A long memory process has self-similarity or scale-invariant properties in low frequencies. We prove that the log of the scale-dependent wavelet variance for a long memory process is asymptotically proportional to scales by using the Taylor expansion of wavelet variances.

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A long memory process has self-similarity or scale-invariant properties in low frequencies. We prove that the log of the scale-dependent wavelet variance for a long memory process is asymptotically proportional to scales by using the Taylor expansion of wavelet variances.

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Special Lab Non-Invasive Brain Imaging, Leibniz Institute for Neurobiology, Magdeburg, Germany you@ifn-magdeburg.de 2 Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Instrumentation, Wroclaw University of Technology, Wroclaw, Poland wojciech.kordecki@pwr.wroc.pl

1

Abstract. A long memory process has self-similarity or scale-invariant properties in low frequencies. We prove that the log of the scale-dependent wavelet variance for a long memory process is asymptotically proportional to scales by using the Taylor expansion of wavelet variances. Keywords: long memory process, Taylor expansion

Introduction

Many natural phenomena have shown self-similarity or fractal properties in diverse areas. It is well known that time series in neuroimaging such as electroencephalogram, magnetoencephalogram, and functional MRI have fractal properties [1, 2]. Most of fractal time series can be well modeled as long memory processes. A long memory process generally has scale-invariant properties in low frequencies; for example, the scale-dependent wavelet variance has asymptotically power law relationship in low-frequency scales, which implies its fractal property [4]. Such a property also has been demonstrated by Achard et al. [3] by exploiting the Taylor expansion of wavelet variances; regrettably, they did not provide the detailed proof. Here, we show the detailed procedure of Achard et al.s proof.

A long memory process can be dened as follows as suggested by Moulines et al. [4]; that is, a real-valued discrete process X := {X(t)}t=1, ,N is said to have long memory if it is covariance stationary and have the spectral density SX (f ) = 1 eif

2d SX (f )

(1)

for 0 < d < 1/2 where SX (f ) is a non-negative symmetric function and is bounded on (, ).

Theorem 1. Let Wj,k is the wavelet coecient of the time series X at the j-th scale and the k-th location, and let Hj (f ) be the squared gain function of the wavelet lter such that { j 2 for 2/2j+1 |f | 2/2j Hj (f ) . (2) 0 otherwise Then, (j) := Var (Wj,t ) satises (j) = 2

Hj (f )SX (f )df.

(3)

Achard et al. [3] made its Taylor expansion to estimate the long memory parameter of X as shown in the corollary 1. We give the detailed proof of the corollary 1. ( ) Corollary 1. Let SX (f ) = 1 + f 2 + o f 2 . Then, (j) = 22j+1 where ( )) ( 1 1 Re (S(f )) df = K22dj 1 + a2 2j + o 2 22j 2/2j+1

2/2j

(4)

1 1/212d 22d (2) , 1 2d ) ( )( 1 1/232d / (3 2d) d 2 a2 = (2) + . 12 (1 1/212d ) / (1 2d) K=2 ( )2(1d) ( ) f + o f3 . 2

(5) (6)

2d

(f /2) = (f /2)

2d

2d + 6

(7)

2d

(( ) ( )2(1d) ) 2d ( ( )) f 2d f + 1 + f 2 + o f 2 . 2 6 2

(8)

Let us dene four integrals: ( ) ( )2d 22d 2 2j(2d1) f I1 := df = := A1 2j(2d1) , 2 (2d 1) 2d 2/2j+1

2/2j

(9)

( ) ( )2d 3 22d 8 2j(2d3) f 2 I2 := , f df = 2 (2d 3) 2d 2/2j+1 ( ) 2/2j ( )2(1d) 3 22d 8 2j(2d3) f I3 := , df = 2 4 (2d 3) 2d 2/2j+1

2/2j

(10)

(11)

( ) ( )2(1d) 5 22d 32 2j(2d5) f 2 I4 := := A4 2j(2d5) . f df = 2 4 (2d 5) 2d 2/2j+1 a+f 2 Since if h (f ) 0 for f 0 then a h (f ) df = o((f ) ),

2/2j

(12)

2/2j

(13)

I6 :=

2/2j

(14)

2/2j+1 2/2j

(j) = 2j+2(1d)

[(

where a2 := ( + d/12) M12 ) ( )( 1 1/232d / (3 2d) d 2 = (2) + . 12 (1 1/212d ) / (1 2d) Then, we can have

where K := A1 22(1d) = 2

(16)

In the corollary (1), as the scale j increases, the wavelet variance (j) converges; in other words, (j) K22dj . (17) It implies that we can simply estimate the long memory parameter d by linear regression method if we have the estimates of wavelet variances.

Discussion

We veried Achard et al.s proof on asymptotic properties of wavelet variances of a long memory process. Unfortunately, Achard et al.s Taylor expansion of wavelet variance is not perfectly consistent with our result; while K = 12d 12d 22d 12d 2 11/2 (2) in our result, they computed as K = 2 11/2 (2) . 12d 12d On the other hand, the assumption on short memory such that SX (f ) = ( ) 1 + f 2 + o f 2 loses generality of their proof since there exist more general classes of short memory; indeed, Moulines et al. proved that the asymptotics of wavelet variances hold when the short memory SX (f ) belongs to the function set H (, L) dened as the set of even non-negative functions g on [1/2, 1/2] such that |g(f ) g(0)| Lg(0) |2f | . (18) Nevertheless, their method is relatively simpler than other mathematical proofs. Moreover, we will be able to apply their method to investigate the asymptotic properties of multivariate long memory processes as Achard et al. already attempted for bivariate long memory processes [3].

References

1. E. Bullmore, J. Fadili, V. Maxim, L. Sendur, B. Whitcher, J. Suckling, et al., Wavelets and functional magnetic resonance imaging of the human brain., NeuroImage. 23 Suppl 1 (2004) S23449. 2. V. Maxim, L. Sendur, J. Fadili, J. Suckling, R. Gould, R. Howard, et al., Fractional Gaussian noise, functional MRI and Alzheimers disease, NeuroImage. 25 (2005) 141158. 3. S. Achard, D.S. Bassett, A. Meyer-Lindenberg, E. Bullmore, Fractal connectivity of long-memory networks, Physical Review E. 77 (2008) 112. 4. E. Moulines, F. Roue, M. Taqqu, On the Spectral Density of the Wavelet Coefcients of Long-Memory Time Series with Application to the Log-Regression Estimation of the Memory Parameter, Journal Of Time Series Analysis. 28 (2007) 155187. 5. D.B. Percival, A.T. Walden, Wavelet methods for time series analysis, Cambridge University Press, 2000.

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