011

101

Module 11 — Function notation Time: 6 – 8 hours

Target grades: A*/A/B

Content Area of specification

Understanding the concept that a function is a mapping between

elements of two sets 3.2

Using function notation of the form f(x) = … and f x : 3.2

Understanding the terms domain and range 3.2

Understanding which parts of the domain may need to be excluded 3.2

Understanding and using composite function fg and inverse function f

–1

3.2

Prior knowledge

Algebra: Modules 1, 2 and 3

A/A* notes/tips

- This tends to be demanding topic for students and in order to deepen their

understanding of how to apply their knowledge of functions in different types of

questions, they should be given plenty of practice

- Students may need to be reminded that f(x) = y

- When solving f(x) = g(x), given the graphs of both functions, remind students

that they should give their answers as solutions of x

- Remind students that when one function is followed by another, the result is a

composite function, eg fg(x) means do f first followed by g, where the domain of

f is the range of g

- Students need to understand, and be able to, use the concepts of domain and

range, as this will enable them to develop an appropriate working knowledge of

functions. In particular, students must be familiar with the concept that division

by zero is undefined, eg for g(x) =

2

1

÷ x

, 0 2 = ÷ x , which means x = 2 must be

excluded from the domain of g

- For inverse functions, remind students that the inverse of f(x) is the function

that ‘undoes’ whatever f(x) has done, and that the notation f

1 ÷

(x) is used

- It is helpful to remind students that if the inverse function is not obvious then:

– Step 1: write the function as y =…

– Step 2: change any x to y, and any y to x

– Step 3: make y the subject, giving the inverse function

UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0)

Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011

102

Resources

Textbook References

Edexcel IGCSE

Mathematics A Student

Book 2

Unit 3: Algebra 3 page 183-197

See Appendix 1 for references to past paper questions for students aiming for top

grades in this module

UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) –

Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011

103

Module 12 — Harder graphs Time: 6 – 8 hours

Target grades: A*/A/B

Content Area of specification

Plotting and drawing graphs with equation y = Ax

3

+ Bx

2

+ Cx + D in which

(i) the constants are integers and some could be zero

(ii) the letters x and y can be replaced with any other two letters 3.3

Plotting and drawing graphs with equation

3 2

2

= + + + + +

E F

y Ax Bx Cx D

x x

in which

(i) the constants are integers and at least three of them are zero

(ii) the letters x and y can be replaced with any other two letters 3.3

Finding the gradients of non-linear graphs by drawing a tangent 3.3

Finding the intersection points of two graphs, one linear (y

1

) and one

non-linear (y

2

) and recognising that the solutions correspond to y

2

– y

1

= 0 3.3

Prior knowledge

Algebra: Modules 1, 2, 3, 5 and 9

Notes

Students should be made aware that they should not use rulers to join plotted

points on

non-linear graphs

When plotting points or reading off values from a graph, the scales on the axes

should be checked carefully

A/A* notes/tips

- Remind students that when finding an estimate for the gradient of a

graph y = f(x) at given point, a tangent drawn at this point is helpful, although

a related, correct division, to find the gradient, is required to gain top marks in

a question

- Students should recognise that cubic graphs have distinctive shapes that

depend on the coefficient of

3

x

- Students should recognise that reciprocal graphs have x as the denominator,

and that they produce a type of curve called a hyperbola. An awareness of the

concept of the smallest (minimum) value of y, and the value of x where this

happens on the graph, is helpful

UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0)

Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011

104

- Students should appreciate that an accurately drawn graph can be used to solve

equations that may prove difficult to solve by other methods. They should also

appreciate that most graphs of real-life situations are curves rather than

straight lines. Information on rates of change can still be found by drawing a

tangent to a curve, and using this to estimate the gradient of the curve at this

point

- Students should recognise that the algebraic method is more accurate than the

graphical method of solving simultaneous equations, in particular when one

equation is linear and the other equation is nonlinear

Resources

Textbook References

Edexcel IGCSE

Mathematics A Student

Book 2

Unit 1: Graphs 1 page 19-27

Unit 3: Graphs 3 page 198-209

See Appendix 1 for references to past paper questions for students aiming for top

grades in this module

UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) –

Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011

105

Module 13 — Calculus Time: 6 – 8 hours

Target grades: A*/A/B

Content Area of specification

Understanding the concept of a variable rate of change 3.4

Differentiating integer powers of x 3.4

Determining gradients, rates of change, maxima and minima by

differentiation and relating these to graphs 3.4

Applying calculus to linear kinematics and to other simple practical problems 3.4

Prior knowledge

Algebra; Modules 1, 2, 5, 9 and 12

Notes

When applying calculus to linear kinematics, the reverse of differentiation will not

be required

A/A* notes/tips

- Student should understand that the process of finding the gradient of a curve is

called differentiation, where the result is the derivative or the gradient function,

and that the gradient of a curve can also be represented by

dx

dy

- Students should be encouraged to set their work out appropriately, maintaining

the structure of their solution, as this will aid their understanding, and revision,

of the topic, particularly as it increases in complexity

- Students need to understand the turning points are points on the curve where

the gradient is zero. They should also be able to distinguish between a minimum

turning point and a maximum turning point

- Students need to be able to apply their knowledge of differentiation to the

motion of a particle in a straight line, including speed and acceleration

Resources

Textbook References

Edexcel IGCSE

Mathematics A Student

Book 2

Unit 4: Graphs 4 page 268-287

See Appendix 1 for references to past paper questions for students aiming for top

grades in this module

UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0)

Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011

106

SHAPE, SPACE AND MEASURES

Module 1 — Average speed Time: 2 – 4 hours

Target grades: B/C/D

Content Area of specification

Understanding and using the relationship between average

speed, distance and time 4.4

Resources

Textbook References

Edexcel IGCSE

Mathematics A Student

Book 2

Unit 5: Graphs 5 page 365

UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) –

Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011

107

Module 2 — Construction Time: 3 – 5 hours

Target grades: B/C/D

Content Area of specification

Constructing triangles and other 2-D shapes using a ruler,

protractor and compasses 4.5

Using three-figure bearings to specify direction 4.4

Using scale drawings to solve problems 4.5

Using straight edge and compasses to construct the perpendicular bisector

of a line segment the bisector of an angle 4.5

Notes

Encourage students to use sharp pencils to improve the neatness and accuracy of

their drawings

A tolerance of 2° is reasonable for angles

A sturdy pair of compasses is essential

Students often confuse

(i) the direction from which a bearing is measured

(ii) measuring angles larger than 90° on a diagram

Resources

Text book title Text book ref

Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A

Student Book 1

Unit 1: Shape and space 1

page 32-33, 52

Unit 2: Shape and space 2

page 91

UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0)

Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011

108

Module 3 — Geometry Time: 3 – 5 hours

Target grades: B/C/D

Content Area of specification

Using parallel lines, alternate angles and corresponding angles 4.1

Using the angle sum of a triangle to calculate angles in triangles 4.1

Using angle properties of isosceles, equilateral and right-angled triangles 4.1

Understanding that the exterior angle of a triangle is equal to the

sum of the interior angles at the other two vertices 4.1

Using the angle sum of a quadrilateral to calculate angles in quadrilaterals 4.2

Understanding and using the properties of the parallelogram,

rectangle, square, rhombus, trapezium and kite 4.2

Calculating and using the sums of the interior angles of polygons 4.2

Calculating and using the sum of the exterior angles of polygons 4.2

Calculating the interior and exterior angles of regular polygons 4.2

Providing reasons, using standard geometrical statements to

support numerical values for angles obtained in any geometrical

context involving lines and polygons 4.7

Notes

Students should be made aware that given diagrams will not be drawn to scale and

that they should not assume geometrical facts that are not given in the question

Resources

Textbook References

Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A

Student Book 1

Unit 1: Shape and space 1

page 28-30

Unit 1: Shape and space 1

page 31

UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) –

Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011

109

Module 4 — Transformations Time: 4 – 6 hours

Target grades: A/B/C/D

Content Area of specification

Understanding that rotations are specified by a centre and an angle 5.2

Rotating a shape about a point, measuring the angle of rotation in

right angles, degrees or simple fractions of a turn 5.2

Understanding that an anti-clockwise rotation is a positive angle rotation and

a clockwise rotation is a negative angle rotation 5.2

Understanding that reflections are specified by a mirror line,

for example x = 1, y = x on a coordinate grid 5.2

Reflecting shapes in a mirror line 5.2

Constructing a mirror line, given a shape and its reflection 5.2

Understanding that translations are specified by vectors 5.2

Translating a shape, given the vector 5.2

Recognising that rotations, reflections and translations preserve length and

angle so that a transformed shape under any of these transformations is

congruent to the original shape 5.2

Understanding that enlargements are specified by a centre and a scale factor 5.2

Constructing enlargements of shapes with positive and fractional scale factors 5.2

Identifying the scale factor of an enlargement as the ratio of the

lengths of any two corresponding line segments 5.2

Recognising that enlargements preserve angle but not length 5.2

Describing transformations in full 5.2

Describing a single transformation which is equivalent to a combination

of transformations 5.2

Notes

Students often lose marks in the examination because they do not give a complete

description of a transformation. For example, the centre of rotation is often omitted

and the name of the transformation itself left out

Resources

Textbook References

Edexcel IGCSE

Mathematics A Student

Book 1

Unit 5: Shape and space 5

page 265-278

Edexcel IGCSE

Mathematics A Student

Book 2

Unit 5: Shape and space 5

(Revision) page 378

UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0)

Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011

110

Module 5 — Circle properties Time: 6 – 8 hours

Target grades: A*/A/B/C/D

Content Area of specification

Knowing and using these circle properties:

- two tangents from a point to a circle are equal in length 4.6

- tangents are perpendicular to the radius at the point of contact 4.6

- the line from the centre of a circle which is perpendicular to a chord

bisects the chord (and the converse is true) 4.6

Recognising the term cyclic quadrilateral 4.6

Understanding and using angle properties of the circle including:

- an angle subtended by an arc at the centre of a circle is twice the angle

subtended at any point on the remaining part of the circumference 4.6

- an angle subtended at the circumference by a diameter is a right angle 4.6

- angles in the same segment are equal 4.6

- the sum of the opposite angles of a cyclic quadrilateral is 180° 4.6

- the alternate segment theorem 4.6

Understanding and using the internal and external intersecting chord

properties 4.6

Providing reasons, using standard geometrical statements, to support

numerical values for angles obtained in any geometrical context involving

circles 4.7

Notes

Students should be made aware that diagrams on examination papers will not

be drawn to scale and that they should not assume geometrical facts that are not

given in the question

A/A* notes/tips

- Student should be encouraged to always draw a neat diagram, using all the

given facts. They should remember to use the basic geometrical facts to help

them move through the problem

- Students should know that a figure is cyclic if a circle can be drawn through its

vertices, and that the vertices are the concyclic points

- It is helpful if students are familiar with the terminology associated with circle

theorems

- Students should develop the habit of giving a reason, in brackets, after each

geometrical statement

UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) –

Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011

111

Resources

Textbook References

Edexcel IGCSE

Mathematics A Student

Book 1

Unit 4: Shape and space 4

page 194-204

Edexcel IGCSE

Mathematics A Student

Book 2

Unit 1: Shape and space 1

page 28-44

Unit 5: Shape and space 5

(Revision) page 379

See Appendix 1 for references to past paper questions for students aiming for top

grades in this module

UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0)

Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011

112

Module 6 — Area and perimeter Time: 4 – 6 hours

Target grades: A/B/C/D

Content Area of specification

Finding the areas of rectangles, triangles, parallelograms and trapezia,

using relevant formulae 4.9

Finding circumferences and areas of circles using relevant formulae 4.9

Finding the areas of compound shapes made from rectangles and triangles 4.9

Finding perimeters and areas of sectors of circles 4.9

Converting between units of length and of area within the metric

system, for example m

2

and cm

2

4.9

Resources

Textbook References

Edexcel IGCSE

Mathematics A Student

Book 2

Unit 2: shape and space

page 98-139

Unit 2: Number 2

page 60-62

UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) –

Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011

113

Module 7 — 3-D shapes and volume Time: 4 – 6 hours

Target grades: A/B/C/D

Content Area of specification

Understanding the terms face, edge and vertex in the context of a 3-D solid 4.9

Finding the volumes of right prisms, including cuboids and cylinders,

using appropriate formulae 4.9

Finding the surface areas of solids with rectangular and triangular faces 4.9

Finding the surface area and/or volume of a sphere and of a right

circular cone using relevant formulae 4.9

Converting between units of volume within the metric system,

for example cm

3

and litres, m

3

and cm

3

4.9

Prior knowledge

Shape, space and measures: Module 6

Resources

Textbook References

Edexcel IGCSE

Mathematics A Student

Book 2

Unit 2: Number 2 page 63

Unit 2: Shape and space

page 112-123

UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0)

Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011

114

Module 8 — Pythagoras’ theorem Time: 3 – 5 hours

Target grade: B/C/D

Content Area of specification

Understanding and using Pythagoras’ theorem in 2-D to find the length

of the hypotenuse or that of one of the shorter sides of a right-angled

triangle 4.8

Using Pythagoras’ theorem to solve problems 4.8

Notes

When producing their answers students should remember that:

- the hypotenuse is the longest side

- the hypotenuse is less than the sum of the lengths of the other two sides

Some students find questions on this topic much more difficult if the orientation of

the triangle is unusual

Resources

Textbook References

Edexcel IGCSE

Mathematics A Student

Book 1

Unit 4: Shape and space 4

page 212-215

Edexcel IGCSE

Mathematics A Student

Book 2

Unit 5: Shape and space 5

(Revision) page 380

UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) –

Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011

115

Module 9 — Trigonometry Time: 3 – 5 hours

Target grade: B/C/D

Content Area of specification

Identifying the various sides of a right-angled triangle as the

hypotenuse, opposite and adjacent 4.8

Understanding and using sine, cosine and tangent of acute angles to

find lengths and angles in a right-angled triangle 4.8

Using trigonometry to solve problems, including bearings 4.8

Using Pythagoras’ theorem and trigonometry to solve problems 4.8

Notes

Students should ensure that their calculators are in ‘degree mode’ before tackling

trigonometry questions

Resources

Textbook References

Edexcel IGCSE

Mathematics A Student

Book 1

Unit 2: Shape and space 2

page 87-94

Unit 3: Shape and space 3

page 142-153

UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0)

Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011

116

Module 10 — Similar shapes Time: 6 – 8 hours

Target grade: A*/A/B/C

Content Area of specification

Understanding that, if two shapes are similar their corresponding angles

are equal and all their corresponding lengths are in the same ratio 4.10

Using similarity to find lengths of sides 4.10

Understanding that areas of similar figures are in the ratio of the

square of corresponding sides 4.10

Understanding that the volumes of similar figures are in the ratio

of the cube of corresponding sides 4.10

Using areas and volumes of similar figures in solving problems 4.10

Notes

Some students have difficulty in identifying correct ratios of quantities (lengths,

areas, volumes) particularly when an area or a volume ratio of similar figures is

given

A/A* notes/tips

- When working with similar shapes, a common error is the use of the

slant height of a 3-D shape, instead of the vertical height, when calculating

volumes

Resources

Textbook References

Edexcel IGCSE

Mathematics A Student

Book 1

Unit 4: Shape and space 4

page 205-212

Edexcel IGCSE

Mathematics A Student

Book 2

Unit 2: Shape and space 2

page 112-139

See Appendix 1 for references to past paper questions for students aiming for top

grades in this module

UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) –

Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011

117

Module 11 — Advanced trigonometry Time: 6 – 8 hours

Target grade: A*/A/B/C

Content Area of specification

Understanding and using sine, cosine and tangent of obtuse angles 4.8

Understanding and using angles of elevation and depression 4.8

Using Pythagoras’ theorem in 3-D 4.8

Understanding and using

1

2

ab sin C for the area of a triangle 4.8

Understanding and using the sine rule and the cosine rule for any triangle 4.8

Applying trigonometrical methods to solve problems in 3-D, including

finding the angle between a line and a plane but not the angle between

two planes 4.8

Prior knowledge

Shape, space and measures: Modules 8 and 9

Notes

The concept that angles of elevation and depression are measured from the

horizontal should be emphasised

Arithmetical methods in handling the cosine rule, particularly with obtuse angles,

should be emphasised

A/A* notes/tips

- Student will need to recognise when to use trigonometry, in particular they

need to recognise when it is more appropriate to use the cosine rule, rather

than the sine rule. In these instances, this skill is essential when tackling the

more non-routine questions aimed at the top grades

- Often students recognise that using the cosine rule is the more appropriate

problem-solving technique; however a common error is misquoting it. Students

should be able to confidently use the cosine rule, in terms of both sides and

angles

- In order to access the top grades, students should appreciate the need to

analyse the question carefully and then choose the appropriate method of

solution first time.

- This means that students need to develop the skill of manipulating the cosine

rule with confident ease. They should set out their solutions clearly, maintaining

the correct structure of their solutions, as this will assist with developing this

important skill

- Students also need to develop an awareness of the value of an ‘exact’ value,

and they need to be able to demonstrate this awareness in their working out,

and not assume that by writing down all the decimal points from their calculator

display that this indicates exactness. They should be confident to use functions,

surds or algebra to show their working out, and they should be able to retain

values written as sin(a) or cos(b)

UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0)

Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011

118

Resources

Textbook References

Edexcel IGCSE

Mathematics A Student

Book 2

Unit 4: Shape and space 4

page 288-314

See Appendix 1 for references to past paper questions for students aiming for top

grades in this module

UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) –

Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011

119

Module 12 — Vectors Time: 5 – 7 hours

Target grade: A*/A/B

Content Area of specification

Understanding that a vector has both magnitude and direction 5.1

Understanding and using vector notation 5.1

Multiplying vectors by scalar quantities 5.1

Adding and subtracting vectors 5.1

Calculating the modulus (magnitude) of a vector 5.1

Finding the resultant of two or more vectors 5.1

Applying vector methods for simple geometrical proofs in 2-D 5.1

A/A* notes/tips

- It is usual for students to find the initial stages of a vector question quite

straightforward, with the last stage rather more challenging

- Students should be encouraged to use geometrical properties to enable them to

solve the more demanding aspects of vector questions. Students should develop

the habit of maintaining the structure of their solutions, and applying simple

algebraic manipulations where necessary

- Students should be able to make use of the result of adding a set of vectors, as

well as the use of geometrical properties and algebraic manipulation, in order to

solve the more demanding aspects of the questions. At this level, it is about

analysing the question, combined with an awareness of selecting the most

appropriate methods of solution

Resources

Textbook References

Edexcel IGCSE

Mathematics A Student

Book 2

Unit 3: Shape and space

page 210-225

See Appendix 1 for references to past paper questions for students aiming for top

grades in this module

UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0)

Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011

120

HANDLING DATA

Module 1 — Graphical representation of data Time: 4 – 6 hours

Target grades: A*/A/B

Content Area of specification

Constructing cumulative frequency diagrams from tabulated data 6.1

Using cumulative frequency diagrams 6.1

Constructing and interpreting histograms for unequal class intervals 6.1

Notes

Students need to be aware that the upper bound of the class interval is used to plot

points in a cumulative frequency diagram

A/A* notes/tips

- Student need to understand that in a histogram, frequency is proportional to the

area of the bar

- When working with histograms, students should be encouraged to work with the

most successful and shortest method, which is to calculate and then mark on

the vertical axis, the frequency densities. This approach often leads onto using

efficient methods for working with histograms

Resources

Textbook References

Edexcel IGCSE

Mathematics A Student

Book 1

Unit 5: Handling data 5

page 282-291

Edexcel IGCSE

Mathematics A Student

Book 2

Unit 3: Handling data 3

page 226-235

See Appendix 1 for references to past paper questions for students aiming for top

grades in this module

UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) –

Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011

121

Module 2 — Statistical measures Time: 3 – 5 hours

Target grades: B/C/D

Content Area of specification

Understanding the concept of average as a value which is

representative of a set of data 6.2

Finding the mean, median, mode and range for a discrete data

set from a frequency table 6.2

Selecting the most appropriate average 6.2

Finding the modal class for grouped data 6.2

Calculating an estimate for the mean for grouped data, using halfway values 6.2

Estimating the median from a cumulative frequency diagram 6.2

Understanding the concept of a measure of spread 6.2

Estimating the quartiles and the interquartile range from given data

or from a cumulative frequency diagram 6.2

Notes

Students need to be aware that the median and quartiles are read off as values

from the y-axis

Resources

Textbook References

Edexcel IGCSE

Mathematics A Student

Book 1

Unit 2: Handling data 2

page 97-98, 107, 164

Unit 3: Handling data 3

page 154-160

Unit 5: Handling data 5

page 279-281

UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0)

Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011

122

Module 3 — Probability Time: 5 – 7 hours

Target grades: A*/A/B/C/D

Content Area of specification

Understanding sample spaces and using them to find the

probability that an event will occur 6.3

Listing all the outcomes for single events systematically, or for

two successive events, and using lists to find the probability that

an event will occur 6.3

Using the sum of probabilities of all possible outcomes equalling one 6.3

Understanding the meanings of ‘equally likely’ and ‘mutually exclusive’ 6.3

Using the addition rule for probability for mutually exclusive events 6.3

Understanding and using expected frequency to calculate an estimate

for the number of times an event will occur 6.3

Determining the probability that two or more independent events will

both occur 6.3

Knowing when to add or multiply probabilities 6.3

Using simple conditional probability when combining events 6.3

Drawing tree diagrams to show the outcomes of two or more successive

events and related probabilities 6.3

Using tree diagrams to solve probability problems 6.3

Notes

You may need to remind students that only fractions, decimals and percentages can

be used for probability. Answers such as ‘2 in 3’, ‘2 out of 3’ and ‘2 : 3’ would be

penalised in the examination

A/A* notes/tips

- Student should be able to handle the ‘at least’ situation through using efficient

methods, eg by using P( E ) + P( E ) = 1

- Students should recognise when it is necessary to consider additional

combinations when solving problems. A common error tends to be considering

only one combination instead of all the necessary combinations

- Students need to be able to use tree diagrams, with confidence. If tree

diagrams are used, students need to include the necessary labels and

appropriate values

UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) –

Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011

123

Resources

Textbook References

Edexcel IGCSE

Mathematics A Student

Book 2

Unit 2: Handling data 2

page 140-151

Unit 4: Handling data 4

page 315-325

See Appendix 1 for references to past paper questions for students aiming for top

grades in this module

UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0)

Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011

124

UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) –

Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011

125

Resources

Student and Practice Books

Edexcel’s own Student Books and Practice Books published specifically for the

following specifications

- IGCSE 2009 Mathematics A

- The Edexcel Level 1/Level 2 Certificate in Mathematics

provide complete coverage of the specification and plenty of exercises and practice

exam questions in addition to a FREE ActiveBook CD.

- Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 1

D A Turner, I A Potts, W R J Waite, B V Hony

ISBN 978-0 435966 91 1

- Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 2

D A Turner, I A Potts, W R J Waite, B V Hony

ISBN 978-0 435966 92 8

- Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Practice Book 1

D A Turner, I A Potts

ISBN 978-0 435044 16 9

- Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Practice Book 2

D A Turner, I A Potts

ISBN 978-0 435044 15 2

Visit www.pearsonglobalschools.com/igcse for more information and to order your

copies now.

These texts are the updated versions of the Longman Mathematics for IGCSE

resources below which were published in 2005-2007.

- Turner D, Potts I, Waite W and Hony V – Longman Mathematics for IGCSE

Book 1 ISBN 9781405802116

- Turner D, Potts I, Waite W and Hony V – Longman Mathematics for IGCSE

Book 2 ISBN 9781405802123

- Turner D and Potts I – Longman Mathematics for IGCSE Practice Book 2

ISBN 9781405865043

- Turner D and Potts I – Longman Mathematics for IGCSE Practice Book 1

ISBN 9781405865036

- Turner D, Potts I, Waite W and Hony V – Longman Mathematics for IGCSE

ActiveTeach 1 ISBN 9781405865876

- Turner D, Potts I, Waite W and Hony V – Longman Mathematics for IGCSE

ActiveTeach 2 ISBN 9781405865883

UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0)

Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011

126

Endorsed books

For the Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A specification, the additional titles below have

been endorsed by Edexcel and could be used as teaching aids. The internet is also

valuable as a tool for research and learning.

Please note that while resources are checked at the time of publication,

materials may be withdrawn from circulation and website locations may

change at any time.

There are no content changes between the IGCSE Mathematics A and the Edexcel

Certificate in Mathematics specifications. This means that the following titles are

also suitable for the Certificate.

- Appleton M, Demetriou D, Huby D and Kranat J – IGCSE Mathematics for

Edexcel (Oxford University Press, 2007) ISBN 9780199152629

- Johnson T and Clough T – Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics Practice (Hodder Murray

2008) ISBN 9780340966273

- Metcalf P – IGCSE Mathematics for Edexcel (Collins Education, 2006)

ISBN 9780007755486

- Smith A – IGCSE Mathematics for Edexcel (Hodder Murray 2008)

ISBN 9780340945414

- Revision Guide for IGCSE Maths Higher Tier (ZigZag Education)

UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) –

Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011

127

Appendices

Appendix 1: References to past paper questions for students aiming

for top grades 129

Appendix 2: References to past paper questions for content not

currently assessed at GCSE Mathematics 131

Appendix 3: The use of the calculator 133

UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0)

Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011

128

UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) –

Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011

129

Appendix 1: References to past paper questions for

students aiming for top grades

The table below gives references to past papers. The questions can be used to

focus on the more demanding topics for the students aiming at the top grades.

Module

number

Topic area Past question references

IGCSE (4400)

2 Powers and roots November 2009 3H Q25

May 2010 3H Q 16

Number

7 Degrees of accuracy May 2009 3H Q20

November 2009 3H Q23

1 Algebraic manipulation November 2009 3H Q19

May 2010 3H Q18

2 Expressions and formulae November 2004 3H Q 18

May 2006 3H Q20

7 Quadratic expressions May 2009 4H Q16

May 2009 4H Q21

10 Proportion November 2009 3H Q21

November 2009 4H Q20

May 2010 3H Q15

11 Function notation November 2009 3H Q24

May 2010 4H Q15

12 Graphs of functions November 2009 3H Q15

Algebra

13 Calculus May 2009 4H Q17

November 2009 4H Q19

5 Circle properties November 2008 3H Q20

November 2009 4H Q21

10 Similar shapes May 2007 3H Q18

May 2009 3H Q16

11 Advanced trigonometry November 2009 3H Q22

May 2010 4H Q18

Shape,

space and

measures

12 Vectors May 2009 4H Q18

May 2010 4H Q21

1 Graphical representation

of data

May 2009 4H Q19

May 2010 4H Q15

Data

handling

3 Probability November 2009 3H Q20

November 2009 4H Q16

May 2009 3H Q17

May 2010 3H Q19

UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0)

Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011

130

UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) –

Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011

131

Appendix 2: References to past paper questions for

content not currently assessed at GCSE Mathematics

These topics are not included in GCSE Mathematics, but are included in IGCSE

Mathematics.

Module

number

Topic area Past question references

IGCSE (4400)

Number 8 Set language and

notation

November 2010 1F Q20

November 2010 3H Q7

May 2010 4H Q6

8 Quadratic inequalities November 2005 3H Q15

11 Function notation November 2009 3H Q24

November 2010 3H Q21

June 2010 4H Q20

12 Finding the gradient of a

curve at a point by

drawing a tangent

May 2008 3H Q21

Algebra

13 Calculus November 2009 4H Q19

November 2010 3H Q16

5 Intersecting chord

theorem

May 2008 4H Q18

November 2010 4H Q19

Shape,

space and

measures

12 Modulus of a vector May 2008 4H Q21

Data

handling

3 Simple conditional

probability

November 2010 1F Q13

November 2010 3H Q17

November 2010 4H Q14

UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0)

Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011

132

UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) –

Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011

133

Appendix 3: The use of the calculator

The range of functions on calculators is increasing all the time. Current models can

be used to answer questions on a number of topics including fractions, surds,

standard form, recurring decimals and equations. It would clearly be unfair if

sophisticated calculators gave candidates an advantage in the examination.

In addition to ensuring fairness to candidates, another of our aims as examiners is

to encourage good classroom practice. Appropriate and efficient use of calculators

is desirable but reliance on them at the expense of understanding and learning

mathematical techniques is not.

The style of some questions on certain topics and the way in which they are marked

help us achieve these aims. To assist teachers preparing students for the

examination, examples of such questions are given below; model solutions, which

are not unique, are also provided.

Fractions

Example 1 (Foundation/Higher)

Show that

12

5

1

4

3

3

2

= +

(2 marks)

Solution

)

4

3

3

2

( +

12

9

12

8

+ =

12

17

=

)

12

5

1 ( =

Comment

The marks would be awarded for the unbracketed steps of the solution. Obviously,

when the answer is given, candidates must give every necessary step in the

working and it is better for them to err on the side of giving too much working

rather than too little.

UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0)

Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011

134

Surds

Example 2 (Higher)

Show that 3 4 7 ) 3 2 (

2

+ = +

(2 marks)

Solution

2 2

) 3 ( 3 2 3 2 4 ) 3 2 ( + + + = +

3 3 4 4 + + =

) 3 4 7 ( + =

Comment

3 3 × and 9 would be acceptable alternatives to

2

) 3 ( in the expansion but, as

the answer is given, 3 would not.

Standard form

Example 3 (Higher)

n

x 10 4× = where n is an integer.

Find an expression, in standard form, for x

2

Give your expression as simply as possible.

(3 marks)

Solution

2 2

) 10 4 (

n

x × =

2

) 10 ( 16

n

× =

n 2

10 16 × =

n 2

10 10 6 . 1 × × =

1 2

10 6 . 1

+

× =

n

UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) –

Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011

135

Equations

“Spotting” a solution and showing, by substitution, that it satisfies an equation will

not, in general, qualify as “sufficient working”. The example below shows two

possible methods and there will often be more than one acceptable method. We

advise teachers to consult past mark schemes for more examples of different

methods.

Example 4 (Higher)

Solve

3 2

4

2 7

+ =

÷

y

y y

(4 marks)

Solution 1

Step Notes

) 3 2 ( 4

4

2 7

4 + =

÷

× y

y

or ) 3 2 ( 4 2 7 + = ÷ y y

Demonstrates clear intention to multiply both sides

by 4 or a multiple of 4, for example,

4

2 7

4

y ÷

×

or y 2 7 ÷

= 4 × 2y + 3 or 8y + 3 or 2y + 3 × 4 or 2y + 12

12 8 2 7 + = ÷ y y or simpler

Correct expansion of brackets

(usually 12 7 2 8 ÷ = + y y ) or correct rearrangement of

correct terms eg 8y + 2y = 7 − 12

5 10 ÷ = y or 5 10 = ÷ y

Reduction to correct equation of form ay = b

2

1

= y

10

5

÷ and −0.5 are acceptable equivalents

but not −5 ÷ 10 etc

Solution 2

Step Notes

3 2

4

2

4

7

+ = ÷ y

y

Division of both terms on LHS by 4

4

2

2 3

4

7 y

y + = ÷

Correct rearrangement of correct terms

4

5

4

10

÷ =

y

or equivalent

Reduction to correct equation of form ay = b

2

1

÷ = y

10

5

÷ and −0.5 are acceptable equivalents

but not −5 ÷ 10 etc

UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0)

Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011

136

Example 5 (Higher)

Solve 3x

2

− 8x + 2 = 0

Give your solutions correct to 3 significant figures.

(3 marks)

Solution

Step Notes

3 2

2 3 4 ) 8 ( 8

2

×

× × ÷ ÷ ±

= x

Correct substitution in the quadratic formula

6

24 64 8 ÷ ±

= x

6

40 8 ±

= x

Correct simplification of the quadratic formula

x = 2.39 or x = 0.279 Statement of solutions correct to 3 significant figures

2 Geometrical Reasoning

Centres should ensure that candidates are aware that the terms F angles, Z angles

and C angles will receive no credit when given in geometrical reasons. The terms

accepted are corresponding angles, alternate angles and allied (or co-interior)

angles respectively, although knowledge of only the first two of these is required by

the specification.

3 Set Language and Notation

Centres should also ensure that candidates are aware that, in lists of the members

of the union of sets, the repetition of members is penalised.

4618sb150311S:\LT\PD\IGCSE TSM\UG026781 MATHEMATICS (SPEC A) TEACHERS GUIDE ISSUE 3.DOC.1-143/2

Publications Code UG026781 March 2011

For more information on Edexcel and BTEC qualifications

please visit our website: www.edexcel.com

Edexcel Limited. Registered in England and Wales No. 4496750

Registered Office: One90 High Holborn, London WC1V 7BH. VAT Reg No 780 0898 07

Edexcel, a Pearson company, is the UK’s largest awarding body, offering academic and vocational qualifications and testing to more than 25,000 schools, colleges, employers and other places of learning in the UK and in over 100 countries worldwide. Qualifications include GCSE, IGCSE, AS and A Level, NVQ and our BTEC suite of vocational qualifications from entry level to BTEC Higher National Diplomas, recognised by employers and higher education institutions worldwide. We deliver 9.4 million exam scripts each year, with more than 90% of exam papers marked onscreen annually. As part of Pearson, Edexcel continues to invest in cutting-edge technology that has revolutionised the examinations and assessment system. This includes the ability to provide detailed performance data to teachers and students which help to raise attainment.

This is an Issue 3 of the Teacher’s guide. Substantial changes have been made to the Teacher’s guide through including; Differences in assessments, Appendices, A/A* notes/tips and Textbook references.

Acknowledgements This document has been produced by Edexcel on the basis of consultation with teachers, examiners, consultants and other interested parties. Edexcel would like to thank all those who contributed their time and expertise to its development.

References to third-party material made in this document are made in good faith. Edexcel does not endorse, approve or accept responsibility for the content of materials, which may be subject to change, or any opinions expressed therein. (Material may include textbooks, journals, magazines and other publications and websites.)

Authorised by Roger Beard Prepared by Sharon Wood Publications Code UG026781 All the material in this publication is copyright © Edexcel Limited 2011

Introduction

The Edexcel International General Certificate of Secondary Education (IGCSE) in Mathematics (Specification A) is designed for schools and colleges. It is part of a suite of IGCSE qualifications offered by Edexcel.

**About this Teacher’s guide
**

This Teacher’s guide is for teachers who are delivering, or planning to deliver, the Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) qualification. The guide supports you in delivering the course content and explains how to raise the achievement of your students. This guide: provides details of Assessment Objectives (AO) provides additional material on sets, functions and calculus provides a course planner showing how all the specification content could be taught over two years offers you suggestions for a range of textbooks and other resources.

.

Contents Why choose this qualification? Support from Edexcel Section A: Qualification content Key subject aims Unique features and benefits of the qualification Assessment and progression Content summary 1 2 5 5 5 5 6 Section B: Assessment Assessment overview Assessment Objectives and weightings Assessment summary Using the mark scheme Tiers of entry Formulae sheets Calculators 9 9 10 11 12 13 13 14 Section C: Support for centres switching from GCSE Mathematics 15 Differences in Assessment Differences in content Omitted topics Additional topics Notes and sample assessment questions on the three major additional topics 15 18 18 19 20 Section D: Planning and teaching Course planner Foundation tier content summary Foundation tier Higher tier content summary Higher tier 43 43 45 47 79 81 Resources Student and Practice Books Endorsed books 125 125 126 .

Appendices Appendix 1: References to past paper questions for students aiming for top grades Appendix 2: References to past paper questions for content not currently assessed at GCSE Mathematics Appendix 3: The use of the calculator 127 129 131 133 .

edexcel. Go to www.com/igcse2009 for more information about this IGCSE and related sources. UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) – Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 1 .Why choose this qualification? The Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) includes: tiers of entry that allow students to be entered for a level appropriate to them questions that are accessible to students of all abilities within that tier papers that are balanced in terms of topics and difficulty standards that are equivalent to Edexcel’s UK GCSE in Mathematics a full range of teacher support and resources a solid basis for students wishing to progress to Edexcel AS and Advanced GCE Level. or equivalent qualifications.

Mathematics Emporium This is an exceptional service run by our in-house subject expert Graham Cumming. we have merged Ask Edexcel and Ask the Expert into one online service.edexcel. 2 UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 . Go to www.com To access and download the specification.edexcelmaths. They will all help you to keep up to date with this qualification.Support from Edexcel We are dedicated to giving you exceptional customer service.com/igcse2009 is where you will find all the information. You’ll receive a personal response sent to the email address you provide from one of our administrative or teaching experts.edexcel. Search the database for frequently asked questions or submit your enquiry directly to us using the easy-touse online enquiry form.com For any queries regarding this qualification.com/iwantto/Pages/ask-edexcel.aspx for more information Regional offices If you are an international centre interested in offering other Edexcel qualifications your Regional Development Manager can help you.com/international for details of our regional offices.com Website Our dedicated microsite www. You can use it to ask any question about the delivery or teaching of Edexcel qualifications. Go to www. Visit http://www. covering various aspects of the specification and examination will be available. Details of our main support services are given below. To stay ahead of all the latest developments sign-up to the IGCSE or Certificate mailing list by emailing your details to mathsemporium@edexcel.com/training for details. past papers.edexcel. email mathsemporium@edexcel.edexcel. mark schemes and much more register at www. Ask Edexcel & Ask the Expert To make it easier for you to raise a query with us. support materials and resources you need to successfully deliver IGCSE qualifications. UK Customer Services If you have a question about this qualification call our Customer Services Team on 0844 576 0027 Training A programme of professional development and training courses.

ResultsPlus The ResultsPlus service is our online exam results analysis tool and is available to all Edexcel centres for free.edexcel. In addition.com/resultsplus UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) – Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 3 . To find out more visit www. ResultsPlus will provide head teachers with clear information demonstrating how their centre has performed and teachers how students have performed in each subject and or question paper. Edexcel is offering students the opportunity to receive detailed results information online via ResultsPlus. Centres may choose to opt into this service.

4 UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 .

To give students an appreciation of the importance of mathematics in society. Assessment and progression Two tiers – two papers accessible for all abilities within the appropriate tier. Assessment opportunities in both January and June examination series. To give students a foundation of mathematical skills for further study in the subject or related areas. Gives a foundation for Edexcel AS and Advanced GCE Level. Grades A*-G available. To enable students to enjoy using and applying mathematical techniques and concepts. UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) – Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 5 . First assessment in June 2011. Unique features and benefits of the qualification Tiers of entry that allow students to be assessed at the appropriate level. Standards that are equivalent to Edexcel’s UK GCSE in Mathematics. A full range of teacher support and resources. or equivalent qualifications.Section A: Qualification content Key subject aims To develop knowledge and understanding of mathematical concepts and techniques. and become confident in using mathematics to solve problems. employment and study.

3 .5 – Set language and notation Section 1. decimals Ordering Specification reference Section 1. and statistics.10 – Applying number Limits of accuracy Ratio. proportion.9 – Standard form Section 1. Mathematical topic Number.Content summary The Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) gives students the opportunity to develop their knowledge.2 – Fractions Estimation Section 1.7 – Ratio and proportion Section 2.8 – Inequalities Standard form The four rules Section 1.3 – Graphs Section 3.1 – Integers Section 1.8 – Degree of accuracy Section 1.3 – Graphs Section 2.8 – Degree of accuracy Section 1.3 – Graphs Section 3.4 – Measures Section 4.1 – Integers Section 1. The table below shows where the mathematical topics can be found in the specification. square roots and cubes Directed numbers Fractions.1 – Use of symbols Section 2. rate Section 1.Porportion Percentages Use of electronic calculator Measures Time Money Personal and household finance Graphs in practical situations Graphs of functions Straight line graphs Algebraic representation and formulae Section 1. set notation and language Squares.1 – Integers Section 1. understanding and skills in the areas of number.3 – Expressions and formulae 6 UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 .2 – Fractions Section 1.11 – Electronic calculators Section 4.4 – Powers and roots Section 1.Decimals Section 1. geometry.6 – Percentages Section 1. percentages.10 – Applying number Section 1.5 . algebra.4 – Measures Section 1. mixed and improper fractions.1 – Integers Section 2.10 – Applying number Section 3.

2 – Transformation geometry UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) – Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 7 .6 – Circle properties Section 4.1 – Graphical representation of data Section 6.1 – Angles and triangles Section 4.2 – Polygons Section 4.4 – Linear equations Section 2.8 – Inequalities Section 4.10 – 3-D shapes and volume Trigonometry Statistics Section 4.2 – Functional notation Section 1.4 – Powers and roots Section 2.6 – Simultaneous linear equations Section 2.Sequences Section 3.3 – Symmetry Section 4.6 – Circle properties Section 4.9 – Mensuration of 2-D shapes Section 4.8 – Trigonometry and Pythagoras’s Theorem Section 6.1 – Angles and triangles Section 4.7 – Geometrical reasoning Mensuration Section 4.4 – Measures Section 4.6 – Circle properties Angle properties Section 4.11 – Similarity Geometrical constructions Section 4.2 – Polygons Section 4.3 – Probability Section 5.7 – Quadratic equations Section 2.8 – Inequalities Linear programming Geometrical terms and relationships Section 2.1 .2 – Algebraic manipulation Section 3.2 – Statistical measures Probability Vectors in two dimensions Transformations Section 6.5 – Constructions Symmetry Section 4.Mathematical topic Algebraic manipulation Sequences Functions Indices Solutions of equations and inequalities Specification reference Section 2.1 – Vectors Section 5.

Mathematical topic Loci Matrices Specification Section 6 – Geometry Section 5 – Matrices 8 UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 .The topics shown below can be found in the Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification B) (4MB0) specification content section.

UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) – Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 9 . We recommend that you make this information available to students to help ensure they are fully prepared and know exactly what to expect in each assessment.Section B: Assessment This section provides all the information you need to understand the assessment requirements of this qualification. Students must take both papers. Assessment overview The table below gives you an overview of the assessment for this course. in the same series. Calculators are allowed for all papers. Paper 1F Foundation tier 4MA0/1F Paper 2F Foundation tier 4MA0/2F Paper 3H Higher tier 4MA0/3H Paper 4H Higher tier 4MA0/4H Percentage 50 Marks 100 Time 2 hours Availability January and June series First assessment June 2011 Percentage 50 Marks 100 Time 2 hours Availability January and June series First assessment June 2011 Percentage 50 Marks 100 Time 2 hours Availability January and June series First assessment June 2011 Percentage 50 Marks 100 Time 2 hours Availability January and June series First assessment June 2011 This is a linear qualification. (1F and 2F) or (3H and 4H).

TOTAL 100% 20% 25% 55% 10 UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 . space and measures: geometry vectors and transformation geometry.Assessment Objectives and weightings % in IGCSE AO1: demonstrate their knowledge. AO2: demonstrate their knowledge. functions and graphs. understanding and skills in number and algebra: numbers and the numbering system calculations solving numerical problems equations. formulae and identities sequences. understanding and skills in shape. understanding and skills in handling data: statistics. AO3: demonstrate their knowledge.

Each paper will assess the full range of targeted grades at Foundation tier. for example a pair of compasses. to aid standardisation and comparability of award between the tiers. C-G.Assessment summary Paper 1F Foundation tier 4MA0/1F Description Each paper is assessed through a 2-hour examination set and marked by Edexcel. The Foundation tier papers contain slightly more number than algebra. Knowledge and skills Same as above Paper 2F Foundation tier 4MA0/2F Description Same as above UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) – Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 11 . ruler and protractor calculators and tracing paper may be used formulae sheets will be provided. The total number of marks for each paper is 100. across papers 1F and 3H and 2F and 4H. Overview of content: number algebra geometry statistics. Each paper will have approximately equal marks available for each targeted grade. There will be some common questions targeted at grades C and D. In all examination papers: diagrams will not necessarily be drawn to scale and measurements should not be taken from diagrams unless instructions to this effect are given students may need to use mathematical instruments. Knowledge and skills The Assessment Objectives covered in this assessment are: AO1: 55% AO2: 25% AO3: 20% This information is available in the specification.

Indicative answers are given but during the standardisation of examiners process. There will be some common questions targeted at grades C and D. the mark scheme is updated and expanded to cover unexpected. Each paper will have approximately equal marks available for each targeted grade. correct student responses. to aid standardisation and comparability of award between the tiers. The total number of marks for each paper is 100. across papers 3H and 1F and 4H and 2F. ruler and protractor calculators and tracing paper may be used formulae sheets will be provided. Knowledge and skills The Assessment Objectives covered in this assessment are: AO1: 55% AO2: 25% AO3: 20% This information is available in the specification. A*-D.Paper 3H Higher tier 4MA0/3H Description Each paper is assessed through a 2-hour examination set and marked by Edexcel. Each paper will assess the full range of targeted grades at Higher tier. Overview of content: number algebra geometry statistics. 12 UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 . for example a pair of compasses. The Higher tier papers contain considerably more algebra than number. In all examination papers: diagrams will not necessarily be drawn to scale and measurements should not be taken from diagrams unless instructions to this effect are given students may need to use mathematical instruments. Knowledge and skills Same as above Paper 4H Higher tier 4MA0/4H Description Same as above Using the mark scheme The mark scheme gives the responses expected from students. Questions will assume knowledge of the Foundation tier subject content.

UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) – Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 13 . In this qualification. Foundation tier papers are designed for students who are unlikely to achieve a high grade but whose achievement can still be recognised with a grade at the appropriate level.Tiers of entry Students are entered for either Foundation tier or Higher tier. The formulae sheets appear as appendices in the specification. The highest grade Foundation tier students can be awarded is grade C. there are some questions common to both tiers. Formulae sheets Formulae sheets are provided for each tier on the inside front cover of each question/answer booklet. Questions in the Higher tier are targeted at grades A* to D. grade E. they would need to be taught the Higher tier material. However. Foundation and Higher tier papers are sat at the same time and students cannot be entered for both examinations. but material related to grades below the range of the Higher tier will not be the focus of assessment. Some questions are common to both tiers. Because of the overlap between the two tiers at grades C and D. but the remaining questions in these papers test topics which are aimed at Higher tier students only. Students who fail to achieve the safety net grade E will be awarded ‘Ungraded’. for those students who are within a few marks of grade D. The highest grade which can be awarded on the Higher tier is A* – for the highest achievers at the top of grade A. Knowledge of all Foundation tier content is assumed. and are obviously more demanding. but there is a ‘safety net’. where they have the opportunity to achieve the higher grades. the overlap accounts for about 40% of the marks on a paper. Higher tier papers are designed for students who are likely to achieve at least a grade C. Students who fail to achieve grade G will be awarded ‘Ungraded’. This means that you need to ensure that a student is entered for the appropriate tier. Students who consistently achieve grade C in practice tests could be entered for the Higher tier.

√x. x . .Calculators Students will be expected to have access to a suitable electronic calculator for all examination papers. tangent and their inverses. . brackets. √x. tangent and their inverses Calculators with any of the following facilities are not allowed in any examination: databanks retrieval of text or formulae QWERTY keyboards built-in symbolic algebraic manipulations symbolic differentiation or integration. cosine. x2. Σfx. brackets. . See Appendix 3 for more extensive notes on the use of the calculator. 14 UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 . memory. x y . 2 y 1 y sine. x . −. x . −. x . Σx. Electronic calculators used by students sitting Higher tier examination papers (3H and 4H) should have the following functions as a minimum: +. standard form. x y sine. Electronic calculators used by students sitting the Foundation tier examination papers (1F and 2F) should have the following functions as a minimum: 1 +. . cosine. memory.

**Section C: Support for centres switching from GCSE Mathematics
**

Differences in Assessment

The table below gives an overview of the differences in the assessment models of GCSE Mathematics (Specification A) and IGCSE Mathematics (Specification A) GCSE Mathematics (Specification A) (1MA0) Assessment model Externally assessed Two written papers Each paper lasts: – – 1 hour 45 minutes (F) 1 hour 45 minutes (H). IGCSE Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) Assessment model Externally assessed Two written papers Each paper lasts: – – 2 hours (F) 2 hours (H).

Each paper contains 100 marks Papers 1F and 1H: Non-Calculator Papers 2F and 2H: Calculator Tiered papers Foundation Tier: – – Grades C-G available Each paper will assess the full range of targeted grades at Foundation Tier There will be some common questions targeted at grades C and D across papers 1F and 3H, and papers 2F and 4H, to aid standardisation and comparability of award between tiers.

Each paper contains 100 marks Papers 1F, 2F, 3H and 4H: Calculator Tiered papers Foundation Tier: – – Grades C-G available Each will have approximately equal marks available for each of the targeted grades Each paper will assess the full range of targeted grades at Foundation Tier There will be some common questions targeted at grades C and D across papers 1F and 3H, and papers 2F and 4H, to aid standardisation and comparability of award between tiers.

–

–

–

UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) – Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011

15

GCSE Mathematics (Specification A) (1MA0) Assessment model Higher Tier: – – Grades A*-D available (E allowed) Each will have approximately equal marks available for each of the targeted grades Each paper will assess the full range of targeted grades at Higher Tier

IGCSE Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) Assessment model Higher Tier: – – Grades A*-D available (E allowed) Each will have approximately equal marks available for each of the targeted grades Each paper will assess the full range of targeted grades at Higher Tier Questions will assume knowledge from the Foundation Tier subject content There will be some common questions targeted at grades C and D across papers 1F and 3H and papers 2F and 4H, to aid standardisation and comparability of award between tiers.

–

–

–

–

Each paper assesses the functional elements of mathematics: – – 30-40% on F tier papers 20-30% on H tier papers. Assessment Objectives and Weightings AO1: Demonstrate their knowledge, understanding and skills in number and algebra: (55%) numbers and numbering system calculations solving numerical problems equations, formulae and identities sequences, functions and graphs.

Assessment Objectives and Weightings AO1: Recall and use their knowledge of the prescribed content (45-55%)

16

UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011

GCSE Mathematics (Specification A) (1MA0) Assessment model Assessment Objectives and Weightings AO2: Select and apply mathematical methods in a range of contexts (25-35%)

IGCSE Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) Assessment model Assessment Objectives and Weightings AO2: Demonstrate their knowledge, understanding and skills in shape, space and measures: (25%) geometry vectors and transformation geometry.

AO3: Interpret and analyse problems and generate strategies to solve them (15-25%)

AO3: Demonstrate their knowledge, understanding and skills in handling data: (20%) statistics.

UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) – Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011

17

but are not included in the IGCSE. including lines of best fit Correlation Box plot Stem and leaf. There are some omitted topics. 18 UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 . content that is included in GCSE Mathematics content. Angle-angle-side triangles (AAS) Proofs of circle theorems Trigonometry graphs Angles greater than 180o Frustum of a cone Construct a perpendicular from a point to a line Loci Negative scale factor Plans and elevations Metric/imperial conversion Collecting data Two-way tables Seasonality and trends Scatter graphs. Exponential growth Checking by estimation Completing the square Trial and improvement Gradients of perpendicular lines Exponential functions Transformations of graphs Equation of a circle Side-angle-side triangles (SAS). There are also some additional topics included in the content of the IGCSE Mathematics (Specification A) which are not in the GCSE Mathematics content.Differences in content Most of the content of this IGCSE Mathematics qualification is covered in the GCSE Mathematics content. there are some differences in content between the two qualifications. but not in the content of the IGCSE Mathematics (Specification A). However. Omitted topics These topics are included in the GCSE.

which give supplementary information about how these topics will be assessed.4 in the specification). for these three major topics.2 in the specification) calculus (3. These examples are not exhaustive. These are: set language and notation (1. A few smaller topics have also been included in the IGCSE: The intersecting chords theorem Finding the gradient of a curve at a point by drawing a tangent Quadratic inequalities Simple conditional probability Modulus of a vector.5 in the specification) function notation (3. They are intended as an indication of the level of difficulty and the types of questions which can be expected. on the following pages. UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) – Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 19 .Additional topics There are three major topics not included in Edexcel’s UK GCSE which feature in the IGCSE in Mathematics A. There are notes and sample assessment questions.

4. . Ø. . Typical questions Given defined sets ℰ. Symbols: ℰ.5 in the specification) 1. 20 UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 . tables}. Given a list of all the elements of a set. Foundation and Higher tiers Definition In words.Notes and sample assessment questions on the three major additional topics Notes on Set language and notation (1. for example {2. A and B – describe A B – list the members of A B – what is meant by ‘6 A’? – is it true that A B = Ø? Explain your answer. for example {Cats}. write the definition. {Multiples of 3}. 6. {Positive integers less than 10}. {chairs. or as a list of members. Typical questions Given the definition of a set. list all the elements (or members). 8}.

A. dogs) with numbers inserted – how many black cats are there? Given two or three defined sets. where an equation needs to be set up. UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) – Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 21 . B. shaded region in a Venn diagram. Questions involving three sets. See Question 16 in the following sample questions. for example Symbols: A/ (the complement of A). Given n(ℰ) = 23. ⊂ (‘is a sub-set of’) Typical questions Given defined sets ℰ. P = {x: 0 ≤ x < 10} Venn diagrams: Different cases. cats. and C – draw a Venn diagram – shade A B C / – list the members of B/ C – is it true that A B? Describe a given. find n(A B/). Higher tier only Definition: Algebraic. n(A) = 16. for example {ℰ = Integers}. Symbols: n(A) (the number of members in A) Typical questions Given a Venn diagram (for example black animals. n(A B) = 20 – draw a Venn diagram – show the number of members in each region. Draw a Venn diagram in which certain conditions are true.2. n(B) = 10.

List the members of the following sets.Sample assessment questions on set language and notation Foundation and Higher tiers 1. 13. 16} R = {Multiples of 4} (a) List the members of (i) (ii) (iii) R P Q Q R (b) What is the set P R? 3. 15. ℰ = {The books in St John’s library} M = {Mathematics books} P = {Paperback books} T = {Travel books} (a) Describe the set M P (b) What is the set M T? (c) One book in St John’s library has the title ‘Explore’. what can you say about the book ‘Explore’? 22 UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 . 17} Q = {12. 14. Given that ‘Explore’ M T. ℰ = {Positive integers less than 20} P = {11. (a) {Days of the week} (b) {Even numbers between 1 and 9} (c) {Factors of 18} (d) {Colours of the rainbow} (e) {Square numbers less than 100} 2.

UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) – Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 23 . ℰ = {Polygons} A = {Three-sided shapes} B = {Shapes with two equal sides} C = {Shapes with two parallel sides} (a) What is the mathematical name for the members of A B? (b) Which of the following are true? (i) (ii) (iii) Kite A C Trapezium A C=Ø 5.4. R = {Positive odd numbers less than 10} S = {Multiples of 3 between 4 and 20} T = {Prime numbers} (a) List the elements of (i) R (ii) R S S R T (b) You are told that x Write down all the possible values of x (c) Is it true that S T = Ø? Explain your answer See Appendix 2 for references to past paper questions on this content.

B and C. How many people in this group own a car but not a bicycle. There are 30 people in a group. ℰ A B Make two copies of this Venn diagram.. such that C ⊂ A and C B/ = C (b) On the other diagram draw a circle to represent set D. 9. Shade the region representing A (B C/). C) (c) Complete the statement A (d) Is it true that (A C /) B? Explain your answer. 7.. ℰ = {Positive integers less than 20} A = {x: 0 < x ≤ 9} B = {Even numbers} C = {Multiples of 5} (a) List the members of A (b) Find the value of n(A B/ B C=. Draw a Venn diagram with circles representing three sets. A. 5 do not own a car or a bicycle.Higher tier only 6. such that D A/ D B ≠ Ø and D B≠D 24 UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 . 8. (a) On one diagram draw a circle to represent set C. 17 own a car. 11 own a bicycle.

Draw a Venn diagram with circles representing three sets. ℰ A B (b) C = {Odd numbers} (i) Copy the Venn diagram.10. Sets A and B are represented by circles in the Venn diagram. and draw a circle on it to represent set C. (ii) Write down all the values of x such that x A (B C)/. (a) Find n(B (b) Find n(A C) C B/) UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) – Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 25 . A C/ ≠ Ø and B (A C)/ 11. 12. In the Venn diagram. A. ℰ = { x: x is an integer and 1 ≤ x ≤ 30 } A = {Multiples of 3} B = {Multiples of 4} (a) Find the value of n(A B). the numbers of elements in several regions are shown. B and C. ℰ A 2 3 5 B 3 7 C You are also given that n(ℰ) = 25. such that all the following are true: A C ≠ Ø. n(B) = 12 and n(A) = 8. (ii) Shade the region A (B C)/.

Eight play tennis and golf. 14 play squash and tennis. 23 play squash. ℰ A B C Use set notation to describe the shaded region. 18 play golf. (b) Write down the value of n(E M /). 24 play tennis. Two play all three sports.ℰ = {Quadrilaterals} P = {Parallelograms} K = {Kites} S = {Squares} (a) What is the mathematical name for a member of P K? (b) Complete the statement P S = . 16.13.ℰ = {Positive integers less than 15} E = {Even numbers} M = {Multiples of 3} ℰ E M (a) Copy the Venn diagram and fill in each member of ℰ in the correct region. (c) Draw a Venn diagram showing sets P. . How many members play squash and golf? See Appendix 2 for references to past paper questions on this content. . 14. One member makes the refreshments and does not play any sport.There are 40 members in a sports club. K and S. 26 UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 . 15.

(ii) (iii) 6. 12. 9 (b) 11 (c) Ø (d) No. (b) Ø (c) It is either a mathematics or travel book. 14 8. 9. (a) Isosceles triangles (b) ii and iii 5. 4. 18. 16 7. For example 3. A B C 11. 9. 15. 3. (a) (b) A B D 10. 8 (c) 1. (a) (i) 4. yellow. orange. 9. 25. 64. (a) 4 (b) 1 UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) – Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 27 . 7 or 9 (ii) 9 (ii) 11. 3. 6. green. indigo. 15. 3. Monday.(a) 2 (b)(i). 49. Saturday (b) 2. Tuesday. 7. 18 (d) Red. blue. No members of S are prime. 4. 5. 18 (b) 3. Friday. 5. 6. 30 12. (a) Sunday. 36. (a) 1. Wednesday. 4. 2. 81 2. 8. 7. 16. violet (e) 1. Thursday. 16. (a) Paperback mathematics books in St John’s library. (a) (i) 1. 9. 7 (c) Yes. 14. 17 (iii) 12.Answers 1. 16 (b) Ø 3. 5. 6. 13. 12. 6. 12.

13.(a) (b) 5 14. (a) Rhombus (b) P (c) 15. (A B) C/ or (A C/)U(B C/) 16. 6 28 UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 .

a+ b b . √quadratic.2 in the specification) Notation and definitions: f(x) = x 2 f: x → x 2 Notation for particular sets (eg Z is the set of integers. find fg(-3). Domain and/or range may be given in words. trigonometrical x x Note: ‘√’ indicates the positive value of the square root. R is the set of real numbers) is not required. for example. Usually. gf(2) Given functions f and g.Notes on function notation (3. or algebraically. find the range Given a function applied to all numbers. as a list. √linear. Sometimes harder functions. ie do g first followed by f Typical questions Given functions f and g. find the value(s) of x Composite functions fg(x) means f(g(x)). find the range Given a function. If the domain is not given. for example 0 ≤ x < 10 Co-domain is not required. Which functions? x . it is assumed to be { x: x is any number}. find f(-2) Given f(x) = 3. 1/linear. Domain is all values of x to which the function is applied. cubic. ax + . which values need to be excluded from the domain of gf? UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) – Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 29 . linear/linear. Typical questions Given a function and its domain. linear. and the domain of f. for example. quadratic. Range is all values of f(x) Vocabulary such as ‘One to one’ and ‘Many to one’ is not required. find the range of gf Given functions f and g. find fg in the form fg : x or fg (x ) Given functions f and g. 1/quadratic. 1/√linear. which values cannot be included in the domain? Given f(x).

for example Algebraic: write as y = . write down the value of ff Given functions f and g. . interchange x and y Flow chart: reverse each operation. 1/√linear.Inverse functions Functions required: Usually. linear/linear. √linear. . 1/linear. in reverse order. . find f –1 (3) Given the function f. solve the equation f (x) = g –1(x) 30 UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 . rearrange to make x the subject. linear. numbers) x or x (with domain restricted to positive 2 Sometimes harder functions. find f –1 in the form f –1: x or f Without working. x x –1 Any method for finding f is acceptable. 1/ a+ b . for example. for example. Typical questions Given the function f. find the function f –1 –1 (x ) (5) –1 g Given functions f and g.

**Sample assessment questions on function notation
**

1. Here are three functions:

f(x) = 3 – 2x

(a) Find (i) f(–1) (vi) h 2

g(x) =

1 x2

(iii) g(4.5)

h(x) =

3x 1

2 3

(ii) f( 3 ) 4

(iv) g(–2) (v) h(5)

(b) (i) Given that f(x) = –7, find x (ii) Given that g(x) = 2, find x (iii) Given that h(x) = 5, find x

2. Three functions, p, q and r, are defined as follows:

p(x) = x2 – 3x + 4

(a) Find (i) p(–4)

q(x) =

2x 3 x 1

3

r(x) = sin xo

(iv) q(–2) (v) r(45) (vi) r(180)

(ii) p( 4 )

(iii) q(4)

(b) (i) Find the values of x for which p(x) = 2 (ii) Find the value of x for which q(x) = 3 4 (iii) Find the values of x, in the domain 0 ≤

x ≤ 180, for which r(x) = 0.5

3. State which values of

x cannot be included in the domain of these functions:

(i) f:

x

5 x

(ii) g:x

5 2x 7

1 x

(iii) h:

1 x3

1 (3 x 2) 2

(iv) j:

x ( x 2 4)

(v) l:

x 2x

(vi) k:

x

(vii) l:

x→

x3 6 x

UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) – Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011

31

4.

f: x x3 g: x

1 x8

(ii) gf(5)

(a) Find (i) fg(–4),

(b) Find (i) gf(x), (ii) fg(x) (c) What value(s) must be excluded from the domain of (i) gf(x), (ii) fg(x)? (d) Find and simplify gg(x)

5. Three functions are defined as follows:

**p(x) = (x + 4)2 with domain {x: x is any number} q(x) = 8 – x with domain {x: x > 0} r(x) = cos xo with domain {x: 0 ≤ x ≤ 180}
**

(a) Find the range of each of these functions (b) Find the values of x such that p(x) = q(x)

6. Find the inverse function of each of the following functions: (a) f(x) = 2x – 3 (b) g(x) = 5 – x (c) h(x) = (e) k(x) =

1 3x 4

(d) j(x) = 3 –

2 x

2x 1 5 x

**7. Find the inverse function of each of the following functions. (a) p: x
**

2

3 x 2 (for x ≥

2 3

) (b) q: x

1 x2

2

(for x > –2)

(c) r: x x + 5 (for x ≥ 0)

(d) s: x (x – 3) (for x ≥ 3)

32

UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011

**8. The function f(x) is defined as f(x) = Solve the equation f(x) = f
**

–1

2 . x 1

(x)

9. Here are two functions:

f(x) =

2 g(x) = x2 + 3 5 x

**(a) Calculate g(–2) (b) Given that f(z) =
**

1 8

, calculate the value of z

**(c) Which value of x must be excluded from the domain of f(x)? (d) Find the inverse function, f (e) Calculate f
**

–1 –1

, in the form f

–1

: x . . .

g(1)

10.

Functions f and g are defined as follows:

f: x 4 x

g: x

1 ( x 2) 2

(iii) fg(–1)

(a) Calculate (i) f(25)

(ii) g(0.5)

**(b) Given that fg(x) = 4.04, find the value of x (c) Find the function f (d) Calculate gf
**

–1 –1

(x)

(4)

11.

p(x) =

2 x 2 3x q(x) = 3 x 1 x

(a) Find the function pq(x) (b) Describe the relationship between the functions p and q (c) Write down the exact value of pq (

2)

See Appendix 2 for references to past paper questions on this content.

33

1. for example. 1 or –2 (a) 7 (b) 11 (ii) 0. r: –1 to 1 (b) –8 or –1 6.5 (vi) x = – 2 3 (ii) 133 (ii) x = –8 1 (iii) x ≤ –3 (vii) x < 3 or x ≥ 6 (b)(i) (iv) –2 < x < 2 1 1 (ii) ( x 8)3 x 8 3 (d) x 8 8 x 65 5. (a) (b) 1 2 x2 (c) (d) 8. appropriate decimal instead of fraction.707 (vi) 0 (b)(i) 1 or 2 (iii) 30 or 150 (ii) x = 3. (a) pq(x) = x (b) Inverses of each other (c) 2 34 UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 . (a) p: 0. (a) x3 2 x2 2 3 (b) 5 – x (c) 1 4x 3x x5 (d) 2 3 x x 3 (e) 5x 1 2 x 7. (a)(i) 32 (ii) 3 3. (i) x > 5 (v) x = 0 4. q: < 8.Answers In the examination equivalent answers are acceptable. (a)(i) 5 (ii) 11 2 (iii) 5 (ii) 2 (iv) –0. (a)(i) 64 (c)(i) x = –2 1 5 2 16 (iii) 1 (iv) 7 (v) 0. 9.16 (c) –5 (iii) 5 (d) 2 5 x (e) – 4 1 2 (c) (x – 4)2 (d) 4 1 10. (a)(i) 9 (b) 23 11.5 (iii) 8 2.25 (v) 4 (vi) 3 (b)(i) 5 (ii) 2.

Expand and find dy dx The language used will be ‘turning points’. d2y is not required. . –1. UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) – Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 35 . dy 5x 3 . the following is adequate. this will usually be asked for explicitly. PQ3 . –2 Differentiation of polynomials. dx2 But students may use these methods if they wish. . x Distinguish maximum/minimum by rough shape. 32). Usually no rearrangement will be required. PQ2. but it will NOT be tested: On the curve y = x2. ‘maximum’.1. ax ± b . If rearrangement is required. (3. . dy dx =0 Find TPs for quadratic. Consideration of the gradient on either side is not required. for example shape of y = ax2 + bx + c is when a < 0.01)2). . y = xn grad = dy n-1 = nx . then also n = 0. cubic.01. P(3. Typical questions Differentiate x5 – 3x2 + 5 or x2 + 3x – 4 Given y = The notation f /(x) and the terms ‘derivative’ and ‘derived function’ are not required. ‘minimum’. Differentiation from first principles is not required. dx firstly for positive integer n.4 in the specification) Basic concepts and notation Ideas of gradient of tangent and gradient of curve. find dx 2 Given y = . If you wish to give an introduction to the concept of a limiting gradient. x the question will ask for the curve to be drawn first. find the gradient for a given x find x for a given gradient y = (x + 3)2. Q1(3.1)2). Q2(3.Notes on calculus (3. not ‘stationary points’. (3. . etc Find gradients of PQ1. Turning points (TPs) At turning points. For ax ± b if distinguishing maximum/minimum is required.

State. Notation and t dt dt not d2s dt 2 Practical problems Typical questions Easier type – See Question 12 Hardest type – See Question 16 Applications to coordinate geometry Only very simple applications will be tested. See Question 13 x Rate of change Know that dy dx is the rate of change of y with respect to x. v. with a reason. whether each is a maximum or a minimum. Find maximum distance from starting point. or a (only requiring solutions of equations within the specification).Typical questions y = quadratic or cubic. possibly requiring understanding of y = mx + c Usually. Find t for given s. cubic. Typical question See Question 14 Kinematics Quadratic. at ± Typical questions Given s in terms of t. find v and/or a at time t or at given time. Find the turning points(s). See Questions 7 and 15 36 UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 . y = ax + b . ds dy b only. students will be led through step by step.

4 in the specification) 1. at the point where x = 2 (b) y = x – 2x – 3x. 1.5) 12 5. (a) y = x – 5x – 6. (b) y = 6x + 3 – 4x –1 (a) y = 2x3 + 4x2 + x –1 + 3x –2 (c) y = 2 6 x x2 3. –52) (c) y = 3x – 3 2 2 4 . at the point (–4. Find an expression for the gradient of each of these curves. Find the gradient of the tangent at the given point on each of the following curves. at the point where x = x2 1 2 x 2 3x (d) y = at the point (3.5 (f) (d) 5 – 2x + 4x2 – 2x3 (e) x 3 3x 2 2 x 6 4 3 7 x2 2 2. Expand and differentiate (a) (x + 3) 2 (b) (2x – 3)(x + 5) (c) (4 – x)(2 + 3x) (d) x (4 – 2x) 2 UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) – Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 37 . Differentiate (a) x3 + x2 – 5x – 4 (b) 2x4 – 5x2 + 2x – 3 (c) 3x5 + 7x3 – x + 2.Sample assessment questions on calculus (3. (a) y = x – 3x + 2x – 4 5 3 4 (b) y = 3x + 2 x 3x 2 2 x 4 (c) y = 3 4. Find dy dx for the following.

10. of a liquid at time t seconds is t – 6t + 9 (a) (b) Find the rate of change of the temperature after 2 seconds. 11. for a new book. 3 2 8. For the curve with equation y = x – 4x + 5 (a) (b) (c) Find 2 dy dx Find the turning point. Explain how you know that it is a maximum. (a) (b) Find the price which gives the maximum amount of money from sales.6. The temperature. State. whether this turning point is a maximum or a minimum. 9. Find the time when the rate of change of temperature is –3 o/second. £x. with a reason. 2 38 UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 . A curve has equation y = x – 6x + 9x – 2 (a) (b) Find the coordinates of the point on this curve at which the tangent is parallel to the line y = –3x + 5 Find the coordinates of the two turning points on this curve. A curve has equation y = x2 – 3x + 5 (a) (b) (c) Find dy dx Find the gradient of the curve at the point with coordinates (2. where y = 20 000x – 5000x2. The total amount of money she will receive from sales is £y. T o. 3) Find the coordinates of the point on the curve where the gradient = –5 7. Find the maximum amount of money from sales. Find the maximum value of y where y = 3 + 6x – 2x2. A publisher has to choose a price.

s m. (d) Find the speed of the car 3 seconds after passing O. After t seconds its distance. A curve has equation y = 2x + (a) Find the turning points. 8 x 8 (b) Copy and complete the table of values for y = 2x + x . from O is given by s = 10t – t2 for 0 ≤ t ≤ 10 (a) Find the time when the car passes through O again. 13. (b) Find ds dt (c) Find the maximum distance of the car from O. 4 x y –4 –3 –8. y 1 2 3 4 x UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) – Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 39 . (e) Find the acceleration of the car.7 –2 –8 –1 1 10 2 3 (c) Copy the grid and draw the curve for – 4 ≤ x ≤ 4. It passes a point O. A car is moving along a straight road.12. 20 15 10 5 –4 –3 –2 –1 O –5 –10 –15 –20 (d) State which of the turning points is a maximum.

giving your answers correct to 2 decimal places. x y 0 1 2 (d) Copy the grid and draw the graph of y = x3 –3x2 + 2x for 0 ≤ x ≤ 2. (ii) Find the gradient of the tangent at A. 40 UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 . (a) Find 3 2 dy dx (b) Find the x coordinates of the turning points.14. (iii) Write down the equation of the tangent at A. A curve has equation y = x2 + 3x + 2 (a) Find dy dx The curve cuts the y axis at A. 15. (b) (i) Write down the coordinates of A. A curve has equation y = x – 3x + 2x. (c) Copy and complete the table of values for y = x3 – 3x2 + 2x.

16. See Appendix 2 for references to past paper questions on this content. with side x cm. Then the edges are folded up to make a box. UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) – Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 41 . are cut from a square card with side 6 cm. (a) Show that the volume of the box is V cm3 where V = 36x – 24x + 4x (b) Find 2 3 dV dx (c) Find the maximum possible volume of the box. Square corners.

(a) 6x + 8x – x (b) 6 + 4x (b) 3 –2 – 6x –3 (c) 2 12 x2 x3 3. (a) – 2 o/sec (b) 1. 8) 14. 8. 0. 1.5 secs 12. (a) 3x + 2x – 5 (b) 8x – 10x + 2 (c) 15x4 + 21x – 1 (e) 2 3 2 (d) –2 + 8x – 6x 2 x 2 3x 2 (f) –x 2 2 3 2 –2 2. –10.42. (a) 10s (b) 10 – 2t 13. (a) 2x + 3 2 (c) 25m (d) 4m/s (e) – 2 m/s2 (b) –10. –8) (2. 0) 2 (c) Minimum as quadratic with positive coeff of x 9.58 (c) 0. 10 (b) 0. (a) –1 (b) 61 2 (d) 8x – 6x (c) 67 (d) 0.Answers 1. 7. (a) 2x – 3 (b) 1 8. (a) £2 (b) £20 000 11.7. (a) (–2. 2) (3. –2) 2 5. (a) (2. 0 (c) graph (d) (–2.5 Maximum because quadratic with negative coeff of x 10. (a) 5x4 – 9x2 + 2 4. (b) 36 – 48x + 12x (c) 16 cm3 42 UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 . 9) 7. (a) 2x + 6 (b) 4x + 7 6. –8) (b)(i) (0. 8.75 8 x3 (c) 2 x 2 3 (c) 10 – 6x (b) (1. (a) 3x – 6x + 2 (d) 15. 1) (c) (-1. (a) 2x – 4 (b) (2. 2) (ii) 3 (iii) y = 3x + 2 2 16.

therefore it may be unlikely that the topics would be taught in this order. the planner is divided into three Assessment Objectives (AO): Number and algebra Shape. For each tier. The order of these modules are linked directly to the order that the content appears in the specification. Estimated teaching time This is an approximation. Some of these are standalone whilst others must be preceded by earlier modules. space and measures Handling data. UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) – Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 43 .Section D: Planning and teaching Course planner This course planner lists the main teaching points which have to be covered to meet the requirements of the specification. Content summary pages The content summary pages give an overview of the modules in both the Foundation tier and the Higher tier course planners. In addition many teachers will not cover topics consecutively in some of the modules. The course planner has been structured to include the following features (features in bold have been explained further below): Content summary pages Module number Estimated teaching time Target grades Content Prior knowledge Notes – where appropriate A/A* notes/tips for Higher tier where appropriate Resources. and it is given for guidance only. These Assessment Objectives are sub-divided into teaching modules. as the time allocated for the teaching and learning of each topic area is determined by the needs and abilities of the students. It is important to note that much of the knowledge of the Foundation tier content is assumed for the Higher tier content. It can be adapted according to individual requirements.

Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 1 D A Turner. through maintaining the appropriate structure of their solutions. It is also important that students set their work out clearly. B V Hony ISBN 978-0 435966 91 1 Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 2 D A Turner. Resources The textbook references are from the Edexcel two-book series written for students following the IGCSE Higher tier specification (see titles in the table below). will depend on the needs and abilities of students. For Foundation tier. the time allocated to each one and the extent to which a calculator is used for arithmetic. students need to have methods of solution at their immediate disposal. I A Potts. In order to access questions at the top grades. such as the sequence in which topics are covered. This should enable students to develop an appreciation of mathematics as a unified whole. it is advisable to use additional resource materials.A/A* notes/tips This guidance is aimed at students preparing for the top grades in their examinations. although the non-starred exercises in these textbooks are designed for students working towards IGCSE grades B/C. It comprises of a Student’s Book for each year of the course. together with the foundation tier topics. Students working at this level should be encouraged to develop an appropriate working knowledge of the Higher tier topics. W R J Waite. 44 UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 . rather than a series of discrete topics or facts. I A Potts. W R J Waite. B V Hony ISBN 978-0 435966 92 8 It is important to note that specific issues. and this means that they need to ensure that they do not neglect the learning aspect of the subject.

Module number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 1 2 3 4 Title Integers Decimals Special numbers and powers Fractions Percentages Ratio and proportion Approximation Set language and notation Algebraic manipulation Expressions and formulae Linear equations and simultaneous linear equations Coordinates and graphs Linear graphs Integer sequences Inequalities Indices Measures 2-D shapes Symmetry Construction Geometry Transformations Circles Area and perimeter 3-D shapes and volume Pythagoras’ theorem Trigonometry Similar shapes Graphical representation of data Statistical measures Probability 1 Probability 2 Total Estimated teaching hours 4 4 7 7 5 7 5 5 5 5 7 5 5 5 5 5 5 4 5 5 7 7 5 5 7 5 7 5 7 7 7 6 180 hours Number Algebra Shape. space and measures Handling data UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) – Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 45 .Foundation tier content summary The table below is a summary of modules in the IGCSE Mathematics Foundation tier course planner. Teachers should be aware that the estimated teaching hours are approximate and should only be used as a guideline.

46 UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 .

1 1.10 1.11 1. emphasise that all working is to be shown Resources Textbook Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 1 References Unit 1: Number 1 page 2 Unit 1: Number 1 page 117-119 UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) – Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 47 .1 1.1 1.1 Prior knowledge The ability to order numbers Appreciation of place value to at least 1000s Experience of the four rules of whole numbers Notes Present all working out clearly.1 1.1 1.1 1.1 1. subtraction. multiplication and division of whole numbers Problems involving the four rules with whole numbers Calculations involving time Order of operations (excluding powers) Using a calculator efficiently Interpreting a calculator display Directed numbers in context Understanding integers both as positions and as translations on a number line Using the four rules with directed numbers Time: 3 – 5 hours Area of specification 1.11 1.Foundation tier NUMBER Module 1 — Integers Target grades: E/F/G Content Understanding place value in whole numbers Reading. writing and ordering whole numbers Addition.

and emphasise that all working is to be shown Resources Textbook Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 1 References Unit 1: Number 1 page 7 48 UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 .3 1.2 1.8 1.10 1.3 Writing decimal numbers to one.Module 2 — Decimals Target grades: E/F/G Content Understanding place value in decimal numbers Ordering decimals Applying the four rules with decimals Writing decimal numbers to the nearest whole number and to one or two decimal places Time: 3 – 5 hours Area of specification 1. including recurring decimals Converting terminating decimals to fractions Prior knowledge Number: Module 1 Experience of the four rules of whole numbers The basic concepts of a fraction and a decimal Notes Present all working out clearly with decimal points in line.8 1. two or three significant figures Converting simple fractions to decimals.3 1.

4 1.4 Simplifying expressions using the laws of indices *BIDMAS = Brackets.4 1.4 Factors and multiples.1 1. Division. Subtraction 1. including common factors and common multiples Prime numbers and prime factors Square and cube numbers Squares and square roots Cubes and cube roots Using a calculator effectively to evaluate powers and roots Powers of numbers – using index notation Order of operations including powers (BIDMAS)* Expressing a number as the product of powers of its prime factors Using laws of indices for multiplication and division of positive integer powers 1. Addition.4 1.1 1.11 1. Indices.4 1.1 1.Module 3 — Special numbers and powers Target grades: C/D/E Content Even and odd numbers Time: 6 – 8 hours Area of specification 1.1 1. Multiplication.4 Prior knowledge Basic number bonds and multiplication/division facts Ability to recognise basic number patterns Resources Textbook Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 1 References Unit Unit Unit Unit Unit 3: 1: 1: 3: 2: Number 3 page 114 Number 1 page 2 Number 2 page 60 Number 3 page 117-119 Algebra 2 page 73-74 UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) – Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 49 .

2 1. by a unit fraction and by a general fraction Using fractions in problems Calculating a fraction of a quantity Expressing one quantity as a fraction of another 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2 Adding and subtracting fractions using common denominators Multiplying and dividing fractions by an integer. Every working stage should be shown Resources Textbook Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 1 References Unit 2: Number 2 page 57-58 Unit 1: Number 1 page 1 50 UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 .2 1. This topic needs to be constantly revisited. 2 and 3 A basic understanding of fractions as ‘parts of a whole’ Notes An understanding of equivalent fractions is fundamental to this module.Module 4 — Fractions Target grades: C/D/E Content Using diagrams to find equivalent fractions Simplifying (cancelling) fractions Simplest form (lowest terms) Conversion between improper fractions and mixed numbers (vulgar fractions) Conversion between fractions and decimals Time: 6 – 8 hours Area of specification 1.2 Ordering fractions using common denominators or by conversion to decimals 1.2 1.2 Prior knowledge Number: Modules 1.

for example simple interest Prior knowledge Number: Modules 1.6 1.6 1.6 1. 2 and 4 An awareness that percentages are used in everyday life A basic understanding of the concept of a percentage An understanding of the concept of interest in a financial context Notes All workings should be shown Applications of percentages to solve real-world problems Resources Textbook Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 1 References Unit 1: Number 1 page 3 UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) – Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 51 .Module 5 — Percentages Target grades: C/D/E Content Converting between percentages.6 1.6 Understanding that percentage means ‘number of parts per hundred’ Calculating percentage increases or decreases (percentage profit or loss) Understanding the multiplicative nature of percentages as operators Efficient use of a calculator to solve problems involving percentages.6 1. fractions and decimals Calculating percentages of quantities Increasing or decreasing quantities by a given percentage Expressing one quantity as a percentage of another Finding 100% when another percentage is given Time: 4 – 6 hours Area of specification 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.

7 1. including recipes and currency conversion Prior knowledge Number: Modules 1.7 1.7 If one of the two quantities in a given ratio is known.7 1.7 1. including the use of the unitary method Dividing a quantity in a given ratio into two or three parts Problems involving ratio.7 1.7 1. 2 and 4 Basic number skills and ability to recognise common factors Calculator skills Resources Textbook Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 1 References Unit 2: Number 2 page 59 Unit 2: Number 2 page 61 52 UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 .Module 6 — Ratio and proportion Target grades: C/D/E Content: Basic ideas of ratio Simplifying ratios including simplest form Expressing a ratio in the form 1 : n Relating ratio to fractions Time: 6 – 8 hours Area of specification 1. including scale diagrams and maps Using direct proportion. finding the other.7 1.

two or three decimal places Carrying out rounding appropriate to a context Expressing a calculator display to an appropriate degree of accuracy Finding upper and lower bounds.8 1. Students should be aware that correct rounding will give a number of the same order of magnitude as the original. ie maximum and minimum values for rounded values Prior knowledge Number: Modules 1 and 2 Notes To ensure they achieve marks for correct calculations.8 1.8 1.Module 7 — Approximation Target grades: C/D/E/F/G Content Rounding numbers to the nearest 10.8 1. error students should be encouraged to include more accurate answers in their working before rounding. 100 and 1000 and use for estimating Time: 4 – 6 hours Area of specification 1.8 1.8 1.8 Rounding numbers to one significant figure and use for estimating Rounding numbers to two or three significant figures Rounding numbers to one. even if there is a rounding. The need to round to an appropriate level of accuracy should be emphasised throughout this module. Resources Textbook Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 1 References Unit 4: Number 4 page 169-172 UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) – Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 53 .

5 1.5 Defining sets of numbers by describing.Module 8 — Set language and notation Target grades: C/D/E Content Meaning of ‘set’ Time: 4 – 6 hours Area of specification 1. eg {1.5 Prior knowledge Number: Module 3 Resources Textbook Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 1 References Unit 1: Sets 1 page 39-41 54 UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 . {x : x is a factor of 12}or by listing.5 1. for example {first four odd numbers}.5 Understanding the meaning of the universal set ℰ Understanding the meaning of the null or empty set Ø or { } Membership of a set including the notation and Intersection and union of sets including the notation ∩ and ∪ 1. 7} 1. 5. 3.5 1.

ie of the form (x + a)(x + b).2 Prior knowledge The concept that letters can be used instead of numbers Notes Emphasise importance of using the correct symbolic notation.1 2.2 2.ALGEBRA Module 1 — Algebraic manipulation Target grades: C/D/E/F Content Using letters to represent numbers Collecting like terms Simplifying products Multiplying a single term over a bracket Factorising by taking out a single common factor Finding and simplifying the product of two simple linear expressions. for example 3a rather than 3 x a or a3 Resources Textbook Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book1 References Unit Unit Unit Unit 1: 1: 3: 5: Algebra Algebra Algebra Algebra 1 1 3 5 page page page page 9-11 11-12 121-122 241-243 UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) – Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 55 . where a and b are integers Time: 4 – 6 hours Area of specification 2.1 2.2 2.2 2.

then fractions and decimals. word formulae and algebraic formulae Using formulae from mathematics.3 Prior knowledge Number: Modules 1.3 2. into expressions.3 2. 3 and 4 Resources Textbook Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 1 References Unit 4: Algebra 4 page 180-181 56 UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 . expressed initially in words or diagrammatic form and converting to variables or algebraic form Deriving formulae 2. and other subjects. 2.Module 2 — Expressions and formulae Target grades: C/D/E/F/G Content Time: 4 – 6 hours Area of specification Substituting positive and negative integers.

8 hours Area of specification 2.4 2.6 Setting up and solving simple linear equations to solve problems.4 2. including finding the value of a variable which is not the subject of a formula Solving simple simultaneous linear equations.4 2.4 2. either by elimination or by substitution Prior knowledge Algebra: Modules 1 and 2 The idea that some operations are ‘opposite’ to each other. a formal method is often needed Students should leave their answers in fractional form where appropriate Resources Textbook Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 1 References Unit 1: Algebra 1 page 12-18 Unit 3: Algebra 3 page 126 UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) – Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 57 .4 2. Notes Students need to realise that not all linear equations can be solved easily by either observation or trial and improvement.4 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.Module 3 — Linear equations and simultaneous linear equations Target grades: C/D/E/F Content Inverse operations Understanding and use of ‘balancing’ methods Solving simple linear equations Solving linear equations: with two or more operations with the unknown on both sides with brackets with negative or fractional coefficients with combinations of these Time: 6 .

given the coordinates of the two end points Drawing and interpreting linear graphs representing real-life situations. including speed/time and distance/time graphs Drawing and interpreting non-linear graphs representing real-life situations Prior knowledge Experience of plotting points Directed numbers Resources Textbook Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 1 References Unit 3: Graphs 3 page 134.3 3.3 3.3 3.3 3. 137 58 UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 .3 3.Module 4 — Coordinates and graphs Target grade: D/E/F Content Drawing and interpreting linear conversion graphs Time: 4 – 6 hours Area of specification 3.3 Plotting or stating the coordinates of points in all four quadrants Determining the coordinates of points identified by geometrical information Determining the coordinates of the midpoint of a line segment.

3 Prior knowledge Algebra: Modules 1. and recognising the link with m in y = mx + c Drawing straight line graphs with equations in which y is given implicitly in terms of x.3 Recognising that equations of the form x = a and y = b correspond to straight line graphs parallel to the y-axis and to the x-axis respectively Completing tables of values and drawing graphs with equations of the form y = mx + c. 3 and 4 Notes Axes should be labelled on graphs and a ruler should be used to draw linear graphs Science experiments or work can provide results which give linear graphs Resources Textbook Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 1 References Unit 1: Graphs 1 page 19-27 UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) – Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 59 .3 3.Module 5 — Linear graphs Target grades: C/D/E Content Time: 4 – 6 hours Area of specification 3.3 3.3 3. for example x + y = 7 3. 2. where the values of m and c are given and m may be an integer or a fraction Recognising that graphs with equations of the form y = mx + c are straight lines Having an informal understanding of the concept of gradient as the steepness of a line.

for example even and odd numbers The ability to follow a series of instructions Resources Textbook Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 1 References Unit 5: Sequences 5 page 254-255 60 UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 .Module 6 — Integer sequences Target grades: E/F/G Content Continuing diagrammatic sequences Continuing number sequences Describing the terms of a sequence in words Finding rules to describe sequences Time: 4 – 6 hours Area of specification 3.1 3.1 3.1 3.1 3.1 Using term-to-term and position-to-term definitions to generate the terms of a sequence Prior knowledge Algebra: Modules 1 and 2 Some experience of sequences of numbers which follow a rule.

≥ and ≤ Time: 4 – 6 hours Area of specification 2.8 2.8 2.8 2. <. including ‘double-ended’ inequalities Representing on a number line the solution set of simple linear inequalities Finding the integer solutions of simple linear inequalities Using regions to represent simple linear inequalities in one variable Using regions to represent the solution set to several linear inequalities in one or two variables Prior knowledge Algebra: Modules 3 and 5 Resources Textbook Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 1 References Unit 2: Algebra 2 page 74-77 Unit 2: Graphs 2 page 81-86 UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) – Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 61 .8 2.8 2.8 2.Module 7 — Inequalities Target grade: B/C/D Content Understanding and using the symbols >.8 Understanding and using the convention for open and closed intervals on a number line Solving simple linear inequalities in one variable.

3 2.1 2.1 2.3 Substituting positive and negative numbers into expressions and formulae with quadratic and/or cubic terms Completing tables of values and drawing graphs of quadratic functions Using laws of indices with positive integer powers to simplify expressions Substituting positive and negative numbers into expressions and formulae with quadratic and/or cubic terms Prior knowledge Algebra: Modules 2 and 4 Resources Textbook Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 1 References Unit 2: Algebra 2 page 73 Unit 2: Algebra 2 page 74 Unit 4: Graphs 4 page 185-188 62 UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 .1 3.Module 8 — Indices Target grades: C/D/E Content Using index notation for positive integer powers Time: 4 – 6 hours Area of specification 2.

4 4.SHAPE. for example height in metres. for example reading timetables Understanding and using the relationship between average speed. Use a range of everyday objects to make the lesson more relevant Resources Textbook Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 1 References Unit 4: Number 4 page 172 UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) – Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 63 .4 4.4 4. distance and time Time: 4 – 6 hours Area of specification 4. SPACE AND MEASURES Module 1 — Measures Target grades: C/D/E/F/G Content Choosing and using appropriate metric units of measure Making sensible estimate of lengths.4 4. capacities and weights Interpreting scales and dials on a range of measuring instruments Telling the time from digital and analogue clocks Converting between times.4 Prior knowledge Number: Module 2 Basic concepts of units. weight in kilograms Notes Measurement is essentially a practical activity.4 4. and calculating time intervals in 12-hour and 24-hour clocks.

isosceles and equilateral) Time: 3 – 5 hours Area of specification 4.2 4. rhombus.2 4.1 4.1 4. obtuse. rectangle.1 4. square.2 4. hexagon. octagon) Recognising regular polygons Understanding congruence as meaning the same shape and size Understanding that two or more polygons with the same shape and size are said to be congruent to each other Resources Textbook Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 1 References Unit 1: Shape and space 1 page 28 Unit 1: Shape and space 1 page 29 64 UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 .Module 2 — 2-D shapes Target grades: E/F/G Content Estimating the size of an angle in degrees Recognising and naming acute. trapezium.2 4.2 Recognising and giving the names of different types of quadrilateral (parallelogram. reflex and right angles Recognising and giving the names of different types of triangle (right-angled. kite) Recognising and giving the names of different types of polygon (pentagon.

Module 3 — Symmetry Target grades: E/F/G Content Recognising line symmetry and rotational symmetry Identifying and drawing lines of symmetry for a 2-D shape Stating the order of rotational symmetry of a 2-D shape Recognising all the symmetries of a 2-D shape Time: 4 – 6 hours Area of specification 4.3 4.3 4.3 Resources Textbook Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 1 References Unit 1: Shape and space 1 page 28 UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) – Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 65 .3 4.

protractor and compasses Using three-figure bearings to specify direction Using scale drawings to solve problems in 2-D or 3-D Using straight edge and compasses to construct (i) the perpendicular bisector of a line segment (ii) the bisector of an angle Time: 4 – 6 hours Area of specification 4.5 4. students are often confused about the direction from which a bearing is measured Resources Textbook Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 1 Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 2 References Unit 1: Shape and space 1 page 32 Unit 4: Shape and space 4 page 292 66 UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 .5 4.Module 4 — Construction Target grades: C/D/E/F/G Content Measuring and drawing lines to the nearest millimetre Measuring and drawing angles to the nearest degree Constructing triangles and other 2-D shapes using a ruler. experience of drawing and measuring using a ruler Notes Encourage students to use sharp pencils to improve the neatness and accuracy of their drawings A tolerance of 2° is reasonable for angles A sturdy pair of compasses is essential When measuring angles larger than 90° on a diagram.5 Prior knowledge An understanding of angle as a measure of turn.4 4.5 4.4 4.

1 4.1 4.2 4.Module 5 — Geometry Target grades: C/D/E/F/G Content Calculating angles on a straight line and at a point Recognising vertically opposite angles Recognising parallel and perpendicular lines Using parallel lines.7 Using the angle sum of a triangle to calculate angles in triangles Using angle properties of isosceles.1 4.2 4. trapezium and kite Calculating and using the sums of the interior angles of polygons Calculating and using the sum of the exterior angles of polygons Calculating the interior and exterior angles of regular polygons Giving informal reasons. alternate angles and corresponding angles Time: 6 – 8 hours Area of specification 4. when arriving at numerical solutions to geometrical problems Prior knowledge Shape. rectangle. equilateral and right-angled triangles Understanding that the exterior angle of a triangle is equal to the sum of the interior angles at the other two vertices Using the angle sum of a quadrilateral to calculate angles in quadrilaterals Understanding and using the properties of the parallelogram.1 4.2 4.2 4.1 4.1 4.1 4.2 4. space and measures: Modules 1 and 2 Understanding the concept of parallel lines Resources Textbook Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 1 References Unit 1: Shape and space page 28 Unit 1: Shape and space page 29 Unit 1: Shape and space page 31 UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) – Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 67 . rhombus. where required. square.

space and measures: Module 2 The ability to recognise the symmetries in a shape Notes Students often lose marks as in the examination they do not give a complete description of a transformation.2 Prior knowledge Shape. y = x on a coordinate grid Reflecting shapes in a mirror line Constructing a mirror line.2 Understanding that rotations are specified by a centre and an angle Rotating a shape about a point.Module 6 — Transformations Target grades: C/D/E/F/G Content Time: 6 – 8 hours Area of specification 5.2 5.2 5.2 5.2 5. reflections and translations preserve length and angle so that a transformed shape under any of these transformations is congruent to the original shape Understanding that enlargements are specified by a centre and a scale factor.2 5.2 5.2 5. given a shape and its reflection Understanding that translations are specified by a distance and direction Translating a shape. degrees or simple fractions of a turn Understanding that an anti-clockwise rotation is a positive angle rotation and a clockwise rotation is a negative angle rotation 5. measuring the angle of rotation in right angles. for example x = 1. including fractions Constructing enlargements of shapes with positive scale factors Identifying the scale factor of an enlargement as the ratio of the lengths of any two corresponding line segments Recognising that enlargements preserve angle but not length Describing transformations in full 5. For example.2 5.2 5.2 5. the centre of rotation is often omitted and the name of the transformation itself left out Resources Textbook Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 1 References Unit 5: Shape and space 5 page 265-278 68 UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 .2 5. given the distance and direction of the translation Recognising that rotations.2 Understanding that reflections are specified by a mirror line.

tangent. 207 UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) – Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 69 . radius. sector and segment of a circle Knowing and using these circle properties: two tangents from a point to a circle are equal in length tangents are perpendicular to the radius at the point of contact the line from the centre of a circle which is perpendicular to a chord bisects the chord (and the converse is true) 4. arc.6 4.6 4.Module 7 — Circles Target grades: C/D/E/F/G Content Time: 4 – 6 hours Area of specification 4. diameter.6 Understanding the terms centre. chord. circumference.6 Resources Textbook Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 1 References Unit 4: Shape and space 4 page 194-199.

using relevant formulae Finding the areas of compound shapes made from rectangles and triangles Converting between units of length and of area within the metric system. for example m2 and cm2 Prior knowledge Shape. parallelograms and trapezia. triangles. space and measures: Module 2 Some concept of area as the amount of surface covered Notes Ensure that students can distinguish between perimeter and area Resources Textbook Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 1 References Unit 2: Algebra 2 page 69-71 70 UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 .9 4.9 Finding the perimeter of rectangles and triangles and shapes made from them Finding area by counting squares Finding the areas of rectangles. using relevant formulae Finding circumferences and areas of circles.9 4.9 4.9 4.9 4.Module 8 — Area and perimeter Target grades: D/E/F/G Content Time: 4 – 6 hours Area of specification 4.

area and volume. cone.9 Recognising and giving the names of solids (cube. pyramid. for example.9 4. cylinder. 117 UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) – Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 71 .9 4.9 4.9 4. prism. space and measures: Module 8 Some concept of the volume of a solid as the amount of space it occupies Notes Many students have little real understanding of perimeter.Module 9 — 3-D shapes and volume Target grades: C/D/E/F/G Content Time: 6 – 8 hours Area of specification 4. cm3 and litres Prior knowledge Shape. including cuboids and cylinders. edge and vertex in the context of a 3-D solid Finding volumes by counting cubes Finding the volumes of right prisms. Practical experience is essential in order to clarify these concepts Resources Textbook Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 2 References Unit 2: Number 2 page 63 Unit 2: Shape and space 2 page 112-113. using appropriate formulae Finding the surface areas of solids with rectangular and triangular faces Finding the surface area of a cylinder Converting between units of volume within the metric system. cuboid.9 4.9 4. sphere) Understanding the terms face.

Notes Students will avoid making mistakes if they remember that the hypotenuse is the longest side Some students find questions on this topic much more difficult if the orientation of the triangle is unusual Resources Textbook Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 1 References Unit 4: Shape and space 4 page 212-214 72 UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 .8 4. 5 and 8 Knowledge of different types of triangle Ability to use a calculator to find squares and square roots.Module 10 — Pythagoras’s theorem Target grade: B/C/D Content Identifying the hypotenuse of a right-angled triangle Time: 4 – 6 hours Area of specification 4.8 4. space and measures: Modules 2.8 Understanding and using Pythagoras’ theorem in 2-D to find the length of the hypotenuse or that of one of the shorter sides of a right-angled triangle Using Pythagoras’ theorem to solve problems Prior knowledge Shape.

Module 11 — Trigonometry Target grade: B/C/D Content Time: 6 – 8 hours Area of specification 4. 5 and 10 Knowledge of the basic concept of ratio (Number: Module 6) Ability to use a calculator to convert fractions to decimals (Number: Module 4) Notes Students should ensure that their calculators are in ‘degree mode’ before tackling trigonometry questions Resources Textbook Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 1 References Unit 2: Shape and space 2 page 87-94 Unit 3: Shape and space 3 page 142-153 UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) – Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 73 . opposite and adjacent Understanding and using sine.8 Identifying the various sides of a right-angled triangle as the hypotenuse.8 4. space and measures: Modules 2. including bearings Using Pythagoras’ theorem and trigonometry to solve problems Prior knowledge Shape. cosine and tangent of acute angles to find lengths and angles in a right-angled triangle Using trigonometry to solve problems.8 4.8 4.

if two shapes are similar their corresponding angles are equal and all their corresponding lengths are in the same ratio Using similarity to find lengths of sides Resources Textbook Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 1 References Unit 4: Shape and space 4 page 205-209 74 UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 .10 4.Module 12 — Similar shapes Target grade: B/C/D Content Time: 4 – 6 hours Area of specification 4.10 Understanding that.

1 6.1 6. space and measures: Module 4) Fractions of simple quantities (Number: Module 4) Notes Students should label axes of pictograms and bar charts. percentage or decimal of the total represented by each sector the number of items represented by each sector 6. a table (including two way) or a database Drawing and using bar charts Drawing and using pictograms Drawing pie charts Using pie charts to calculate: the fraction. should be emphasised Resources Textbook Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 1 References Unit 2: Handling data 2 page 99-103 UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) – Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 75 .1 6.HANDLING DATA Module 1 — Graphical representation of data Target grades: E/F/G Content Area of specification 6. space and measures: Module 5 Measuring and drawing angles (Shape.1 6.1 6.1 Prior knowledge Shape. particularly for pie charts. and sectors of pie charts The need for accurate drawing skills.1 Time: 6 – 8 hours Grouping data in tally tables and frequency tables including grouped data Obtaining data from a list.

**Module 2 — Statistical measures Target grades: C/D/E/F/G Content
**

Understanding the concept of average as a value which is representative of a set of data Finding the mean, median, mode and range for a discrete data set either from a list or frequency table Selecting the most appropriate average Finding the modal class for grouped data

Time: 6 – 8 hours

Area of specification

6.2 6.2 6.2 6.2 6.2

Calculating an estimate for the mean for grouped data, using halfway values

Notes

Students often understand techniques used to find mean, median and mode but confuse the three names It should be emphasised that the range is a single value Students sometimes identify the modal class by the frequency instead of the class description

Resources

Textbook Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 1 References Unit 2: Handling data 2 page 97-98

76

UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011

Module 3 — Probability 1 Target grades: E/F/G Content

Time: 6 – 8 hours

Area of specification

Using the language of probability, informally, for example ‘likely’ and then technical terms such as ‘outcomes’, ‘equal likelihood’, ‘events’ and ‘random’ Using a probability scale from 0 to 1 Understanding that an impossible event has a probability of 0 and one which is certain has a probability of 1 Writing probabilities as numbers (fractions, decimals or percentages only) Estimating probabilities from previously collected data The probability of an event happening or not happening Understanding and using estimates or measures of probability from theoretical models

6.3 6.3 6.3 6.3 6.3 6.3 6.3

Prior knowledge

Some concept of ‘chance’ and the likelihood of an event occurring and recognition that some events are more likely to occur than others

Notes

Where possible, introduce practical work to support theoretical work Students can be unsure of the relationship P(not n) = 1 – P(n)

Resources

Textbook Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 1 References Unit 4: Handling data 4 page 218-226

77

**Module 4 — Probability 2 Target grades: C/D/E/F Content
**

Understanding sample spaces and using them to find the probability that an event will occur Listing all the outcomes for single events systematically, or for two successive events, and using lists to find the probability that an event will occur

Time: 5 – 7 hours

Area of specification

6.3

6.3 6.3 6.3 6.3 6.3

Using the sum of probabilities of all possible outcomes equalling one Understanding the meaning of ‘equally likely’ and ‘mutually exclusive’ Using the addition rule for probability for mutually exclusive events Understanding and using expected frequency to calculate an estimate for the number of times an event will occur

Prior knowledge

Handling data: Module 3

Notes

You may need to remind students that only fractions, decimals and percentages can be used for probability. Answers like ‘2 in 3’, ‘2 out of 3’ and ‘2 : 3’ would be penalised in the examination

Resources

Textbook Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 2 References Unit 4: Handling data 4 page 315-316

78

Teachers should be aware that the estimated teaching hours are approximate and should only be used as a guideline. Module number 1 2 3 Number 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 Algebra 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 1 2 3 4 Shape.Higher tier content summary The table below is a summary of modules in the IGCSE Mathematics Higher tier course planner. space and measures 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Data Handling 1 2 3 Title Decimals Powers and roots Fractions Percentages Ratio and proportion Standard form Degree of accuracy Set language and notation Algebraic manipulation Expressions and formulae Linear equations and simultaneous linear equations Coordinates and graphs Linear graphs Integer sequences Quadratic equations Inequalities Indices Proportion Function notation Harder graphs Calculus Average speed Construction Geometry Transformations Circle properties Area and perimeter 3-D shapes and volume Pythagoras’ theorem Trigonometry Similar shapes Advanced trigonometry Vectors Graphical representation of data Statistical measures Probability Total Estimated teaching hours 3 4 2 3 3 4 6 6 4 6 6 5 5 4 7 5 5 5 7 7 7 3 4 4 5 7 5 5 4 4 7 7 6 5 4 6 180 hours UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) – Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 79 .

80 UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 .

NUMBER Module 1 — Decimals Target grades: A/B/C/D Content Applying the four rules of operation with decimals Using a calculator efficiently Interpreting a calculator display Writing decimal numbers to the nearest whole number and to one or two decimal places Writing decimal numbers to one.2 1.Higher tier It is assumed that students being prepared for the Higher tier will have knowledge of all of the Foundation tier content.3 Resources Textbook Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 1 References Unit Unit Unit Unit 5: 5: 1: 3: Number Number Number Number 5 5 1 3 page page page page 238 239 7 117-119 Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 2 Unit 1: Number 1 page 5-7 UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) – Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 81 .8 1.3 1.11 1.8 1.11 1. two or three significant figures Converting simple fractions to decimals including recurring decimals Converting terminating decimals to fractions Converting recurring decimals to fractions Time: 2 – 4 hours Area of specification 1.10 1.

fractional and negative powers Understanding the meaning of surds Manipulating surds. including rationalising the denominator *BIDMAS = Brackets. Indices.4 1.Module 2 — Powers and roots Target grades: A*/A/B/C Content Squares and square roots Cubes and cube roots Using a calculator effectively to evaluate powers and roots Powers of numbers – using index notation Order of operations including powers (BIDMAS*) Time: 3 – 5 hours Area of specification 1. Division. eg 1 2 .4 1.4 A/A* notes/tips In order for students to aspire to the top grades. Multiplication.4 Expressing a number as the product of powers of its prime factors Using prime factors to evaluate Highest Common Factors (HCF) and Lowest Common Multiples (LCM) Understanding and using powers which are zero. it is not usual to write surds in the denominator. Addition. it is not always easy to work out the value of the fraction. it is essential that they are able to use algebraic manipulation and index notation confidently Remind students that when writing fractions.1 1. Subtraction 1.4 1.4 1.4 integer. negative or fractions Recognising the relationship between fractional powers and roots Using laws of indices to simplify and evaluate numerical expressions involving 1.4 1.4 1. because without a calculator.1 1. but ‘rationalising’ the denominator will help clear the surds from the denominator Resources Textbook Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 1 Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 2 References Unit 3: Number 3 page 117 Unit 3: Number 3 page 114-116 Unit 2: Number 2 page 66-70 See Appendix 1 for references to past paper questions for students aiming for top grades in this module 82 UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 .4 1.

2 Adding and subtracting fractions using common denominators Multiplying and dividing fractions by an integer.Module 3 — Fractions Target grades: B/C/D Content Converting between fractions and decimals Time: 1 – 3 hours Area of specification 1.2 1. 339-345 (selected questions) UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) – Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 83 .2 Resources Textbook Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 1 Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 2 References Unit 2: Number 2 page 57-58 Unit 5: Number 5 (Revision) page 334.2 1.2 Ordering fractions using common denominators or by conversion to decimals 1.2 1.2 1. by a unit fraction and by a general fraction Using fractions in problems Calculating a fraction of a quantity Expressing one quantity as a fraction of another 1.

6 1. inflation and exchange rates offer many opportunities to ensure that the students have a confident working knowledge of this material Resources Textbook Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 2 References Unit 3: Number 3 page 110-113 Unit 4: Number 4 page 167-169 Unit 5: Number 5 (Revision) page 345 (selected questions) See Appendix 1 for references to past paper questions for students aiming for top grades in this module 84 UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 . fractions and decimals Calculating percentages of quantities Increasing or decreasing quantities by a given percentage Expressing one quantity as a percentage of another Finding 100 per cent when another percentage is given Time: 2 – 4 hours Area of specification 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.6 1. credit and loans. for example simple interest and compound interest.6 1.Module 4 — Percentages Target grades: A*/A/B/C/D Content Converting between percentages.6 1.6 1. including depreciation Solving reverse percentage problems by carrying out an appropriate division Solving problems involving repeated percentage change Prior knowledge Number: Modules 1 and 3 Notes All working out should be shown A/A* notes/tips This is an opportunity to focus on financial arithmetic through using simple and compound interest through using: – Simple interest – Compound interest A P(1 A P(1 Rn ) 100 R n ) 100 Questions which involve savings.6 1.6 1.6 Understanding that percentage means ‘number of parts per hundred’ Calculating percentage increases or decreases (percentage profit or loss) Understanding the multiplicative nature of percentages as operators Efficient use of a calculator to solve problems involving percentages.

7 1. find the other.7 1.Module 5 — Ratio and proportion Target grades: B/C/D Content Basic idea of ratio Simplifying ratios including simplest form Expressing a ratio in the form 1 : n Relating ratio to fractions Time: 2 – 4 hours Area of specification 1.7 1.7 1. 339-345 (selected questions) UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) – Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 85 .7 1. including using the unitary method Dividing a quantity in a given ratio into two or three parts Problems involving ratio.7 1. including scale diagrams and maps Using direct proportion. including recipes and currency conversion Prior knowledge Number: Modules 1 and 3 Calculator skills Resources Textbook Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 1 Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 2 References Unit 2: Number 2 page 59 Unit 2: Number 2 page 61-63 Unit 5: Number 5 (Revision) page 338.7 If one of the two quantities in a given ratio is known.7 1.

339-345 (selected questions) 86 UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 .9 1.9 1. not as a calculator display such as 2. for example 2. where appropriate. use their calculators for questions involving standard form.505 Resources Textbook Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 1 Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 1 References Unit 1: Number 1 page 5-6 Unit 2: Number 2 page 55-57 Unit 5: Number 5 (Revision) page 335.9 1. their answers should be expressed in conventional standard form.3 x 105.Module 6 — Standard form Target grades: A/B/C Content Expressing numbers in standard form Time: 3 – 5 hours Area of specification 1.9 Writing numbers expressed in standard form as ordinary numbers Calculating with numbers in standard form Solving problems involving standard form Notes Although students can.

Students should be aware that correct rounding will give a number of the same magnitude as the original.8 1. as information is often given that is not exact It is helpful for students to know that least value is the same as lower bound or minimum value.8 1.Module 7 — Degree of accuracy Target grades: A*/A/B/C/D Content Rounding numbers to two or three significant figures Rounding numbers to one.8 1. Similarly greatest value is the same as upper bound or maximum value Remind students that sometimes the prolem is less straightforward when working with compound measures involving division UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) – Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 87 .8 1.8 1.8 1. ie maximum and minimum values for rounded values Solving problems using upper and lower bounds where values are given to a degree of accuracy Selecting and justifying appropriate degrees of accuracy Notes Students should be encouraged to include more accurate answers in their working before rounding to ensure they receive marks for correct calculations even if there is a rounding error.8 1. Rounding to a level of accuracy should be emphasised continually. two or three decimal places Carrying out rounding appropriate to a context Time: 5 – 7 hours Area of specification 1.8 Rounding numbers to one significant figure and use for estimating Expressing a calculator display to an appropriate degree of accuracy Finding upper and lower bounds. A/A* notes/tips Remind students that upper and lower bounds can be worked out for quantities that have been rounded to a given level of accuracy Students should be reminded that typically questions involving degrees of accuracy often require careful analysis.

Resources Textbook Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 1 Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 2 References Unit 4: Number 4 page 170-172 Unit 5: Number 5 (Revision) page 334 See Appendix 1 for references to past paper questions for students aiming for top grades in this module 88 UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 .

5 1.5 1. 3.5 1. including notation Understanding and using the complement of a set (A ) Using Venn diagrams to represent sets and the number of elements in sets Using the notation n(A) for the number of elements in the set A Using sets in practical situations / Notes Inequality notation may be used.5 1.5 1.5 and Intersection and union of sets including the notation ∩ and ∪ Understanding sets defined in algebraic terms Understanding and using subsets. {eg x: 2 ≤ x < 5} A/A* notes/tips Students should recognise that to score all the marks in Venn diagram problems. the layout of the sets needs to be correct.5 1.Module 8 — Set language and notation Time: 5 – 7 hours Target grades: A/B/C/D Content Meaning of ‘set’ Area of specification 1.5 1.5 1. 7} 1. in particular the meaning of n Resources Textbook Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 1 Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 2 References Unit 1: Sets 1 page 39-47 Unit 1: Sets 1 page 45-53 UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) – Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 89 . eg {1. for example {first four odd numbers}.5 1.5 Defining sets of numbers by describing. 5. {x: x is a factor of 12 or by listing.5 Understanding the meaning of the universal set ℰ Understanding the meaning of the null or empty set Ø or { } Membership of a set including the notation 1. and appropriately labelled Common mistakes occur when students do not fully understand or know set theory notation.

students should be encouraged to fully factorise both the numerator and the denominator. for example 3a rather than 3 x a or a3.2 2. linear or quadratic Time: 3 – 5 hours Area of specification 2. eg (2x + 3)(3x – 1). where possible A typical common error is for students to ‘cancel out’ the terms in x Simplifying algebraic fractions is usually a challenging topic for many students. A key point is that algebraic fractions are actually generalised arithmetic.2 2.2 2.ALGEBRA Module 1 — Algebraic manipulation Target grades: A*/A/B/C/D Content Multiplying a single term over a bracket Factorising by taking out a single common factor Finding and simplifying the product of two linear expressions. (3x – 2y)(5x + 3y) Factorising quadratic expressions.2 Notes Emphasise importance of using the correct symbolic notation.2 2. setting their work out clearly In order for students to work towards to the top grades. it is essential that they are confidently able to manipulate algebraic expressions in a variety of situations When simplifying algebraic fractions. including the difference of two squares Adding and subtracting algebraic fractions. Students should be aware that there may be a need to remove the numerical HCF of a quadratic expression before factorising it in order to make factorisation more obvious A/A* notes/tips for Higher tier Students need to be reminded that they should always factorise algebraic expressions completely.2 2. including simplifying algebraic fractions by cancelling common factors Numerator and/or the denominator may be numeric. and that the same rules apply 90 UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 .

Resources Textbook Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 1 Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 2 References Unit 1: Algebra 1 page 11-12 Unit 2: Algebra 2 page 65-67 Unit 3: Algebra 3 page 121-123 Unit 5: Algebra 5 (Revision) page 346-347 See Appendix 1 for references to past paper questions for students aiming for top grades in this module UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) – Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 91 .

including cases where the subject occurs twice or where a power of the subject appears 2. and other subjects.3 2.3 Substituting positive and negative numbers. into expressions. keeping a careful check on the substitution of negative numbers into expressions and formulae.Module 2 — Expressions and formulae Target grades: A*/A/B/C/D Content Time: 5 – 7 hours Area of specification 2.3 2. word formulae and algebraic formulae Using formulae from mathematics. expressed initially in words or diagrammatic form and converting to variables or algebraic form Deriving formulae Manipulating formulae to change the subject. then fractions and decimals.3 A/A* notes/tips Students need to be reminded that changing the subject of the formula is identical to the process of solving an equation Students should be encouraged to set their work out clearly. and to make use of brackets where necessary Resources Textbook Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 1 References Unit 2: Algebra 2 page 69-72 Unit 4: Algebra 4 page 177-184 See Appendix 1 for references to past paper questions for students aiming for top grades in this module 92 UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 . in particular.

6 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.4 2. a formal method is often needed Students should leave their answers in fractional form where appropriate Resources Textbook Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 1 References Unit 1: Algebra 1 page 12-17 Unit 2: Graphs 2 page 79-80 Unit 3: Algebra 3 page 126-130 UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) – Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 93 .4 2.Module 3 — Linear equations and simultaneous linear equations Time: 5 – 7 hours Target grades: B/C/D Content Inverse operations Understanding and use of ‘balancing’ methods Solving simple linear equations Solving linear equations: with two or more operations with the unknown on both sides with brackets with negative or fractional coefficients with combinations of these 2.4 Setting up and solving simple linear equations to solve problems. including cases where one or both of the equations must be multiplied Interpreting the equations as lines and their common solution as the point of intersection Prior knowledge Algebra: Modules 1 and 2 The idea that some operations are ‘opposite’ to each other Notes Students need to realise that not all linear equations can be solved easily by either observation or trial and improvement.6 Area of specification 2.4 2. including finding the value of a variable which is not the subject of the formula Solving simple simultaneous linear equations.4 2.4 2.

3 3.3 3.3 3.3 Determining the coordinates of points identified by geometrical information Determining the coordinates of the midpoint of a line segment.Module 4 — Coordinates and graphs Target grade: C/D/E Content Time: 4 – 6 hours Area of specification 3. given the coordinates of the two end points Drawing and interpreting linear graphs representing real-life situations. including speed/time and distance/time graphs Drawing and interpreting non-linear graphs representing real-life situations Resources Textbook Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 1 References Unit 3: Graphs 3 page 134-141 94 UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 .

2.3 3.3 3.3 Recognising that equations of the form x = a and y = b correspond to straight line graphs parallel to the y-axis and to the x-axis respectively Completing tables of values and drawing graphs with equations of the form y = mx + c where the values of m and c are given and m may be an integer or a fraction 3. for example x + y = 7 Calculating the gradient of a straight line given its equation of the coordinates of two points on the line Recognising that graphs with equations of the form y = mx + c are straight line graphs with gradient m and intercept (0.3 3.3 Drawing straight line graphs with equations in which y is given implicitly in terms of x.Module 5 — Linear graphs Target grades: A/B/C/D Content Time: 4 – 6 hours Area of specification 3. c) on the y-axis Finding the equation of a straight line given the coordinates of two points on the line Finding the equation of a straight line parallel to a given line 3. 3 and 4 Notes Axes should be labelled on graphs and a ruler should be used to draw linear graphs Science experiments/work could provide results which give linear graphs Resources Textbook Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 1 References Unit 1: Graphs 1 page 19-27 UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) – Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 95 .3 Prior knowledge Algebra: Modules 1.3 3.

1 Using term-to-term and position-to-term definitions to generate the terms of a sequence Finding and using linear expressions to describe the nth term of an arithmetic sequence Resources Textbook Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book1 References Unit 5: Sequences 5 page 254-264 96 UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 .Module 6 — Integer sequences Target grades: B/C/D Content Time: 3 – 5 hours Area of specification 3.1 3.

7 Setting up and solving quadratic equations from data given in a context Solving exactly. one of which is linear in each unknown and the other is linear in one unknown and quadratic in the other Solving exactly. two simultaneous equations in two unknowns.7 2.7 2. one of which is linear in each unknown and the other is linear in one unknown and the other is of the form x2 + y2 = r2 2. by elimination of an unknown. rather than merely treating the algebra as an expression to be simplified Resources Textbook Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 1 Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 2 References Unit 5: Algebra 5 page 248-251 Unit 2: Algebra 2 page 71-80 Unit 3: Algebra 3 page 176-182 See Appendix 1 for references to past paper questions for students aiming for top grades in this module UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) – Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 97 .7 Prior knowledge Algebra: Modules 1 and 3 Notes Remind students that they should factorise a quadratic before using the formula A/A* notes/tips Remind students that it is important to always factorise completely before resorting to using the quadratic formula When applying the quadratic formula.7 2. however they should be encouraged to show their working out through using a few lines of correct algebra. by elimination of an unknown.Module 7 — Quadratic equations Target grade: A*/A/B/C Content Solving quadratic equations by factorisation Solving quadratic equations by using the quadratic formula Time: 6 – 8 hours Area of specification 2. two simultaneous equations in two unknowns. They should be reminded that rounding or truncating during the process leads to inaccurate solutions Often solving equations with algebraic fractions is a challenge for most students. Remind students of the value of retaining the structure of the equation throughout their working. students must substitute the correct values into the formula.

8 2.8 2.Module 8 — Inequalities Target grades: A/B/C Content Understanding and using the symbols >. including ‘double-ended’ inequalities Representing on a number line the solution set of simple linear inequalities Finding the integer solutions of simple linear inequalities Using regions to represent simple linear inequalities in one variable Using regions to represent the solution set to several linear inequalities in one or two variables Solving quadratic inequalities in one unknown and representing the solution set on a number line Prior knowledge Algebra: Modules 3.8 2.8 2. 81-86 Unit 2: Algebra 2 page 81-84 Unit 5: Algebra 5 page 356 98 UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 .8 Understanding and using the convention for open and closed intervals on a number line Solving simple linear inequalities in one variable.8 2.8 2. ≥ and ≤ Time: 4 – 6 hours Area of specification 2. <. 5 and 7 Resources Textbook Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 1 Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 2 References Unit 2: Algebra 2 page 74-78.8 2.

1 3.1 Substituting positive and negative numbers into expressions and formulae with quadratic and/or cubic terms Completing tables of values and drawing graphs of quadratic functions Using index notation with positive.3 2. negative and fractional powers to simplify expressions Prior knowledge Algebra: Modules 2 and 4 Resources Textbook Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 1 Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 2 References Unit 2: Number 2 page 60.Module 9 — Indices Target grades: A/B/C/D Content Using index notation for positive integer powers Time: 4 – 6 hours Area of specification 2.1 2. 73-74 Unit 4: Graphs 4 page 185-190 Unit 2: Number 2 page 66-70 UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) – Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 99 .

It is essential that they take note of the key words used in the question Common errors tend to be confusing direct and indirect (inverse) proportionality. 2 and 3 A/A* notes/tips Students need to be reminded that precision is required when setting up the formula. leading to using the wrong formulae. This is indicative of mathematical misunderstanding rather than misreading.5 2.5 Setting up and using equations to solve problems involving direct or inverse proportion Relating algebraic solutions to graphical representation of the equations Prior knowledge Algebra: Modules 1.Module 10 — Proportion Target grade: A*/A/B Content Time: 4 – 6 hours Area of specification 2. and no credit will be received Resources Textbook Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 1 Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 2 References Unit 2: Number 2 page 61-63 Unit 5: Number 5 page 233-238 Unit 1: Number 1 page 8-18 Unit 5 Number 5 page 338-345 (selected questions) See Appendix 1 for references to past paper questions for students aiming for top grades in this module 100 UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 .

2 Understanding the concept that a function is a mapping between elements of two sets Using function notation of the form f(x) = … and Understanding the terms domain and range Understanding which parts of the domain may need to be excluded Understanding and using composite function fg and inverse function f : x f –1 3. the result is a composite function. as this will enable them to develop an appropriate working knowledge of functions. and be able to. students must be familiar with the concept that division by zero is undefined. use the concepts of domain and range. remind students that they should give their answers as solutions of x Remind students that when one function is followed by another. x 2 0 . given the graphs of both functions.2 3.Module 11 — Function notation Target grades: A*/A/B Content Time: 6 – 8 hours Area of specification 3. In particular. giving the inverse function UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) – Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 101 . where the domain of f is the range of g Students need to understand. eg fg(x) means do f first followed by g. and that the notation It is helpful to remind students that if the inverse function is not obvious then: – – – Step 1: write the function as y =… Step 2: change any x to y. and any y to x Step 3: make y the subject.2 Prior knowledge Algebra: Modules 1.2 3. eg for g(x) = excluded from the domain of 1 . remind students that the inverse of f(x) is the function that ‘undoes’ whatever f(x) has done. which means x = 2 must be x2 g f 1 (x) is used For inverse functions. 2 and 3 A/A* notes/tips This tends to be demanding topic for students and in order to deepen their understanding of how to apply their knowledge of functions in different types of questions. they should be given plenty of practice Students may need to be reminded that f(x) = y When solving f(x) = g(x).2 3.

Resources Textbook Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 2 References Unit 3: Algebra 3 page 183-197 See Appendix 1 for references to past paper questions for students aiming for top grades in this module 102 UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 .

3 3. 5 and 9 Notes Students should be made aware that they should not use rulers to join plotted points on non-linear graphs When plotting points or reading off values from a graph. and that they produce a type of curve called a hyperbola. although a related.3 Prior knowledge Algebra: Modules 1. to find the gradient. a tangent drawn at this point is helpful.3 y = Ax 3 + Bx 2 + Cx + D + in which E F + x x2 (i) the constants are integers and at least three of them are zero (ii) the letters x and y can be replaced with any other two letters Finding the gradients of non-linear graphs by drawing a tangent Finding the intersection points of two graphs. correct division. the scales on the axes should be checked carefully A/A* notes/tips Remind students that when finding an estimate for the gradient of a graph y = f(x) at given point. one linear (y1) and one non-linear (y2) and recognising that the solutions correspond to y2 – y1 = 0 3. is helpful UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) – Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 103 .Module 12 — Harder graphs Target grades: A*/A/B Content (i) the constants are integers and some could be zero Time: 6 – 8 hours Area of specification Plotting and drawing graphs with equation y = Ax3 + Bx2 + Cx + D in which (ii) the letters x and y can be replaced with any other two letters Plotting and drawing graphs with equation 3. is required to gain top marks in a question Students should recognise that cubic graphs have distinctive shapes that depend on the coefficient of x3 Students should recognise that reciprocal graphs have x as the denominator. 2. and the value of x where this happens on the graph. An awareness of the concept of the smallest (minimum) value of y. 3.3 3.

Students should appreciate that an accurately drawn graph can be used to solve equations that may prove difficult to solve by other methods. in particular when one equation is linear and the other equation is nonlinear Resources Textbook Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 2 References Unit 1: Graphs 1 page 19-27 Unit 3: Graphs 3 page 198-209 See Appendix 1 for references to past paper questions for students aiming for top grades in this module 104 UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 . and using this to estimate the gradient of the curve at this point Students should recognise that the algebraic method is more accurate than the graphical method of solving simultaneous equations. They should also appreciate that most graphs of real-life situations are curves rather than straight lines. Information on rates of change can still be found by drawing a tangent to a curve.

Module 13 — Calculus Target grades: A*/A/B Content Understanding the concept of a variable rate of change Differentiating integer powers of x Time: 6 – 8 hours Area of specification 3. including speed and acceleration Resources Textbook Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 2 References Unit 4: Graphs 4 page 268-287 See Appendix 1 for references to past paper questions for students aiming for top grades in this module UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) – Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 105 . where the result is the derivative or the gradient function.4 3. as this will aid their understanding. 5. particularly as it increases in complexity Students need to understand the turning points are points on the curve where the gradient is zero. rates of change. maxima and minima by differentiation and relating these to graphs Applying calculus to linear kinematics and to other simple practical problems Prior knowledge Algebra. Modules 1. They should also be able to distinguish between a minimum turning point and a maximum turning point Students need to be able to apply their knowledge of differentiation to the motion of a particle in a straight line.4 3.4 3. and that the gradient of a curve can also be represented by dy dx Students should be encouraged to set their work out appropriately. of the topic. and revision. maintaining the structure of their solution. the reverse of differentiation will not be required A/A* notes/tips Student should understand that the process of finding the gradient of a curve is called differentiation. 2.4 Determining gradients. 9 and 12 Notes When applying calculus to linear kinematics.

SPACE AND MEASURES Module 1 — Average speed Target grades: B/C/D Content Understanding and using the relationship between average speed.SHAPE.4 Resources Textbook Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 2 References Unit 5: Graphs 5 page 365 106 UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 . distance and time Time: 2 – 4 hours Area of specification 4.

4 4. protractor and compasses Using three-figure bearings to specify direction Using scale drawings to solve problems Time: 3 – 5 hours Area of specification 4.5 4.5 4.Module 2 — Construction Target grades: B/C/D Content Constructing triangles and other 2-D shapes using a ruler. 52 Unit 2: Shape and space 2 page 91 UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) – Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 107 .5 Using straight edge and compasses to construct the perpendicular bisector of a line segment the bisector of an angle Notes Encourage students to use sharp pencils to improve the neatness and accuracy of their drawings A tolerance of 2° is reasonable for angles A sturdy pair of compasses is essential Students often confuse (i) the direction from which a bearing is measured (ii) measuring angles larger than 90° on a diagram Resources Text book title Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 1 Text book ref Unit 1: Shape and space 1 page 32-33.

1 4.7 Notes Students should be made aware that given diagrams will not be drawn to scale and that they should not assume geometrical facts that are not given in the question Resources Textbook Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 1 References Unit 1: Shape and space 1 page 28-30 Unit 1: Shape and space 1 page 31 108 UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 .1 4. trapezium and kite Calculating and using the sums of the interior angles of polygons Calculating and using the sum of the exterior angles of polygons Calculating the interior and exterior angles of regular polygons Providing reasons.2 4.1 4.1 4. square.2 4. alternate angles and corresponding angles Using the angle sum of a triangle to calculate angles in triangles Using angle properties of isosceles. rectangle. rhombus. using standard geometrical statements to support numerical values for angles obtained in any geometrical context involving lines and polygons 4.Module 3 — Geometry Target grades: B/C/D Content Time: 3 – 5 hours Area of specification 4.2 4. equilateral and right-angled triangles Understanding that the exterior angle of a triangle is equal to the sum of the interior angles at the other two vertices Using the angle sum of a quadrilateral to calculate angles in quadrilaterals Understanding and using the properties of the parallelogram.2 4.2 Using parallel lines.

given a shape and its reflection Understanding that translations are specified by vectors Translating a shape. measuring the angle of rotation in right angles.2 Identifying the scale factor of an enlargement as the ratio of the lengths of any two corresponding line segments Recognising that enlargements preserve angle but not length Describing transformations in full Describing a single transformation which is equivalent to a combination of transformations 5.2 5.2 5.2 Understanding that enlargements are specified by a centre and a scale factor 5.2 5. the centre of rotation is often omitted and the name of the transformation itself left out Resources Textbook Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 1 Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 2 References Unit 5: Shape and space 5 page 265-278 Unit 5: Shape and space 5 (Revision) page 378 UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) – Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 109 .2 Understanding that rotations are specified by a centre and an angle Rotating a shape about a point.2 Notes Students often lose marks in the examination because they do not give a complete description of a transformation. y = x on a coordinate grid Reflecting shapes in a mirror line Constructing a mirror line. degrees or simple fractions of a turn Understanding that an anti-clockwise rotation is a positive angle rotation and a clockwise rotation is a negative angle rotation 5.2 5. given the vector Recognising that rotations.Module 4 — Transformations Target grades: A/B/C/D Content Time: 4 – 6 hours Area of specification 5.2 Understanding that reflections are specified by a mirror line. reflections and translations preserve length and angle so that a transformed shape under any of these transformations is congruent to the original shape 5.2 5.2 Constructing enlargements of shapes with positive and fractional scale factors 5.2 5.2 5. for example x = 1.2 5.2 5. For example.

6 tangents are perpendicular to the radius at the point of contact the line from the centre of a circle which is perpendicular to a chord bisects the chord (and the converse is true) Recognising the term cyclic quadrilateral Understanding and using angle properties of the circle including: an angle subtended by an arc at the centre of a circle is twice the angle subtended at any point on the remaining part of the circumference an angle subtended at the circumference by a diameter is a right angle angles in the same segment are equal the sum of the opposite angles of a cyclic quadrilateral is 180° the alternate segment theorem 4.Module 5 — Circle properties Target grades: A*/A/B/C/D Content Knowing and using these circle properties: two tangents from a point to a circle are equal in length Time: 6 – 8 hours Area of specification 4.6 4. in brackets. and that the vertices are the concyclic points It is helpful if students are familiar with the terminology associated with circle theorems Students should develop the habit of giving a reason.6 4.6 4. to support numerical values for angles obtained in any geometrical context involving circles 4.6 4. using all the given facts.6 4.7 Notes Students should be made aware that diagrams on examination papers will not be drawn to scale and that they should not assume geometrical facts that are not given in the question A/A* notes/tips Student should be encouraged to always draw a neat diagram.6 4. after each geometrical statement 110 UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 .6 4.6 Understanding and using the internal and external intersecting chord properties Providing reasons. using standard geometrical statements.6 4. They should remember to use the basic geometrical facts to help them move through the problem Students should know that a figure is cyclic if a circle can be drawn through its vertices.

Resources Textbook Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 1 Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 2 References Unit 4: Shape and space 4 page 194-204 Unit 1: Shape and space 1 page 28-44 Unit 5: Shape and space 5 (Revision) page 379 See Appendix 1 for references to past paper questions for students aiming for top grades in this module UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) – Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 111 .

9 Finding the areas of rectangles. for example m2 and cm2 Resources Textbook Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 2 References Unit 2: shape and space page 98-139 Unit 2: Number 2 page 60-62 112 UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 .9 4.9 4.Module 6 — Area and perimeter Target grades: A/B/C/D Content Time: 4 – 6 hours Area of specification 4. parallelograms and trapezia. triangles. using relevant formulae Finding circumferences and areas of circles using relevant formulae Finding the areas of compound shapes made from rectangles and triangles Finding perimeters and areas of sectors of circles Converting between units of length and of area within the metric system.9 4.9 4.

space and measures: Module 6 Resources Textbook Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 2 References Unit 2: Number 2 page 63 Unit 2: Shape and space page 112-123 UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) – Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 113 .9 4.9 Understanding the terms face. m3 and cm3 Prior knowledge Shape.9 4. using appropriate formulae Finding the surface areas of solids with rectangular and triangular faces Finding the surface area and/or volume of a sphere and of a right circular cone using relevant formulae Converting between units of volume within the metric system. edge and vertex in the context of a 3-D solid Finding the volumes of right prisms.Module 7 — 3-D shapes and volume Target grades: A/B/C/D Content Time: 4 – 6 hours Area of specification 4.9 4.9 4. for example cm3 and litres. including cuboids and cylinders.

8 Notes When producing their answers students should remember that: the hypotenuse is the longest side the hypotenuse is less than the sum of the lengths of the other two sides Some students find questions on this topic much more difficult if the orientation of the triangle is unusual Resources Textbook Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 1 Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 2 References Unit 4: Shape and space 4 page 212-215 Unit 5: Shape and space 5 (Revision) page 380 114 UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 .Module 8 — Pythagoras’ theorem Target grade: B/C/D Content Time: 3 – 5 hours Area of specification Understanding and using Pythagoras’ theorem in 2-D to find the length of the hypotenuse or that of one of the shorter sides of a right-angled triangle Using Pythagoras’ theorem to solve problems 4.8 4.

including bearings Using Pythagoras’ theorem and trigonometry to solve problems Notes Students should ensure that their calculators are in ‘degree mode’ before tackling trigonometry questions Resources Textbook Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 1 References Unit 2: Shape and space 2 page 87-94 Unit 3: Shape and space 3 page 142-153 UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) – Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 115 .8 4.8 Identifying the various sides of a right-angled triangle as the hypotenuse.8 4. cosine and tangent of acute angles to find lengths and angles in a right-angled triangle Using trigonometry to solve problems. opposite and adjacent Understanding and using sine.Module 9 — Trigonometry Target grade: B/C/D Content Time: 3 – 5 hours Area of specification 4.8 4.

areas.10 4.Module 10 — Similar shapes Target grade: A*/A/B/C Content Time: 6 – 8 hours Area of specification 4. instead of the vertical height. if two shapes are similar their corresponding angles are equal and all their corresponding lengths are in the same ratio Using similarity to find lengths of sides Understanding that areas of similar figures are in the ratio of the square of corresponding sides Understanding that the volumes of similar figures are in the ratio of the cube of corresponding sides Using areas and volumes of similar figures in solving problems Notes Some students have difficulty in identifying correct ratios of quantities (lengths.10 4. a common error is the use of the slant height of a 3-D shape.10 Understanding that. volumes) particularly when an area or a volume ratio of similar figures is given A/A* notes/tips When working with similar shapes.10 4. when calculating volumes Resources Textbook Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 1 Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 2 References Unit 4: Shape and space 4 page 205-212 Unit 2: Shape and space 2 page 112-139 See Appendix 1 for references to past paper questions for students aiming for top grades in this module 116 UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 .10 4.

and not assume that by writing down all the decimal points from their calculator display that this indicates exactness. as this will assist with developing this important skill Students also need to develop an awareness of the value of an ‘exact’ value. They should be confident to use functions. and they need to be able to demonstrate this awareness in their working out. This means that students need to develop the skill of manipulating the cosine rule with confident ease.8 4. in particular they need to recognise when it is more appropriate to use the cosine rule.8 4.8 4.8 Understanding and using sine. including finding the angle between a line and a plane but not the angle between two planes 4. students should appreciate the need to analyse the question carefully and then choose the appropriate method of solution first time. They should set out their solutions clearly. Students should be able to confidently use the cosine rule. space and measures: Modules 8 and 9 Notes The concept that angles of elevation and depression are measured from the horizontal should be emphasised Arithmetical methods in handling the cosine rule. however a common error is misquoting it. rather than the sine rule. In these instances. this skill is essential when tackling the more non-routine questions aimed at the top grades Often students recognise that using the cosine rule is the more appropriate problem-solving technique. cosine and tangent of obtuse angles Understanding and using angles of elevation and depression Using Pythagoras’ theorem in 3-D Understanding and using 1 ab sin C for the area of a triangle 2 Understanding and using the sine rule and the cosine rule for any triangle Applying trigonometrical methods to solve problems in 3-D.8 Prior knowledge Shape. maintaining the correct structure of their solutions. in terms of both sides and angles In order to access the top grades. and they should be able to retain values written as sin(a) or cos(b) UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) – Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 117 .8 4.Module 11 — Advanced trigonometry Target grade: A*/A/B/C Content Time: 6 – 8 hours Area of specification 4. surds or algebra to show their working out. should be emphasised A/A* notes/tips Student will need to recognise when to use trigonometry. particularly with obtuse angles.

Resources Textbook Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 2 References Unit 4: Shape and space 4 page 288-314 See Appendix 1 for references to past paper questions for students aiming for top grades in this module 118 UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 .

1 5.1 5.1 5. At this level.1 Understanding that a vector has both magnitude and direction Applying vector methods for simple geometrical proofs in 2-D A/A* notes/tips It is usual for students to find the initial stages of a vector question quite straightforward. in order to solve the more demanding aspects of the questions. it is about analysing the question.1 5.1 5. with the last stage rather more challenging Students should be encouraged to use geometrical properties to enable them to solve the more demanding aspects of vector questions. Students should develop the habit of maintaining the structure of their solutions.1 5. combined with an awareness of selecting the most appropriate methods of solution Resources Textbook Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 2 References Unit 3: Shape and space page 210-225 See Appendix 1 for references to past paper questions for students aiming for top grades in this module UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) – Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 119 . and applying simple algebraic manipulations where necessary Students should be able to make use of the result of adding a set of vectors. as well as the use of geometrical properties and algebraic manipulation.Module 12 — Vectors Target grade: A*/A/B Content Understanding and using vector notation Multiplying vectors by scalar quantities Adding and subtracting vectors Calculating the modulus (magnitude) of a vector Finding the resultant of two or more vectors Time: 5 – 7 hours Area of specification 5.

1 6. frequency is proportional to the area of the bar When working with histograms. which is to calculate and then mark on the vertical axis.HANDLING DATA Module 1 — Graphical representation of data Target grades: A*/A/B Content Using cumulative frequency diagrams Constructing and interpreting histograms for unequal class intervals Time: 4 – 6 hours Area of specification 6. the frequency densities.1 6. students should be encouraged to work with the most successful and shortest method. This approach often leads onto using efficient methods for working with histograms Resources Textbook Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 1 Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 2 References Unit 5: Handling data 5 page 282-291 Unit 3: Handling data 3 page 226-235 See Appendix 1 for references to past paper questions for students aiming for top grades in this module 120 UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 .1 Constructing cumulative frequency diagrams from tabulated data Notes Students need to be aware that the upper bound of the class interval is used to plot points in a cumulative frequency diagram A/A* notes/tips Student need to understand that in a histogram.

Module 2 — Statistical measures Target grades: B/C/D Content Understanding the concept of average as a value which is representative of a set of data Finding the mean. median.2 Calculating an estimate for the mean for grouped data.2 6. 164 Unit 3: Handling data 3 page 154-160 Unit 5: Handling data 5 page 279-281 UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) – Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 121 .2 6.2 6.2 6. 107. mode and range for a discrete data set from a frequency table Selecting the most appropriate average Finding the modal class for grouped data Time: 3 – 5 hours Area of specification 6.2 6.2 6. using halfway values Estimating the median from a cumulative frequency diagram Understanding the concept of a measure of spread Estimating the quartiles and the interquartile range from given data or from a cumulative frequency diagram Notes Students need to be aware that the median and quartiles are read off as values from the y-axis Resources Textbook Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 1 References Unit 2: Handling data 2 page 97-98.2 6.

3 6.3 6.3 6. with confidence.3 6.Module 3 — Probability Target grades: A*/A/B/C/D Content Understanding sample spaces and using them to find the probability that an event will occur Time: 5 – 7 hours Area of specification 6. or for two successive events. students need to include the necessary labels and appropriate values 122 UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 . A common error tends to be considering only one combination instead of all the necessary combinations Students need to be able to use tree diagrams. If tree diagrams are used. ‘2 out of 3’ and ‘2 : 3’ would be penalised in the examination A/A* notes/tips Student should be able to handle the ‘at least’ situation through using efficient methods.3 6. eg by using P( E ) + P( E ) = 1 Students should recognise when it is necessary to consider additional combinations when solving problems. and using lists to find the probability that an event will occur Using the sum of probabilities of all possible outcomes equalling one Understanding the meanings of ‘equally likely’ and ‘mutually exclusive’ Using the addition rule for probability for mutually exclusive events Understanding and using expected frequency to calculate an estimate for the number of times an event will occur Determining the probability that two or more independent events will both occur Knowing when to add or multiply probabilities Using simple conditional probability when combining events Drawing tree diagrams to show the outcomes of two or more successive events and related probabilities Using tree diagrams to solve probability problems 6. decimals and percentages can be used for probability.3 6.3 Notes You may need to remind students that only fractions.3 Listing all the outcomes for single events systematically.3 6. Answers such as ‘2 in 3’.3 6.3 6.

Resources Textbook Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 2 References Unit 2: Handling data 2 page 140-151 Unit 4: Handling data 4 page 315-325 See Appendix 1 for references to past paper questions for students aiming for top grades in this module UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) – Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 123 .

124 UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 .

B V Hony ISBN 978-0 435966 91 1 Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 2 D A Turner. Waite W and Hony V – Longman Mathematics for IGCSE Book 1 ISBN 9781405802116 Turner D. Waite W and Hony V – Longman Mathematics for IGCSE ActiveTeach 2 ISBN 9781405865883 UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) – Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 125 . I A Potts. B V Hony ISBN 978-0 435966 92 8 Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Practice Book 1 D A Turner.pearsonglobalschools.Resources Student and Practice Books Edexcel’s own Student Books and Practice Books published specifically for the following specifications IGCSE 2009 Mathematics A The Edexcel Level 1/Level 2 Certificate in Mathematics provide complete coverage of the specification and plenty of exercises and practice exam questions in addition to a FREE ActiveBook CD. Waite W and Hony V – Longman Mathematics for IGCSE ActiveTeach 1 ISBN 9781405865876 Turner D. Turner D. Potts I. W R J Waite. I A Potts ISBN 978-0 435044 16 9 Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Practice Book 2 D A Turner. Potts I. Potts I. Waite W and Hony V – Longman Mathematics for IGCSE Book 2 ISBN 9781405802123 Turner D and Potts I – Longman Mathematics for IGCSE Practice Book 2 ISBN 9781405865043 Turner D and Potts I – Longman Mathematics for IGCSE Practice Book 1 ISBN 9781405865036 Turner D. W R J Waite. I A Potts. These texts are the updated versions of the Longman Mathematics for IGCSE resources below which were published in 2005-2007. I A Potts ISBN 978-0 435044 15 2 Visit www.com/igcse for more information and to order your copies now. Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A Student Book 1 D A Turner. Potts I.

Endorsed books For the Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics A specification. Huby D and Kranat J – IGCSE Mathematics for Edexcel (Oxford University Press. Please note that while resources are checked at the time of publication. materials may be withdrawn from circulation and website locations may change at any time. the additional titles below have been endorsed by Edexcel and could be used as teaching aids. There are no content changes between the IGCSE Mathematics A and the Edexcel Certificate in Mathematics specifications. 2006) ISBN 9780007755486 Smith A – IGCSE Mathematics for Edexcel (Hodder Murray 2008) ISBN 9780340945414 Revision Guide for IGCSE Maths Higher Tier (ZigZag Education) 126 UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 . Demetriou D. This means that the following titles are also suitable for the Certificate. Appleton M. 2007) ISBN 9780199152629 Johnson T and Clough T – Edexcel IGCSE Mathematics Practice (Hodder Murray 2008) ISBN 9780340966273 Metcalf P – IGCSE Mathematics for Edexcel (Collins Education. The internet is also valuable as a tool for research and learning.

Appendices Appendix 1: References to past paper questions for students aiming for top grades Appendix 2: References to past paper questions for content not currently assessed at GCSE Mathematics Appendix 3: The use of the calculator 129 131 133 UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) – Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 127 .

128 UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 .

Appendix 1: References to past paper questions for students aiming for top grades The table below gives references to past papers. space and measures 5 10 11 12 Data handling 1 3 Function notation Graphs of functions Calculus Circle properties Similar shapes Advanced trigonometry Vectors Graphical representation of data Probability UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) – Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 129 . Module number Number 2 Topic area Powers and roots Past question references IGCSE (4400) November 2009 3H Q25 May 2010 3H Q 16 May 2009 3H Q20 November 2009 3H Q23 November 2009 3H Q19 May 2010 3H Q18 November 2004 3H Q 18 May 2006 3H Q20 May 2009 4H Q16 May 2009 4H Q21 November 2009 3H Q21 November 2009 4H Q20 May 2010 3H Q15 November 2009 3H Q24 May 2010 4H Q15 November 2009 3H Q15 May 2009 4H Q17 November 2009 4H Q19 November 2008 3H Q20 November 2009 4H Q21 May 2007 3H Q18 May 2009 3H Q16 November 2009 3H Q22 May 2010 4H Q18 May 2009 4H Q18 May 2010 4H Q21 May 2009 4H Q19 May 2010 4H Q15 November 2009 3H Q20 November 2009 4H Q16 May 2009 3H Q17 May 2010 3H Q19 7 Algebra 1 2 7 10 Degrees of accuracy Algebraic manipulation Expressions and formulae Quadratic expressions Proportion 11 12 13 Shape. The questions can be used to focus on the more demanding topics for the students aiming at the top grades.

130 UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 .

Module number Number 8 Topic area Set language and notation Quadratic inequalities Function notation Past question references IGCSE (4400) November 2010 1F Q20 November 2010 3H Q7 May 2010 4H Q6 November 2005 3H Q15 November 2009 3H Q24 November 2010 3H Q21 June 2010 4H Q20 May 2008 3H Q21 Algebra 8 11 12 Finding the gradient of a curve at a point by drawing a tangent Calculus Intersecting chord theorem Modulus of a vector Simple conditional probability 13 Shape.Appendix 2: References to past paper questions for content not currently assessed at GCSE Mathematics These topics are not included in GCSE Mathematics. but are included in IGCSE Mathematics. space and measures Data handling 5 12 3 November 2009 4H Q19 November 2010 3H Q16 May 2008 4H Q18 November 2010 4H Q19 May 2008 4H Q21 November 2010 1F Q13 November 2010 3H Q17 November 2010 4H Q14 UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) – Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 131 .

132 UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 .

recurring decimals and equations. Appropriate and efficient use of calculators is desirable but reliance on them at the expense of understanding and learning mathematical techniques is not. are also provided. Current models can be used to answer questions on a number of topics including fractions. UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) – Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 133 . The style of some questions on certain topics and the way in which they are marked help us achieve these aims. surds. candidates must give every necessary step in the working and it is better for them to err on the side of giving too much working rather than too little. model solutions. It would clearly be unfair if sophisticated calculators gave candidates an advantage in the examination. when the answer is given. In addition to ensuring fairness to candidates. Obviously. examples of such questions are given below. standard form.Appendix 3: The use of the calculator The range of functions on calculators is increasing all the time. To assist teachers preparing students for the examination. Fractions Example 1 (Foundation/Higher) Show that 2 3 5 1 3 4 12 (2 marks) Solution ( 8 9 2 3 ) 12 12 3 4 17 12 5 ) 12 (1 Comment The marks would be awarded for the unbracketed steps of the solution. another of our aims as examiners is to encourage good classroom practice. which are not unique.

6 10 10 2 n 1 .6 10 2 n 1 134 UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 . Standard form Example 3 (Higher) x 4 10 n where n is an integer. for x2 Give your expression as simply as possible. as the answer is given. 3 would not.Surds Example 2 (Higher) Show that (2 3)2 7 4 3 (2 marks) Solution (2 3)2 4 2 3 2 3 ( 3)2 44 33 ( 7 4 3 ) Comment 3 3 and 9 would be acceptable alternatives to ( 3 ) 2 in the expansion but. Find an expression. in standard form. (3 marks) Solution x ( 4 10 ) 2 n 2 16 (10 n ) 2 16 10 2 n 1 .

Example 4 (Higher) Solve 7y 2y 2y 3 4 (4 marks) Solution 1 Step 7 2y 4 ( 2 y 3) 4 or 7 2 y 4 ( 2 y 3 ) 4 Notes Demonstrates clear intention to multiply both sides by 4 or a multiple of 4.Equations “Spotting” a solution and showing. for example. in general. that it satisfies an equation will not. 4 7 2y or 7 2 y 4 = 4 × 2y + 3 or 8y + 3 or 2y + 3 × 4 or 2y + 12 7 2 y 8 y 12 or simpler 10 y 5 or 10 y 5 Correct expansion of brackets (usually 8 y 2 y 7 12 ) or correct rearrangement of correct terms eg 8y + 2y = 7 − 12 Reduction to correct equation of form ay = b y 1 2 5 and −0.5 are acceptable equivalents 10 but not −5 ÷ 10 etc UG026781 – Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) – Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 135 . The example below shows two possible methods and there will often be more than one acceptable method. by substitution. We advise teachers to consult past mark schemes for more examples of different methods.5 are acceptable equivalents 10 but not −5 ÷ 10 etc Solution 2 Step Notes Division of both terms on LHS by 4 Correct rearrangement of correct terms Reduction to correct equation of form ay = b 7 2y 2y 3 4 4 7 2y 3 2y 4 4 10 y 5 or equivalent 4 4 y 1 2 5 and −0. qualify as “sufficient working”.

Z angles and C angles will receive no credit when given in geometrical reasons.Example 5 (Higher) Solve 3x2 − 8x + 2 = 0 Give your solutions correct to 3 significant figures. The terms accepted are corresponding angles.1-143/2 136 UG026781– Teacher’s guide – Edexcel IGCSE in Mathematics (Specification A) (4MA0) Issue 3 – March 2011 © Edexcel Limited 2011 . 3 Set Language and Notation Centres should also ensure that candidates are aware that. 4618sb150311S:\LT\PD\IGCSE TSM\UG026781 MATHEMATICS (SPEC A) TEACHERS GUIDE ISSUE 3. (3 marks) Solution Step Notes x 8 ( 8) 2 4 3 2 23 Correct substitution in the quadratic formula x x 8 8 6 64 24 6 40 Correct simplification of the quadratic formula x = 2.279 Statement of solutions correct to 3 significant figures 2 Geometrical Reasoning Centres should ensure that candidates are aware that the terms F angles. alternate angles and allied (or co-interior) angles respectively. although knowledge of only the first two of these is required by the specification.39 or x = 0. in lists of the members of the union of sets. the repetition of members is penalised.DOC.

Registered in England and Wales No. VAT Reg No 780 0898 07 . 4496750 Registered Office: One90 High Holborn.edexcel.Publications Code UG026781 March 2011 For more information on Edexcel and BTEC qualifications please visit our website: www.com Edexcel Limited. London WC1V 7BH.

- Cambridge Igcse Mathematics Core Practice Book Example Practice Papers
- UG030031 International GCSE in Chemistry Master Booklet Spec SAMs for Web 221211
- Revision Checklist for IGCSE Mathematics 0580 FINAL
- Cambridge Igcse Mathematics Extended Practice Book
- Maths Workbook
- edexcel Igcse Mathematics
- Rayner's Core & Extended Mathematics for Cambridge IGCSE
- General Mathematics IGCSE Past Paper Questions Classified according by topic
- UG022527 International GCSE in Mathematics Spec a for Web
- cambridge_igcse_mathematics__core_and_extended_coursebook_with_cd_rom___cambridge_education___cambri_samples.pdf
- IGCSE Maths Revision Guide
- Math Answers P2 P4 - 1993 - 2003
- Maths IGCSE Workbook for year 9.
- IGCSE Mathematics Revision Guide !
- Cambridge Igcse Mathematics Extended Practice Book Example Practice Papers
- IGCSE First Language English_1
- Mathematics for Edexcel GCSE - Foundation 2-Higher 1 (2015)
- Maths Revision
- Merged Modules MATHS for IGCSE
- iGCSE Notes Numbered
- Cambridge IGCSE Mathematics Core and Extended 3rd
- Additional Maths Resource Pack2
- Maths IGCSE Quick Revision
- Igcse Math Book
- A Digger IGCSE English
- IGCSE Maths Practice Book Answers
- Physics 93 - 2003 Paper 6
- IGCSE2009 Mathematics SpecA (4MA0) Specification
- IGCSE Catalogue 2011
- IGCSE Maths Past Examination Papers Classified by Topic

Skip carousel

- frbrich_wp01-8.pdf
- Comparative Analysis of Power System Stabilizer using Artificial Intelligence Techniques
- UT Dallas Syllabus for phys5302.001.09s taught by Paul Macalevey (paulmac)
- UT Dallas Syllabus for math2312.002.09s taught by (mxf091000)
- UT Dallas Syllabus for math2312.002.11f taught by Manjula Foley (mxf091000)
- tmp5D76.tmp
- UT Dallas Syllabus for math2413.003.11s taught by Wieslaw Krawcewicz (wzk091000)
- UT Dallas Syllabus for math2312.521.07u taught by William Scott (wms016100)
- tmp2B1C.tmp
- UT Dallas Syllabus for phys5301.501.11f taught by Paul Mac Alevey (paulmac)
- UT Dallas Syllabus for math2v90.001.08s taught by Noureen Khan (nak033000)
- tmp9817.tmp
- Tmp 7550
- High School Mathematics Grade 10-12
- Discrete Mathematics
- A New Method for Solving Deterministic Multi-Item Fuzzy Inventory Model with Three Constraints
- tmpAE76.tmp
- UT Dallas Syllabus for math1314.002 06f taught by Paul Stanford (phs031000)
- tmp82D3.tmp
- ON Fuzzy Linear Programming Technique Application
- tmp664
- tmpD53B.tmp
- frbrich_wp90-11.pdf
- tmpA6A6.tmp
- tmp3183.tmp
- Space Shuttle Trajectory Guide
- tmp5DD5.tmp
- tmp28B2.tmp
- UT Dallas Syllabus for math2312.001.09f taught by William Scott (wms016100)
- tmpF8BB

Skip carousel

- Humanitarian Indicator Toolkit - Slow Onset
- IFC's Performance Standard 1
- 13 14 Lesson Observation Rubric Delaware Charter Collaborative FINAL
- Evaluating Teacher Effectiveness
- National Assessments of Educational Achievement Volume 5
- State Mandated Assessments Time Chart_1 19 2016w ReductionREV
- Early Grade Reading Assessment Toolkit
- A Guide to Assessing Needs
- Academy of Dover AI Report
- Appendices[1].pdf
- UT Dallas Syllabus for comd7378.081.07u taught by Jennifer Pate (jmp012700)
- Humanitarian Indicator Toolkit - Rapid Onset
- Psychological Assessment in South Africa
- 2e322d785ed58b73985d040598b1aea9 Revised Methodology ADOPTED Nov 2013
- Transition team report
- Working with Children in Humanitarian WASH Programmes
- UT Dallas Syllabus for spau4342.001.07s taught by Karen Kaplan (kkaplan)
- EDU-SBE AssmntAcct Adpted081914[1]
- UT Dallas Syllabus for hdcd7350.001.07s taught by Cherryl Bryant (clb015400)
- tmpC54F.tmp
- Balanced Assessment Inventory and 5 Year Plan_12.22.15
- A Little Gender Handbook for Emergencies or Just Plain Common Sense
- Risk Assessment Instruments to Predict Recidivism of Sex Offenders
- CenterPoint-Energy-Houston-Electric,-LLC-Retro-Commissioning-Program
- A Little Gender Handbook for Emergencies or Just Plain Common Sense
- Regulation 101
- Development of Performance Standards - Griffin
- Virtual 2014 Appendices b and c Notes Final 0
- 2015 SBAC Results Delaware
- Guidance Note 1 - Effective January 1, 2012

Sign up to vote on this title

UsefulNot usefulRead Free for 30 Days

Cancel anytime.

Close Dialog## Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

IGCSE Mathematics a Teachers Guide Issue 3[1] will be available on

Loading