ECDL Module 1

Concepts of IT
Windows Vista / Microsoft Office 2007 – Syllabus Five

ECDL Module 1 – Page 2
HARDWARE CONCEPTS Hardware. What is a personal computer? Apple computers Laptop & palmtop computers Features of handheld portable digital devices Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) Mobile Phones (cell Phones) Media players Smartphones Parts of a computer The CPU Memory (RAM) ROM-BIOS Disks The Hard (Fixed) Disk INPUT/OUTPUT PORTS Universal Serial Bus (USB) Port Serial Port Parallel Port Network Port FireWire Port COMPUTER PERFORMANCE Factors affecting computer performance CPU Clock speed RAM size Hard disk speed and storage Free hard disk space De-fragmenting files Multitasking considerations CPU speeds MEMORY AND STORAGE What is computer memory? RAM ROM ROM-BIOS Video (graphics) memory Measurement of storage capacity Types of storage media Internal hard disks External hard disks CDs DVDs Recordable CD & DVD drives USB flash drives (memory sticks) Memory cards Network drives and on-line file storage Floppy disks (diskettes) INPUT DEVICES Input devices Keyboard Mouse Scanners Tracker balls Touch pads Joysticks Web cams 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 8 8 8 9 9 9 10 10 10 10 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 12 12 12 12 12 12 13 13 13 13 13 13 14 14 14 15 15 15 15 15 16 16 16 16 16 16 17 17 17 17 17 18 18

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Digital Cameras Microphones OUTPUT DEVICES Output devices Traditional computer monitor Flat screen computer monitor Flat screen computer screens Projection devices Speakers and headphones Speech synthesizers Printers Different types of printers Laser printers Colour laser printers Inkjet printers Dot Matrix printers INPUT AND OUTPUT DEVICES Some devices are both input and output devices SOFTWARE CONCEPTS What is software? What is an operating system? Examples of software applications Word processing applications Spreadsheets applications Database applications Presentation applications E-mailing applications Web browsing applications Photo editing applications Computer games Difference between the operating system and application programs Accessibility options Voice recognition software Screen reader software Screen magnifier software On-screen keyboard NETWORKS NETWORK TYPES LAN (Local Area Network) WLAN (Wireless Local Area Network) WAN (Wide Area Network) Client/server networks Internet World Wide Web (WWW) vs. the Internet Intranets Extranets DATA TRANSFER Downloading from & uploading to a network Data transfer rate measurement Broadband vs. dial-up Internet connection services Internet connection options Features of a broadband Internet connection ICT IN EVERYDAY LIFE 18 18 18 19 19 19 19 19 20 20 20 20 20 21 21 21 21 21 22 22 22 22 23 23 23 23 24 24 24 24 24 25 25 25 25 26 27 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 29 29 29 29 30 30 30 30 30 32

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ELECTRONIC WORLD What does ‘Information and Communication Technology’ (ICT) mean? Internet services for consumers E-commerce Advantages of e-commerce Disadvantages of e-commerce E-banking E-government E-learning Uses of computer applications in education Tele-working Some of the advantages of tele-working Some of the disadvantages of tele-working COMMUNICATION Electronic mail (e-mail) Instant messaging (IM) Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) Really Simple Syndication (RSS) feeds Blogging (web logs) Podcasts VIRTUAL COMMUNITIES Online (virtual) communities Social networking websites Internet forums (message boards / discussion boards) Chat rooms Online computer games Publishing and sharing content online Sharing photos, video and audio clips Precautions when accessing online communities HEALTH What is ergonomics? Repetitive Strain Injury (RSI) Lighting issues when using a computer Screen and keyboard positioning Seating issues when using a computer Wellbeing when using a computer Make sure that cables are safely secured Make sure that power points are not overloaded ENVIRONMENT Computer recycling options Computer energy saving options SECURITY IDENTITY/AUTHENTICATION Computer logon user name (ID) and password Password policies DATA SECURITY Off-site backups Why do you need to back your computer? Organising your computer for more efficient backups Complete vs. incremental backups What is a firewall? Data theft issues VIRUSES Computer viruses Computer viruses infection issues 32 32 32 32 32 33 34 34 34 34 35 35 36 36 37 37 37 37 37 38 38 38 38 38 38 39 39 39 39 40 40 40 40 40 41 41 41 41 41 42 42 43 43 43 43 43 43 44 44 44 44 44 45 45 45

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ECDL Module 1 – Page 5
Protecting against computer virus infection What to do if you discover a virus on your computer The limitations of anti virus software LEGAL ISSUES COPYRIGHT What is copyright? Copyright Issues when copying files SITE LICENSES Site licences are used by larger organisations Checking software licence status What is an ‘end-user license agreement’ within Office 2007 software Types of licence agreement What is shareware? What is freeware? Open source software DATA PROTECTION Data Protection and Privacy Issues Data Protection Legislation Data protection legislation relating to those that keeps data (data collectors) Data protection legislation relating to individuals about which data is stored (data subjects) ABBREVIATIONS & TERMINOLOGY 45 45 46 47 47 47 47 48 48 49 49 49 49 49 50 50 50 50 51 51 52

Note: The


refers to a video clip that can be found in the folder named clips

Kullegg San Gorg Preca – Liceo Subien

The term PC compatible relates to PCs manufactured by companies other than IBM which are compatible with the traditional PC specification. but NOT a PC. Doctors. These days most PCs will be running a version of Microsoft Windows such as Microsoft Vista. most PCs ran an operating system called DOS (Disk Operating System). Normally measured in GHz. Even the hardware add-ons have to be customised to some extent to be able to be connected to a Mac. Costs: Getting cheaper by the day. It uses a different operating system. mouse. All PCs released since then are in many ways compatible with the original design. Typical Users: Home users. though many extensions have been made.ECDL Module 1 – Page 6 Hardwareaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaabbbbbibaa Concepts Hint Hardware • The term hardware refers to the physical components of your computer such as the system unit. keyboard. monitor etc. Capacity: Large hard disks combined with a large working memory (RAM) Speed: Fast. In the early days. large and small office users. In the early days the thing which really distinguished the Mac over the PC was the GUI (Graphical User Interface). What is a PC? • IBM invented the PC (Personal Computer) way back in 1981. or in plain Kullegg San Gorg Preca – Liceo Subien . and requires special versions of application programs (such as word-processors or spreadsheets). What is a Mac? • Hint The Apple Mac is a computer. In fact just about everyone needs to know how to operate a PC these days. Education.

While they tend to still be more expensive than an equivalent Desktop computer. “Notebooks”.Multimedia players Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) • • • These devices use a special pen. Like most computer devices.Mobile (Cell) phones . simply indicates a VERY small laptop. you really had to be a bit of an expert to use and maintain your PC. educational users. with Microsoft buying a stake in Apple. These are especially popular with salespersons on the move or people giving presentations. They use special screens. so there is a price overhead when compared to a PC of equivalent power. Cost: Components need to be much more compact.Smartphones . Normally measured in GHz. Often speed specifications are less than for a PC of equivalent price. which allows for longer battery life as well as portability. a clock and a calendar Many allow you to to send and receive emails and even browse the web. Speed: Fast. Features of handheld portable digital devices • A range of small portable digital devices are now available including: . What are laptop & palmtop computers? • Laptop computers. A newer term. PDAs have many built-in features such as a calculator. Kullegg San Gorg Preca – Liceo Subien .Personal digital assistants (PDAs) . Recently the differences between the PC and the Mac have blurred. Capacity: Large hard disks combined with a large memory (RAM) – Often less powerful than for a PC of equivalent price. Palmtops are even smaller computers which can literally fit into the palm of your hand. people on the move. Typical Users: Business users. are small portable computers which can run on batteries as well as mains power. rather than a keyboard and can be used for storing and retrieving information. many can connect to the Internet. they can now match the power of a Desktop computer. as the name implies.ECDL Module 1 – Page 7 English the way you could use the mouse to drive the computer. rather than the traditional bulky VDUs (Visual Display Units). They are extremely compact. In the early days of the PC.

sending and receiving e-mails. and videos. scanning bar codes. combine sound. recording survey responses. Many PDAs employ touch screen technology. Short Message Service (SMS). or only specific regions. typewriting and word processing. or Wireless Wide-Area Networks (WWANs). Capacity: Much smaller storage capacity compared to a PC. web browsers. all of which are different types of media. Speed: Much less than a PC unless you pay a lot extra. Smart phones Kullegg San Gorg Preca – Liceo Subien . or satphone is a type of mobile phone that connects to orbiting satellites instead of terrestrial cell sites. video recording. Most mobile phones provide voice communications. Mobile phones connect to a wireless communications network through radio wave or satellite transmissions. Mobile Phone • An electronic telecommunications device. satellite phone. and newer phones may also provide Internet services such as Web browsing and e-mail. enabling them to be used as mobile phones (smartphones). Newer PDA salsa have both colour screens and audio capabilities. Multimedia Message Service (MMS). Multimedia presentations. use as an address book. Typical Users: Mostly business users. often referred to as a cellular phone or cellphone. playing computer games. and Global Positioning System (GPS). making and writing on spreadsheets.ECDL Module 1 – Page 8 • PDAs can also be used for accessing the internet. • Media players • The form and technology used to communicate information. A satellite telephone. pictures. coverage may include the entire Earth. for example. or extranets via Wi-Fi. Depending on the architecture of a particular system. Costs: In relative terms expensive when compared to a PC.

In other words. It is the CPU which performs all the calculations within the computer.The hard disk . For others. a smartphone is a phone that runs complete operating system software providing a standardized interface and platform for application developers.Input and output devices The CPU • The CPU (Central Processing Unit) is normally an Intel Pentium (or equivalent) and it is one of the most important components within your computer. it is a miniature computer that has phone capability. It determines how fast your computer will run and is measured by its MHz or GHz speed. spreadsheets and databases. Bus: The computer bus transports data between the memory and registers. calling on the ALU when necessary.Types of memory .Central processing unit (CPU) . Memory (RAM) • The RAM (Random Access Memory) within your computer is where the operating system is loaded to when you switch on your computer and Kullegg San Gorg Preca – Liceo Subien . There is no industry standard definition of a smartphone. Parts of a computer • Hint You should understand some of the basic elements that make up a computer including: . For some.ECDL Module 1 – Page 9 • A smartphone is a mobile phone offering advanced capabilities. Thus. often with PC-like functionality (PC-mobile handset convergence). Registers: The registers are memory storage areas within the CPU that hold the data that is working on by the ALU. when running programs such as word-processors. a 2 GHz Pentium is much faster than say a 1 GHz Pentium CPU. Arithmetic logic unit (ALU): The ALU performs the arithmetic and logical operations. and/or a built-in full keyboard or external USB keyboard and VGA connector. The control unit (CU): The control unit extracts instructions from memory and decodes and executes them. Internet and e-book reader capabilities. a smartphone is simply a phone with advanced features like e-mail.

You plug cables into these ports to connect your computer to other devices. large data storage area within your computer. They are much faster than CD/DVDs and can also hold much more data. (e. scanners and cameras. Hard disks are used to store your operating system. your word processor. This can range from a memo created within a word processor to a video file created using a video camera. parallel. These include ports such as USB.Basic Input Output System) chip is a special chip held on your computer's system (mother) board. such as a word processor or database program.e. Hard disks are installed within the system unit of your computer. such as printers.ECDL Module 1 – Page 10 also where your applications are copied to when you start an application. Disks • You use disks to store any data that you create. Kullegg San Gorg Preca – Liceo Subien . letters and pictures). games etc) and your data. the more RAM you have installed in your computer the better. It contains software which is required to make your computer work with your operating system. ROM-BIOS • The ROM-BIOS (Read Only Memory . As a rule of thumb. your application programs (i. When you create data. There are many different types of disk. Hard (Fixed) Disk • Hard disks are the main. Input/output Ports • The Input and Output ports are normally located at the back or on the side of your computer. These days you will commonly find over 2 Gigabytes of RAM installed. The picture shows the inside of a hard disk (which you would not normally see).g. for instance it is responsible for copying your operating system into RAM when you switch on your computer. network and FireWire ports. these are initially created and held in RAM and then copied to disk when you save the data. serial.

types of graphics card processor and memory plus the number of applications running. Note: The parallel port used to be the main way the computer connected to a printer. It is important to realise that it is not just the speed of the CPU that effect Kullegg San Gorg Preca – Liceo Subien . These days you are more likely to use a USB cable to connect the computer to a printer. Most personal computers have both a parallel port and at least one serial port. RAM size. USB also supports Plug-and-Play installation and hot plugging. These include CPU speed. an external bus standard that supports data transfer rates of 12 Mbps. Parallel Port • A parallel interface for connecting an external device such as a printer. Computer Performance Factors affecting computer performance • There are a wide range of factors that can affect the performance of your computer. Network Port • The network port allows you to plug a ‘network cable’ into your computer. A single USB port can be used to connect up to 127 peripheral devices. modems. that can be used for serial communication. such as mice. in which only 1 bit is transmitted at a time. and keyboards. which then lets you communicate with other computers connected to your local network or to other computers via the Internet. Firewire Port • A very fast external bus standard that supports data transfer rates of up to 400Mbps (in 1394a) and 800Mbps (in 1394b).ECDL Module 1 – Page 11 Universal Serial Bus (USB) Port • Universal Serial Bus. or interface. Serial Port • A port.

De-fragmenting files • When a file is written to a disk. a volume can be defragmented. Microsoft Windows will create many so-called “Temporary files” which it uses for managing your programs. defined by the disk access time. RAM size • As a rule the more memory you have the faster the PC will appear to operate. However the more programs which are running at the same time. There is no point in having a very fast CPU if the other parts of a computer may slow down the real world performance. In fact. The smaller this access time the faster the hard disk will store or retrieve data. a task being a program. which is measured in milliseconds. To some extent this slowing Kullegg San Gorg Preca – Liceo Subien . because of the time it takes to move the read/write head of a hard drive. the process of moving file clusters on a disk to make them contiguous. The higher the clock speed the faster the computer will work for you. so logically the faster the hard disk can operate then again the faster the PC will appear to run. Windows also uses the hard disk a lot. Multitasking considerations • The ability to execute more than one task at the same time. • Defragmentation is the process of moving portions of files around on a disk to defragment files.ECDL Module 1 – Page 12 the overall performance of your computer. the file cannot be written in contiguous clusters. Free hard disk space • To get the most out of your Windows based PC. A file with noncontiguous clusters is fragmented. To optimize files for fast access. The data storage capacity of hard disks continues to increase as new products are released. Hard disk speed and storage • Hard disks are also measured by their speed. Noncontiguous clusters slow down the process of reading and writing a file. you not only need a fast hard disk but also a large hard disk with plenty of “spare space”. that is. The clock speed is given in megahertz (MHz). The disk storage capacity is measured in Gigabytes (GBytes). CPU Clock speed • The computer clock speed governs how fast the CPU will run. the worse the issue. This is due to the (Random Access Memory). the slower each one will run. The higher the MHz speed the faster the computer. The further apart on a disk the noncontiguous clusters are. if you have very little free hard disk space you may find that Microsoft Windows will not be able to run your programs at all. 1 GByte is equivalent to 1024 Mbytes.

so that 1 GHz = 1000 MHz. A good example is the ROM-BIOS chip. CPU speeds • The speed (operating frequency) of the CPU is measured in megahertz (MHz) or gigahertz (GHz). which contains software. Often network cards and video cards also contain ROM chips. As a rough rule. What is the ROM-BIOS? • The 'Read Only Memory Basic Input Output System' chip is a chip located on the computer's system (mother) board. Editing a large high definition video for instance can take up a lot of CPU time. When you first switch on the computer the ROM-BIOS software performs a selfKullegg San Gorg Preca – Liceo Subien . whereas a modern computer can effectively house as much RAM as you can afford to buy. What is ROM? • Hint Read Only Memory (ROM) as the name suggests is a special type of memory chip which holds software which can be read but not written to. it is this RAM which they are talking about. Data which is stored on a hard disk can be permanent. they are talking about RAM. while data which is being processed is stored in RAM (Random Access Memory). The higher the value the faster the CPU will operate.77 MHz whereas modern PCs can run at over 4000MHz. Memory and Storage What is computer memory? • You can store data on your hard disk. it is copied into RAM. while data in RAM is only temporary. This software performs a variety of tasks. Data and programs stored in RAM are volatile (i. Commonly modern computers are supplied with over 2 GB of RAM.ECDL Module 1 – Page 13 effect depends on what each program is doing. The original IBM PC could only use up to 640 KB of memory (just over half a megabyte). • 1 MHz means that the device will run at one million cycles per second. What is RAM? • Random Access Memory (RAM) is the main 'working' memory used by the computer. which gives you an idea of how far things have progressed. 1GHz is a thousand times faster. When adverts refer to a computer having 128 Mbytes of memory.e. The original IBM PC released way back in 1981 ran at 4. When the operating system loads from disk when you first switch on the computer. Normally when people talk about memory in relation to a PC. a Microsoft Windows based computer will operate faster if you install more RAM. the information is lost when you switch off the computer). which contains read-only software.

external hard disks. for instance a flash drive is great for quickly transferring relative small amounts of data from one computer to another. A digital computer uses the numbers 0 and 1 (or on and off if you prefer). Software is also described as 16 bit. USB flash drives.000. This software then loads your operating system from the disk into the RAM. Terabyte: A terabyte (TB) consists of approximately 1. The on-screen pictures are held in special memory chips called video memory chips. This 1 or 0 level of storage is called a bit. internal hard disk. these chips are usually located on the video card. Measurement of storage capacity It is important to understand the following terminology: Basic Units of Data Storage: It is important to realise that the term digital computer refers to the fact that ultimately the computer works in what is called binary.000. Kullegg San Gorg Preca – Liceo Subien . Often hardware is specified as a 32-bit computer.000. Humans work in tens (because we have 10 fingers). network drives and on-line file storage.000. i. When we talk about computer storage. approximately 1. approximately 1. Byte: A byte consists of eight bits. Some are more suitable than others for a particular job. DVDs. which means that the hardware can process 32 bits at a time. Types of storage media • These days area range of storage media to choose from including CDs. What is video (graphics) memory? • The picture which you see on your screen is a form of data and this data has to be stored somewhere. they process data in ones or zeros.000 bytes.000. 32 bit or 64 bit software. A modern computer will be supplied with several Megabytes of video memory. memory cards. Bit: All computers work on a binary numbering system. either the amount of memory (RAM) or the hard disk capacity we are talking about numbers which are multiples of 0 or 1. Gigabyte: A gigabyte (GB) consists of 1024 megabytes.ECDL Module 1 – Page 14 diagnostic to check that the computer is working OK. Megabyte: A megabyte (MB) consists of 1024 kilobytes.000.000 bytes.e.000 bytes. To use the jargon humans work in base 10. Kilobyte: A kilobyte (KB) consists of 1024 bytes.

which contain vastly more information than a traditional CD-ROM disk.e. A double-sided DVD increases the storage capacity to 17 GB (or over 25 times the data storage capacity of a CD-ROM). Recordable CD &DVD Drives • CD-ROMs are read-only devices. This means that you can own a range of different CD-ROMs and choose which one to insert into your CD-ROM drive. CD-ROM discs look exactly like music CDs but contain computer data instead of music.7 GB of data. large data storage area within your computer. The advantage of a CDROM is that it can hold a vast amount of data (equivalent to the storage capacity of over 450 floppy disks). Hard disks are used to store your operating system. called CD-R (Compact Disc – Recordable). These devices require the purchase of special CDs to which you can write. IEEE 1394 Firewire. DVD Drives • Short for "Digital Versatile Disk”. or SCSI hard drives in portable disk enclosures with SCSI. while a single-layer. A CD-ROM can store 650 MB of data. Hard disks are installed within the system unit of your computer. your application programs (i. allowing you to watch movies on your computer screen. single-sided DVD can store 4. Kullegg San Gorg Preca – Liceo Subien . The two-layer DVD standard allows a capacity of 8. IDE. games etc) and your data. music or video to your own CDs. but increasingly people are purchasing a special type of CD drive unit which allows you to record data.ECDL Module 1 – Page 15 Internal Hard Disk • Hard disks are the main.5 GB. eSATA client interfaces to connect to the host computer. USB. your word processor. These also transfer the data from the disk to the computer far faster. Similar to CD-ROM drives but allows you to use DVD disks. External Hard Disk • An external hard disk drive is a type of hard disk drive which is externally connected to a computer. CDs • Most computers are now supplied with a CD-ROM (Compact Disc Read Only Memory) drive. The other big advantage of CDROMs is that they are interchangeable. Modern entries into the market consist of standard SATA. They are much faster than CD-ROMs and can also hold much more data. The picture shows the inside of a hard disk (which you would not normally see).

as diskettes are notoriously unreliable this is not the best way of backing up valuable data (but is better than nothing). USB flash drives are touted as being easy-to-use as they are small enough to be carried in a pocket and can plug into any computer with a USB drive. on a network server. Sometimes people will backup (i. Flash memory is nonvolatile. However. handheld devices and other small electronic devices.ECDL Module 1 – Page 16 USB flash drives (memory sticks) • A small. Memory cards • Memory cards are a popular storage medium for many of today's consumer electronics devices.e. • Input devices allow you to input information into the computer and include things such as the keyboard and mouse. that is the memory card will not lose its data when removed from the device. This means that your data is safely backed up for you. Network drives and on-line file storage • Within an office it is normal that the computers are connected together via a network. including digital cameras. This network server should be backed up by the IT support staff on a daily basis.44 Mbytes). This allows you to store your data centrally. • Floppy disks (diskettes) • Floppy disks are also known as diskettes. portable flash memory card that plugs into a computer’s USB port and functions as a portable hard drive. but they are smaller and more durable because they do not contain any internal moving parts. USB flash drives have less storage capacity than an external hard drive. They are very slow compared to hard disks or CD-ROMs. Kullegg San Gorg Preca – Liceo Subien . Alternatively you may create and store your data on your own PC or laptop and periodically copy it across the network to be stored safely on a central network server. copy) important data from their hard disk to floppy disks. and the cards can also be erased or reformatted and reused. and hold relatively small amounts of data (1. In many companies network software automatically backs up selected folder or each computer to the central server. cellphones. Input Devices Input devices.

They may take a while to get used to if you are used to the traditional mouse. The Mouse • The mouse came into common use on a PC with the introduction of the Microsoft Windows operating system. You can scan pictures and then manipulate these inside the PC using a graphics application of your choice. including those specially designed for use with Microsoft Windows. Touch Pads • A touch pad is a desktop device and responds to pressure. digital artwork. Tracker balls often give much finer control over the movement of the items on the screen. Scanners • A scanner allows you to scan printed material and convert it into a file format which may be used within the PC. There are a number of different types. These days it is vital to be a competent mouse user. but offer a lot in terms of added flexibility. the operating system (DOS) would normally be controlled via the keyboard. a commonly used model now has a small wheel on it which when combined with the correct software allows additional functionality and fine control over the use of your applications. There are a number of specialist programs. generically called OCR (Optical Character Recognition) programs which are specifically designed for converting printed text into editable text within your applications. Kullegg San Gorg Preca – Liceo Subien .ECDL Module 1 – Page 17 The Keyboard • The keyboard is still the commonest way of entering information into a computer. actual text which can be manipulated and edited as text within your word-processor. Tracker Balls • A tracker ball is an alternative to the traditional mouse and favoured by graphic designers. you can scan printed text and convert this not just to a picture of the text but also to. The quality of the keyboard is often overlooked when buying a PC. it should be robust and easy to use. In addition. There are many different types of mice. Before this. Used in conjunction with a special pen they can be used by graphic artists wishing to create original.

Whilst still not perfect this is a key technology of the future. It takes an awful lot of CPU processing power to convert the spoken word into text which appears on the screen. the more sophisticated respond to movement in 3 axis directions. While not yet considered a standard piece of PC kit. as well as having a number of configurable buttons. due to the limitations of the software combined with hardware limitations. Microphones • Early voice recognition systems offered very poor results. the images are stored digitally in memory housed within the camera. Most of these systems require an initial training period. but instead of storing images on rolls of film which require developing. Output Devices Kullegg San Gorg Preca – Liceo Subien . the Web has become increasingly interactive. Like most things in life you get what you pay for with joysticks and it is worth investing in a good. You can now use a small digital movie camera (a Web cam) mounted on the PC monitor to allow two-way communication involving not just text communication but sound and video communication as well. There are many different types. These pictures can easily be transferred to your computer and then manipulated within any graphics programs which you have installed on your computer. where you train the software to respond to your particular voice. Things are changing rapidly however and recent systems allow you to talk to a PC and see text appear on the screen.ECDL Module 1 – Page 18 Joysticks • Many games require a joystick for the proper playing of the game. Currently they are limited by the quality of the image recorded and the number of pictures which you may store within the camera. Web Cams • Ever since it was invented. strongly constructed model. especially bearing in mind that children will hammer these devices whilst playing games. it is only a matter of time … Digital Cameras • A digital camera can be used in the same way a traditional camera can.

In many applications. Flat panel displays balance their smaller footprint and trendy modern look with high production costs and in many cases inferior images compared with traditional CRTs. When purchasing one of these devices the two things to look out for are the resolution (go for a minimum of XGA) and the brightness of the lamp (the brighter the better). specifically modern portable devices such as laptops. speakers and headphones. such as Microsoft PowerPoint. They are used within education and are also very popular for sales presentations. They were supplied in different sizes. and are usually less than 4 inches (100 mm) thick. cellular phones. Kullegg San Gorg Preca – Liceo Subien . The original computer monitors were TV type screens on which you viewed your programs. • Computer presentation projection devices • These are projection devices which can be attached to your computer and are useful for displaying presentations to a group of people. The price of these devices has dropped dramatically recently. whatever disadvantages exist are overcome by the portability requirements. They can be divided into two general categories: Volatile or Static. Flat screen computer screens • Flat panel displays encompass a growing number of technologies enabling video displays that are lighter and much thinner than traditional television and video displays that use cathode ray tubes. You should be aware that poor quality or badly maintained monitors could harm your eyesight. as well as the cost of replacement bulbs. Other factors to be aware of are the quietness (or otherwise) of the device.ECDL Module 1 – Page 19 Output devices • Include items such as screens (monitors. Traditional computer monitor • An output device. They are best used in combination with presentation programs. printers. and digital cameras. common sizes range from 15” to 21” screens.

In large organisations. in some cases. In fact. the printers are connected to the computers via a network. Most computers allow you to plug headphones into one of the computer sockets. When you buy a printer. In most organisations. On the flip side. laser printers are most commonly used because they can print very fast and give a very high quality output. This is of enormous benefit to the visually impaired when using a computer. Ink jet printers can work out even more expensive to run. Thus. Each computer connected to the network can print using a particular shared printer. one of the things the salesperson will not necessarily stress is how much it will cost to keep that printer running. This is useful as the sound will then not annoy others in the room. Printers • Most data is printed once you have created it and there are a vast number of different printers available to accomplish this.ECDL Module 1 – Page 20 Speakers and headphones • • Most computers are sold with the capability to add a pair of speakers to your system unit. Laser printers do not use ink: they use something called toner which is normally supplied in a sealed unit called a toner cartridge is very high. it is now possible to use a microphone to talk to the computer and for the computer to directly convert the spoken word into text which will be displayed within say your word-processor. you could receive a text email from a colleague and the system could read that email to you. Most common are ink jet and laser printers both of which can now produce coloured output (at a cost) Different types of printer • • There are many different types of printers. Whilst these systems are far from foolproof they are getting better as more advanced software is being made available. Laser printers Kullegg San Gorg Preca – Liceo Subien . This means that each person with a computer does not require his or her own printer. the monitor may have speakers built directly into the unit. This enhances the value of educational and presentation products and can now be considered a standard PC component. Speech synthesizers • A recent development is the ability not only to display text on a monitor but also to read the text to you.

The more pins the print head has the higher the quality of the print.g. Kullegg San Gorg Preca – Liceo Subien . Input and Output Devices Input/Output devices • Some devices are both input and output devices. and accept input when people touch the menus displayed on the screen. most laser printers would only print in black and white (mono). you should be aware of the fact that the "price per page". printing letters in a small office or in the home. the inkjet printer has now largely replaced the dot matrix printer. a type of printer which is designed to give very high quality reproduction of pictures.ECDL Module 1 – Page 21 • Laser printers produce high print quality at high speed. They are called "laser printers" due to the fact that they contain a small laser within them. though laser printers still have the edge in terms of speed. especially when printing graphics. A modem can be used for downloading information from web sites and receiving emails. most modern dot matrix printers have 24 pins. Unfortunately. especially if you are using a lot of colour on a page can be very high compared to the cost of printing in black and white. printing company pay slips.g. More recently colour laser printers have dropped in price and are entering wide spread use. A touch screen can display a menu system (output device). Colour laser printers • Originally. There is a wide range of laser printer manufacturers and one buzzword to be aware of is Postscript. Inkjet printers • Inkjet printers work by using tiny jets to spray ink onto the paper. Inkjet printers are ideal for low volume printing where high quality print is required and speed is not a high priority. It can also be used for uploading and sending emails. As a result. While many of these produce excellent results. e. dot matrix printers can generate a lot of noise and do not produce a very high quality of print. Inkjet printers are very quiet in operation and produce print quality comparable to that of laser printers. Dot Matrix printers • Dot matrix printers work by firing a row of pins through an ink ribbon onto the paper. e. Dot matrix printers are used for high volume / low quality printing.

Later on. there are a number of different types of Windows.ECDL Module 1 – Page 22 Softwarea aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaabbbbbibaa Concepts What is software? • Hint The software is the collection of instructions which makes the computer work. The operating system allows you to use the advanced features of a modern computer without having to learn all the details of how the hardware works. you could 'drive' it using a mouse and drop down menus.e. such as those manufactured by Apple have a completely different operating system. when you type in words via the keyboard.linux. IBM produced an operating system called OS/2 but this was largely ignored and is only used by a few companies. It was NOT user-friendly. To complicate matters further. different releases of Windows were introduced. Other types of computers. This was more powerful than DOS and far easier to use. as and when CD-Rom. the software is responsible for displaying the correct letters. Later. and you had to be a bit of a computer expert just to understand how to use it. Microsoft Windows: Microsoft: http://www. To complicate matters further. copied) from the disk into the computers RAM (Random Access Memory). The IBM PC (Personal Computer) was introduced way back in 1981 and was originally supplied with an operating system called DOS (Disk Operating System). Most people are today running either Windows XP or Windows Software is held either on your computer’s hard disk. there are a number of different types of Windows. UNIX and Linux are other examples of operating systems which may be run on PCs. There are a number of different types of operating system in common use. i. The first widely used version of Windows was called Windows • • • • Kullegg San Gorg Preca – Liceo Subien .www. For instance. It had a Graphical User Interface (GUI). DVD or on a diskette (floppy disk) and is loaded ( Linux: IBM OS/2: http://www. in the correct place on the screen. Microsoft introduced Windows and this is the operating system which is most widely used on PCs today. What is an Operating System? • Hint The operating system is a special type of program which loads automatically when you start your computer. This operating system was very basic.

com/office/excel Lotus 123 UNIX: manuals etc).lotus.www..nsf/welcome/lotus123 Databases • A database program (such as Microsoft Access) allows you to compile information and then to search this information to extract just the Kullegg San Gorg Preca – Liceo Subien . individually addressed to customers or subscribers. memos etc). Microsoft Excel http://www. databases (for organising large amounts of information).nsf/welcome/wordpro WordPerfect http://www. easily.htm Lotus Word Pro etc. expenditure and then calculate the balance. It is important that you recognise examples of application programs covering the following areas: Word processing Spreadsheets Databases Presentations E-mailing Web browsing Photo editing Computer games • Word processing • A word processing program (such as Microsoft Word) allows you to produce letters.corel. games programs and graphics programs (for producing pictures.ECDL Module 1 – Page 23 Linux: http://www. You can easily mail merge a list of names and addresses to produce mass Spreadsheets • A spreadsheet program (such as Microsoft Excel) allows you to work out a company’s income. Microsoft Word What is an application program? • An application program is the type of program which you use once the operating system has been loaded.www. Examples include word-processing programs (for producing letters. It enables you to make 'what if' type projections of how the company will fair in the future and to forecast how changes in prices will affect profits. spreadsheets (for doing accounts and working with numbers). advertisements.unix.lotus.

Examples include Photoshop from Adobe and Paint Shop Pro from Correl. which can be printed out directly onto slides for use with an overhead Microsoft Access Mozilla Firefox Lotus Approach http://www. you can display your presentations directly on a computer screen or via a computerised Lotus Freelance Netscape Navigator contact and colour balance.nsf/welcome/approach Presentation • A presentation program (such as Microsoft PowerPoint) allows you to produce professional looking presentations. You can apply interesting special effects and filters to visually enhance your photographs. For instance. Microsoft PowerPoint http://www. The level of graphical detail on screen gets better each year. to the ‘shoot them up’ variety. Kullegg San Gorg Preca – Liceo Subien . As the name suggests you use these to send and receive emails.lotus.netscape. Alternatively. Microsoft Internet Explorer Photo editing • These programs allow you to edit digital photos. Microsoft Outlook is supplied within Microsoft Office. You can adjust items such as the picture brightness. if you have a database of all the equipment housed within an office you can very simply produce a report listing only the equipment above a certain value. Web browsing • Applications used to view and interact with the World Wide Web (WWW). Computer games • Computer games started off as simple bat and ball games and today have evolved into an enormous worldwide E-mailing • There are many emailing programs available. You can remove defects such the red eye effect often caused when using a flash.ECDL Module 1 – Page 24 information you require. There are many different types of games renging from the educational. Another well know example is the Thunderbird email program.

Note that voice recognition implies only that the computer can take dictation. For instance Microsoft Word is designed as a word processing program. These cover: -Voice recognition software -Screen reader software -Screen magnifier software -On-screen keyboard. whether a video monitor is present or not). They are specific to a particular task. more accurately. Difference between the operating system and application programms • • The operating system works closely with the hardware that you have installed within your computer. while Microsoft Excel is a spreadsheet program. Accessibility options • There are a range of options to improve computer accessibility. not that it understands what is being said. they generally require an extended training session during which the computer system becomes accustomed to a particular voice and accent. Voice recognition software • The field of computer science that deals with designing computer systems that can recognize spoken words. If interprets the input via the mouse or keyboard and outputs data to the screen. while others require a dedicated console such as a Sony Playstation Famous example include Doom (a shoot them up game) and Simms (a game where you build your own little world within the computer). • Screen reader software • A screen reader is a software application that attempts to identify and interpret what is being displayed on the screen (or. sent to standard output. However. • In addition many web sites are now written to be compatible with software designed to increase accessibility. and make use of the functionally built into the operating system. Some games can be played on a standard computer. The most powerful can recognize thousands of words. Such systems are said to be speaker dependent. A number of voice recognition systems are available on the market. Comprehending human languages falls under a different field of computer science called natural language processing. The application programs sit above the operating system. Kullegg San Gorg Preca – Liceo Subien .ECDL Module 1 – Page 25 There are many different formats available for games.

including platform. dollars). and employers. Microsoft Windows has basic screen magnifier software included. Screen magnifier software • This type of software magnifies the screen contents. visually impaired. making it easier to read for the visually impaired. sound icons.ECDL Module 1 – Page 26 This interpretation is then re-presented to the user with text-to-speech. Screen reader choice is contentious: differing priorities and strong preferences are common. The Window XP Narrator options look like this: • There are many rival commercial option available. and the role of organizations like charities. cost (even to upgrade a screen reader can cost hundreds of U. Screen readers are a form of assistive technology (AT) potentially useful to people who are blind. The options include the following: Kullegg San Gorg Preca – Liceo Subien . often in combination with other AT. schools. such as screen magnifiers. or a Braille output device. illiterate or learning disabled.S. • A person's choice of screen reader is dictated by many factors. Try searching the web for ‘screen reader software’ for an idea of what is available.

ECDL Module 1 – Page 27 On-screen keyboard • • An on-screen keyboard is a representation of the physical keyboard on the screen. Kullegg San Gorg Preca – Liceo Subien . It is designed for use by individuals that are not able to use a physical keyboard. Windows has a basic on-screen keyboard option located within the Accessories group.

the whole world). In a similar way. and now exploited by the commercial world. In this way. What is a WAN? • A WAN (Wide Area Network) as the name implies allows you to connect to other computers over a wider area (i. the office can have a single printer and all ten people can print to it. Even more useful is the ability to share information when connected to a network. Kullegg San Gorg Preca – Liceo Subien .ECDL Module 1 – Page 28 Networks aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaabbbbbibaa Network Types What is a LAN (local Area Network)? • A LAN (Local Area Network) is a system whereby individual PCs are connected together within a company or organisation. other devices such as modems or scanners can be shared. The server tends to be a very powerful PC (or group of PCs). but rather the network is connected by radio waves and/or microwaves to maintain communications. WLAN (Wireless local Area Network) • Wireless is the term used to describe any computer network where there is no physical wired connection between sender and receiver. is less powerful. For instance if ten people are working together within an office it makes sense for them all to be connected. while each client workstation.e. What does client/server mean? • This term relates to the type of network where resources are kept centrally on the server and used locally by the client. Later adopted by the educational system. which the users have. What is the Internet? • Hint A collection of networks started by and for the US military to enable them to 'survive' a nuclear war.

ECDL Module 1 – Page 29 • The Internet is a global network of interconnected networks. It is possible for a small company to sell products and services worldwide. or Netscape Navigator. Once a company has installed a comprehensive Intranet many users need only one piece of software on their PC. What is the difference between an Intranet and an Extranet? • An Extranet is an Intranet which is partially accessible to authorised outsiders. What is the difference between the Internet and an Intranet? • An Intranet is a smaller.). you will find there is plenty of information available. you can search for and find information on the most obscure topics. an extranet also allows outsiders who have been issued with a password to gain limited access to information held on a company network. If you publish material on the Web. search databases. email and newsgroups. without the need for a single sales-person. The Internet relates to all the hardware and software involved. this has interesting possibilities. Also. it also includes FTP (File Transfer Protocol). as well as the WWW. Extranets are being used as a way for business partners to share information. As a marketing tool. such as Microsoft Internet Explorer. For research the Internet is an incredibly valuable tool. Data Transfer Kullegg San Gorg Preca – Liceo Subien . it can be accessed by everyone on the Web (providing they can find it. or are looking for information about your family tree. The unique thing about the Internet is the sheer amount of information which you can access from it. An Intranet is normally only accessible by members of the same company or organisation. a web browser. The WWW is basically the text and pictures which you can view using your web browser. which can only be accessed by authorised members of an organisation. Intranets are becoming an increasingly popular way to share information within a company or other organisation. These days the problem is often not finding information but rather dealing with the sheer amount of information which is available. Whether you are gathering information about a rival company on the other side of the world. Whatever your interest. What is the difference between the World Wide Web (WWW) and the Internet? • The World Wide Web (WWW) is just a small part of the Internet as a whole. schedule meetings and of course send emails. closed version of the Internet. you have no idea how accurate or up to date a lot of the information you access really is. An Intranet uses Internet technologies to allow users to access company documents.

PSTN (or Public Switched Telephone Network) is the technical name for the public telephone system. Dial-up access is really just like a phone connection. Dial-up connection: Refers to connecting a device to a network via a modem and a public telephone network. The term is often used to describe the process of copying a file from an online service or bulletin board service (BBS) to one's own computer." ISDN dates back to 1984. . Very slow connections will be quoted in bits per second. the maximum data rate with dialup access was 56 Kbps (56. for example.Bits per second (bps). It is based on traditional 'copper wire' technology and can transmit analogue voice data. . • Data transfer rate measurement • The speed with which data can be transmitted from one device to another. Kullegg San Gorg Preca – Liceo Subien . the quality of the connection is not always good and data rates are limited.Megabits per second (mbps) High speed data transfer is measured im megabits per second. • Internet connection options • Phone line: . For example.ISDN stands for "Integrated Services Digital Network. Downloading can also refer to copying a file from a network file server to a computer on the network. Because dial-up access uses normal telephone lines. and allows much faster transfer rates than when using modems. or network. Broadband vs. mainframe.Kilobits per second (kbps).ECDL Module 1 – Page 30 Downloading from & uploading to a network • Hint To transmit data from a computer to a bulletin board service. except that the parties at the two ends are computer devices rather than people. you can transfer 64 Kbit or 128 Kbit of data per second. you must upload the files from your PC to the network. uses broadband transmission. dial-up Internet connection services • Broadband connection: A type of data transmission in which a single medium (wire) can carry several channels at once. Data rates are often measured in: . Using ISDN. Cable TV.000 bits per second). . In the past. if you use a personal computer to log on to a network and you want to send files across the network. To copy data (usually an entire file) from a main source to a peripheral device.

Wireless Internet Connections: Wireless Internet. Cable Internet works by using TV channel space for data transmission. Because of the enormous distances signals must travel from the earth up to the satellite and back again. a cable modem can be used to achieve extremely fast access. • • Kullegg San Gorg Preca – Liceo Subien . or wireless broadband is one of the newest Internet connection types. ADSL allows data transfer rates of ranging from 0. and it may be difficult to find a wireless service provider in some areas.ADSL is short for 'Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line'.5 to 50 Mbps when receiving data (called the downstream rate) and from 16 to 640 Kbps when sending data (called the upstream rate). Wireless access is still considered to be relatively new. but requires a special ADSL modem. It is typically more expensive and mainly available in metropolitan areas. Cable: Through the use of a cable modem you can have a broadband Internet connection that is designed to operate over cable TV lines. in a fixed position. Wireless Internet provides an always-on connection which can be accessed from anywhere — as long as you geographically within a network coverage area. Because the coaxial cable used by cable TV provides much greater bandwidth than telephone lines. you use radio frequency bands.ECDL Module 1 – Page 31 . and other channels for upstream transmission. Instead of using telephone or cable networks for your Internet connection. IoS is slightly slower than high-speed terrestrial connections over copper or fiber optic cables. with certain channels used for downstream transmission. A more recent technology which allows more data to be sent over existing copper telephone lines. • • Mobile phones: newer phones may also provide Internet services such as Web browsing and e-mail. Satellite: Internet over Satellite (IoS) allows a user to access the Internet via a satellite that orbits the earth. A satellite is placed at a static point above the earth's surface.

Microsoft Internet Explorer or Netscape Communicator) will normally inform you (via a popup) when you are entering or leaving a secure server. In addition. articles from many magazines and journals. The stock does not have to be distributed and duplicated over many physical stores. almost any information that has been put in electronic form.e. When you send your credit card details these SHOULD be encrypted by the site operators so that no one can intercept your details. Large stock range: A larger range of stock can be carried than a conventional store. Increasingly you can purchase directly via a Web site by selecting the goods or services which you require and entering your credit card details. Most sites which accept credit card payment are on secure services and your Internet browser program (i. news stories hot off the wire. accessing all this data carries a price. it is the study or business of developing and using technology to process information and aid communications. and 365 days a year. either by exchanging e-mail messages or by participating in online conferences (forums). you can shop via the Internet 24 hours a day. in fact. Subscribers can get up-to-date stock quotes. Detailed product information: Kullegg San Gorg Preca – Liceo Subien . 7 days a week. Of course. the service can connect users with an almost unlimited number of third-party information providers. Online services provide an infrastructure in which subscribers can communicate with one another.ECDL Module 1 – Page 32 ICT in Everyday Life aaaaaaaaaabbbbbibaa Electronic world What does ‘Information and Communication Technology’ (ICT) mean? • Information and Communications Technology. E-commerce • The phrase e-commerce is a buzzword which relates to buying or selling via the Internet. but rather it can be held in one central distribution warehouse. Advantages of e-commerce There are many advantages using e-commerce: Services available 24 / 7: Unlike a normal shop which closes in the evening. Internet services for consumers • Hint A business that provides its subscribers with a wide variety of data transmitted over telecommunications lines.

You can use the information on these sites to compare prices. Ask for references from other customers. Ability to compare prices: Many sites claim to offer you the very best prices. Be warned! Kullegg San Gorg Preca – Liceo Subien . What about returning faulty goods?: If the goods arrive and are substandard. Just because you see trade association logos on a site. Is the web site genuine?: When you purchase from a company such as amazon. Are full contact details provided? If in doubt ring the phone numbers provided on the site and try to decide whether the company sounds genuine. Where do you return them to? Be sure you know about a company’s returns policy. There can even be links to the product manufactures own web site. you know that the company is well respected. make sure that someone is not you. is unlikely to go bust tomorrow. do not assume that the use of these logos is genuine. which can later be sold to criminals so that they can make purchases with your money. Equal delivery to town and country: The fact that you may live in the countryside. and above all will not attempt to 'run off with your money'. There are organisations now whose sole purpose is to verify that other web sites belong to honest companies. Right to return defective goods: Most e-commerce web sites will have a 'Returns Policy' and it is advisable to read this prior to purchase. along with a picture can be given. In many cases you will find that the law gives you a right to return defective goods or even goods which are not quite as you expected. But what about when you purchase online from a company you have never heard of? Look for clues.ECDL Module 1 – Page 33 A detailed product description for each product. When it comes to credit card fraud there is basically one rule 'wherever humanly possible the bank never pays: someone else does'. Each country may have its own laws relating to consumer protection. Check the small print on your credit card who pays to return them. BEFORE you make an online purchase. How are you covered when you purchase goods from another country? This is a minefield. Disadvantages of e-commerce Includes the following: Possible Credit card Fraud: Some web sites have been set up solely to trick you into providing your credit card details. far from the nearest town makes no difference at all when shopping via the Net. Is there a client list on the site? How long has the company been trading.

graphics and Kullegg San Gorg Preca – Liceo Subien • . He purchased the computer for his daughter. digital government. also known as e-gov. but was unable to talk to a real person and was forced to rely solely on email contact with the company. in good time for Christmas. businesses. and other arms of government. Never buy from a company which does not provide you with full contact details including a telephone number. through a very well known PC manufacturer. also much broader definitions are common. Instead of having to go to the local branch. or telephoning them. As Christmas due near he tried to find out what was happening. However. Some online banks have no physical branches at all. with no face-to-face interaction. E-banking • The phrase e-banking relates to managing your money online.ECDL Module 1 – Page 34 Can you talk to a real person? I recently heard a radio presenter who purchased a computer online. with numerous examples of poor security coupled with sloppy operations. There are security considerations relating to online banking. transactions and interactions with citizens. online government or transformational government) is a diffused neologism used to refer to the use of information and communication technology to provide and improve government services. E-government • e-Government (short for electronic government. For example. Most frequently it seems to be used for web-based distance education. These programs are normally supplied on CD-ROM / DVD and combine text. Uses of computer applications in education • Student registration and timetabling: There are many specialist programs designed to computerise these otherwise time consuming tasks. where technology is used to support the learning process. Computer Based Training (CBT): Computer Based Training (CBT) offers a low cost solution to training needs where you need to train a large amount of people on a single subject. E-learning • E-learning (or sometimes electronic learning or eLearning) is a term which is commonly used. but does not have a common definition[1]. it may include all types of technology-enhanced learning (TEL). you can pay your bills online and move money from one place to another. The computer eventually turned up in February. making it a very profitable operation for the bank.

The Internet can also be used to set and collect homework (via email). As an alternative to training via CD-ROM / DVD. It can take many forms ranging from a simple web version of printed books. 24 hours a day. 7 days a week. . the e-learning tutorials may not be available for some time following the release of a new version of software. Disadvantages include: .ECDL Module 1 – Page 35 sound. Also the teaching can be at any time. . then the students can work at their own pace.The Internet connection may temporarily fail for some reason. This arrangement has advantages and disadvantages to both the employer and the employee. Distance learning systems: E-learning is a term used to describe studying via the Internet.There may be no opportunity to ask a question of a real person. by the minute. . • Using the Internet as a homework resource: The Internet is the ultimate resource for getting the information necessary to complete a student’s homework.You may have to pay for the connection time. • Tele-working • Tele-working is a broad term which refers to people working at home connected to the rest of the organisation via a computer network. Advantages include: . . In many cases there can be real-time two-way communication between the teacher and the student. . or a new certification syllabus.The download speed may be too slow for some forms of e-learning .If the training is solely computer based. CBT can also be delivered via the Internet.Because of the increased time required to produce some types of elearning packages. This saves time (and money) for the employee and reduces environmental overheads. It means that the employee does not arrive at work already stressed Kullegg San Gorg Preca – Liceo Subien . Packages range from general encyclopaedias right through to learning a foreign language.One trainer can train many people at many different locations. and repeat parts of a course which they do not understand.Often e-learning solutions are cheaper to provide than other more traditional teaching methods. Some of the advantages of tele-working • Advantages include: Reduced or zero commuting time. Communication is via email or the telephone. as less commuting means less car pollution. through to advanced use of video images with sound.

Possible Employee Exploitation: If workers are isolated from each other there is the possibility for companies to take advantage. Some large companies using teleworking restrict trade union activity (or if they can. "Hot Desking" is a term used to indicate that people do not have a desk dedicated to their exclusive use. which include: Lack of human contact: Many people cite this as the single biggest factor when switching from a regular office job. why not take advantage of the weather. To some extent this is offset by video links and by occasional gettogether meetings. Self-discipline: It can take a lot to work from home and remain focused on work. there is a greater ability to concentrate and focus. Some of the disadvantages of tele-working • As well as advantages. as long as the job gets done.ECDL Module 1 – Page 36 from car jams or late train connections. Communication Kullegg San Gorg Preca – Liceo Subien . it does not matter when the job gets done. In fact many companies now arrange company gossip networks. Flexible schedules: In many cases. just so that people can keep in touch. but come the evening you may not feel like working. Hot Desking is popular where staff spend a proportion of their time working at home. Reduced office desk space requirements: The cost of Office space can be very high and tele-working can help to reduce these costs if a proportion of the staff work at home. Negative impact on teamwork: If you never see the rest of the team it is hard to feel part of the team. such as picking up the kids from school. ban it altogether). there are many disadvantages for tele-workers. It also means that work can be finished in the evening if required. This means there is time for other activities. or at sites outside the main office complex. and finish your work later. If it is a beautiful day. Greater ability to focus on one task: As there are fewer interruptions from low priority phone calls. It is all very well saying 'I will take the afternoon off and work this evening'. to tele-working. People simply sit at any desk and log on to the networked computers using their own ID. which will allow them to uniquely access their own work stored within the computer system.

Syndicated content can include data such as news feeds. analagous to a telephone conversation but using text-based. headlines. A user that can read RSS-distributed content can use the content on a different site. meaning to maintain or add content to a blog. Other terms frequently encountered and synonymous with VoIP are IP telephony. and broadband phone.ECDL Module 1 – Page 37 Electronic mail (e-mail) • Hint Email allows you to send a message to another person almost instantly. or other material such as graphics or video. broadband telephony. "Blog" can also be used as a verb. It requires both computers to be connected to the Internet. A Web site that wants to allow other sites to publish some of its content creates an RSS document and registers the document with an RSS publisher. Blogging (web logs) • A blog (a contraction of the term "weblog")[1] is a type of website. voice over broadband (VoBB). Instant messaging (IM) • Abbreviated IM. You can then initiate a chat session with that particular individual. excerpts from discussion forums or even corporate information. Really Simple Syndication (RSS) feeds • RSS is the acronym used to describe the de facto standard for the syndication of Web content. news stories. Entries are commonly displayed in reverse-chronological order. RSS is an XML-based format and while it can be used in different ways for content distribution. Internet telephony. As well as sending a text message. Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) • Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) is a general term for a family of transmission technologies for delivery of voice communications over IP networks such as the Internet or other packet-switched networks. a type of communications service that enables you to create a kind of private chat room with another individual in order to communicate in real time over the Internet. Kullegg San Gorg Preca – Liceo Subien . Typically. events listings. descriptions of events. communication. the instant messaging system alerts you whenever somebody on your private list is online. files can be sent as email attachments. not voice-based. project updates. anywhere in the world. usually maintained by an individual with regular entries of commentary. its most widespread usage is in distributing news headlines on the Web.

is an online discussion site. professional. Internet forums (message boards / discussion boards) • An Internet forum. including text-based chatrooms and forums that use voice. you listen to the new content on on your iPod (or like device). Many means are used in social software separately or in combination. educational or other purposes. for social. Significant sociotechnical change may have resulted from the proliferation of such Internet-based social networks. video text or avatars. Virtual Communities Online (virtual) communities • Hint A virtual community. such as e-mail and instant messaging services. Social networking websites • A social network service focuses on building online communities of people who share interests and/or activities. Most social network services are web based and provide a variety of ways for users to interact. Kullegg San Gorg Preca – Liceo Subien . is primarily used by mass media to describe any form of synchronous conferencing. Chat rooms • The term chat room. It originated as the modern equivalent of a traditional bulletin board. telephone. With podcasting however. internet social network service or instant messages rather than face to face. The term can thus mean any technology ranging from real-time online chat over instant messaging and online forums to fully immersive graphical social environments. or who are interested in exploring the interests and activities of others. and a technological evolution of the dialup bulletin board system. occasionally even asynchronous conferencing. email.ECDL Module 1 – Page 38 Podcasts • Podcasting is similar in nature to RSS. you have a set of subscriptions that are checked regularly for updates and instead of reading the feeds on your computer screen. e-community or online community is a group of people that primarily interact via communication media such as newsletters. From a technological standpoint. it is called an online community. or chatroom. Virtual and online communities have also become a supplemental form of communication between people who know each other primarily in real life. forums or boards are web applications managing user-generated content. If the mechanism is a computer network. or message board. which allows subscribers to subscribe to a set of feeds to view syndicated Web site content.

In any of these cases. but games have always used whatever technology was current: modems before the internet. and the use of distributed peer-topeer (P2P) networking. transmission. and distribution models. The price can be paid by the remote charging of funds from. Online games can range from simple text based games to games incorporating complex graphics and virtual worlds populated by many players simultaneously. video and audio clips • File sharing is the practice of distributing or providing access to digitally stored information. centralized computer file server installations on computer networks. Many online games have associated online communities. documents. Common methods are manual sharing using removable media. colleagues and friends as an attachment.ECDL Module 1 – Page 39 Online computer games • An online game is a game played over some forms of computer network. and hard wired terminals before modems. At the present. audio. and money may change hands for access to the file. a credit card whose details are also passed— usually fully encrypted—across the Internet. It may be implemented in a variety of storage. this almost always means the Internet or equivalent technology. multi-media (photos. refers to techniques for ensuring that data stored in a computer or transferred online cannot be read or Kullegg San Gorg Preca – Liceo Subien . Precautions when accessing online communities • In the computer industry. It can be uploaded to a website or FTP server for easy download by others. video). making online games a form of social activity beyond single player games. It can be put into a "shared location" or onto a file server for instant use by colleagues. for example. The load of bulk downloads to many users can be eased by the use of "mirror" servers or peer-topeer networks. World Wide Web-based hyperlinked documents. Publishing and sharing content online • A computer file can be e-mailed to customers. The expansion of online gaming has reflected the overall expansion of computer networks from small local networks to the Internet and the growth of Internet access itself. the transit of the file over the Internet may be obscured by encryption. access to the file may be controlled by user authentication. or electronic books. such as computer programs. Sharing photos.

You should periodically refocus into the distance. In the computer field. most expensive) monitor which you or your company can afford. too bright or appears to flicker. This is a condition caused by constant use of the keyboard or mouse. A password is a secret word or phrase that gives a user access to a particular program or system. For detailed work. Repetitive Strain Injury (RSI) • Often referred to as RSI. you should also consider using a large screen rather than the 'standard' 14" or 15" screens which are in common use. For example. which will help to some extent. You may want to consider the use of a pad on which you can rest your arms. Screen and keyboard positioning • Your screen: Your screen should be fully adjustable so that your eyes are at the same height as the top of the screen. your employer has a legal duty to pay for eye tests for employees as and when they request it. More information: http://www. If the screen is badly focused. You should take regular breaks to help avoid this type of injury. You can get filters which fit in front of the screen and reduce glare. then get a qualified technician to take a look at it. Data encryption is the translation of data into a form that is unintelligible without a deciphering mechanism. one branch of ergonomics deals with designing furniture that avoids causing backaches and muscle cramps. You should consider using the best (i.e. Most security measures involve data encryption and passwords.rsi-center. In many countries. Health What is ergonomics? • The science concerned with designing safe and comfortable machines for humans. Kullegg San Gorg Preca – Liceo Subien . ergonomics plays an important role in the design of monitors and keyboards. The better the monitor the better the screen resolution and the higher the refresh Lighting issues when using a computer • You should take regular breaks to avoid staring constantly at the screen and straining your eyes. You may wish to use a filter attached to the screen to reduce glare. as opposed to always gazing at a screen a few inches from your eyes.ECDL Module 1 – Page 40 compromised by any individuals without authorization.

Your feet: You may wish to use a footpad to rest your feet while using the computer. Make sure that cables are safely secured • You should always use the power cables which were supplied with your computer or cables of a similar quality. If your desk has a cable ducting system make sure that you use it. Environment Kullegg San Gorg Preca – Liceo Subien . Network cables tend to be delicate and easily damaged and the most common cause of failure to log onto a network server is that someone has accidentally dislodged or damaged the network cables. Ventilation is especially important if you are using a laser printer. Apart from personal injury. accidentally pulling out a power cable could cause your computer to lose power and you will lose data as a result. and be able to be moved up or down. Make sure that power points are not overloaded • Overloading of a power point is dangerous and a potential fire hazard. which may produce ozone when printing. Seating issues when using a computer • Your chair: Your chair should be fully adjustable. It should have an adjustable back. Avoid long trailing cables as you or other people can easily trip over them and cause injury to yourself or others. have regular eye tests and get a good desk and chair to maintain good posture. Make sure that the cables are safely secured at the back of the desk and that you have power points located near the desk. Make sure that the area where you are using the computer is adequately lit and well ventilated. • Wellbeing when using a computer • • Take regular breaks. If you need more power sockets. have them properly installed by a qualified electrician.ECDL Module 1 – Page 41 • Your keyboard: Use a good keyboard and you may also wish to use a wrist pad to relieve pressure on your wrists.

This means that even though the computer is still switched on. • Computer energy saving options • Many monitors and other peripherals will automatically switch into 'sleep' mode after a period of inactivity. rather than printed manuals. Kullegg San Gorg Preca – Liceo Subien . This equates to less trees being cut down.ECDL Module 1 – Page 42 Computer recycling options • • You should have a separate bin for paper which can be sent for recycling (be sure that sensitive material is first shredded). it will consume less power. Printer toner cartridges can be sent for recycling. You may also wish to consider the use of recycled toners in your printers (but be aware that in some cases this may invalidate the printer’s guarantee). will save on the amount of paper consumed. and send them for recycling. Where possible the use of on-screen manuals and help systems. in fact some charities now collect spent toner cartridges.

connected) to the rest of your computer network. specified printers and you may be able to access only certain data held on the network. Data Security Off-site backups • In computing. Sending backups off-site ensures systems and servers can be reloaded with the latest data in the event of a natural disaster. It is also recommended that you change your password regularly. is the strategy of sending critical data out of the main location (off the main site) as part of a disaster recovery plan. Data is usually transported off-site using removable storage media such as magnetic tape. Data can also be sent electronically via a remote backup service. The idea of access rights is that you only have the ability to connect to. or computer network. you will have been assigned access rights to the network. printer. In addition you use a password which is only known to you. The password guarantees that no one can access the network and impersonate you (in theory). accidental error. or vaulting. devices which you have authority to use. off-site data protection. Your network administrator will have defined these access rights. Sending backups off-site also ensures that there is a copy of pertinent data that isn’t stored on-site. some computer systems will require you to change your password periodically.ECDL Module 1 – Page 43 Securityaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaaaabbbbbibaa Identity/Authentication Computer logon user name (ID) and password • Hint A User ID is normally used to logon to a computer. Kullegg San Gorg Preca – Liceo Subien . You on the other hand may have access rights to print to only certain. which is known as electronic vaulting or e-vaulting. or share. modem etc on the network. Ideally a password should be at least 8 characters long & contain a mixture of words and numbers. In other words. It is important to choose a password which cannot be easily guessed by other people. or system crash.e. Off-site backup services are convenient for companies that backup pertinent data on a daily basis (classified and unclassified). Once you have logged on (i. Password policies • Your password is the only thing which will prevent someone else logging into a computer using your user ID and impersonating you. the network administrators often have access rights to just about every computer. It uniquely identifies you to the network.

which examines each message and blocks those that do not meet the specified security criteria. where the data is normally held on a centralised. Firewalls are frequently used to prevent unauthorized Internet users from accessing private networks connected to the Internet. you only backup files which have been newly created or modified since the last backup. Data theft issues Kullegg San Gorg Preca – Liceo Subien . With the right backup software. especially intranets. this process is automatic. This has the advantage that the entire hard disk can be backed up. If the hard disk stops working one day you could lose all those years of work. but suffers from the disadvantage that this process can take a long time if your computer contains a lot of data. or a combination of both. Often the contents of a hard disk can represent years of work. All messages entering or leaving the intranet pass through the firewall. What is a firewall? • A system designed to prevent unauthorized access to or from a private network. incremental backups • A complete backup means which you backup all the data on your computer. Complete vs. An incremental backup means that once a week you can perform a complete backup. but every night for the rest of the week. copy your files to a floppy disk and make sure that these backup disks are stored away from the computer. networked computer.ECDL Module 1 – Page 44 Why do you need to back your computer? • The most important thing which you store on your computer is information. it is often up to the individual to organise some sort of data backup. you have a computer containing many programs and also a large amount of data which you have created. If nothing else is available. and normally you only have to select full or incremental. if your backup disks are stored next to the computer they too will be incinerated. then it is only the data which really needs to be backed up. Organising your computer for more efficient backups • When you think about it. If you create a folder structure which contains only data then only this directory (plus any sub-directories of this directory) needs to be backed up. In large organisations this backup procedure is normally performed automatically by your computer support team. For this reason it is VITAL that you take regular backups of the information which is stored on the computer. If there is a fire and your office burns down. saving time. In smaller organisations. ideally off-site. Firewalls can be implemented in both hardware and software.

com/avcenter Dr Solomon anti-virus software http://www. What to do if you discover a virus on your computer Kullegg San Gorg Preca – Liceo Subien . the first time that you know that you have a virus is when it activates. Unless you use virus detection software. For instance. the famous Friday the 13th virus will activate only when it is both a Friday and the 13th of the month. such as Norton Anti Virus allow you to update the program so that the program can check for recently discovered viruses. or misuse it while they are still in employment. Many anti-virus programs. or over a computer network. Since employees often spend a considerable amount of time developing contacts and confidential and copyrighted information for the company they work for they often feel they have some right to the information and are inclined to copy and/or delete part of it when they leave the company. Different viruses are activated in different ways.drsolomon.ECDL Module 1 – Page 45 • Data theft is a growing problem primarily perpetrated by office workers with access to technology such as desktop computers and hand-held devices capable of storing digital information such as flash Computer viruses infection issues • Viruses hide on a disk and when you access the disk (either a diskette or another hard disk over a network) the virus program will start and infect your computer. It is vital to keep your virus monitoring software up to date. The main thing about your virus checker is that it should be kept up to date. iPods and even digital cameras. Many companies supply updated disks on a regular basis or allow you to receive updates automatically via the Norton Anti-virus software http://www. The worst thing about a computer virus is that it can spread from one computer to another. Viruses Computer viruses • Hint Viruses are small programs which hide themselves on your disks (both diskettes and your hard disk). The Internet allows you to access files from all over the world and you should never connect to the Internet unless you have a virus-checking program installed on your computer.mcafee. either via use of infected floppy Protecting against computer virus infection • There are a number of third party anti-virus products available. More Information: McAfee Anti-virus software http://www. BEWARE: Viruses can destroy all your data.

The other common method of infection is via emails. a message will be displayed telling you that the diskette is infected. As such it is vital that you keep your anti virus software up to date so that it can detect new viruses which are constantly appearing. If you work within a larger company. and it should automatically remove the virus. then the chances are that it has caught the virus before the virus could infect your computer and cause damage. If the diskette contains a virus. For instance you may insert a diskette into your computer and the virus checker should automatically scan the diskette. Kullegg San Gorg Preca – Liceo Subien . • The limitations of anti virus software • Anti virus software can only detect viruses (or types of viruses) which the software knows about. Be sure that you are familiar with your company’s policy regarding viruses.ECDL Module 1 – Page 46 • If you discover a virus on your computer don’t panic. you should have a company IT support group which will come and rid your computer of viruses. If your virus checker alerts you to a virus.

Even lending your program disks or CD-ROM to other people may be breaking the law in most cases. composer.ECDL Module 1 – Page 47 Legal Issuesaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaabbbbbibaa Copyright What is copyright? • The legal right granted to an author. production. such as FAST (the Federation Against Software Theft). Do not do this.startrek. Some sites even allow the 'free' download for complete films or music tracks. • • • Copyright Issues when copying files • Transferring files across a LAN: You need to be careful that you do not accidentally make copies of Kullegg San Gorg Preca – Liceo Subien . or movie clips from Star Trek. Abbreviated as (c) or ©. Get written permission to used downloaded materials and 'if in doubt . Never copy text without authority to do so and always quote your sources. Popular examples are pictures. If you can download a film for free before it is even officially available on video/DVD. it may be illegally copied. Many people will buy a copy of a game and make a copy for their friends or other family member. Even downloading sound clips to replace the bleeps which Microsoft Windows makes is often illegal. Many sites however may not have this authority. if your manager tells you to copy software. If you do so you may be breaking the law and if caught. dramatic. Always be careful of software which you may find advertised at very cheap prices. sale. This is also normally unlawful. If you visit the official Star Trek site (www. playwright. you could find yourself being prosecuted. because in many countries. Most programs which you purchase are copyrighted and you must not copy them. There are numerous organisations. you will see that use of images. sound clips. Most text which you will find on the Internet is copyrighted. Because CD-ROM writers have become so widely available. and even the name 'Star Trek' is protected and may not be used on 'fan sites'. games or data. Some are genuine and have the authority to offer you a free download of images. There are many sites offering free graphics and clipart. Cover yourself. which are dedicated to preventing the illegal copying of software. or distribution of a literary. it is a pretty good bet that the site is unauthorised. musical. you will be personally liable for damages. or distributor to exclusive publication. ALWAYS first make sure that you have a licence which entitles you to copy the software. In a business situation.don't' is the safe rule. it has become possible to copy entire CD-ROMs which can contain software. or artistic work.

ECDL Module 1 – Page 48 software via your Local Area Network (unless of course you are authorised to make such copies). It is often fully functional. even entire movie films. It is very important not to confuse freeware and shareware. Copying diskettes / CD-ROMs / DVD / ZIP disks: If you purchase software. you may. but after a time period will either start to display an annoying message. You are not allowed to distribute copies to family and friends. or in some cases it may stop working altogether after the trial period. Sometimes the shareware versions may be fully functional. where the aim was not to profit from the software. instead they will buy a site licence. Freeware: This is software which can be copied or downloaded for free. Examples may include software developed by organisations such as Universities. backup copy of disk. • Downloading files from the Internet: You need to be VERY careful when downloading files from the Internet. does not necessary mean that the owners of the Internet site have the authority to allow you to do this. or better: you can purchase a user licence. These site licences are different in Kullegg San Gorg Preca – Liceo Subien . You are certainly not allowed to copy and re-sell commercial software. asking you to register (i. This 'try before you buy' method of getting software is becoming increasing popular with the major software suppliers. Shareware: This is where you can use software for a free trial period. • • • • Site Licenses Site licences are used by larger organisations • Many large companies do not go out and buy a certain amount of 'shrink-wrapped' copies of each software product which they need. In many cases however it is not legal to do so. in some cases be allowed to make a single.e. This user licence allows you to make copies and install them on each computer. Just because a site may say you are free to download materials from the site. User Licences: If you have more than one PC. It is possible to download entire software packages from the net. pay for) your software. but the cheaper the effective cost per PC. then you can either purchase a separate copy of the software you require for each PC. The more copies you make the more the user licence will cost.

a lot of software is produced by the educational community and is made freely available. Types of licence agreement • Some software comes with the license when purchased off the shelf or an OEM license when bundled with hardware. The features that distinguishes them are significant in terms of the effect they have on the end-user's rights. Demonstration disks often come under this category. Contractual confidentiality is another way of protecting software. More information: http://shareware. After this period. Kullegg San Gorg Preca – Liceo Subien . irrespective of whether it is in the public domain. What is shareware? • Shareware is software which is freely available and is designed to let you use the product for free. What is an ‘end-user license agreement’ within Office 2007 software • Normally when you install software these days there is a step within the installation routine in which you have to agree to be bound by the end user licence agreement. but generally mean that the companies purchasing the licence can make a fixed numbers of copies available to their staff. Software can also be in the form of freeware or shareware. normally via a company network. This agreement can be very large and is drawn up to protect the manufacturers of a product from being prosecuted due to faulty software. In addition. which include free software licenses and other open source What is freeware? • Some software is made freely available. Always read any licences supplied with such software very carefully before use.ECDL Module 1 – Page 49 their small print. Checking software licence status • A software license (or software licence in commonwealth usage) is a legal instrument (by way of contract law) governing the usage or redistribution of software. for a limited period while you decide if you like it or not. I recently printed out a Microsoft end user agreement and it was over 15 pages long. Software licenses can generally be fit into the following categories: proprietary licenses and free and open source licenses.cnet. you must legally either remove it. or pay an amount to the producers of the product. A typical software license grants an end-user permission to use one or more copies of software in ways where such a use would otherwise constitute copyright infringement of the software owner's exclusive rights under copyright law. All software is copyright protected. It also defines how many copies of the software you are entitled to.

and personal data shall be processed.htm The information to be contained in personal data shall be then you have a moral and legal duty to treat that information with In the same way doctors. In many countries. which is both sensitive and private. Data Protection Data Protection and Privacy Issues • If your computer system holds information about individuals. that would be a clear breach of trust. government departments and credit agencies often hold vast amounts of information about the general This is meant as an illustration only and should NOT be used for determining liability or operating principles.hmso. One popular (and sometimes considered normative) set of open source software licenses are those approved by the Open Source Initiative (OSI) based on their Open Source Definition (OSD). In a free society you have the right to ensure that the information held about you is not abused.ECDL Module 1 – Page 50 Open source software • An open source license is a copyright license for computer software that makes the source code available under terms that allow for modification and redistribution without having to pay the original author. For instance if a police force computer is used by unscrupulous people to gain unauthorised information about a person’s private life. Personal data held for any purpose or purposes shall not be used or disclosed in any manner incompatible with that purpose or those this right is enshrined under data protection For more information about the UK data protection act please access the following Web sites: http://www. Personal data held for any purpose or purposes shall be adequate. Personal data shall be held only for one or more specified and lawful purposes. fairly and lawfully.htm#aofs http://www. relevant and not excessive in relation to that purpose or those Kullegg San Gorg Preca – Liceo Subien . You must read the full details of the act if you are considering legal implementation. Such licenses may have additional restrictions such as a requirement to preserve the name of the authors and the copyright statement within the code. Data Protection Legislation • Listed below are the main principles of the UK Data Protection Act.

Personal data held by data users or in respect of which services are provided by persons carrying on computer bureau. personal data and against accidental loss or destruction of personal data. Personal data held for any purpose or purposes shall not be kept for longer than is necessary for that purpose or those purposes. to have such data corrected or erased. An individual shall be entitled at reasonable intervals and without undue delay or expense to be informed by any data user whether he holds personal data of which that individual is the subject. When we fill in a form.sue if data is wrong. in order to collect all kinds of information. .alter inaccurate or incorrect data.see data held on them on request. Data protection legislation relating to those that keeps data (data collectors) • Forms and questionnaires are used frequently in the business of the university. Personal data shall be accurate and. kept up to date. and access to any such data held by a data user. Kullegg San Gorg Preca – Liceo Subien . including personal information about individuals. Data protection legislation relating to individuals about which data is stored (data subjects) • Data subjects have a number of rights. we are invariably providing information about ourselves. disclosure or destruction of. and where appropriate. Appropriate security measures shall be taken against unauthorised access to. .ECDL Module 1 – Page 51 purposes. whether it is simply our name and contact details. or alteration. and the mistake causes harm to them. These include the right to: . where necessary.

Recordable Compact Disk . A kilobyte (KB) consists of 1024 bytes. Gigahertz Graphical User Interface Hertz ( this is a measurement of frequency (i. Information Systems Integrated Services Digital Network Information Technology Kilobyte. Local Area Network Kullegg San Gorg Preca – Liceo Subien .ECDL Module 1 – Page 52 ABBREVIATIONS & TERMINOLOGYvvv vv Item ADSL Bit BPS Byte CBT CD CD-R CD-ROM CPU DAT DOS DSL DVD FTP GByte GHz GUI Hz IS ISDN IT KByte LAN Meaning Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line 1 or 0 level of storage is called a bit Bits Per Second A measurement of storage capacity Computer Based Training Compact Disk Compact Disk .e.Read Only Memory Central Processing Unit Digital Audio Tape Disk Operating System Digital Subscriber Lines Digital Versatile Disk File Transfer Protocol Gigabyte. A gigabyte consists of 1024 MBytes Measurement of computer speed. speed).

ECDL Module 1 – Page 53 MByte MHz PC PSTN RAM ROM Megabyte. A megabyte (MB) is one million bytes Million Hertz Personal Computer Public Switched Telephone Network Random Access Memory Read Only Memory Read Only Memory .Basic Input Output System ROM-BIOS RSI TByte UPS USB VDU WAN WWW Repetitive Strain Injury Terabyte. A terabyte (TB) is one million MBytes Uninterruptible Power Supply Universal Serial Bus Visual Display Unit Wide Area Network World Wide Web • Kullegg San Gorg Preca – Liceo Subien .

ECDL Module 1 – Page 54 Kullegg San Gorg Preca – Liceo Subien .

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