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ResumodetodoumcursodeIngls PresentSimple Positive I You We They He She It Question Do I you we they work? Does he she it Verbexample work.

I You We They He She It Negative dont(donot) Verbexample

work. doesnt(does not)

works.

Verbexample Yes, No, Yes, No,

Shortanswer do. I you dont. we they does. he she doesnt. it

Use Longtermsituations Habitsandroutines Feelingsandopinions Facts

Examples IliveinMadrid. Wheredoesshework? Itraveltoworkbycar. Howoftendoyouplaygolf? Shedoesntlikeherwork. Iagreewithyou. Thejourneytakes30minutes. Itcosts$15.

Questionwords Wher e doyoulive? What doyoudoatweekends? When dotheytaketheirholiday? WhichmagazinedoesJameswritefor? How doyoutraveltowork? Howoften doyoumakebusinesstrips? Whose bookisthis? Who(*Whom)doyouvisitinLondon? Whoarrivesatworkfirst? InRome. Iusuallyplaygolf. InJulyorAugust. WineandDine. Bycar. Abouttwiceamonth. Itsmine. Ivisitmysister. Annadoes.

*Whomisveryformal,andisnotusedveryoften.

ResumodetodoumcursodeIngls PresentContinuous Positive I He She It You We They m(am) s(is) working. re(are) Verbexample I He She It You We They Yes, No, Yes, No, Yes, No, Negative mnot(am not) isnt(isnot) working. arent(arenot) Verb example

Am Is

Are

Positive I he she it you we they

Verbexample

working?

Shortanswer am. I mnot. is. he she isnt. it you are. we arent. they

Use Actionshappeningnow Temporarysituationsoractions

Examples Hestalkingonthephoneatthemoment. Theyrehavinglunchwithacustomer. Jeansaresellingwellthisseason. Imnottravellingonbusinessthismonth. Whichhotelareyoustayingat?

A dictionary tells you when the final consonant doubles (travel, travelling), and whenweleaveoutthefinale(make,making). PastSimple Positive I You He She It We They Question I You He She It We They Negative I You He She It We They

started rang*

yesterday

didnt(did Start not) ring*

yesterday.

Did

Shortanswer I Yes, You He startring* yesterday? She It No, We They

did.

didnt.

ResumodetodoumcursodeIngls * Seethelistofirregularverbsonpage16. Use Finishedsituationsandactionsinthepast Examples IlivedinRomefortwoyears. HeflewtoAmericalastweek. Theydidntcometotheparty. Wheredidyouspendyourlastholiday?

WeoftenusethePastSimplewith finishedtimephraseslike yesterday, lastweek, anhourago. Regular verbs in the Past Simple end in ed. A dictionary tells you when the consonantdoubles(Group3),andwhenthe ychangestoI(Group4). Group1 Group2 Group3 Group4 Work worked Live lived Stop stopped Study studied Play played Smile smiled Travel travelled Worry worried Wait waited Close closed Plan planned Try tried

Whentheinfinitiveendsina/d/ora/t/sound,wepronouncetheedendingas/ id/ SeeGrammartimelinesonpage36. Comparativeandsuper lativeadjectives Form One syllable Two syllables Endingin y Twoor mor e syllables Ir regular Adjectives Adjective long few hot easy happy famous crowded expensive good bad much/many little far Comparative longer fewer hotter easier happier more Super lative the longest fewest hottest easiest happiest famous crowded expensive best worst most least farthest/furthest

the

famous crowded themost expensive better worse more the less farther/further

ResumodetodoumcursodeIngls Use Weuse than afteracomparativeadjective. Muchcancomebeforethecomparativeto addemphasis. Weusethebeforeasuperlativeadjective. Asasshowssomethingisthesameor equal. Notasasshowssomethingisntthe sameorequal. Examples LondonisbiggerthanParis. Heismuchyoungerthanhisbrother. TokyoismuchmoreexpensivethanRome. CamaryWharfisthetallestbuildingin London. GreeceisassunnyasSpain. Iamashappyasyouare. ItalyisntasbigasFrance.

One syllable adjectives ending with one vowel and a consonant double the consonant: Adjective Big Fat Comparative Bigger Fatter Superlative Biggest fattest

Thisdoesnthappenwhentheconsonantiswor y: Adjective New Grey MassandCountnouns Massnouns Use Massnounshavenopluralform. Wedonotuseaoranwiththem. Weusethemwithasingularverbform. Countnouns Use Countnounshaveasingularandpluralform. Weusethemwithaandan. Weusethemwithsingularandpluralverbforms. Somenounsarebothmassandcount. Mass/Countnouns Use Mass(generalmeaning) Count(specificmeaning) Examples Jameswritesaboutwine. Shehasalotofexperienceofthetravelindustry. HeswritingabookaboutthewinesofItaly. Ihadsomeamusingexperiencesonmylastholiday. Examples Thismachineisexpensive. Didyouhaveagoodtrip? Thesemachinesareexpensive. Examples Theywantsomeinformation. Idontlikemusic Thismachineryisexpensive. Comparative Newer Greyer Superlative Newest greyest

ResumodetodoumcursodeIngls some,any,alotof,much,many some Use Withmassandcountnounsinpositive sentences Inoffersandrequests any Use Withmassandcountnounsinnegative sentencesinquestions Examples Ididntbuyanyapples. Hedidntspendanymoney. Didtheygiveyouanyhelp? Doyouhaveanyquestions? Examples Iboughtsometea. Shemadesomeappointments. Wouldyoulikesomecoffee? CouldIhavesomeinformation?

alotof/lotsof Use Withmassandcountnounsinpositive sentences much Use Withmassnounsinnegativesentences, andinquestions many Use Withcountnounsinnegativesentences, andinquestions Inpositivesentences Examples Wehaventgotmanysuitcases. Shedidnthavemanymeetings. Howmanypeopledidyouinvite? Manypeopleareonholidaythisweek. Examples Wehaventgotmuchluggage. Idonthavemuchtime. Howmuchpaperdoyouneed? Examples Theresalotoftraffictoday. Therearealotofcarsinthecitycentre. Lotsofpeoplegojogginginthepark.

Inpositivesentences,alotof/lotsof ismorecommonthanmany. Wecanuse alotof/lotsofinnegativesentencesandinquestions. LotsofismostlyusedininformalspokenEnglish.

ResumodetodoumcursodeIngls PresentPer fectSimple Positive I You We They He She It ve(have) Verb examples Negative I You We They He She It havent (havenot) hasnt(has not) Verb examples

arrived. begun.

arrived. begun.

s(has)

Question I you we they he she it

Verb examples

Shortanswer Yes, I you we they he she it

Verb examples have. havent. has. hasnt.

Have

arrived? begun?

No, Yes, No,

Has

Use Finishedexperiencesinyourlifeupto now

Examples SheslivedinChinaandJapan. Heshadexperienceofmarketing HaveyoueverbeentoBrazil? Recentsituationsandactionsinatimeup Wevereducedprices. tonow Corporate business has increased significantly. Haveyouhadaholidaythisyear? Situationsthatstartedinthepastandstill Hesbeenanarchitectsince1992. continue Shes had a translation agency for ten years. Howlonghaveyouknownher? Pastactionsinatimeuptonowwherewe Shes designed a lot of fashion items for givethequantity Burberrys. Howmanylettershaveyouwritten? gonetoorbeento? AnnsgonetoNewYork,meansshesinNewYorknow,orshesonherwaythere. AnnsbeentoNewYork,meansshesnotinNewYorknow.Hervisitisover. contractedforms InspokenEnglish,weusuallysayIve,your e,hes,etc. Informal,writtenEnglishwenormallyuseI have,youhave,he has,etc. Forinformationonyet,just,already,seepage33. SeeGrammartimelinesonpage36.

ResumodetodoumcursodeIngls PresentPer fectContinuous Positive I You We They He She It Question Have I you we they he she it Negative I You We They He She It

ve(have) been working. s(has)

havent (havenot) hasnt(has not)

been working.

been working?

Has

Shortanswer Yes, I you we No, they Yes, he she No, it

have. havent. has. hasnt.

Use Actionsthatbeganinthepastand continuetothepresent Actionsthatbeganinthepastandhave juststopped

Examples Wevebeenproducingpenssincethe1980s. Hesbeenlivinghereforfiveyears. HowlonghaveyoubeenlearningEnglish? You look very tired. Have you been working? ImhotbecauseIvebeenrunning.

ThePresentPerfectContinuousandSimplearesimilarinmeaning.Theformweuse oftendependsonwhetherwearemoreinterestedintheactionoritsresult. Ivebeenfixingthecar.(Myhandsaredirty.) Ivefixedthecar.(NowIcandrivetowork.) WeusethePresentPerfectContinuoustosayhowlong. Theyvebeeninter viewingpeoplesince10a.m. Shesbeenwr itinglettersallmor ning. WeusethePresentPerfectSimpletosayhowmany. Theyveinter viewedninepeople.Sheswrittenfive letters. forandsince Use Withaperiodof time Examples Use For threedays, Withapointintime fivehours,amonth, tenminutes,ages Examples Since Tuesday, 8August,4oclock, lastsummer,1982...

ResumodetodoumcursodeIngls Futur e:goingto Positive I He She It You We They Negative I He She It You We They

m(am) s(is) goingto begin.

mnot(am not) isnt(isnot) arent(are not) goingto begin.

re(are)

Question Am Is I he she it you we they

Shortanswer Yes, I No, goingto begin? Yes, No, Yes, No, he she it you we they

am. mnot. is. isnt. are. arent.

Are

Use Futureplans,intentions,anddecisions Futureactionswefeelcertainabout becauseofwhatwecanseenow.

Examples Weregoingtobuyanewcarsoon. Whenareyougoingtohaveaholiday? Imnotgoingtohavelunchtoday. The skys very dark. Im sure its going to rain. Lookout!Thatcarsgoingtohityou!

Withcomeandgo,weusuallyusethePresentContinuous. Im goingonholidaysoon. Arethey coming bycaronSaturday? Futur e:Pr esentContinuous ForPresentContinuousformseepage02. Use Fixedfuturearrangements Examples ImflyingtoTokyoat10a.m.tomorrow. WhenisthePresidentarriving? Imnotplayinggolfthisweekend.

ResumodetodoumcursodeIngls Futur e:will Positive I You He She It We They Question I You He She It We They Verbexample Negative I You He arrive. She It We They Verbexample Shortanswer Yes, arrive? No, I You He She It We They Verbexample

ll(will)

wont (willnot)

arrive.

Verbexample will. wont(will not).

Will

Use Futurefactsandpredictions

Decisionsmadeatthetimeofspeaking

Examples Thenewhotelwillcost$10million. Theconstructionworkwontstartuntilnext year. Howmanyjobswilltherebe? Illgiveyouthereporttoday. Holdonaminute.Illwritedownyourphone number.

Zer oConditional If+PresentSimple+PresentSimple Positive IfIreadtoomuch,Igetaheadache Negative IfIdidntreadtoomuch,Ididntgeta headache.

Question Negative Yougetaheadacheifyoureadtoomuch? Yes,Iget. No,Idontget.

ResumodetodoumcursodeIngls
st 1 Conditional

If+PresentSimple+will+infinitive(withoutto) Positive Iftheyoffermethejob,Illacceptit. Wellhavealotofworkifwegetthe contract. Negative If you dont study more, youll fail your exam. Theywontvisitusiftheyreverybusy. If they dont leave now, they wont arrive ontime. Negative Yes,Iwill. No,hewont.

Question Willyoubuyanewcarifyouhavethemoney? Ifyouaskhim,willhetellyou? Whatwillhedoifhisplanearriveslate? Use Futurepossibilitiesandtheirresults

Examples If the proposal becomes a reality, it will revolutionizetraintravelinEurope. Iftheweatherisbad,thetrainwillarrivebefore theplane.

The if clausecan come beforeor after the main clause. When the if clause comes first,weusuallyputacommabetweenitandthemainclause. Ifthemeetingissuccessful,wellsignthecontract. Wellsignthecontractifthemeetingissuccessful. Forthingswearecertainwillhappen,we usewhennorif. WhenhereturnsfromtheUSA,hellcontactyou.(Weknowhewillreturn.) Wellleavewhenwefinishthework.(Weknowwewillfinishthework.)
nd 2 Conditional

If+PastSimple+would+infinitive(withoutto) Positive IfIhadmoretime,I'dtravelmore. He'dunderstandthereasonifyou explainedit. Negative If he didnt earn so much, he wouldn't spendsomuch. Iwouldn'tinvestinthatcompanyifIwere you. Negative Yes,Iwould. No,hewouldn't.

Question Wouldyoustopworkifyouwon$1million? Wouldheworkabroadifhegotthechance? Ifyouhadsixmonthsoffwork,howwouldyou spendthetime?

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ResumodetodoumcursodeIngls Use Unlikelyorunrealsituationsand theirprobableresults Examples If public transport were free, there would be fewercarsinthecitycentres. IfIweretheTransportMinister,Iwouldincrease petrolprices.

The if clausecan come beforeor after the main clause. Whenthe if clause comes first,weusuallyputacommabetweenitandthemainclause. IfIwonalotofmoney,I'dbuyaFerrari. I'dbuyaFerrariifIwonalotofmoney. WithI,he,andshe,wecanusewasinsteadofwereintheifclause,especiallyina moreinformalstyle. Ifitwaslessexpensive,hewouldbuyit. CouldisboththePastandtheConditionalofcan. WhenshelivedinParis,shecouldvisittheLouvreatanytime.(Past) Wecouldmake someofthemoneyifwechargedmotorists.(Conditional) ThePasttensedoesnotrefertopasttimeina conditionalsentence.Ifreferstoan unrealsituation. If Iwer etheTransportMinister...(butI'mnot).
rd 3 Conditional

If+PastPerfect+wouldhave+PastParticiple Positive IfIhadstudied,Iwouldhavepassedthe exam. Question Wouldyouhavepassedtheexamifyou hadstudied? Use Criticizingpeople,pointingouttheir mistakesorexpressingregretaboutthe past. Modalverbs Can Could May Might Shall Should Will would Must Mustn't Needn't Negative IfIhadknownthatdaywehadatest,I wouldnthavespentthenightdrinking. Negative Yes,Iwouldhave. No,Iwouldnthave. Examples IfIhadknown,Iwouldhavegonetovisit you.

Modalverbsaddextrameaningtothemainverb.

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ResumodetodoumcursodeIngls Use Necessity Prohibition Nonecessity Advice Examples Hemusthaveavisa. Hemustn'tleavewithoutpaying. Youneedn'tmakeanappointment. Youshouldalwaysbepunctual. Youshouldn't usefirstnames. Possibility Paperwork cantakealongtime. Yourhostmay inviteyoutohishome. I might belate.

Use Permission

Examples CanI useyourphone? Could Iinterruptyouforamoment? May Iborrowyourcar?

Ability

CanyouspeakSpanish? Shecouldswimwhenshewasthree.

Requests

Couldyourepeatthat,please? Willyoupostthisletterforme? Wouldyoutypethisletter,please?

Offers

Wouldyoulikeadrink? ShallIcallataxiforyou?

rd The form of a modal verb is the same for all persons. We don't add s to the 3 personsingularofamodalverb. I/You/He/She/It/We/They may arrivelate. HecanspeakGerman.

Wedon'tusetoaftermodalverbs. Imusttogonow. To makethe negativeof a modal verb, we add not or n't. We don't use don't and doesn't. Hecan't/cannotspeakJapanese. Youmustn't/mustnot driveontherightintheUK. Shemay notarrivebeforeyouleave.

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ResumodetodoumcursodeIngls Wecan'tadd n'ttomay. Shemayn'tarrivebeforeyouleave. WeputthemodalverbbeforeI/you/he,etc.tomakeaquestion. ShouldIconfirmthebookingbyletter? WithIandwe,weuseshallforoffers,andwhenaskingforandmakingsuggestions. ShallIclosethedoor? Whatshallwedo? Shallwegotothepark? Wecanusehavetofornecessity. I havetoworkovertimesometimes. Wecanusedon'thavetowhenthereisnonecessity. Idon'thavetoworkonSaturdays. ThePassive Be(is/was/have been,etc.)+pastparticiple(produced/built/grown,etc.) Positive Coffeeisgr owninBrazil. Thecompany wasfoundedin1970. Vineshavebeengrowninthisareafor over2000years. Question Ar ePeugeotcarsmadeinFrance? Werethegoods deliveredontime? Hasthefactory beenbuiltyet? Howischampagne produced? When willitbefinished? Howlong hasthismethodbeenused? Negative Cigaretteadvertising isn'tallowedin cinemas. Pricesweren'tincreasedlastyear. Adecision hasntbeenmadeyet. Shortanswer Yes,theyare. No,theyweren't. Yes,ithas.

Use WeusethePassivewhenthepersonor thingthatdoestheactionisn'timportant,or whenwedon'tknowwhodoesit.Ifwe wanttosaywhodoesordidtheactionwe useby.

Examples Active ThearchitectIMPei designedtheLouvre PyramidinParis. Passive TheLouvrePyramidinPariswasdesigned byIMPei.

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ResumodetodoumcursodeIngls Prepositionsoftime Month/season/year /centur y June In Winter 1996


st The21 century

Par toftheday Themorning In The afternoon Theevening Day/date Tuesday 6December EasterMonday On ChristmasDay Fridaymorning Wednesdayevenings. Time/mealtime Sixo'clock At Lunchtime Midnight Per iodoftwoor thr eedays Theweekend At Christmas Easter

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ResumodetodoumcursodeIngls Prepositions ofplaceanddir ection pr eposition above across after against along among around behind below beside between by closeto down from infrontof inside into near nextto off onto opposite outof outside over past round through use higherthansth. fromonesidetothe otherside onefollowstheother directedtowardssth. examples Thepicturehangsabovemybed. Youmustn'tgoacrossthisroadhere. Thereisn'tabridgeacrosstheriver. Thecatranafterthedog. Afteryou. Thebirdflewagainstthewindow.

inalinefromonepoint They'rewalkingalongthebeach. toanother inagroup inacircularway atthebackof lowerthansth. nextto sth./sb.isoneachside near near fromhightolow thepartthatisinthe directionitfaces oppositeofoutside enteringsth. closeto beside awayfromsth. movingtoaplace ontheotherside leavingsth. oppositeofinside abovesth./sb. goingnearsth./sb. inacircle Ilikebeingamongpeople. We'resittingaroundthecampfire. Ourhouseisbehindthesupermarket. DeathValleyis86metresbelowsealevel. Ourhouseisbesidethesupermarket. Ourhouseisbetweenthesupermarketandthe school. Helivesinthehousebytheriver. Ourhouseisclosetothesupermarket. Hecamedownthehill.

theplacewhereitstarts DoyoucomefromTokyo? Ourhouseisinfrontofthesupermarket. Youshouldn'tstayinsidethecastle. Youshouldn'tgointothecastle. Ourhouseisnearthesupermarket. Ourhouseisnexttothesupermarket. Thecatjumpedofftheroof. Thecatjumpedontotheroof. Ourhouseisoppositethesupermarket. Thecatjumpedout ofthewindow. Canyouwaitoutside? Thecatjumpedoverthewall. Gopastthepostoffice. We'resittingroundthecampfire.

goingfromonepointto Youshouldn'twalkthroughtheforest. theotherpoint

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ResumodetodoumcursodeIngls to towardssth./sb. IlikegoingtoAustralia. Canyoucometome? I'veneverbeentoAfrica. Theywalktowardsthecastle. Thecatisunderthetable. Hewentupthehill.

towards under up

inthedirectionofsth. belowsth. fromlowtohigh

Ir r egularver bs Pr esent awake be bear beat become begin bend beset bet bid bind bite bleed blow break breed bring broadcast build burn burst buy cast catch choose cling come cost creep cut deal dig dive do draw Past awoke was,were bore beat became began bent beset bet bid/bade bound bit bled blew broke bred brought broadcast built burned/burnt burst bought cast caught chose clung came cost crept cut dealt dug dived/dove did drew PastPar ticiple awoken been born beat become begun bent beset bet bid/bidden bound bitten bled blown broken bred brought broadcast built burned/burnt burst bought cast caught chosen clung come cost crept cut dealt dug dived done drawn

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ResumodetodoumcursodeIngls

dream drive drink eat fall feed feel fight find fit flee fling fly forbid forget forego (forgo) forgive forsake freeze get give go grind grow hang hear hide hit hold hurt keep kneel knit know lay lead leap learn leave lend let lie light lose make mean meet

dreamed/dreamt drove drank ate fell fed felt fought found fit fled flung flew forbade forgot forewent forgave forsook froze got gave went ground grew hung heard hid hit held hurt kept knelt knit knew laid led leaped/lept learned/learnt left lent let lay lighted/lit lost made meant met

dreamed/dreamt driven drunk eaten fallen fed felt fought found fit fled flung flown forbidden forgotten foregone forgiven forsaken frozen gotten given gone ground grown hung heard hidden hit held hurt kept knelt knit know laid led leaped/lept learned/learnt left lent let lain lighted lost made meant met

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ResumodetodoumcursodeIngls

misspell misspelled/misspelt misspelled/misspelt mistake mistook mistaken mow mowed mowed/mown overcome overcame overcome overdo overdid overdone overtake overtook overtaken overthrow overthrew overthrown pay paid paid plead pled pled prove proved proved/proven put put put quit quit quit read read read rid rid rid ride rode ridden ring rang rung rise rose risen run ran run saw sawed sawed/sawn say said said see saw seen seek sought sought sell sold sold send sent sent set set set sew sewed sewed/sewn shake shook shaken shave shaved shaved/shaven shear shore shorn shed shed shed shine shone shone shoe shoed shoed/shod shoot shot shot show shrink shut sing sink sit sleep slay slide sling slit smite sow speak showed shrank shut sang sank sat slept slew slid slung slit smote sowed spoke showed/shown shrunk shut sung sunk sat slept slain slid slung slit smitten sowed/sown spoken

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ResumodetodoumcursodeIngls speed spend spill spin spit split spread spring stand steal stick sting stink stride strike string strive swear sweep swell swim swing take teach tear tell think thrive throw thrust tread understand uphold upset wake wear weave wed weep wind win withhold withstand wring write sped spent spilled/spilt spun spit/spat split spread sprang/sprung stood stole stuck stung stank strod struck strung strove swore swept swelled swam swung took taught tore told thought thrived/throve threw thrust trod understood upheld upset woke wore weaved/wove wed wept wound won withheld withstood wrung wrote sped spent spilled/spilt spun spit split spread sprung stood stolen stuck stung stunk stridden struck strung striven sworn swept swelled/swollen swum swung taken taught torn told thought thrived thrown thrust trodden understood upheld upset woken worn weaved/woven wed wept wound won withheld withstood wrung written

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ResumodetodoumcursodeIngls SOCIALENGLISH Meetingpeople Introductions May/CanIintroducemyself? Myname's...(JamesTurnerforexample). I'm...(MoniqueBresson). May/CanIintroduceagoodfriendofmine? Thisis...(RobertoAngelini). Excuseme,areyou...(DuncanRoss)? Hello,youmustbe...(LuigiBastini). I'dliketo/letmeintroduceyouto...(TonyWhite). Howdoyoudo. Pleasedtomeetyou. Pleasecallme...(Luigi). Gr eetings Hello,...(Roberto). Good/Nicetoseeyouagain. Howareyou? Howarethings? How'sthefamily? Goodmorning/afternoon/evening. WeonlysayGoodnightwhenweareleaving.Wedon'tuseitasagreeting. Goodbyes Imustgonow. Wereallymustleavenow. Imustbeoff. Itwasverynicemeetingyou. Haveagoodtrip/journey/flight. Ihopetoseeyouagain. Ireallyenjoyedmeetingyou,too. Thankyou...(andthesametoyou). Ihopeso,too. Fine,thanks.Andyou? Nottoobad,thanks. Verywell,thankyou. Howdoyoudo. Pleasedtomeetyou,too. Thenyoumustcallme...(Monique).

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ResumodetodoumcursodeIngls Ilookforwardto...(seeingyouagain). I'mlookingforwardto...(ournextmeeting). Seeyou onthe(firstJuly)/nextweek/soon. Haveagood...tripback/flightback. Telephoning Makingcontact Hello.Thisis...(JamesTurner) Isthat...(MoniqueBresson)? I'dliketospeakto...(Mr.Brown). CouldIspeakto...(ManfredWeiss)? I'mcallingabout...(theletterIsentyou). Holdtheline,please. I'msorry...(MrWeiss)isinameetingatthemoment. I'mafraid...(he)'sbusyatpresent. I'mafraid...(she)isn'there. Leavingamessage CanI...takeamessage? CanI...leaveamessage? Couldyoutakeamessage? Couldyouask...(her)tocall...(LuigiBastini)? Couldyoutell...(him)that...(DuncanRoss)called? Couldyouspell...(yourname),please? What'syournumber,please? Welcomingavisitor Didyouhaveagoodjourney? Howwasyourflight? Thejourneyhere Didyouhaveanyproblemsfindingus? Howdidyougethere? Areyouhereonbusiness? Yes,speaking. Who'scalling,please? MayIknowwho'scalling,please?

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ResumodetodoumcursodeIngls Whatdoyoudo? Work Wheredoyouwork? Whatareyouworkingoncurrently?

Theweather

Whatwastheweatherlikein...(London)? Doyoutravelalot?

Travelandholidays

Whichcountriesdoyouvisit? Wheredidyouspend...(yourlastholiday)? Wheredoyoulive?

Thevisitor

Whichpartofthecountry/cityisthat? Whatdoyouthinkof...(thenewairport)?

Firstimpressions

Isthisyourfirstvisitto...(Barcelona)? Howlongareyouherefor? Whatdoyoudoattheweekends?

Sportsandleisure

Doyouplayanysports? What'sthelatestnewson...(theelection)?

News

Isthereanynewsabout...(theconference)?

Stayingatahotel Bookingahotel I'dliketobookasinge/doubleroomfor4April. Ar r ivingatahotel Ihaveareservation. Makingrequests I'dlikearoom,please. CouldIhaveanearlymorningcall,at6.30? CouldIhavemybill,please? CanIpaybycreditcard?

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ResumodetodoumcursodeIngls Atar estaurant Recommending Whatdoyourecommend? The...(seafood)isusuallyexcellenthere. Irecommendthe...(chicken). Or der ing I'll/We'llhave...(smokedScottishsalmon). I'd/We'dlike...(theroastNormandypork). Couldwehave...(abottleofmineralwater)? Offer ing Dohavesomemore...(prawns). Whatabout...(dessert)? Howabout...(somestrawberries)? Wouldyoulike...(acoffee)? Accepting Yes,I'dlikethat. Yes,thatwouldbeverynice. Declining Thankyou,butIcouldn'teatanymore. No,thankyou. Thankingandresponding Thankyouforareallyexcellentmeal. Thankyouforalovelyevening. Makingar r angements Makinganappointment wouldbeconvenientforyou? couldwemeet? areyoufree? wouldsuityou? Yes,...(Tuesday)suitsmefine. Yes,that'sfine. Yes,Icanmakeiton...(Friday). No,I'mafraidI'vegotanotherappointment then. Don'tmentionit. Ienjoyeditverymuch,too.

When Whattime

Shallwesay...(nextTuesday)? Is...(9.30)possibleforyou? Howabout...(Friday)? Whatabout...(theafternoon)?

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ResumodetodoumcursodeIngls Ilookforwardtomeetingyouon...(Wednesday). Seeyou...(nextweek). Changinganappointment I'mverysorryIhavetocanceltheappointmenton...(Friday). I'mafraidIcan'tmanageourmeeting...(tomorrow). Couldwearrangeanothertime? Opinionsandsuggestions Whatdoyouthinkabout...(the design)? Askingforopinions What'syouropinionof...(thequality)? Howdoyoufeelabout...(theprice)? Iagree. Agreeing Icertainlyagreewiththat. Iagreecompletely. Doyouhaveanysuggestionsfor...(the agenda)? Anyideason...(theparkingproblem)? Isuggest...(wemeetatthehotel). Howabout...(goingbyplane)? Whatabout...(givingatalk)? Makingsuggestions Whydon'twe...(haveameeting)? Whynot...(finishwithaparty)? Wecould...(arrangeatennistournament). Inmyopinion...(it'sexcellent). Giving opinions Ithink...(it'sratherexpensive). I'mafraidIdon'tagree. Disagreeing I'msorry,butIdisagree. Yes,that'sagoodidea. Acceptingsuggestions Yes,let'sdothat.

Askingforsuggestions

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ResumodetodoumcursodeIngls Yes,but...(it'stoofaraway). RejectingSuggestions I'mnotsureaboutthat. I'mafraidIdon'tlikethatidea. Invitations I'dliketoinviteyouto...(havedinnerwithme). Wouldyoujoinus...(foragameoftennis)? Inviting Wouldyouliketo...(comeswimming)? Whydon'tyou...(havelunchwithus)? Howabout...(joiningus)? Thankyou.I'mdelightedtoaccept. Accepting Thankyou.I'dloveto. Thankyou.I'denjoythat. I'dloveto,but...(I'mafraidIcan't). Declining Thanksalotbut...(I'vemadeanotherarrangement).

Offer s ShallI...(openthewindow)? Doyouwantmeto...(posttheletterforyou)? Offering Ifyoulike,Ican...(giveyousomehelp). Wouldyoulikemeto...(arrangeameeting)? Yes,please. Thankyou. Accepting That'sverykindofyou. Thankyou.I'dappreciatethat. Thanks,butpleasedon'tbother. Declining Thanks,butthatwon'tbenecessary. That'sverykindofyou,but...(Icanmanage).

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ResumodetodoumcursodeIngls Requests Canyou...(cometomorrow)? Couldyou...(writeheraletter)? Wouldyou...(book thehotel)? Requesting Doyouthinkyoucould...(checkit)? Wouldyoumind...(checkingit)? Doyoumind...(checkingit)? Yes,ofcourse. Yes,certainly. Agreeing Notatall. No,ofcoursenot. Ithinkthatwillbedifficult...(thereisn'tenoughtime). I'mafraidnot...(I'mverybusy). Refusing I'msorry,butthat'snotpossible...(I'mleavingnow). I'mafraidnot. Askingfor infor mation I'dlikesomeinformationabout...(fightstoParis). I'dliketoknow...(howlongittakes). Asking Doyouknow...(whenthetrainarrives)? Can/couldyoutellme...(howoftenthetrainsleave)? Isee. Showingunderstanding Right,I'vegotthat. So,...(thenexttrain'sinhalfanhour) Letmecheck. Checking I'lllookthatup. Couldyourepeatthat,please? Askingforrepetition Couldyousaythatagain?

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ResumodetodoumcursodeIngls I'mafraidIdon'thaveanyinformationabout...(domestic flights).

Apologizing Socialr esponses Thanking Thanksforallyourhelp. Thankyouforyouradvice.

Don'tmentionit. Notatall. You'rewelcome.(US)

Apologizing SorryI'mlate. I'msorry.I'vebrokenaglass. Itdoesn'tmatter. Don'tworry. Nevermind. Askingfor r epetition Sorry? Pardon? Couldyourepeatthat,please? I'msorry,Ididn'tcatch...(yourname). Askingandgivingpermission MayIsithere? CouldIuseyourphone? DoyoumindifIopenthewindow? Refusingper mission CouldIborrowyourcar? DoyoumindifIsmoke? Givingandpassingthings Haveyougotthetickets? Couldyoupassthebread,please? Yes,heretheyare. Yes,hereyouare. Sorry,butIneedit. Well,I'dratheryoudidn't. Yes,ofcourse. Pleasedo. Yes,certainly. No,notatall.

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ResumodetodoumcursodeIngls Expr essingsurprise Theyvegotsixchildrennow. Respondingtogoodnews I'vepassedmyfinalexams! Congratulations! That'sgreat! Respondingtobadnews Ifailedmydrivingtest. Respondingtogoodwishes Haveagoodweekend. Ihopeyouenjoyyourholiday. Thanks.Youtoo. Thanks,andthesametoyou. Oh,I'msorrytohearthat. Really!

Sayinggoodbye Thankingforhospitality Thankyou forinvitingus. foreverything. We'vehadawonderfultime. Itwasreallyenjoyable. Everythingwasgreat. Thanksalot. Respondingtothanks I'mgladyou couldcome. enjoyedit. founditinteresting. likeit.

verymuchforyourhospitality. Ireallyappreciateit.

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ResumodetodoumcursodeIngls Askingfor help Sorry,Idon'tunderstand. Idon'tknowwhat...(currently)means. Whatdoes...(workingknowledge)mean? WhatdoyoucallthisinEnglish? Howdoyousay...(jevoudraisunechambre)inEnglish? Couldyousaythatagain,please? Couldyourepeatthat,please? Couldyouspeakmoreslowly,please? Couldyouspellthat,please? Couldyouwritethatdown,please?

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ResumodetodoumcursodeIngls OTHERUSEFULINFORMATION Businesscor respondence CUNNINGHAMASSOCIATES 26,TrentRd,Bicester,OxonOX68RN Tel:0861204950Fax:0861204900 22February1996 JeanPaulLeclerc ZigZagSA 74,rueJulesFerry 75116Paris DearMrLederc Thankyouforyourletterof15January.Iapologizefornotreplyingsooner. IamwritingtoinformyouthatIamcomingtoParison7March. Iwouldbedelightedtomeetyoutodiscussthefashionshow,asyousuggested. Unfortunately,asIamflyingtoRomeintheafternoon,Iwillnotbeabletovisityour factory,andcannotattendyourcompanydinnerintheevening. I would be grateful if you could send me your catalogue and price list as soon as possible,asIwouldliketoshowyourSummerCollectiontothefashionbuyersatour monthlymeetingnextweek. Iamenclosingacopyofanexcellentmagazinearticleaboutfashionretailersinthis country.Ihopeyoufinditinteresting. Ilookforwardtomeetingyounextmonth.Pleaseletmeknowifyouwouldlikeany furtherinformation. Yourssincerely DavidCunningham President

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ResumodetodoumcursodeIngls Opening Dear Sir Madam Mr...Murphy Mrs...Hobbs Miss...Young Ms...White ....George Dr...Green Whenyoudon'tknowthereceiver'sname,useSirorMadam. Foraman,usethereceiver'sfamilynamewithMr. Fora marriedwoman,usethereceiver'sfamilynamewithMrs.orMs. Foranunmarriedwoman,usethereceiver'sfamilynamewithMissorMs. Foraclosebusinesscontactorfriend,usethereceiver'sfirstname. Foradoctor,usDr.andthefamilyname. MscanreplaceMrsandMiss.Itdoesn'tindicatewhetherawomanismarried. Makingreference Thankyoufor Withreferenceto Furtherto Apologizing Iapologizefor thedelay. notreplyingsooner. IamsorrythatIamnotabletohelpyou. Explainingther easonfor wr iting Iamwritingto askyou... enquireabout... informyouthat... confirm... yourtelephonecalltoday. yourletterof8January... Yourletterof30August,...

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ResumodetodoumcursodeIngls Agreeingtorequests Iwouldbe Delightedto... pleasedto... Givingbadnews Iamafraidthat... Unfortunately... Requesting Iwouldbegratefulifyoucould... Wewouldappreciateitifyoucould... Couldyoupossibly...? Enclosingdocuments Ihavepleasureinenclosing... Iamenclosing... Ienclose... Referr ing tofuturecontact meetingyounextmonth. Ilookforwardto receivingyourreply. hearingfromyousoon. Finishing Pleaseletmeknowif Pleasecontactusagainif youhaveanyquestions. wecanhelpinanyway. youwouldlikefurtherinformation. Closing Yours faithfully sincerely Bestwishes WhenyouopentheletterwithDearSirorDear Madam,useYoursfaithfully. Whenyouopentheletterwiththereceiver'sfamilyname,useYourssincerely. Foraclosebusinesscontactorfriend,useBestwishes.

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ResumodetodoumcursodeIngls AmericanEnglish This sectiondescribessomedifferencesbetween AmericanandBritishEnglish.The differencesarenotverygreat,andtheymayvarybetweenregionsacrosstheUSA. have/havegot Toexpresspossession,Britishpeopleoftensayhavegot. Br itish I'vegot aGermancar. Yes,Ihave. British/Amer ican IhaveanItaliancar. Yes,Ido.

Haveyougot afaxmachine? No,Ihaven't. Doyouhaveanychildren? No,Idon't. ThedifferenceisonlyinthePresentSimple.Thereisnodifferenceinothertenses. When we use the verbhave for an action, there is no difference between American andBritishEnglish. British/Amer ican IhaveanEnglishlessoneveryweek. Doyouhavecoffeeforbreakfast? Yes,Ido. No,Idon't.

PresentPer fect/PastSimple WhereBritishEnglishusesthePresentPerfect,AmericanEnglishoftenusesthePast Simple. Br itish I'vejustfinishedthereport. Haveyouseenheryet? Ihaven'tfinishedtheworkyet. We'realreadymet. Dates(wr itten) Br itish 2.11.942November1994 Dates(spoken) Br itish Shestartedworkonthesecondof November,nineteenninetyfour. Amer ican ShestartedworkonNovembersecond, nineteenninetyfour. Amer ican 11/2/94November21994 Amer ican Ijustfinishedthereport. Didyouseeheryet? Ididn'tfinishtheworkyet. Wealreadymet.

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ResumodetodoumcursodeIngls Prepositions Br itish attheweekend fiveminutespasttwo tenminutestosix writetome meetsomeone stayathome TuesdaytoSaturday Visitsomebody Vocabular y Br itish Flat car taxi chemist's lift autumn tap groundfloor motorway petrol post cinema trousers wallet railway toilet returnticket pavement tube/underground holiday Amer ican Apartment automobile cab drugstore elevator fall faucet firstfloor freeway gas mail movietheater pants pocketbook railroad restroom roundtripticket sidewalk subway vacation Amer ican ontheweekend fiveminutespast/aftertwo tenminutesto/ofsix writeme meetwithsomeone stayhome Tuesdaythrough Saturday visitwithsomebody

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ResumodetodoumcursodeIngls Mathematicalterms + / x = % 3+5=8 7 1=6 20/2=10 3x3=9 1+4=5 75% 1/4 1/3 1/2 11/2 Countr iesandnationalities Country Nationality Country India Ireland Italy Japan TheNetherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Russia Slovakia Spain Sweden Switzerland Nationality Indian Irish Italian Japanese Dutch Norwegian Polish Portuguese Romanian Russian Slovak Spanish Swedish Swiss Threeplusfiveiseight Sevenminusoneissix Twentydividedbytwoisten. Threetimes/multipliedbythreeisnine. Oneplusfouris/equalsfive. Seventyfivepercent. Aquarter Athird Ahalf Oneandahalf

America(theUSA) American Australia Austria Belgium Brazil Canada China Australian Austrian Belgian Brazilian Canadian Chinese

TheCzechRepublic Czech Denmark Finland France Germany GreatBritain(UK) Greece Danish Finnish French German British Greek

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ResumodetodoumcursodeIngls Country Hungary Nationality Hungarian Country Turkey Nationality Turkish

Gr ammar timelines

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ResumodetodoumcursodeIngls

Phr asalVer bs Many verbs in English are followed by an adverb or a preposition (also called a particle),andthesetwopartverbs,alsocalledphrasalverbs,aredifferentfromverbs with helpers. The particle that follows the verb changes the meaning of the phrasal verbinidiomaticways: VERB EXAMPLE Thehilldroppedoffnearthe dropoff declinegradually river. drop Whiledoinghishomework,he fallasleep off(2) droppedoff. drop stopandgivesomethingto Wouldyoudropthisoffatthe off(3) someone postoffice? Aftertwolaps,therunner dropout ceasetoparticipate droppedout. MEANING

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ResumodetodoumcursodeIngls Some particles can be separated from the verb so that a noun and pronoun can be inserted, and some particles can't be separated from the verb. In addition, some phrasesareintransitive,meaningtheycannottakeadirectobject. Separable addup(meaning: Correct:Sheaddedupthetotalonhercalculator. toadd) Correct:Sheaddedituponhercalculator. getaround Inseparable (meaning:to evade) Correct:Shealwaysgetsaroundtherules. Incorrect: Shealwaysgetstherulesaround(This constructionmakesnosenseinEnglish.) catchon Intransitive (meaning:to understand) Correct:AfterIexplainedthemathproblem,she begantocatchon. Incorrect:Shebegantocatchonthemathproblem. (catchoncannottakeadirectobjectinthismeaning.) Correct:Shebegantocatchontothemathproblem. (thewordtomakesthemathproblemanindirect object,whichisacceptableinthismeaning.) Unfortunately,thereisusuallynoindicatorwhetheranidiomaticphraseisseparable, inseparable, or intransitive. In most cases the phrases must simply be memorized. Belowisapartiallistofeachkindofphrase. Separable addup add backupcausetomovebackwardssupportblowupcausetoexplodedestroyby explosives breakdown analyzelistthepartsofseparately breakintogointoahouseorroomforciblysuddenlybeginbringaboutcauseto happen bringoff accomplish bringon cause bringout publishemphasize bringover bring bringto revive bringup raisecareforfromchildhood brushout brushtheinsideof burndown destroybyburning burnupconsumebyfire buyout bytheotherperson'sshareofabusiness buyup buythewholesupplyof calloff cancelorderaway callup telephonesummonformilitaryservice calmdown becomecalm carryon continue

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ResumodetodoumcursodeIngls carryout fulfillcompleteaccomplishperform carryovercarrycontinueatanothertimeorplace cheerup causetobecomecheerful chewupchewthoroughly chopup chopintosmallpieces cleanoff cleanthesurfaceof cleanout cleantheinsideof cleanupclarifytidy clearoutclearthesurfaceof clearup cleartheinsideof closedown closepermanently closeupclosetemporarily countin include countoutexclude countup calculatecountaddtoatotal crossout eliminate cutoff interruptseveramputate cutouteliminatedelete cutdown reduceinquantity drawup writecompose(adocument) dressup putclothesonadorn dustout dusttheinsideof eatup eatcompletely figureout interpretunderstand figureupcompute fillin complete(aprintedform) fillout complete(aprintedform) fillup fillcompletely(acontainer) findout discover fixup repairarrangeinasuitablemanner getacrosscausetobeunderstood giveback return giveout distributeannounce giveup surrendersomething handdown deliverpronounceformallyleaveasaninheritance handoveryieldcontrolof hangup suspend haveon bedressedin haveoverentertainsomeoneinformallyatone'shome holdoff delayrestrain holdup delayrobthreatenwithaweapon keepup continuekeepthesamepace leaveout omit letdown disappoint letout releasefromconfinementmakelarger(insewing) lightuplightilluminatethoroughly livedown liveinsuchawayastocausesomethingtobeforgotten makeoverremake moveover movetotheside passout distribute passup nottakeadvantageof(asanopportunity)

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ResumodetodoumcursodeIngls passon transmit payback repay payoff dischargeadebtcompletelygivesomeonehisfinalpay pickup cometomeetanescortliftwithhandsorfingerslearncasually initiateanassociationpublicly play down minimize playup emphasize pointout indicate pulldown pullinadownwarddirectionraze pushacrosscausetobeunderstoodoraccepted putoff postpone puton dressindeceiveorfool putup preserve(food)receiveasanovernightguest quietdown bequiet ringupthetelephone rinseoffrinsethesurfaceof rinseout rinsetheinsideof ruleouteliminate rundown tracedisparagehitwithavehicle runoffcausetodepartreproducemechanically saveupaccumulate seethrough completeinspiteofdifficulties seeoffaccompanysomeonetothebeginningofatrip sendback sendtoaplacewhereformerlylocated sendoversendtowheresomeoneis setuparrange showoff exhibitostentatiously shutoffcausetoceasefunctioning slowup causetomovemoreslowly spellout enumeratestateindetail standupfailtokeepanappointmentwith sweepoutsweeptheinsideof takeback returnretractastatement takedown removefromahighpositionwritefromdictation takein understoodfooldeceivemakesmaller(insewing) takeovertakeassumecommandof teardown destroy tearuptearintosmallpieces telloffscoldreprimand thinkoverconsider thinkthrough considerfrom beginningtoend thinkupcreateinvent throwaway discard throwover reject tieup tiesecurelyortight tireout causetobeexhausted touchup repair tryon putonagarmenttoverifythefit tryout test turndown refuselowerthevolume turnout produceforceintoexile,extinguish(alight)

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ResumodetodoumcursodeIngls washoff washthesurfaceof washout washtheinsideof wearout useuntilnolongerusabletiregreatly windup finish,tightenthespringofawatchormachine wipeoffwipethesurfaceof wipeout wipetheinsideofdecimate workout solve writedown record writeout writedowneverydetailspellout writeupcomposeprepare(adocument) Insepar able backoutof desertfailtokeepapromise beardownon lean onbrowbeat bearon havetodowith bearupunder endure breakinon interrupt breakintointerrupt callforcometogetrequire careforlikeguardsupervisemaintain carryonwith continue catchupwith coverthedistancebetweenoneselfand checkupon examineverify comeacross findaccidentally comealongwith accompanymakeprogress comeby findaccidentally comedownwith becomeillwith comeoutwith utterproduce comeupwith utterproduce counton relyon cutinon interrupt disagreewith causeillnessordiscomfortto doawaywith abolish dowithout depriveoneselfof dropinat/on visitcasuallywithoutplanning dropoutof leavequit faceuptoacknowledge fallbehindin lagnotprogressatrequiredpace fallbackon useforemergencypurpose falloutwith quarrelwith fillinfor substitutefor getaheadof surpassbeat getaround evadeavoid getawaywith dowithoutbeingcaughtorpunished getbywith managewithaminimumofeffort getdownto becomeseriousaboutconsider getin enter(avehicle) getoff descendfromleave geton enter(avehicle)mount getonwith proceedwith

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ResumodetodoumcursodeIngls getthroughwith terminate,finish gobackon desertfailtokeep(apromise) gofor likeagreatdeal goinfor beinterestedinparticipatein goonwith continue gooverreview gowith harmonizewithlookpleasingtogether gowithoutabstainfrom hangaround remainidlyinthevicinityof hearfrom receiveacommunicationfrom hearof learnabout(sometimesaccidentally) hiton discoveraccidentally holdonto grasptightly holdoutagainstresist keepat persevereat keepto persistincontinue keepupwith maintainthepaceof liedownon evadefailtodo liveon supportorsustainoneselfbymeansof liveupto maintainthestandarddemandedof lookafter takecareof lookbackon remembernostalgically lookdownon feelsuperiorto lookforwardtoanticipate lookupto respectadmire makeupfor compensatefor passon transmit pickon teasebully playuptoflatterforpersonaladvantage putupwith tolerate readupon searchoutinformationon runagainstcompeteagainstinanelection runawaywith leaveescapefrom runforcampaignfor seeaboutconsiderarrange seetoarrangesupervise settleon decideonchoose standfor representpermit standupfor supportdemand standupto resist stickto persist stickupfor supportdefend takeafterresemble talkbacktoanswerimpolitely talkover discuss tellon reportmisbehaviortoauthority touchon mentionbriefly turninto become waiton serve waitupfornotgotobedwhilewaitingfor watchoutfor becarefulfor

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ResumodetodoumcursodeIngls Intransitive backdown retreatfromapositioninanargument backout desertfailtokeepapromise backup movebackwards bearup endure blowin dropintovisitunexpectedly blowover passwithoutdoingharm blowup explodeloseone'stemper callup telephone calmdown becomecalm carryon continueasbeforemisbehave catchon understand catchupcoverthedistancebetweenoneselfandamovinggoal checkupinvestigate checkout leavepayone'sbill cheerup becomecheerful clearoutleave clearup becomeclear closedown closepermanently closeupclosetemporarily cameabout happen comealong accompanymakeprogress comeback return comeby visitsomeoneinhishome comeout appearmakeasocialdebut comeover cometosomeone'shouse,towheresomeoneis comethrough succeed cometo regainconsciousness cutin interrupt dieaway fadediminish diedown fadediminish dieoff/out disappearbecomeextinct dressup donfancyorunusualclothes driveback returnbycar dropin visitsomeonecasuallywithoutplanning dropoutabandonsomeorganizedactivityleavequit dropovervisitsomeonecasually fallbehindnotprogressatrequiredpace falloff decreaseloseweight fallthrough failnotbeaccomplished fillin substitute findout learn flyback returnbyair flyoverflytowheresomeoneis getaheadmakeprogress getalong haveafriendlyrelationship getaround circulatemoveabout getaway escape getby manageeitherjustbarelyorwithaminimumofeffort getin enter getoff descendfromleave

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ResumodetodoumcursodeIngls geton enter(avehicle)mount(ahorse,etc.) geton/along progressbecompatible getup rise getthrough finish giveout becomeexhausted giveup surrenderfailtofinish goback return gooffexplode goon happencontinue goout stopburningleaveone'sresidence goovergosucceed growupmature hangaround remainidlydawdle hangup replaceatelephonereceiveon itshook holdon grasptightlyperseverewaitwhiletelephoning holdoutcontinuetoresistperseverepersist keepon continue keepup maintaintherequiredpaceorstandardcontinue letup diminishinintensity liedown recline lookon beaspectator makeout progresssucceed makeup becomereconciled moveover movetotheside panout turnoutwellbesuccessful passout becomeunconscious passon die pickup growincrease pullin arrive pullout deport pullthrough survive(barely) rideover ridetowheresomeoneis runaway escapeleaveleavequicklywithoutpermission rundown slowlylosepowersoastostopfunctioning runoff departrunningdrain sellout selltheownershiporresponsibility settleup payone'sbillsordebts showoff boastbywordsoractions showuparriveappearunexpectedly shutup stoptalking slowup reducespeed standby waitbepreparedtoassist standupstandrisefromsittinglastendure stayoverremainatsomeone'shouseovernightorlonger stepaside movetooneside takeoffleavetheground takeoverassumecommand talkback answerimpolitely throwupvomit turnaround turnsothatoneisfacinganotherdirection turnin gotobed

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ResumodetodoumcursodeIngls turnout succeedcomeappear,asatapublicmeeting turnuparrivebefoundunexpectedly waitup remainawakeinanticipation wakeupawaken walkback returnonfoottowhereonewas walkoverwalktowheresomeoneis washout fadeordisappearfromwashing watchout becareful wearofffadedisappearthroughuseortime wearout becomeunusablethroughusebecomeusedup workout besuccessful TheLor dsprayer Ourfatherwhoartinheaven,hollowedbethynamethykingdomcome. Thy will be done on earth as it is in heaven give us, this day, our daily bread and forgiveourtrespassesasweforgivethemthattrespassagainstusandleadusnotinto temptationbutdeliverusfromevil.Amen

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