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The Male Reproductive System

The purpose of the organs of the male reproductive system is to perform the following functions:

To produce, maintain, and transport sperm (the male reproductive cells) and protective fluid (semen) To discharge sperm within the female reproductive tract during sex To produce and secrete male sex hormones responsible for maintaining the male reproductive system

Unlike the female reproductive system, most of the male reproductive system is located outside of the body. These external structures include the penis, scrotum, and testicles.

Penis: This is the male organ used in sexual intercourse. It has three parts: the root, which attaches to the wall of the abdomen; the body, or shaft; and the glans, which is the cone-shaped part at the end of the penis. The glans, also called the head of the penis, is covered with a loose layer of skin called foreskin. This skin is sometimes removed in a procedure called circumcision. The opening of the urethra, the tube that transports semen and urine, is at the tip of the penis. The penis also contains a number of sensitive nerve endings.

The body of the penis is cylindrical in shape and consists of three circular shaped chambers. These chambers are made up of special, sponge-like tissue. This tissue contains thousands of large spaces that fill with blood when the man is sexually aroused. As the penis fills with blood, it becomes rigid and erect, which allows for penetration during sexual intercourse. The skin of the penis is loose and elastic to accommodate changes in penis size during an erection. Semen, which contains sperm (reproductive cells), is expelled (ejaculated) through the end of the penis when the man reaches sexual climax (orgasm). When the penis is erect, the flow of urine is blocked from the urethra, allowing only semen to be ejaculated at orgasm.

Scrotum: This is the loose pouch-like sac of skin that hangs behind and below the penis. It contains the testicles (also called testes), as well as many nerves and blood vessels. The scrotum acts as a "climate control system" for the testes. For normal sperm development, the testes must be at a temperature slightly cooler than body temperature. Special muscles in the wall of the scrotum allow it to contract and relax, moving the testicles closer to the body for warmth or farther away from the body to cool the temperature.
Testicles (testes): These are oval organs about the size of large olives that lie in the scrotum, secured at either end by a structure called the spermatic cord. Most men have two testes. The testes are responsible for making testosterone, the primary male sex hormone, and for generating sperm. Within the testes are coiled masses of tubes called seminiferous tubules. These tubes are responsible for producing sperm cells.

The internal organs of the male reproductive system, also called accessory organs, include the following:

Epididymis: The epididymis is a long, coiled tube that rests on the backside of each testicle. It transports and stores sperm cells that are produced in the testes. It also is the job of the epididymis to bring the sperm to maturity, since the sperm that emerge from the testes are immature and incapable of fertilization. During sexual arousal, contractions force the sperm into the vas deferens. Vas deferens: The vas deferens is a long, muscular tube that travels from the epididymis into the pelvic cavity, to just behind the bladder. The vas deferens transports mature sperm to the urethra, the tube that carries urine or sperm to outside of the body, in preparation for ejaculation.

Ejaculatory ducts: These are formed by the fusion of the vas deferens and the seminal vesicles (see below). The ejaculatory ducts empty into the urethra. Urethra: The urethra is the tube that carries urine from the bladder to outside of the body. In males, it has the additional function of ejaculating semen when the man reaches orgasm. When the penis is erect during sex, the flow of urine is blocked from the urethra, allowing only semen to be ejaculated at orgasm. Seminal vesicles: The seminal vesicles are sac-like pouches that attach to the vas deferens near the base of the bladder. The seminal vesicles produce a sugar-rich fluid (fructose) that provides sperm with a source of energy to help them move. The fluid of the seminal vesicles makes up most of the volume of a man's ejaculatory fluid, or ejaculate. Prostate gland: The prostate gland is a walnut-sized structure that is located below the urinary bladder in front of the rectum. The prostate gland contributes additional fluid to the ejaculate. Prostate fluids also help to nourish the sperm. The urethra, which carries the ejaculate to be expelled during orgasm, runs through the center of the prostate gland. Bulbourethral glands: Also called Cowper's glands, these are pea-sized structures located on the sides of the urethra just below the prostate gland. These glands produce a clear, slippery fluid that empties directly into the urethra. This fluid serves to lubricate the urethra and to neutralize any acidity that may be present due to residual drops of urine in the urethra.

How Does the Male Reproductive System Function? The entire male reproductive system is dependent on hormones, which are chemicals that regulate the activity of many different types of cells or organs. The primary hormones involved in the male reproductive system are follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and testosterone. Follicle-stimulating hormone is necessary for sperm production (spermatogenesis) and luteinizing hormone stimulates the production of testosterone, which is also needed to make sperm. Testosterone is responsible for the development of male characteristics, including muscle mass and strength, fat distribution, bone mass, facial hair growth, voice change, and sex drive.

Male Reproductive System (More Information)


Reproduction
All living things reproduce. Reproduction the process by which organisms make more organisms like themselves is one of the things that sets living things apart from nonliving things. But even though the reproductive system is essential to keeping a species alive, unlike other body systems it's not essential to keeping an individual alive.

In the human reproductive process, two kinds of sex cells, or gametes, are involved. The male gamete, or sperm, and the female gamete, the egg or ovum, meet in the female's reproductive system to create a new individual. Both the male and female reproductive systemsare essential for reproduction. Humans, like other organisms, pass certain characteristics of themselves to the next generation through their genes, the special carriers of human traits. The genes parents pass along to their offspring are what make kids similar to others in their family, but they're also what make each child unique. These genes come from the father's sperm and the mother's egg, which are produced by the male and female reproductive systems. Understanding the male reproductive system, what it does, and the problems that can affect it can help you better understand your son's reproductive health.

About the Male Reproductive System


Most species have two sexes: male and female. Each sex has its own unique reproductive system. They are different in shape and structure, but both are specifically designed to produce, nourish, and transport either the egg or sperm. Unlike the female, whose sex organs are located entirely within the pelvis, the male has reproductive organs, or genitals, that are both inside and outside the pelvis. The male genitals include:

the the the the

testicles duct system, which is made up of the epididymis and the vas deferens accessory glands, which include the seminal vesicles and prostate gland penis

In a guy who has reached sexual maturity, the two testicles, or testes, produce and store millions of tiny sperm cells. The testicles are oval-shaped and grow to be about 2 inches (5 centimeters) in length and 1 inch (3 centimeters) in diameter. The testicles are also part of the endocrine system because they produce hormones, including testosterone. Testosterone is a major part of puberty in boys, and as a guy makes his way through puberty, his testicles produce more and more of it. Testosterone is the hormone that causes boys to develop deeper voices, bigger muscles, and body and facial hair, and it also stimulates the production of sperm. Alongside the testicles are the epididymis and the vas deferens, which make up the duct system of the male reproductive organs. The vas deferens is a muscular tube that passes upward alongside the testicles and transports the sperm-containing fluid called semen. The epididymis is a set of coiled tubes (one for each testicle) that connects to the vas deferens. The epididymis and the testicles hang in a pouch-like structure outside the pelvis called the scrotum. This bag of skin helps to regulate the temperature of testicles, which need to be kept cooler than body temperature to produce sperm. The scrotum changes size to maintain the right temperature. When the body is cold, the scrotum shrinks and becomes tighter to hold in

body heat. When it's warm, the scrotum becomes larger and more floppy to get rid of extra heat. This happens without a guy ever having to think about it. The brain and the nervous system give the scrotum the cue to change size. The accessory glands, including the seminal vesicles and the prostate gland, provide fluids that lubricate the duct system and nourish the sperm. The seminal vesicles are sac-like structures attached to the vas deferens to the side of the bladder. The prostate gland, which produces some of the parts of semen, surrounds the ejaculatory ducts at the base of the urethra, just below the bladder. The urethra is the channel that carries the semen to the outside of the body through the penis. The urethra is also part of the urinary system because it is also the channel through which urine passes as it leaves the bladder and exits the body. The penis is actually made up of two parts: the shaft and the glans. The shaft is the main part of the penis and the glans is the tip (sometimes called the head). At the end of the glans is a small slit or opening, which is where semen and urine exit the body through the urethra. The inside of the penis is made of a spongy tissue that can expand and contract. All boys are born with a foreskin, a fold of skin at the end of the penis covering the glans. Some boys are circumcised, which means that a doctor or clergy member cuts away the foreskin. Circumcision is usually performed during a baby boy's first few days of life. Although circumcision is not medically necessary, parents who choose to have their children circumcised often do so based on religious beliefs, concerns about hygiene, or cultural or social reasons. Boys who have circumcised penises and those who don't are no different: All penises work and feel the same, regardless of whether the foreskin has been removed.

What the Male Reproductive System Does


The male sex organs work together to produce and release semen into the reproductive system of the female during sexual intercourse. The male reproductive system also produces sex hormones, which help a boy develop into a sexually mature man during puberty.

When a baby boy is born, he has all the parts of his reproductive system in place, but it isn't until puberty that he is able to reproduce. When puberty begins, usually between the ages of 10 and 14, the pituitary gland which is located near the brain secretes hormones that stimulate the testicles to produce testosterone. The production of testosterone brings about many physical changes. Although the timing of these changes is different for every guy, the stages of puberty generally follow a set sequence.

During the first stage of male puberty, the scrotum and testes grow larger. Next, the penis becomes longer, and the seminal vesicles and prostate gland grow. Hair begins to appear in the pubic area and later it grows on the face and underarms. During this time, a male's voice also deepens. Boys also undergo a growth spurt during puberty as they reach their adult height and weight.

Sperm
A male who has reached puberty will produce millions of sperm cells every day. Each sperm is extremely small: only 1/600 of an inch (0.05 millimeters long). Sperm develop in the testicles within a system of tiny tubes called the seminiferous tubules. At birth, these tubules contain simple round cells, but during puberty, testosterone and other hormones cause these cells to transform into sperm cells. The cells divide and change until they have a head and short tail, like tadpoles. The head contains genetic material (genes). The sperm use their tails to push themselves into the epididymis, where they complete their development. It takes sperm about 4 to 6 weeks to travel through the epididymis. The sperm then move to the vas deferens, or sperm duct. The seminal vesicles and prostate gland produce a whitish fluid called seminal fluid, which mixes with sperm to form semen when a male is sexually stimulated. The penis, which usually

hangs limp, becomes hard when a male is sexually excited. Tissues in the penis fill with blood and it becomes stiff and erect (an erection). The rigidity of the erect penis makes it easier to insert into the female's vagina during sexual intercourse. When the erect penis is stimulated, muscles around the reproductive organs contract and force the semen through the duct system and urethra. Semen is pushed out of the male's body through his urethra this process is called ejaculation. Each time a guy ejaculates, it can contain up to 500 million sperm. When the male ejaculates during intercourse, semen is deposited into the female's vagina. From the vagina the sperm make their way up through the cervix and move through the uterus with help from uterine contractions. If a mature egg is in one of the female's fallopian tubes, a single sperm may penetrate it, and fertilization, or conception, occurs. This fertilized egg is now called a zygote and contains 46 chromosomes half from the egg and half from the sperm. The genetic material from the male and female has combined so that a new individual can be created. The zygote divides again and again as it grows in the female's uterus, maturing over the course of the pregnancy into an embryo, a fetus, and finally a newborn baby.

Things That Can Go Wrong With the Male Reproductive System


Boys may sometimes experience reproductive system problems, including: Disorders of the Scrotum, Testicles, or Epididymis Conditions affecting the scrotal contents may involve the testicles, epididymis, or the scrotum itself. Testicular trauma. Even a mild injury to the testicles can cause severe pain, bruising, or swelling. Most testicular injuries occur when the testicles are struck, hit, kicked, or crushed, usually during sports or due to other trauma. Testicular torsion, when one of the testicles twists around, cutting off its blood supply, is also a problem that some teen males experience, although it's not common. Surgery is needed to untwist the cord and save the testicle. Varicocele. This is a varicose vein (an abnormally swollen vein) in the network of veins that run from the testicles. Varicoceles commonly develop while a boy is going through puberty. A varicocele is usually not harmful, although it can

damage the testicle or decrease sperm production. Take your son to see his doctor if he is concerned about changes in his testicles. Testicular cancer. This is one of the most common cancers in men younger than 40. It occurs when cells in the testicle divide abnormally and form a tumor. Testicular cancer can spread to other parts of the body, but if it's detected early, the cure rate is excellent. Teen boys should be encouraged to learn to perform testicular self-examinations. Epididymitis is inflammation of the epididymis, the coiled tubes that connect the testes with the vas deferens. It is usually caused by an infection, such as the sexually transmitted disease chlamydia, and results in pain and swelling next to one of the testicles. Hydrocele. A hydrocele occurs when fluid collects in the membranes surrounding the testes. Hydroceles may cause swelling in the scrotum around the testicle but are generally painless. In some cases, surgery may be needed to correct the condition. Inguinal hernia. When a portion of the intestines pushes through an abnormal opening or weakening of the abdominal wall and into the groin or scrotum, it is known as an inguinal hernia. The hernia may look like a bulge or swelling in the groin area. It can be corrected with surgery.

Disorders of the Penis Disorders affecting the penis include:

Inflammation of the penis. Symptoms of penile inflammation include redness, itching, swelling, and pain. Balanitis occurs when the glans (the head of the penis) becomes inflamed. Posthitis is foreskin inflammation, which is usually due to a yeast or bacterial infection. Hypospadias. This is a disorder in which the urethra opens on the underside of the penis, not at the tip. Phimosis. This is a tightness of the foreskin of the penis and is common in newborns and young children. It usually resolves itself without treatment. If it interferes with urination, circumcision (removal of the foreskin) may be recommended. Paraphimosis. This may develop when the foreskin of a boy's uncircumcised penis is retracted (pulled down to expose the glans) and becomes trapped so it can't be returned to the unretracted position. As a result, blood flow to the head of

the penis may be impaired, and your son may experience pain and swelling. A doctor may use lubricant to make a small incision so the foreskin can be pulled forward. If that doesn't work, circumcision may be recommended. Ambiguous genitalia. This occurs when a child is born with genitals that aren't clearly male or female. In most boys born with this disorder, the penis may be very small or nonexistent, but testicular tissue is present. In a small number of cases, the child may have both testicular and ovarian tissue. Micropenis. This is a disorder in which the penis, although normally formed, is well below the average size, as determined by standard measurements

The Female Reproductive System


Your Guide to the Female Reproductive System
The female reproductive system is designed to carry out several functions. It produces the female egg cells necessary for reproduction, called the ova or oocytes. The system is designed to transport the ova to the site of fertilization. Conception, the fertilization of an egg by a sperm, normally occurs in the fallopian tubes. The next step for the fertilized egg is to implant into the walls of the uterus, beginning the intitial stages of pregnancy. If fertilization and/or implantation does not take place, the system is designed to menstruate (the monthly shedding of the uterine lining). In addition, the female reproductive system produces female sex hormones that maintain the reproductive cycle. During menopause the female reproductive system gradually stops making the female hormones necessary for the reproductive cycle to work. When the body no longer produces these hormones a woman is considered to be menopausal. What Parts Make Up the Female Anatomy? The female reproductive anatomy includes internal and external structures.

The function of the external female reproductive structures (the genital) is twofold: To enable sperm to enter the body and to protect the internal genital organs from infectious organisms. The main external structures of the female reproductive system include:

Labia majora: The labia majora enclose and protect the other external reproductive organs. Literally translated as "large lips," the labia majora are relatively large and fleshy, and are comparable to the scrotum in males. The labia majora contain sweat and oil-secreting glands. After puberty, the labia majora are covered with hair. Labia minora: Literally translated as "small lips," the labia minora can be very small or up to 2 inches wide. They lie just inside the labia majora, and surround the openings to the vagina (the canal that joins the lower part of the uterus to the outside of the body) and urethra (the tube that carries urine from the bladder to the outside of the body). Bartholin's glands: These glands are located next to the vaginal opening and produce a fluid (mucus) secretion. Clitoris: The two labia minora meet at the clitoris, a small, sensitive protrusion that is comparable to the penis in males. The clitoris is covered by a fold of skin, called the prepuce, which is similar to the foreskin at the end of the penis. Like the penis, the clitoris is very sensitive to stimulation and can become erect.

The internal reproductive organs include:


Vagina: The vagina is a canal that joins the cervix (the lower part of uterus) to the outside of the body. It also is known as the birth canal. Uterus (womb): The uterus is a hollow, pear-shaped organ that is the home to adeveloping fetus. The uterus is divided into two parts: the cervix, which is the lower part that opens into the vagina, and the main body of the uterus, called the corpus. The corpus can easily expand to hold a developing baby. A channel through the cervix allows sperm to enter and menstrual blood to exit. Ovaries: The ovaries are small, oval-shaped glands that are located on either side of the uterus. The ovaries produce eggs and hormones. Fallopian tubes: These are narrow tubes that are attached to the upper part of the uterus and serve as tunnels for the ova (egg cells) to travel from the ovaries to the uterus. Conception, the fertilization of an egg by a sperm, normally occurs in the fallopian tubes. The fertilized egg then moves to the uterus, where it implants to the uterine wall.

What Happens During the Menstrual Cycle? Females of reproductive age experience cycles of hormonal activity that repeat at about one-month intervals. With every cycle, a woman's body prepares for a potential pregnancy, whether or not that is the woman's intention. The term menstruation refers to the periodic shedding of the uterine lining. The average menstrual cycle takes about 28 days and occurs in phases: the follicular phase, the ovulatory phase (ovulation), and the luteal phase. There are four major hormones (chemicals that stimulate or regulate the activity of cells or organs) involved in the menstrual cycle: follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, estrogen, and progesterone. Follicular Phase This phase starts on the first day of your period. During the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle, the following events occur:

Two hormones, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) are released from the brain and travel in the blood to the ovaries. The hormones stimulate the growth of about 15-20 eggs in the ovaries each in its own "shell," called a follicle. These hormones (FSH and LH) also trigger an increase in the production of the female hormone estrogen.

As estrogen levels rise, like a switch, it turns off the production of follicle-stimulating hormone. This careful balance of hormones allows the body to limit the number of follicles that complete maturation, or growth. As the follicular phase progresses, one follicle in one ovary becomes dominant and continues to mature. This dominant follicle suppresses all of the other follicles in the group. As a result, they stop growing and die. The dominant follicle continues to produce estrogen. Ovulatory Phase The ovulatory phase, or ovulation, starts about 14 days after the follicular phase started. The ovulatory phase is the midpoint of the menstrual cycle, with the next menstrual period starting about two weeks later. During this phase, the following events occur:

The rise in estrogen from the dominant follicle triggers a surge in the amount of luteinizing hormone that is produced by the brain. This causes the dominant follicle to release its egg from the ovary. As the egg is released (a process called ovulation) it is captured by finger-like projections on the end of the fallopian tubes (fimbriae). The fimbriae sweep the egg into the tube. Also during this phase, there is an increase in the amount and a change in the consistency of mucus produced by the cervix (lower part of the uterus.) If a woman were to have intercourse during this time, this receptive mucus captures the man's sperm, nourishes it, and helps it to move towards the egg for fertilization. Luteal Phase The luteal phase begins right after ovulation and involves the following processes:

Once it releases its egg, the empty follicle develops into a new structure called the corpus luteum. The corpus luteum secretes the hormone progesterone. Progesterone prepares the uterus for a fertilized egg to implant. If intercourse has taken place and a man's sperm has fertilized the egg (a process called conception), the fertilized egg (embryo) will travel through the fallopian tube to implant in the uterus. The woman is now considered pregnant. If the egg is not fertilized, it passes through the uterus. Not needed to support a pregnancy, the lining of the uterus breaks down and sheds, and the next menstrual period begins.

How Many Eggs Does a Woman Have? The vast majority of the eggs within the ovaries steadily die, until they are depleted at menopause. At birth, there are approximately 1 million eggs; and by the time of puberty, only about 300,000 remain. Of these, 300 to 400 will be ovulated during a woman's reproductive lifetime. The eggs continue to degenerate during pregnancy, with the use of birth control pills, and in the presence or absence of regular menstrual cycles.

The Menstrual Cycle

Overview Menstruation is outward proof that a girl is becoming a woman. If you're a teenage girl, you may have already started having a period. If you have not, you might be anxious about the subject or a bit concerned.

During puberty, hormones are released from the brain and stimulate the ovaries. The ovaries produce estrogen and progesterone, hormones that cause the eggs in the ovaries to mature so the woman can become pregnant. Every month, one egg leaves one of the ovaries on its way to the uterus via the fallopian tubes. Meanwhile, in preparation for the egg, the uterus starts to develop a thicker lining and its walls become cushiony (this is called the endometrial lining). If the egg reaches the uterus and is fertilized by a sperm cell due to sexual intercourse, it attaches to the endometrial lining and the woman becomes pregnant. Most of the time, the egg just passes through without fertilization. Since the uterus no longer needs the extra blood and tissue to make the walls thick, it sheds them by way of the vagina once a month. This cycle will happen until the ovaries stop releasing eggs several decades later. Symptoms Periods are different for every woman. Some girls start menstruation when they are nine or 10 years old, while some do not start until their late teens. The length of the cycle also varies. The cycle between menstruation usually lasts about 28 days. If you have just begun your menstruation, your body will need time to regulate itself to these changes so your periods might be a bit erratic. You may have two cycles in one month but miss having one the next month. The length of your period also varies. Some girls have their periods for only three or four days, while others have them for as long as a week. The amount of blood can vary from woman to woman also. Some girls may have body and/or mood changes around the time of their period. Menstrual cramps are a pretty common side effect during the first few days of your period. These cramps tend to become less uncomfortable and sometimes even disappear as a girl gets older. Over-thecounter pain medication like ibuprofen or acetaminophen can often give relief. As your period approaches, you may experience something called premenstrual syndrome (PMS). Most likely caused by the rise and fall of hormones during a menstrual cycle, PMS often causes amplified emotions. Many women get depressed, irritated and angry, while others cry more than usual. It often causes cravings for certain foods. Many women also feel bloated because of water retention. When your period begins, PMS usually goes away. You may also have acne flare-ups during or around the time of your period.

Treatment Periods are a complex part of puberty, but are your body's way of telling you it is functioning properly. You can still exercise, swim and do everything you enjoy.

Diseases (Reproductive System)

Reproductive System Diseases: Women Amenorrhea It refers to a condition in which an individual fails to menstruate. There are two types of amenorrhea -primary and secondary amenorrhea. Primary Amenorrhea is the abnormal delay of menstrual cycle, and secondary amenorrhea happens in women who have not reached premenopausal age. Cervical Erosion It is the condition in which ulcers are formed in the cervix region. It is characterized by bright red and pink spots, around the cervical opening. During the beginning of the disease, patches of mucus are discarded by the body. This is then followed up by different levels of remedial measures. Cervicitis This is essentially an inflammation of uterine cervix. Many mucus glands are present in this region, which keep the vagina lubricated. Nonetheless, this creates a conducive environment for the growth of microbes and other bacteria. Thus, infections in the vagina can be transmitted to the uterine cervix leading to inflammation of cervix. Oligomenorrhea It is a condition characterized by prolonged gaps between two menses. Normally a woman menstruates every 25-30 days, though in Oligomenorrhea, women only menstruate for 4 to 9 times in a year. This condition is caused due to deficiency in estrogen and might lead to infertility. Puerperal Fever This is also known as childbed fever as it occurs within 10 days of childbirth or miscarriage. The raw placenta becomes very prone to lacerations and infections after the separation. It is characterized by very high fever, and requires medical attention.

Endometriosis It occurs when endometrium, which normally lines a uterus, grows in other places. The most common incursions are the fallopian tubes, tissue lining a womans pelvis and ovaries. The problem occurs because the blood normally passing during the menstruation is trapped from this displaced lining, and irritates the surrounding tissues. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) refers to the condition of the ovaries in affected women where they are enlarged and covered in numerous small cysts. It is a common hormonal disorder in women of reproductive age. It is characterized by abnormal menstrual periods and excess hair growth. If undiagnosed in the early stages can result in long-term complications and risks. Reproductive System Diseases: Men Gynecomastia This disease is due to abnormal enlargement of breasts in men. It is mainly credited to hormonal imbalance. Once the male hormone androgen takes over after puberty, the development of breasts stops. Typically, Gynecomastia afflicts only one breast. Hydrocele This disease is characterized by accumulation of fluids in and around testes. This is usually reported in older males of aged 40 and above. The causes of Hydrocele are a direct physical injury to testes or could be an internal disturbances. This is an asymptomatic condition and if left untreated may lead to testicular tumors. Priapism This disorder refers to painful erection. In this condition, the enlarged part becomes tender and painful leading to constant pain during erection. Although the individual may experience pleasurable sensation for some time, the pain erupts again.

Prostate Disorders This refers to prostate gland, which is a major functional gland in men. Any abnormality or dysfunction in this gland results in excess of diseases and disorders. These diseases of prostrate mainly afflict men in their sixties and seventies. Syphilis It is a sexually transmitted bacterial infection. It starts as a painless sore on the genitals, other body parts, or mouth. It can lead to serious complications if left untreated such as seizures, dementia, and blindness.

Diagram of Reproductive System ( Male)

Diagram of The Female Reproductive System

The Diagram of The Circulatory System