Master of Business Administration-MBA Semester I Subject Code – MB0043 Subject Name –Human Resource Management 4 Credits (Book

ID: B1132) Assignment Set- 1 (60 Marks)

Note: Each question carries 10 Marks.Answer all the questions. Q.1 Trace the phases of evolution of human resource management. The historical background to the management techniques of human resources are in vogue since ancient times. It‟s only in the past 100 odd years that the techniques and study of human behaviour at work has become formal and structured with certain basic practices established as core and a host of other practices left to each organization to design and implement as per their individual business driven practices. As per Fisher, Schonfeldt and Shaw, in their book titled Human Resources Management, they have characterised the history of HRM as having evolved through four broad phases, the Craft system, the scientific system, the human relations approach and the prevalent organizational science-human resources approach. The Craft system refers to early trends noticed in Egypt and Babylon, where skills based training was provided to people to ensure a steady flow of craftsmen required to build huge monuments. By the 13th century, subsequently the trend was noticed in Europe and later craft guilds evolved to ensure not only the skill acquisition but regulate the conditions of employment, level of skill and improved production techniques. Most relevant in the domestic industry where generations of skilled workers trained and became experts in a particular skill. The Scientific Management approach was a key part of the industrial revolution typical of the nineteenth and early twentieth century. It was instilled in the principles of mass production and organization of work – simple work skills and supervisory/managerial skills. This rapidly emerged as the assembly line approach to managing workflow, which later Fredrick Taylor (1856-1915) pioneered based on the philosophy that employees wanted to be used efficiently and money being the primary motivator. Over a period of time this was proved wrong as employee dissent grew and union issues surfaced. It was during this phase that employee welfare as a key HR practice emerged which redressed employee issues like recreational facilities, medical program and employee grievance systems. The Human Relations approach was an outcome of the famous studies undertaken by US social scientist Elton Mayo and Fritz Roethlisberger at the Western Electric‟s Hawthorne plant in Chicago. The Hawthorne Studies: As described in virtually every book written about management, the human relations or behavioral school of management began in 1927 with a group of studies conducted at the Hawthorne plant of Western Electric, an AT&T subsidiary. Curiously, these studies were prompted by an experiment carried out by the company‟s engineers between 1924 and 1932. Following the scientific management tradition, these engineers were applying research methods to answer job-related problems. Two groups were studied to determine the effects of different levels of illumination on worker performance. One group received increased illumination, while the other did not. A preliminary finding was that, when illumination was increased, the level of performance also increased. Surprisingly to the engineers, productivity also increased when the level of illumination was decreased almost to moonlight levels. One interpretation made of these

Leadership Style and Practices: As a consequence of the Hawthorne Studies. Roethlisberger from Harvard conducted a lengthy series of experiments extending over a six year period. Q.2 Explain the various techniques and methods used in selecting employees. It is not uncommon for competing organizations to woo the employees through advertising more and better employee-friendly initiatives like work-from-home jobs. morale. they reacted positively because management cared about them. Finally the Organizational Sciences approach to human resources management has brought the focus to the scientific process within organizations that can impact employee experience. This is the HR that we now see around us. For instance. global work assignments and internal job postings and world class workplace infrastructures from in-campus cricket grounds to gymnasiums for employee wellbeing. . later to be called the Institute for Social Research. a team of researchers headed by Elton Mayo and F. generally long and multiple. There is no shortcut to fair and accurate evaluation of a candidate. Among their key findings were the following: · Economic incentives are less potent than generally believed in influencing employees to achieve high levels of output. careers for married couples. you also have to understand the climate that exists in the work group and the leadership style of the superior. · Leadership practices and work-group pressures profoundly influence employee satisfaction and performance. Today‟s organizations focus on building their processes and policies and compete to emerge as „preferred employers‟ (best employer). Organizations are constantly evaluating the selections tools they use to hire and keep innovating to ensure they hire quality candidates. and less on just the individual. 8 Induction or orientation. The following are popular methods commonly used: 1 Initial or preliminary interview 2 Application blank or blanks. and group influences became a concern of researchers. A group of social scientists formed an organization. As mentioned earlier. 4 Skill / Psychological tests. A notable development of the nature occurred shortly after World War II at the University of Michigan.J. 5 Employment interview 6 Approval by the manager. 3 Check of references.results was that the employees involved in the experiment enjoyed being the centre of attention. Such a phenomenon taking place in any research setting is now called the Hawthorne effect. to study those principles of leadership that were associated with highest productivity. As a result of these preliminary investigations. · Any factor influencing employee behaviour is embedded in a social system. worker attitudes. The conclusions they reached served as the bedrock of later developments in the human relations approach to management. 7 Medical examination. to understand the impact of pay on performance. The reason for the increase in the production was not the physical but the psychological impact of the employee‟s attitude towards the job and towards the company. the hiring procedures are therefore.

Checks on references are made by mail or telephone. Most organizations do not use psychological tests. A substantial amount of subjectivity. The blank aids in the interview by indicating areas of interest and discussion. personal items. salary. he or she is given the application blank to complete. and therefore. The use of multiple rounds of interview (even upto 8-10 rounds) and use of panel interviews are some common workaround. The objective is to obtain evaluation of prior employers and professional colleagues. educational attainment. The use of tests is common and most popular in the lower levels in an organization. 3 Check of References: The use of references is common in most selection procedures. and other items such as names and addresses of previous employers. is to be expected from interviewing when used as a tool of evaluation. . These are: 1. If the applicant appears to have some chance of qualifying for existing job openings. Four kinds of interviews for selection have been identified. who have known the candidate in a professional capacity. It is the smaller company that frequently does not bother with tests. there is a direct relationship between the size and firm and the use of such tests in hiring. Preliminary Interview: The more non-selective the recruitment programme. The objectivity of the test results make it especially popular and a fair assessment of the individual. These templates generally carry information on biographical data.1. it can be a powerful technique in achieving accurate information and getting access to material otherwise unavailable. unreliability. The applicant is given job details during the interview to afford him freedom to decide whether the job will suit him. 2 Application Blank: An application blank is a traditional. It is a good means of quickly collecting verifiable basic historical data from the candidate. It serves as a excellent qualifying criteria and in jobs that are dependent on a skill or a specific competency it is very useful. In many instances it is a over-telephone / short face-to-face interview conducted at a desk. The interview consists of interaction between interviewer and applicant. Most of the larger companies that can afford to have a more detailed and accurate selection procedure do utilize some form of employment testing. but places greater reliance upon the interview. work experience. It also is a excellent document to share with the manager and with the interviewers and is a useful device for storing information for. It involves minimum of effort and time/money. This method saves the company‟s time and money. Many firms do not bother to initiate any paperwork at this early stage. 4 Skill & Psychological Tests: The next step in the procedures outlined above is that of testing. The facts and impressions collected are of the type generally obtained in an initial interview. If handled properly. the more likely it is that a preliminary interview will be required. later reference. references etc. and by using a reference form. This initial interview is usually quite short and has as its object the elimination of the obviously unqualified. This enables the recruiter to qualify the candidate to the next level in the selection process and is used extensively subsequently during the selection process. However. Preliminary interview: These interviews are preliminary screening of applicants to decide whether a more detailed interview will be worthwhile. widely accepted template for getting information from a prospective applicant. Organizations aware of the challenges of using interviews have come up with a variety of ways to overcome the subjectivity. 5 Interviewing: Interviewing is probably the most widely used single method of selection. and occasionally in person.

we should now be of the opinion that a candidate who has successfully completed all steps so far should be hired. expansion in new countries etc… 2. 3. The most important advantage of the stress interview is that helps to demonstrate important personality characteristics which would be difficult to observe in tension-free situations. JV‟s. focus on the division the employee/s is/are joining . It is an excellent method for executive selection. Common objectives of an Induction program can be listed as covering: 1. structure of the teams/divisions. its structure. certain factors lead to accurate predictions of the candidate‟s suitability for a particular position. the emphasis tends to be more on formal qualifications and general suitability. health interest.2. Patterned interview: Patterned interviews are a combination of direct and indirect questioning of the applicant. The factors are: (1) basic character traits. academic qualifications. McCurry and others. The second objective of the examination is to protect the company against unwarranted claims under workers‟ compensation laws. 6. Organizations could have induction programs of duration of 1-3 days and even up to 1/3/6 months. acquisitions. it serves to ascertain the applicant‟s physical capabilities. Approval by the Manager: Following the outlined procedure. The interviewer has certain clues and guidelines to areas which should be probed deeply and the interview also encourages the candidate to express the relevant information freely. or against lawsuits for damages. When the manager takes over. hierarchy of the top and the senior management. the emphasis tends to switch toward more specifically job oriented worker characteristics such as training and relevant past experience. And the final objective is to prevent communicable diseases from entering the organization. 8 Induction: Induction is concerned with introducing or orienting a new employee to the organization. First. performed by qualified human resources. to keeping silent for an extended period of time. and hence this yields to statistical analysis. In executing the recruitment unit screening functions. Organization Vision / Mission and Objectives statement. One advantage of a patterned interview is that systematic and chronological information is obtained. stress-inducing must be done carefully by trained and skilled interviewers. Medical Examination: The medical examination is an employment step found in most businesses. 4. the interviewer should evaluate the candidate on the basis of practical experience. (2) motivation. its hero‟s and important stories in the life of the firm so far like mergers. In the selection procedure the physical examination has at least three basic objectives.N. 7. According to R. and (3) emotional maturity. Overview of the organization. and hobbies. It can vary from a very comprehensive examination and matching of an applicant‟s physical capabilities to job requirements to a simple check of general physical appearance and well-being. its history. Depth interview: Depth interviews cover the complete life history of the applicant and include such areas as the candidate‟s work experience. However. After the patterned interview is complete. Methods used to induce stress range from frequent interruptions and criticism of an applicant‟s opinion. Stress interview: Stress interviews are deliberate attempts to create pressure to observe how an applicant performs under stress.

Human Resource Planning is not only done by organizations and corporate bodies.P should have the way for an effective motivational process. an estimation of the organsation‟s human resource needs is reduced to more success work. 4. developing and controlling by which a firm course that it has the right number of people and right kind of people at the right places at the right time doing work for which they are economically most useful. Overview of the HR policies and processes and introduction to the Facilities team. proper orientation can do much to reduce this problem and its accompanying costs. change in technology has attached more importance to knowledge and skills resulting in surplus manpower in some areas and shortage in other areas. 2. Planning defines future manpower needs and this becomes the basis or recreating and developing personal 2. Q. The characteristic of according to this company is that (HRP): They are: 1. 4. The business objective is to sell mobile phones. H. H. Human resource plan most incorporate the human resource needs in the light of organisational goals. H. HR planning is a highly important and useful activity without clear cut planning. Handover to the manager and induction at a team level on specificities related to the job and its responsibilities. which covers all important steps needed for HRP. Employees can be trained. IT team and other relevant teams per the location of joining. HR planning helps in creating balance in such a situation.7000. doing work for which they are economically most useful. Range of handset = 1200 Range of handset = 7000 Human Resource planning is the predetermination of the future course of actioin chosen from a number of alternatives.R because of increased emphasis on knowledge. recruitment costs have also increased. They need to submit a human resource plan to their investors. It is a prevalent practice at different levels: . 4. HR planning is the processes including forecasting. Jobs are becoming more and more knowledge oriented.R.1200 to Rs. A company is being set p by a group of 3 professionals. The business objective is to sell mobile phones of a Chinese company which has come up with an inexpensive range of handset ranging from Rs.R.R.3 A company is being set up by a group of 3 professionals. In as much as various firms report that over half of their voluntary resignations occur within the first 6 months.3. motivated and developed in advance and this helps in meeting future needs for high quality employee 3. 1.P must ensure that it has the right number of people and the the right kind of people at the right time. Organizations also build processes by which the new employee provides feedback on the on boarding experience and use this information to improve the Induction process. plan must be directed towards well defined objectives 3. A human resource plan should take into account the principle of periodical reconsideration of new development and extending the plan to cover the charges during the given long period. Explain the process of Human Resource Planning system for this company. 5. This has resulted in a changed profile of H.

expansion plans. such as: a) The challenges of the general economic business cycles have an influence on the shortrange and long-run plans of all organizations.e. competitor strategy. B. it is generally done by the Government and covers items like population projections. Estimating/Forecasting the future Manpower Requirements: the first step in the process is to arrive at the desired organizational structure at a given point in time. such as engineering. These are inflation. industrial and service sector. costs and raw material supplies. Human Resource Planning System The steps in the HRP process is a systematic set of activities carried out in a chronological manner. C. changes in the quantity or quality of products or services require a change in the organization structure.i) At the country’s national level. Skills inventory are also referred to as competency dictionaries. it would relate to the planning of manpower needs for each department and for various types of personnel. and a re-allocation of facilities. Mapping this structure with the existing structure helps in identifying the gap in resources requirement. Each step needs to be evaluated and debated with all possible information gathered from the external as well as internal environment. This step also includes an analysis of the external labour/talent environment. A skills inventory contains data about each employee‟s skills. d) The use of new technology (such as the introduction of automatic controls. A. for one year). programme for economic development. heavy industries. public utility industries. industrial and geographical mobility of employable people. the next step is to determine the present supply of manpower resources. e) Very often. or the mechanization of materials handling functions) requiring a change in the skills of workers. Forecasting provides the basic premises on which manpower planning is done. iv) At the level of the individual organization/ unit. c) Changes in management philosophies and top management leadership styles. its demographics. Plans have to be made for this purpose as well. prices. in addition to management philosophy and government policies. etc. ii) At the state level. it may be done by the state government and would include manpower planning for the needs of the agricultural. abilities. This information is . as well as a change in the number of employees needed. all of which call for adequate advance planning of human resources. This is done through what is called "Skills Inventory". And this is done with the clear objective of maximizing the future return on investment in human resources. demand/supply of the required talent. product/skills mix changes. consumer goods industries. and cost considerations. basic and advanced educational infrastructure and opportunities. Forecasting is necessary for various reasons. And this objective may be laid down for a short-term (i. wages. work preferences and other items of information which indicate his worth to the company. occupational distribution across urban and rural areas. profit/revenue growth projections. The number and type of employees needed have to be determined. Auditing Human Resources: Once the future human resource needs are estimated. it would include manpower needs forecast for specific industries. iii) At the specific industry level. Purpose of Human Resource Planning: Human Resource Planning fulfils individual as well as organizational goals. They include business forecasts. b) An expansion / growth initiative might need the business to use additional machinery and personnel. What it essentially amounts to is “striking a balance” between the future human resources needs and the future enterprise needs. In addition to the structure there are a number of external factors that affect this determination.

Assessment of Training Requirement: Given the investment that organizations make in training it is critical for organizations to ensure that the money is rightly spent. planning for redeployment / reduction in workforce as required  Succession planning for key positions in the company Q. E. Job analysis includes the preparation of job descriptions and job specifications. These long-term objectives are then broken down into specific strategies and short-term goals for each of the units/departments. . etc. External sourcing  Planning for new skills through training existing staff vs. D. This step in the HRP system helps identify the existing profile of the manpower and its efficiency. Short-term goals are constantly in need of adaptation to the changing environment.4 Explain Thayer and McGhee ‘Assessment of training requirement’ model. It helps highlight where the organization is vs. Diversification of product lines. The model we shall examine here is the Thayer and McGhee model. where it ought to be. It involves a detailed analysis of the organization structure. Organization analysis 2. In an organization. and an understanding of its culture.usually retained as part of the performance management system with the HR department. abilities. which consists in finding out the sources of labour supply with a view to making an effective use of these sources. Some important considerations at this point are: F: Specific roles/disciplines being hired for. Job Analysis: After having decided how many persons would be needed. of them which roles are pivotal for the business  Competencies and capabilities needed  Manager vs. human resources and future business plans. objectives. experience and responsibilities. new technology. including induction training for new hire‟s. it is necessary to prepare a job analysis. as needed for a job are studied. Training needs consider both the organization‟s demands and that of the individual‟s. It is based on the following three factors: 1. The first step in organization analysis is establishing a clear understanding of both short-run and long-run business and people goals. both external and internal. or training necessitated by job rotation due to an organization‟s internal mobility policies are examples of individual need based training. hiring new teams  In case of surpluses. The recorded details of training. The step concludes with identifying clear gaps in the skills / manpower mix required to meet the upcoming business objectives. Developing a Human Resource Plan: This step refers to the development and implementation of the human resource plan. skills. and hence a new kind of job. employee hiring  Hire internally vs. Task analysis 3. or a shift in organizational culture or ways of conducting business are common organizational needs that cover most employees in the company. the cumulative effect of all these would ultimately lead to the long-term goal. Long-term objectives are the broad directions in which the organizations would move over a long duration. On the other hand demands that pertain to individual‟s growth and development. Individual analysis 1 Organization Analysis: Total Organization Analysis is a systematic effort to understand exactly where training effort needs to be emphasized in an organization. qualification.

then it is possible to know whether the job is being performed at the desired level of output or not. Task analysis entails not merely a simple listing of the various job components. 2. Job standards must also be worked out. the exact components of the job and the standard of performance must be known. more precise industrial-engineering techniques. The focus in task analysis . Job performance. (2) that employee performance is up to the required standard. knowledge and attitudes an employee should have. Job observation. 4. 3. not only will inter-related jobs suffer. In fact. qualifications. like time and motion studies. and (3) that the working environment in their units/departments is conducive to fulfilment of tasks. its components. Methods: If an employee is asked to perform a job. Conventional methods of job analysis are usually suitable for task analysis. or ratios such a productivity ratios. replacements and training time required for replacements have to be worked out. In order to ensure the first two requirements a human resource inventory needs to be made. in terms of undermanning or over-manning. and so will the expectations that have been set for that particular job itself. cost per unit etc. If the standards set for the performance of a job are known. but organizational viability will be affected. procedures. can be worked out to determine not only efficiency but also adequacy. and job performance data analysis could be employed. Data regarding positions. and high or low morale. It would be better to make a careful analysis and study each indicator in a particular situation in conjunction with more direct methods like attitude surveys. there are three essential requirements: (1) an adequate number of employees available to ensure fulfilment of the business operation. The focus here is on the "task" itself and the training required to perform it. use of questionnaires. For blue-collar employees. Analysis of the job and its various components will indicate the skills and training required to perform the job at the required standard. of the workforce. Direct methods are observation. could be used. work sampling observation. rather than on the individual. Standard of Performance: Every job has an expected standard of performance (SOP). factors such as low absenteeism and low turnover are not by themselves indicators of positive or negative attitudes. is the diagnosis of the state of the organization "climate" or “culture”. In analyzing the organization climate. Various efficiency and productivity indexes. An important dimension of organizational need-based analysis. and training inputs could be used to effect changes of attitude and consequently of the organizational climate. systems and methods all contribute to the making of the environment. They are: 1. and for white-collar employees. and interviews. Reliance or indirect methods would not give a clear understanding of the attitudes and predispositions of employees. its various operations and the conditions under which it has to be performed. they result from the person‟s experience both within and outside the organization. 2. Literature review regarding the job. but also of the various sub-tasks. While rules. Data Collection regarding job interviews. These attitudes are learnt. Managers and company procedures. much of it is also determined by the attitude that the "people" have in the organization-for instance. vacancies. Task Analysis: This activity entails a detailed examination of each job. both direct and indirect methods could be used. Analysis and interpretation of the data may give clear clues not only to attitudinal training needs but possibly also to kill training needs. the attitude that top management has towards its subordinate staff and the attitudes that members have towards work. Knowledge of the "task" will help in understanding what skills. Unless such standards are attained.For an organization analysis. interviews.

and finally attitudinal pre-dispositions such as the attitudes. 3 Individual Analysis: Individual analysis is the third component in identifying training needs. (4) personnel records. wastage. examination of job schedules. Clues to training needs can also come from an analysis of an individual‟s or a group‟s typical behaviour. committees of top managers‟ work together to identify high potential candidates within their team and then out-line developmental activities for them. skills and training gaps. work sampling and diagnostic psychological tests also provide information about employees. (3) comparative studies of good vs. The common source for this needs analysis usually forms parts of the performance assessment process. his abilities.5 Write short notes on:  Succession Planning  Career Planning Succession Planning: Succession planning involves having senior executives periodically review their top executives and those in the next-lower level to determine several backups for each senior or key position in the firm. quantum of spoilage. Over the years succession planning has established itself as a key HR activity in most organizations with formal processes that ensure it is reviewed regularly and scientifically. This exercise is carried out by the senior management team of the unit/subsidiary and facilitated by the HR team. poor employees. and (6) review of literature regarding the job and machines used. It takes years of grooming to develop effective senior managers and this is a talent challenge that all organizations face today. to perform the job. The primary sources of such information are: (1) Observation at place or work. It includes positions that are critical for the business and for its continuity and not just the senior level positions. and the inputs required for job performance. This information is then utilised to establish the training programme for the employee. Succession planning involves an examination of strategic (long-range) plans and HR forecasts for all identified key positions in an organizations. They may also include a formal assessment of the performance and potential of candidates and written individual development plans for candidates. to identify differences. It helps identify the skill required.approach to identifying training needs is with the clear objective of enhancing the performance standard of a given task. (5) production reports. towards safety. The objective is to identify employees with potential and increase managerial depth as well as promoting from within the company. This is usually an exercise undertaken one a year and usually runs parallel to the performance appraisal process. and clues about interpersonal relations of the employees. knowledge. (2) interviews with superiors and employees. Job-knowledge tests. or interpersonal competence that will ensure that the job is performed optimally. Usually. The focus of individual analysis is on the individual employee. either in terms of education or training. . or individual growth and development in terms of career planning. Traditionally succession planning was restricted to senior-level management positions and this was either an informal or formal process. It includes a review of the data on all potential candidates who might be able to move to these positions either right-away or in the near future. In smaller organizations it is yet an informal succession planning process where the individual manager identifies and grooms his or her own successor. Q.

opportunities and constraints. Helps plan for internal promotion opportunity 9. Regardless of what type of succession planning program is used (formal or informal). A succession planning exercise concludes with an organization chart of all key positions with listing of possible potential candidates and the readiness rating for each potential candidate. Career planning is a deliberate attempt by an individual to become more aware of their skills. It requires an individual thinking to identify career-related goals and establishing plans towards achieving those goals. Provides scientific approach for arriving at succession decisions as part of the overall human resource planning exercise – connecting formats (data. values. whereby the thereafter the manager/HR can engage with them for leadership development initiatives. analyses) 8.All member‟s voice opinions about the potential candidates that are proposed and disagreements are openly debated. Bring focus to systematized succession a plan that scientifically identifies potential candidates to ensure business continuity. interests. and · How organizations design and implement their career development programs (career management). perceived credibility. timing) with process (judgement. Enables the identification of high potential and future leaders. most successful programs obtain the support of top management. 7. Reduces randomness of managerial movements. These development plans then translate into the individual‟s development plan and HR along with the immediate manager work with the individual to execute the same. and individual development plans and management development programs. Other components include performance appraisal of these employees. 2. discussions. before the final document is signed off. Provides early warning if succession does not exist for a position allowing for lateral hiring from the market. Often it is a selfdriven process. 6. Provides a more systematic basis to judge the risk of making particular succession and developmental moves. Career Planning: A broad view of career is defined as an “individually perceived sequence of attitudes and behaviour work-related activities and experiences over the span of a person‟s life. Helps anticipate problems before they get started – and thereby avoid dysfunctional situations. The dynamics of career development in an organizational context has two dimensions: · How individuals plan and implement their own career goals (career planning). For example a position that can immediately be filled is rated higher than a position which does not have a ready-now candidate. area of expertise and career paths and values and attitudes. which every professional (irrespective of the nature of employment) spends . An internal focus and refers to the way an individual views his/her career and the external or objective focus and refers to the actual series of job positions held by the individual. 3. The succession planning process includes determining and clarifying the requirements of the managerial position and development plans for how these potential candidates can be groomed to occupy these positions in the eventuality they fall vacant. Benefits: There are many benefits of having a formal Succession Planning System: 1. 5. past positions or prior employment. Provides a clear context to strategic business planning as the key positions for the business‟s success are what are being planned for. the factors rated as most important in selecting specific internal/external potential candidates for grooming includes: past job performance.” In normal parlance the term career has both an internal and an external focus. Additionally. 4.

implementing and monitoring career plans undertaken by an individual alone or within the organizations career systems. Certain organizations offer Psychological Testing instruments which profile the employee‟s strengths and roles and responsibilities he / she will best fit into. 5. Jobs with similar skills and experiences are clubbed together to create parallel career paths. This is supported with a lot of training and development activities that are agreed to with the manager and planned carefully and executed. In general the most effective career development programs will use both types of activities. It is also viewed from time to time that the individual looks for possible new career options.these are usually technology enabled on-line (on the corporate intranet) tools that form part of the performance appraisal system and allow the individual to identify areas of strengths and parallelly identify career paths that would leverage these strengths the best. Information Services: organizations have established policies on what skills and experiences that each job in the organization requires. The Assessment Centres. Self assessment tools:. and employee orientation program). Career Workshops hosted by the organizations from time to time. in-house training. Anticipatory socialization programs. 4. HR managers should be familiar with these components because the managers often serve as internal consultants responsible for designing the career development systems. Often managers recommend relevant other managers and leaders who the employee can link with to seek advice and support. Organizational Assessment programs : organizations can proactively establish formal processes wherein an employee can volunteer to participate and understand himself/herself and his/her strengths. So he can achieve his career plans. realistic recruitment. . Some of the activities described are individual career planning tools and others are commonly used for organizational career management. Some of the more popular ones include: 1.formally the process allows for individuals to discuss this as part of the performance management process with their immediate managers and share and take feedback on the appropriateness of the choices and how to go about pursuing it. Developmental programs focus the effort of the employee towards helping the employee to achieve his career goals. Initial employment Programs Organizations also run internship and apprenticeship programs wherein the individuals aspiring to do a particular job can spend some time as a temporary employee to explore interest and skill fitment for the job/role. Organizations establish policies that provide for multiple career path options that an employee can choose from and pursue. A variety of career development activities and tools exists for use in organizations. Career management is considered to be an organizational process that involves preparing. 2. Having a career plan builds a commitment towards achieving it and is viewed as an excellent personal goalsetting exercise for self motivation. (e. it is important that employees develop and individualised career plan. Career Planning Workbooks. g.g. E. 3. all prove effective tools to help the individual along. Through the use of Assessment Centres organizations can help an employee identify areas for improvement and means of building those skills. tuition refund plans. Job rotation programs. and mentoring. A variety of career development activates are available for use. For example Raychem requires every person to have a learning or development plan. Organizations also provide for formal „mentoring programs‟ to which an employee can enrol and sign up a mentor who can then provide the support and counselling on the best career option and how to go about it achieving it. Individual Counselling:. 6.some time to dwell on and discuss it with peers or superiors and frame it. No matter what tools are used for career development.

In forced choice. Discuss Individual evaluation methods used for performance appraisal. outstanding may be assigned a score of 4 and unsatisfactory a score of 0. three-. such as a graphic rating scale. These objectives are popularly called by the following names: . or four-statement items are grouped in a way that the evaluator cannot easily judge which statements apply to the most effective employee. the Manager and employee to be evaluated jointly set objectives/targets in advance for the employee to try to achieve during a specified period. or a combination of these in evaluating employees. and they are summed into an effectiveness index. Essay evaluation: In the essay technique of evaluation. Typically. the can either be open ended or as in most cases there are guidelines on the topics to be covered. And usually the objectives framed are of quantitative nature. they determine which statements describe effective and ineffective behaviour. the evaluator must choose from a set of descriptive statements about the employee. The HR Department adds up the number of statements in each category (for example. In this system. and so on. Forced choice can be used by superiors. Management by objectives: one of the most popular individual evaluation methods in use today is Management by Objectives (MBO). Evaluators are often asked to provide supporting comments for each rating in a sentence or two. In very few organizations. the essay is combined with another form. 4 or 5 or even 10 point rating scale). The essay method can be used by evaluators who are superiors. MBO is a very common industry practice. In this technique. Here the employee is evaluated one at a time without directly comparing him/her with other employees. subordinates. which made promotion decisions difficult. peers. It aims to measure the quality of performance and ability to do the present job. Graphic rating scale: The most widely used performance rating technique is a graphic rating scale (eg. Total scores are then computed. these ratings are then assigned points. For example. that is. or they can be on a continuous scale (0-9) or so. Forced choice: The forced-choice method of evaluation was developed because other methods used at the time led to a preponderance of higher ratings. Typically. The ratings can be in a series of boxes. The essay summarizes and elaborates on some of the ratings. Wherever it is used the essay. the essay technique is the only one used. At the beginning of the year clear objectives are laid down for achievement during the course of the year.Q. The two-. It is not a very popular method in the industry. the purpose of the essay. the evaluator places a check above descriptive words ranging from none to maximum. a 3. The Manager then evaluates the employee. effective behaviour). peers. and Managers or other HR specialists rate the items for applicability. HR specialists/consultants prepare the items for the form. or discusses added dimensions which are not captured by the scale. the evaluator is asked to describe the strong and weak aspects of the employee‟s behaviour. In the latter case. the evaluator is presented with a list of assessment characteristics and asked to assign a number rating to the employee on each of the characteristics listed.6. Individual evaluation Methods: There exists five ways to evaluate an employee individually. or subordinates of the employee to be evaluated. In some plans. in others. The number of characteristics might vary from a few to several dozen. greater weights may be assigned to more important traits.

again keeping in mind the SMART framework. Results oriented and Time bound. which vary with the job. peers. The evaluation too is a joint review of the degree of achievement of the objectives. If the manager believes that the employee possesses the trait listed. This approach combines the manager and self-evaluation systems. KRA-key result areas 2. Checklists and weighted checklists can be used by evaluators who are superiors. Behaviourally anchored rating scales: the most prevalent technique which is a variation of the critical incident approach is the behaviourally anchored rating scale (BARS). This log is used to evaluate the employee at the end of the period. A recent variation is the weighted checklist. In case of a new employee or someone moving jobs/assignments between teams. Thereafter the objectives are broken up into half yearly. These are the critical incidents. At the end of the review year. The manager can be specific in making positive and negative comments. MBO is one of the most effective methods for performance review primarily because it is identified at the beginning of the review period and is regularly reviewed for achievements and modified on-going again in consensus between the employee and the manager. The HR specialists combine these statements into categories. and it avoids “recency” bias. In its simplest form. The manager maintains a log for each employee right through the evaluation period. after about 6-8 weeks of being in the job this process is undertaken and the objectives are set. Commitments These objectives are designed using the SMART framework as in… Specific. Measurable. and they check the items that apply. Critical incident technique: In this technique. the checklist is a set of objectives or descriptive statements. . or by a combination. When there is reasonable agreement on an item (for example. All objectives must conform to this framework. when the standard deviation is small). or subordinates. it is included in the weighted checklist. Checklists and weighted checklists: Another type of individual evaluation method is the checklist. HR specialists and operating managers prepare lists of statements of very effective and very ineffective behaviour for an employee.1. This technique is also called the behavioural expectation scale (BES). Judges who have observed behaviour on the job sort the statements into the ones describing behaviour that is scaled from excellent to poor (usually on a 7-11 scale). as with an un-weighted checklist. quarterly and maybe monthly objectives. Once the categories are developed the statements of effective and ineffective behaviour are provided to the managers. if not it is left blank. similar to the critical incident process. The weight is the average score of the Raters to the checklist‟s use. KPA -key performance areas 3. The employee‟s evaluation is the sum of the scores (weights) on the items checked. the MBO‟s are reviewed for completion with the SMART framework. Targets 4. The Managers or other Raters receive the checklists without the scores. A rating score from the checklist equals the number of checks. The manager "records” examples of critical (outstandingly good or bad) behaviours in each of the categories. The critical incident technique is normally to be used by superiors than in peer or subordinate evaluations. Achievable. Managers or HR specialists familiar with the jobs to be evaluated prepare a large list of descriptive statements about effective and ineffective behaviour on jobs. All along the process both the employee and the manger are in consensus of the objectives and the timelines as well as the deliverables. the manager checks the items.

These items are then used to construct the BARS. The items are once again evaluated by managers (often other than those who submitted the items). hopefully around 1. The final output is a set of statements for each item from among which the manager chooses the most appropriate one for the employee based on his/her performance.5 on a 7-point scale. A procedure similar to that for weighted checklists is used to verify the evaluations (outstandingly good. and HR specialists/consultants group these into categories (five to ten is typical). for example) with the smallest standard deviation. .Managers give descriptions of actually good and bad performance.

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