Narrung wetland MANAGEMENT PLAN 2006

LAPS
Lower Murray Local Action Planning Groups Kjartan Tumi Bjornsson

This management plan was written by Kjartan Tumi Bjornsson for the Coorong District Local Action Plan Committee, and reviewed and endorsed by the SA River Murray Wetland Technical Group. Funding was provided by the National Action Plan for Salinity and Water Quality, the Natural Heritage Trust, and the South Australian Murray Darling Basin Natural Resources Management Board (SAMDBNRMB). The management plan has been prepared according to the Guidelines for developing wetland management plans for the River Murray in South Australia 2003 (River Murray Catchment Water Management Board and Department of Water Land and Biodiversity Conservation 2003) and as such fulfils obligations under the Water Allocation Plan for the River Murray Prescribed Watercourse. Disclaimer: The Coorong District Local Action Plan Committee do not guarantee that the publication is without flaw of any kind or is wholly appropriate for your particular purposes and therefore disclaim all liability for any error, loss or other consequences which may arise from you relying on any information in this publication. Cite as: Bjornsson, K. T. (2006). Narrung Wetland Management Plan. Coorong District Local Action Plan Committee, Tintinara. Acknowledgements: This wetland management plan has been developed with the support of a number of organisations, community groups and individuals. Special thanks go to Adrienne Frears and Jem Tesoriero for assistance with the development of the plan. Thanks also go to those that contributed their knowledge including, Derek Walker and Steve Walker both of the Ngarrindjeri nation (traditional landowner cultural values) the Narrung wetland landowners, the SAMDBNRMB and the members of the South Australian River Murray Wetland Technical Group. For further details contact: Coorong District LAP PO Box 1021 Tintinara SA 5266 Phone: (08) 8757 2100 Fax: (08) 8757 2222 Photographs: Cover photograph: Top Narrung wetland from the north (TB), Bottom: Narrung wetland from the south (TB) Photographs in document by Tumi Bjornsson (TB), Jem Tesoriero (JT) © Coorong District Local Action Plan 2006

Narrung Wetland Management Plan 2006

TABLE OF CONTENTS
TABLE OF CONTENTS ................................................................................................................... i LIST OF FIGURES...................................................................................................................... ii LIST OF MAPS ........................................................................................................................... iii LIST OF TABLES ........................................................................................................................ iii Chapter 1. (a) (a) (b) (c) (d) Chapter 2. INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................... 1 Environmental, Social and Cultural Significance of wetland ............................. 1 Why does Narrung wetland need a management plan? ................................... 2 History of Narrung wetland .......................................................................................... 1 Mission Statement ....................................................................................................... 2 Vision Statement ......................................................................................................... 2 Broad Objectives ......................................................................................................... 2 Current Achievements ................................................................................................. 3 SITE DESCRIPTION OF NARRUNG WETLAND .................................................... 4 Wetland Location and description .................................................................... 4 Survey Sites, Dates & Locations ...................................................................... 6 PHYSICAL FEATURES ................................................................................... 7 Section 1.01 Section 1.02

Section 2.01 Section 2.02 Section 2.03 (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (a) (b) Chapter 3. Chapter 4.

Narrung wetland in Current State................................................................................. 7 Geomorphology, Geology And Soils .......................................................................... 10 Climate ...................................................................................................................... 10 Wetland Volumes and Water Requirements for various filling stages ........................ 10 Surface and Groundwater Features ........................................................................... 11 ECOLOGICAL FEATURES ............................................................................ 17 Flora .......................................................................................................................... 17 Fauna ........................................................................................................................ 18 SOCIAL, ECONOMIC AND CULTURAL VALUES ................................................. 24 LAND TENURE, JURISDICTION AND MANAGEMENT ARRANGEMENTS ......... 25 LAND TENURE .............................................................................................. 25 LAND AND WATER USE ............................................................................... 25 JURISDICTION AND MANAGEMENT AUTHORITY ...................................... 26

Section 2.04

Section 4.01 Section 4.02 Section 4.03 Chapter 5. Chapter 6. Chapter 7.

THREATS AND POTENTIAL SOLUTIONS TO NARRUNG WETLAND ................. 27 MANAGEMENT OBJECTIVES .............................................................................. 30 IMPLEMENTATION OF PLAN ............................................................................... 33 ON GROUND ACTION AND TIMETABLE ..................................................... 35 WETLAND WATER OPERATIONAL PLAN ................................................... 37

Section 7.01 Section 7.02 (a) (b) Chapter 8. Chapter 9.

Water regime ............................................................................................................. 37 Volume calculations ................................................................................................... 38 MONITORING ....................................................................................................... 42 EVALUATION, REVIEW AND REPORTING .......................................................... 44 i

Narrung Wetland Management Plan 2006 Section 9.01 Section 9.02 Chapter 10. Appendix A. Appendix B. Appendix C. Appendix D. Appendix E. Appendix F. Appendix G. Section G.01 Section G.02 (a) Appendix H. Evaluation and Review ................................................................................... 44 Reporting ....................................................................................................... 44

REFERENCES ...................................................................................................... 45 Wetlands Atlas Data for Wetland Main Body .......................................................... 47 Surface Water Archive Graph ................................................................................ 48 Baseline Survey Locations (Source SKM (2004).................................................... 49 Baseline Survey DEM (Source SKM (2004) ........................................................... 50 Baseline Survey Groundwater ............................................................................... 52 Baseline Survey Vegetation Zones ........................................................................ 58 Species List for Narrung wetland ....................................................................... 59 FLORA ........................................................................................................... 59 WETLAND AND FLOODPLAIN FAUNA ......................................................... 61

Birds of Narrung Surrounds and Lower Lakes ........................................................... 61 Evaporation and precipitation obtained using the Wetland Loss Calculator. ........... 64

LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1: Very clear water in main lagoon (0 NTU) 25/11/05 (TB) ................................................... 8 Figure 2: Charophytes in main lagoon 25/11/05 (TB) ...................................................................... 8 Figure 3: Main lagoon from causeway 25/11/05 (TB) ...................................................................... 9 Figure 4: Causeway separating the south east and main lagoons 27/01/06 (TB) ............................ 9 Figure 5: Main lagoon with causeway and south east lagoon on right hand side of photo 27/01/06 (TB) ......................................................................................................................................... 9 Figure 6: Lake Albert and south east lagoon (dry) divided by road causeway 27/01/06 (TB)........... 9 Figure 7: Narrung Inlet wetland 08/03/06 (AF) .............................................................................. 10 Figure 8: Narrung Inlet wetland connection to Narrung Narrows 08/03/06 (TB)............................. 10 Figure 9: Narrung Inlet wetland 08/03/06 (TB) .............................................................................. 10 Figure 10: Area of Narrung used for volume estimates (SKM 2004).............................................. 11 Figure 11: North channel seen from wetland 08/03/06 (TB) .......................................................... 14 Figure 12: North channel partially blocked 08/03/06 (TB) .............................................................. 14 Figure 13: North channel connection to Narrung Inlet wetland 08/03/06 (TB) ................................ 14 Figure 14: North channel blocked connection to Lake Alex. 08/03/06 (TB) ................................... 14 Figure 15: South channel leading up to pipe culvert 08/03/06 (TB) ............................................... 15 Figure 16: South channel pipe culvert under Alexandrina drive 08/03/06 (TB) .............................. 15 Figure 17: South channel connection to Narrung wetland 08/03/06 (TB) ....................................... 15 Figure 18: South channel connection to Lake Alexandrina 08/03/06 (TB) ..................................... 15 Figure 19: Juncus acutus (JT) ....................................................................................................... 27 Figure 20: Juncus acutus detail (JT) ............................................................................................. 27 Figure 21: Water regime scenario ................................................................................................. 38 Figure 22: Lake Alexandrina water level at Narrung Jetty (10 year period) ................................... 48 ii

Narrung Wetland Management Plan 2006

LIST OF MAPS
Map 1: Narrung wetland fence ........................................................................................................ 3 Map 2: Narrung wetland location..................................................................................................... 5 Map 3: On ground work suggested by Woodward-Clyde (2000) to improve the connection of the wetland with the lakes (adapted from (Woodward-Clyde 2000)) .............................................. 6 Map 4: Identification of the lagoons ................................................................................................. 8 Map 5: Current water movement into the wetland ......................................................................... 13 Map 6: Cadastral boundaries covering Narrung wetland and surrounds. ...................................... 25 Map 7: On ground work at Narrung wetland .................................................................................. 33 Map 8: Expected water movement within Narrung wetland ........................................................... 34 Map 9: Wetland Fences (current and future) ................................................................................. 35

LIST OF TABLES
Table 1: Baseline survey monitoring of following parameters .......................................................... 7 Table 2: Summary of wetland volumes within Narrung wetland (adapted from (SKM 2004)) ......... 11 Table 3: Water quality ................................................................................................................... 12 Table 4: Community monitored water quality (table provided by A. Frears (2006))........................ 13 Table 5: Groundwater monitoring locations (SKM 2004) ............................................................... 16 Table 6: Groundwater monitoring locations (SKM 2004) ............................................................... 16 Table 7: Groundwater salinity ms/cm ............................................................................................ 17 Table 8: Habitat features identified in Narrung wetland table adapted from (SKM 2004). .............. 19 Table 9: Birds identified during community survey ........................................................................ 21 Table 10: Native fish ..................................................................................................................... 22 Table 11: Introduced fish............................................................................................................... 22 Table 12: Community collected macroinvertebrates (table provided by A. Frears (2006)) ............. 23 Table 13: Narrung wetland responsible positions contact details .................................................. 26 Table 14: Existing and prospective threats to Narrung wetland ..................................................... 28 Table 15: Management objectives for Narrung wetland................................................................. 31 Table 16: Implementation plan for Narrung wetland land based activities. .................................... 36 Table 17: Water required over fill period of Narrung wetland ......................................................... 40 Table 18: Water use calculation .................................................................................................... 41 Table 19: Photopoint locations ...................................................................................................... 42 Table 20: Monitoring plan for Narrung wetland.............................................................................. 43 Table 21: Narrung wetland, Wetland atlas data (Jensen, Paton et al. 1996) ................................. 47 Table 22: Plant Associations at Narrung wetland (adapted from River Murray Wetlands Baseline Survey (SKM 2004)) .............................................................................................................. 59 Table 23: Vegetation identified by the local community (table provided by A. Frears (2006)) ........ 60

iii

Narrung Wetland Management Plan 2006 Table 24: Bird species identified at Narrung wetland (adapted from River Murray Wetlands Baseline Survey (SKM 2004)) ............................................................................................... 61 Table 25: Water birds at 23 sites bordering Lakes Alexandrina and Albert (adapted from (Gosbell 2004)) ................................................................................................................................... 61 Table 26: Calculated water loss (evaporation – precipitation) from the Wetland Loss Calculator for the main lagoon..................................................................................................................... 64

iv

Narrung Wetland Management Plan 2006

Chapter 1. INTRODUCTION
Since the adoption of the Water Allocation Plan for the River Murray in 2002 the wetlands of South Australia have an annual water allocation of 200GL. To access this water allocation for wetland management, a licence is now required. The allocation of water required for Narrung wetland is mainly in response to Section 5.1. Objectives of the Water Allocation Plan for the River Murray (River Murray Catchment Water Management Board 2002) Principle: 2 “Provide for the water needs of water-dependent ecosystems” and 6(e) “Provide for the allocation and use of water to prevent adverse impacts on the health, biodiversity status of habitat value of floodplains, or wetlands of conservation significance” Narrung wetland is listed in the Water Allocation Plan for the River Murray (River Murray Catchment Water Management Board 2002) and has therefore a right to access the 200GL. This wetland management plan is structured in accordance with the criteria set out in the Guidelines for developing wetland management plans for the River Murray in South Australia (River Murray Catchment Water Management Board and Department of Water Land and Biodiversity Conservation 2003).

SECTION 1.01 ENVIRONMENTAL, SOCIAL AND CULTURAL SIGNIFICANCE OF WETLAND
The Wetland Atlas of the South Australian Murray Valley (Jensen, Paton et al. 1996) listed Narrung wetland as having a high conservation value and to be of international, national, basin and local importance (see Appendix A). The Narrung wetland was identified by Woodward-Clyde (2000) as being one of to six priority wetlands for restoration in the Goolwa to Wellington and Coorong District LAP areas. Australia is a signatory to the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands of National and International Significance and was the first nation to establish a Ramsar site. Ramsar listing recognises the importance of wetlands on an international scale on the basis of ecological, botanical, zoological, limnological or hydrological criteria with includes the role a wetland plays as a waterbird habitat (National Wetlands Program 1998; Bjornsson, Brodie et al. 2002). Narrung is within the Ramsar area “The Coorong, Lake Alexandrina and Lake Albert” listed 1st November 1985 (National Wetlands Program 1998), which provide habitats for a number of water birds including migratory species (see box). A part of the vision statement for the Coorong, and Lakes Alexandrina and Albert Ramsar Management Plan includes the protection and restoration of natural habitats and the restoration of viable native species (2000). This management plan is a contribution towards this vision.
“The Coorong, Lake Alexandrina & Lake Albert. 01/11/85; South Australia; 140,500 ha; 35º40’S 139º00’E. National Park, Game Reserves and Crown Land; Shorebird Network Site. A saline to hypersaline lagoon separated from the ocean by a dune peninsula and connected to two lakes forming a wetland system at the river’s mouth. The lakes contain fresh to brackish water. The site is of international importance for migratory waterbirds, providing habitat for more than 30% of the waders summering in Australia. The site includes important nesting colonies of cormorants, herons, egrets, ibises and terns. The globally endangered Orange-bellied Parrot (Neophema chrysogaster) over-winters on the reserve. Human activities include camping, boating and regulated duck hunting. The area is noted for its extensive aboriginal, historic and geological sites. Ramsar site no. 321.” (Peck 2000).

(a) HISTORY OF NARRUNG WETLAND A short timeline of management at Narrung wetland (some data from local anecdotal evidence):
1

Narrung Wetland Management Plan 2006

1980 Narrung Narrows in Australian Heritage data base (Register of the National Estate) due to its breeding colonies of IBIS and suitability for waterbirds in general The Narrung wetland was possibly used for town water supply, anecdotal information (Dadd 2006) The area would have been cleared during settlement when grazing was first introduced to the area. 2004 Wetland fenced off 2000 included in the survey of wetlands around the lower lakes Identification of Potential Wetland Rehabilitation Sites (Woodward-Clyde 2000) 2003-2004 included in River Murray Wetlands Baseline Survey (SKM 2004) 2004/2006 wetland monitoring days with Narrung primary school

SECTION 1.02 WHY DOES NARRUNG WETLAND NEED A MANAGEMENT PLAN?
Causeways cut the wetland into separate lagoons. One causeway separates the wetland from Lake Albert and a second causeway splits the wetland into three separate lagoons. As a result the wetland only receives inflowing water through channels and rain. Consequently there is a high salinity content through evapoconcentration, which is additionally fed by saline groundwater. The wetland is possibly slowly degrading into a saltpan with temporary inundation and little ecological and aesthetic value. (a) MISSION STATEMENT The rehabilitation of Narrung wetland is aimed at reinforcing wetland ecological values, such as habitat (wetland fringing and aquatic vegetation) for the benefit of waterbirds, native fish species and native vegetation. (b) VISION STATEMENT The vision for Narrung wetland is a revitalised semi permanent wetland fulfilling a diversity of habitat requirements for both water birds and native fish species. It is envisaged that the wetland will be a „healthy‟ shallow clear wetland with a high diversity of macrophytes (emergent and submerged) providing habitat for native fish and birds. The wetland will have regular visits by water birds, including migratory species. The riparian area will be revegetated with local native species, both through active involvement with the removal of weed species and through the encouragement of the growth/reestablishment of native fringing vegetation. (c) BROAD OBJECTIVES The management of the wetland, due to a change in legislation, now requires a water licence for which a detailed operational management plan needs to be developed. The objectives listed below, and in detail in Chapter 6, fulfil a number of the water allocation criteria from Section 5.3 of the Water Allocation Plan for the River Murray (River Murray Catchment Water Management Board 2002). Once the wetland restoration has been achieved through appropriate management of water regime and on ground works, the wetland would need to be maintained. The maintenance of a restored wetland, fulfilling the functions described above and without an adverse impact on adjacent farming operations, wetland and lake salinity or fish habitat requirements would involve regular monitoring and adequate timely response. The maintenance phase would require regular monitoring of water quality, bird life, fish and other aquatic dependent species as well as aquatic and fringing vegetation. The broad objectives of the wetland restoration include: Restore wetland (hydrological regime and water quality) Restore native aquatic and fringing vegetation and therefore habitat for native fauna
2

Narrung Wetland Management Plan 2006

Restore habitat diversity for water birds and aquatic wildlife: o Birds, assist to maintain diversity in the Ramsar area o Fish, increase diversity and abundance o Frogs, increase abundance and diversity Monitor the impact of restored hydrology regime for adaptive management (d) CURRENT ACHIEVEMENTS The surrounding land is grazed. The wetland shoreline has therefore been fenced off to exclude stock as can be seen in Map 1.

Map 1: Narrung wetland fence

3

Narrung Wetland Management Plan 2006

Chapter 2. SITE DESCRIPTION OF NARRUNG WETLAND
SECTION 2.01 WETLAND LOCATION AND DESCRIPTION
Narrung wetland is listed as wetland number S0020 in the Wetlands Atlas (Jensen, Paton et al. 1996) and is part of the Lake Albert fringing wetland complex. The wetland is located adjacent to the town of Narrung within the Coorong District Council area (Map 2). AMG coordinates 333860 E 6068744 N (Grid Zone 54). Narrung can be found on the 1:50,000 Narrung map sheet number 6726-4. The wetland is found in the Hundred of Baker. See Appendix A for more information. Seaman (2003), as part of the Coorong and Lower Lakes habitat-mapping program, classified the habitat condition of Narrung wetland as good to degraded (see box). The wetland is divided up into three separate lagoons each having a separate and distinct hydrology. The wetland is listed as having an area of 32 ha with a temporary water regime (Jensen, Paton et al. 1996), of which 30.9 ha is to the west of the causeway and 3.3 ha to the east of the causeway. Narrung is regarded as very shallow with most of the wetland lagoons having a depth of less than 0.5 m (SKM 2004). The large main lagoon is connected to Lake Alexandrina through a long man made channel, a natural overflow sometimes contributes to the flow into the wetland. The wetland complex is separated from Lake Albert by a causeway on which a road connecting the town to the ferry was constructed. The Coorong District Council manages this road. A second causeway separates the three lagoons from each other and contributes to blocking any connection of the two smaller lagoons to the lakes or the large main lagoon. In 2000 Woodward-Clyde (2000) surveyed the Lower Lakes area for potential wetland rehabilitation sites. Narrung wetland was identified as one of the top 6 priority wetlands for rehabilitation. The report identified the flow channel, a natural flow path (overflow), and a potential culvert site shown in Map 3.

“Vegetation structure significantly altered by very obvious signs of multiple disturbances. Retains basic vegetation structure or ability to regenerate it (e.g. disturbance to vegetation structure caused by very frequent grazing). Presence of aggressive weeds at high density (50 – 70%). Core habitat areas exist that are buffered by scattered remnants. Species use of habitats is likely to be opportunistic. Structural diversity limited to isolated patches if at all, micro-habitats presence low. Basic vegetation structure severely impacted by disturbance. Scope for revegetation but not to a state approaching good condition without intensive management. Disturbance to vegetation structure caused by cropping, grazing or clearance, presence of very aggressive weeds, partial clearing, dieback and livestock grazing. Weed presence greater than 70%. Habitats are impacted by disturbances and are not connected with remnant buffers.” (Seaman 2003).

4

Narrung Wetland Management Plan 2006

Map 2: Narrung wetland location

5

Narrung Wetland Management Plan 2006

Map 3: On ground work suggested by Woodward-Clyde (2000) to improve the connection of the wetland with the lakes (adapted from (Woodward-Clyde 2000))

The wetland sits to a large degree on privately held land with some owned by the Minister for Environment and Heritage. The surrounding area being private ownership is used mainly for grazing, with the town of Narrung along the eastern side of the wetland.

SECTION 2.02 SURVEY SITES, DATES & LOCATIONS
The River Murray Wetlands Baseline Survey (SKM 2004) monitored different wetland parameters (Table 1). Narrung wetland was not inundated for the entire time of the baseline survey, therefore not all parameters could be considered for monitoring for a full year. The baseline survey did not monitor the fish or macroinvertebrates in the wetland. The locations of the baseline survey sites can be seen in Appendix C.

6

Narrung Wetland Management Plan 2006 Table 1: Baseline survey monitoring of following parameters

Parameter

Surveyed Other BLS

Date 1 (BLS)

Date 2 (BLS)

Date 3 (BLS)

Date 4 (BLS)

Date 5

Date 6

See page

Site physical Vegetation Fish Birds Frogs Macroinvertebrates Water Quality Groundwater

Y Y N Y Y N Y Y Y

2004 2004

4 17 21

Spring Spring

Summer Early Summer Late Summer Winter

18 21 22

16/12/03 22/01/04

29/01/04 12/03/04

12/03/04 11/06/04 02/09/04

25/11/05

11 15

NR = Not Recorded, BLS = baseline survey (SKM 2004)

SECTION 2.03 PHYSICAL FEATURES
(a) NARRUNG WETLAND IN CURRENT STATE Narrung has been grazed for an extended period of time, probably since the 1850‟s (State Library of South Australia). As a result a lot of the native vegetation has been lost and weeds have been able to spread throughout the complex. The past land use would account for the degradation of the vegetation currently found in the wetland complex. Map 4 identifies the lagoons of Narrung wetland. The wetland adjacent to Lake Alexandrina seen to the north of Narrung wetland forms a part of an inlet to Narrung wetlands. This wetland has been referred to as Narrung Inlet wetland and recommendations for its protection have been included in this management plan. The main lagoon is shown as „wetland‟ in the map.

7

Narrung Wetland Management Plan 2006

Map 4: Identification of the lagoons

Figure 1 through to Figure 6, show the wetland and its fringing vegetation in its current state. Figure 1 shows the very clear water of Narrung wetland, the high salinity and the charophytes, seen in Figure 2, play a role in reducing the turbidity of the wetland, as the wetland is seasonally dry sediment compaction could also contribute. At the same location during a dry autumn and a wet spring Figure 3 shows the main lagoon in wet state. Figure 4 shows the causeway bisecting the wetland into the east and main lagoons as seen from the town of Narrung whereas Figure 5 shows the full view of the main lagoon from the town. The causeway, with Alexandrina Drive, separation the wetland from Lake Albert can be seen in Figure 6.

Figure 1: Very clear water in main lagoon (0 NTU) 25/11/05 (TB)

Figure 2: Charophytes in main lagoon 25/11/05 (TB)

8

Narrung Wetland Management Plan 2006

Figure 3: Main lagoon from causeway 25/11/05 (TB)

Figure 4: Causeway separating the south east and main lagoons 27/01/06 (TB)

Figure 5: Main lagoon with causeway and south east lagoon on right hand side of photo 27/01/06 (TB)

Figure 6: Lake Albert and south east lagoon (dry) divided by road causeway 27/01/06 (TB)

Narrung Inlet wetland, which seems to have a good connection to the Narrung Narrows and is therefore maintained as a fresh water wetland, can be seen in Figure 7 and Figure 8. The connection to the Narrung Narrows can be seen in Figure 9.

9

Narrung Wetland Management Plan 2006

Figure 7: Narrung Inlet wetland 08/03/06 (AF)

Figure 8: Narrung Inlet wetland connection to Narrung Narrows 08/03/06 (TB)

Figure 9: Narrung Inlet wetland 08/03/06 (TB)

(b) GEOMORPHOLOGY, GEOLOGY AND SOILS The soil in the wetland was found to be mainly sand with some silt and clay in the upper layers (SKM 2004). Copies of the soil logs from the baseline survey can be found in Appendix E locations are also presented in Appendix E. Soil salinities increased slightly with depth showing a shallow water table at 1.5 m depth. The wetland complex sits on the Bridgewater Formation from the Pleistocene. (c) CLIMATE The following climatic conditions are taken from the Bureau of Meteorology (BOM) Meningie station (number 024518) (Latitude (deg S): -35.6904; Longitude (deg E): 139.3375) (BOM 2005). The recording of data commenced at Meningie in 1864; the latest records used in the assessment of the climatic condition of the area stemming from 2004. Narrung wetland has a Mediterranean climate with warm dry summers and cool wet winters. The median (5th decile) annual rainfall is 457 mm. The mean monthly maximum rainfall is in June (61.9 mm), the minimum in February (16.9 mm). The expected mean daily maximum temperature is highest in February at 25.4 C, lowest in July at 14.9 C, and has an annual mean of 20.8 C. The minimum daily temperature is at its maximum in January and February at 13.8 C, for both months, and its minimum in July at 6.7 C. The annual mean daily minimum temperature is 10.3 C. (d) WETLAND VOLUMES AND WATER REQUIREMENTS FOR VARIOUS FILLING STAGES The wetland volume was calculated as part of the baseline survey. Table 2 summarises the wetland water requirement for Narrung wetland as calculated for the area shown in Figure 10. A DEM was developed for this area by the baseline survey (see Appendix D). The water requirement, including evaporative loss, is covered in Section 7.02.

10

Narrung Wetland Management Plan 2006

Figure 10: Area of Narrung used for volume estimates (SKM 2004) Table 2: Summary of wetland volumes within Narrung wetland (adapted from (SKM 2004))

Filling Stage
Full Three quarters full Half full Quarter full

Area (ha)
33.0 26.3 12.7 2.3

Area (m2)
330,209 263,441 127,479 22,799

RLm Depth m (AHD)*
0.68 0.50 0.32 0.14 0.70 0.52 0.34 0.16

Volume m3 (KL)
103,394 48,478 13,351 866

Volume ML
103 48 13 0.87

Result Reliability 75% (SKM 2004); *Base of wetland is at --0.018 m AHD.

(e) SURFACE AND GROUNDWATER FEATURES (i) Surface water For a some time, at the commencement of the baseline survey monitoring, the wetland was inundated, this water was monitored for water quality (see Table 3), adapted from the baseline survey report (SKM 2004)). The high and increasing salinity within the lagoon indicates evapoconcentration and saline groundwater intrusion (SKM 2004). The lagoons of the wetland complex are not permanently connected with the lake and are only rarely flushed. This condition would contribute to the high salt concentrations within the lagoons due to the repeated evapoconcentration. The concentration within the wetland rises as it dries to more than double that of the EC expected in seawater, which is approximately 50,000 μS/cm. In comparison the monitored Lake Alexandrina salinity obtained from the, DWLBC Surface Water Archive (Department of Water Land and Biodiversity Conservation 2005), has a median (calculated from mean daily readings between 16/01/2004 and 27/04/2004) EC of 1364 μS/cm. The monitoring location from which the DWLBC Surface Water Archive is derived is at Narrung Jetty (Zone 54, 335275 E and 6068331 N).
11

Narrung Wetland Management Plan 2006

The dissolved oxygen concentrations were variable, SKM (2004) attributed this to the photosynthetic activity of algae followed by low concentration as the salinity concentration increased. The pH was alkaline possibly due to the limestone sediments or due to the consumption of carbon dioxide by benthic and pelagic algae (SKM 2004). The turbidity measurements of the wetland were low; this can potentially be contributed the high salinity promoting sediment aggregation and sedimentation, other contributing factors could be the large numbers of charophytes seen to grow in the wetland. Lake Alexandrina water temperature on the day of wetland monitoring was slightly below the wetland water temperature (see Table 3) (Department of Water Land and Biodiversity Conservation 2005). The temperatures of the wetland reflected the ambient summer air temperatures (SKM 2004). The median water levels within Lake Alexandrina for a 10-year period (1994 to 2004) is 0.774 m AHD (calculated from the daily mean water level obtained from the, DWLBC Surface Water Archive (Department of Water Land and Biodiversity Conservation 2005)). For a description of the implications of water quality in wetlands refer to Your Wetland: Supporting Information (Tucker, Dominelli et al. 2003).
Table 3: Water quality

Parameters
EC μS/cm Mean Min. Max. Jetty* DO mg/L
-1

16/12/03
33275 2108 30900 35100 12.6 ± 1.1 9.9 15.2 10.78 0.17 10.38 11.11 13 ± 3 10 20 31.1 ± 1.1 29.1 33.9 20.6 0.778 4 ± ±

29/01/04
58125 5162 54200 65700 1256.2 11.4 ± 0.9 9.2 13.6 8.92 ± 0.2 8.57 9.33 14 ± 0 13 15 24.6 ± 1 23 27.3 21.9 0.679 4 ±

12/03/04
N/A > 100, 000 > 100, 000 1337.7 1.1 ± 0.2 0.5 1.6 8.2 ± 0.05 8.06 8.3 73 ± 19 30 123 22.4 ± 1 20.7 25.4 18.7 0.582 4 1

25/11/05 (NAR01)
27300

Mean Min. Max.

pH

Mean Min. Max.

Turbidity NTU

Mean Min. Max.

0 (20cm

deep)

Water Temperature C

Mean Min. Max. Jetty*

Lake height*

Jetty* n

N = sample size: NAR01 is at 334453 E 6068645 N (10.1 m accuracy), WGS 84 zone 54: * = from DWLBC Surface Water Archive (Department of Water Land and Biodiversity Conservation 2005)

The local community has undertaken further water quality monitoring, see Table 4. Over a 5-month period (Spring „03 to late Summer ‟04) the pH did not change. The salinity increased as a result of evapoconcentration. The turbidity reduced either due to high salinity or sediment trapping by Charophytes and Ruppia sp. The nutrient load also increased within the wetland. The nutrient increase could be due to evapoconcentration and/or due to a reduction in uptake as algae growth would be restricted at the higher salinity levels (Frears 2006).

12

Narrung Wetland Management Plan 2006 Table 4: Community monitored water quality (table provided by A. Frears (2006))

Parameter
pH Electrical Conductivity (Salinity) Turbidity Nitrate Phosphate

14/9/03 (early Spring)
8.5 24.3 mS/cm (24,300 EC) 80-100 NTU <0.05 <0.025

12/2/04 (late Summer)
8.5 65.5 mS/cm (65,500 EC) 40 NTU 0.1 0.1

The Flood Inundation Model (FIM III) does not extend downstream beyond Mannum and is therefore unavailable for this region. No simulations were therefore performed for Narrung wetland based on the Flood Inundation Model. The current water flow into the wetland is mainly through Narrung Inlet wetland then down through the northern channel, as seen in Map 5 and Figure 11. The north channel is slowly blocking up through debris and sedimentation see Figure 12. The channel was previously connected directly to the lake and is now blocked by fore dune build up see Figure 14. The current connection with Narrung Inlet wetland can be seen in Figure 13. A second connection the southern channel (Figure 17), which seems to have a higher commence to flow level, runs parallel with Narrung road (Figure 15), and passes through a pipe culvert under Alexandrina drive, see Figure 16. The south channel connects up with Lake Albert, see Map 5 and Figure 18. Both channels would allow minimal exchange between the wetland and the lakes with a distance of 400 and 500 metres respectively. The temperature within both channels could fluctuate extremely as both channels are shallow and there is minimal shade. Fish passage along these channels would therefore be hampered.

Map 5: Current water movement into the wetland 13

Narrung Wetland Management Plan 2006

Figure 11: North channel seen from wetland 08/03/06 (TB)

Figure 12: North channel partially blocked 08/03/06 (TB)

Figure 13: North channel connection to Narrung Inlet wetland 08/03/06 (TB)

Figure 14: North channel blocked connection to Lake Alex. 08/03/06 (TB)

14

Narrung Wetland Management Plan 2006

Figure 15: South channel leading up to pipe culvert 08/03/06 (TB)

Figure 16: South channel pipe culvert under Alexandrina drive 08/03/06 (TB)

Figure 17: South channel connection to Narrung wetland 08/03/06 (TB)

Figure 18: South channel connection to Lake Alexandrina 08/03/06 (TB)

15

Narrung Wetland Management Plan 2006

(ii) Groundwater The baseline survey installed 5 groundwater wells within Narrung wetland. These wells were monitored 5 times during the survey period (22nd January, 12th March, 11th June, 21st July and 2nd September 2004). The locations of the wells are presented in Table 5 and a map of the groundwater flow direction in Appendix E. Two more wells were installed through Community monitoring those labelled NAR01 and NAR02.
Table 5: Groundwater monitoring locations (SKM 2004)

Name
NA1 NA2 NA3 NA4 NA5 NAR01 NAR02

Easting
334572.514 334787.601 334289.412 334097.782 334112.113 334101.626 334112.618

Northing
6068717.220 6068562.547 6069101.858 6069409.431 6069238.219 6068669.566 6068703.589

Elevation of Bore Hole casing (m-AHD)
2.492 2.226 3.059 2.123 3.135 2.822 2.132

Ground Elevation (m-AHD)
1.508 1.238 1.987 1.075 2.122 1.312 0.753

Benchmark (m-AHD)
1.288 3.172 1.136 3.394

The groundwater seems to flow from the lake towards the floodplain, with additional groundwater flow from the high ground (SKM 2004). The wetland depressions are therefore terminal points of groundwater flow and therefore collection points for the salinity of the groundwater exacerbated by evapoconcentration. The measured depths of the ground water, both during the baseline survey and since, can be seen in Table 6.
Table 6: Groundwater monitoring locations (SKM 2004)

Depth to Water Table (mbgl) Elevation of Bore Hole Ground casing Elevation Benchmark Name (m-AHD) (m-AHD) (m-AHD)
NA1 NA2 NA3 NA4 NA5 NAR01 NAR02 2.492 2.226 3.059 2.123 3.135 2.822 2.132 1.508 1.238 1.987 1.075 2.122 1.312 0.753 1.288 3.172 1.136 3.394

Reduced Standing Water Level (RSWL mAHD)* 22/01/04 12/03/04 11/06/04 02/09/04
0.59

22/01/04

12/03/04

11/06/04

02/09/04

08/03/06

1.161 1.501 1.323 0.726 0.786 0.939 0.663 0.220 1.498 1.668 1.642 1.397 0.662 0.754 0.687 0.432 1.587 1.776 1.792 1.491 0.695 0.778 0.716 0.522 0.141 0.236 1.149

1.39 1.16 1.61 0.7 1.63 0.78

0.347 0.007 0.185 0.782 0.118 0.037

-0.012 0.16 0.603 0.078
0.377

0.489 0.319 0.345

0.413 0.321 0.388 0.643 0.375 0.535 0.346 0.33 0.631 0.492

0.617 0.534 0.596 0.790

-0.015 0.33 0.612 0.517 -0.396 0.768

* Level of ground water in relation to sea level

The groundwater salinity was found to be relatively high, see Table 7. The high salinity of the groundwater and the shallow groundwater table, with a range between 0.14 and 1.59 mbgl, has probably been contributing to the surface salinity of the complex through evapoconcentration (SKM 2004). The ground water levels were found to fluctuate with the seasonal climatic change, with the
16

08/03/06

Narrung Wetland Management Plan 2006

depth to groundwater (mbgl) increasing towards March and then decreasing with the onset of winter (SKM 2004) (see Appendix E).
Table 7: Groundwater salinity ms/cm

NAME
NA1 NA2 NA3 NA4 NA5 NAR0101 NAR0102 Surface water near pump shed Surface water north channel near photopoint

14/09/03

22/01/04
39.70 9.58 30.70 20.39 24.22

12/02/04

11/06/04
50.20 12.20 42.00 29.40 35.30

08/03/06
66.2 11.1 42.8 30.2 32.8

29 26

31 26.1
35.4 65.0 3.69

SECTION 2.04 ECOLOGICAL FEATURES
(a) FLORA There is not much remnant native vegetation remaining within the Narrung wetland (WoodwardClyde 2000). The baseline survey identified 17 native species; see Appendix F. Within the main lagoon there were extensive areas of the Charophyte Nitella sp. Other submerged aquatic species included widgeon grass/water tassel Ruppia polycarpa and Lepilaena sp. Although dry, R. polycarpa was identified in the smaller lagoons (SKM 2004). Ruppia polycarpa is a high salt tolerant species that often inhabits temporary water bodies (Nicol 2005). The channel connecting the main lagoon to Lake Alexandrina had salt club rush Bolboschoenus caldwellii and saltwater couch *Paspalum vaginatum (SKM 2004). In the wetland area some native grasses were identified including Emu grass Distichlis distichophylla interspersed among pasture grasses. In the lower lying land around the wetland there were samphire areas containing black-seed samphire Halosarcia pergranulata ssp. pergranulata and beaded samphire Sarcocornia quinqueflora. Other herbs found within the wetter areas of the samphire included Sea heath Frankenia pauciflora var. gunnii, streaked arrow-grass Triglochin striatum and widgeon grass/water tassel R. polycarpa (SKM 2004). Interspersed were also weeds including common brass buttons *Cotula coronopifolia and pasture grasses. On the higher ground were lignum Muehlenbeckia florulenta with a invasive grass understorey including saltwater couch *P. vaginatum and kikuyu *Pennisetum clandestinum (SKM 2004). Outside of the immediate wetland area to the east and south, small depressions with a permanent connection to the lakes had different plant associations including a water ribbon Triglochin procerum herbland which was invaded by Kikuyu *P. clandestinum. The wetland fringing the lakes to the north had water milfoil Myriophyllum sp. and Azolla sp. and fringed by common spike-rush Eleocharis acuta and salt club rush Bolboschoenus caldwellii sedgeland with a herb understorey. These areas were still accessed by stock. The four plant associations were surveyed by the baseline survey were: Eleocharis acuta / Bolboschoenus caldwellii Closed Sedgeland Myriophyllum caput-medusae Herbland over Azolla filiculoides Ruppia polycarpa Herbland; and
17

Narrung Wetland Management Plan 2006

Sarcocornia quinqueflora Low Closed Shrubland over Triglochin striatum and Ruppia polycarpa A detailed list of species found within the plant associations can be found in Appendix G Section G.01. Vegetation collected and identified by community members, with professional assistance, is also listed in the Appendix. During this collection some exotic weeds were identified including the African boxthorn Lycium ferocissimum. Weed removal should include the removal of this weed as a priority. For a description of the function of vegetation in wetlands refer to Your Wetland: Supporting Information (Tucker, Dominelli et al. 2003). In the northern wetland fringing Lake Alexandrina, the Myriophyllum caput-medusae herbland had coarse milfoil M. caput-medusae and lake milfoil M. salsugineum, both species of conservation significance, see Appendix G Section G.01. M. caput-medusae and Lilaeopsis polyantha, with a listing of rare regional conservation significance, were in the Eleocharis acuta/Bolboschoenus caldwellii closed sedgeland also in the northern wetland (SKM 2004). (i) Implications for management The River Murray Wetlands Baseline Survey (SKM 2004) recommends the revegetation around the wetland lagoons with local natives now absent from the wetland. The suggested native vegetation included swamp paper-bark Melaleuca halmaturorum smooth cutting grass/chaffy saw sedge Gahnia filum. The baseline survey also recommends the fencing off of wetlands fringing Lake Alexandrina, to avoid further grazing damage to the species of conservation significance and to be able to address the threat of invasive weeds (SKM 2004). The control of kikuyu * P. clandestinum is required throughout the wetland area including herbland and lignum shrublands (SKM 2004). With the introduction of hydrological management the water salinity within the wetland will reduce, through flushing of the system during inundation. Maintaining the wetland at or above 5000 μS/cm will ensure that the current submerged aquatic species Nitella sp. Ruppia polycarpa and Lepilaena sp. can survive (Nicol 2006). (b) FAUNA The River Murray Wetlands Baseline Survey (SKM 2004) conducted a number of surveys on fauna in the wetland environment. These surveys are described below. (i) Birds The bird assessment of the baseline survey was located at three sites with complex shorelines (SKM 2004), the habitat included herb and samphire areas as well as wet and dry mud. Thirteen species of waterbird were observed in the wetland with 467 individuals in total. Twelve of these species were EPBC (Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999) listed as migratory species (SKM 2004). Table 24 in Appendix G Section G.02(a) contains a list of the birds observed at the Narrung wetland. The three most abundant birds observed were the masked lapwing with 91 individuals, the Caspian tern with 80 individuals and the crested tern with 86 individuals only observed in the spring monitoring period (SKM 2004). The overall abundance and diversity at each site was low, but seen as a whole and compared to other sites of the same survey Narrung wetland was above the mean. Foraging activity was low, with only 4 species observed foraging in spring and 1 in summer (SKM 2004). The limited habitat conditions in the surrounding floodplain were considered to have influenced the diversity and abundance of bird populations in Narrung wetland. The habitat availability identified by the baseline survey (SKM 2004) are listed in Table 8. The revegetation of the floodplain surrounding the wetland should contribute to the development of more diverse habitats than presently available. However, the maintenance of the open water and wet mud areas is recommended by the baseline survey to maintain the bird diversity and abundance (SKM 2004).
18

Narrung Wetland Management Plan 2006

The development of a more diverse habitat surrounding the Narrung wetland should consequently benefit the birds found in the surrounding Ramsar area.
Table 8: Habitat features identified in Narrung wetland table adapted from (SKM 2004).

Habitat features Site 1
Shoreline Fringing vegetation Reeds Sedges Herbs Wet mud Dry mud Hollow trees bearing Complex Continuous low cover Absent Absent Extensive Occasional Occasional Absent Occasional In/above veg Absent 0.1 Stable

Spring Site 2
Complex Continuous low cover Absent Absent Extensive Occasional Occasional Absent Absent 1–10 m from veg Absent 0.1 Stable

Summer Site 3
Complex Continuous low cover Absent Absent Extensive Absent Extensive Absent Occasional In/above veg Absent 0.1 Stable

Site 1
Complex Continuous low cover Absent Absent Extensive Absent Extensive Absent Occasional NA Absent 0 NA

Site 2
Complex Continuous low cover Occasional Absent Extensive Extensive Extensive Absent Absent 10 – 100 m from veg Absent 0.1 Falling

Site 3
Complex Continuous low cover Absent Absent Extensive Extensive Extensive Absent Absent 10 – 100 m from veg Absent 0.05 Falling

Perching trees Water’s edge Fringing River Red Gums Water depth (m) Water level

A survey of bird species found in the area of the Lower Lakes from the period of January 2003 and February 2004 was preformed (Gosbell 2004). This survey was conducted at 23 sites over a period of twelve months; Table 25 in Appendix G Section G.02(a) contains a list of the water birds seen as part of this survey. The findings of the survey were that waterfowl made up 94% of all observations with 45 species, compared to 17 species of waders. It is anticipated that some of these species would take advantage of the increased habitat availability at a restored Narrung wetland. Of the 17 waders, 8 were migratory. The scarcity of waders may indicate a lack of suitable habitat or habitat quality. Further, a steady decline in waterbirds over the past 30-40 years may be due to a loss of habitat and habitat diversity (Gosbell 2004). Narrung wetland is listed by Seaman (2003) as a potential habitat for: The painted snipe Rostratula benghalensis (IUCN: Vulnerable A1b, NPW Act: Vulnerable, CAMBA), Australasian bittern Ibotaurus poiciloptilus (IUCN: Vulnerable C2a, NPW Act: Vulnerable), Lewin‟s rail Rallus pectoralis (IUCN: Near Threatened c, NPW Act: Vulnerable), Orange bellied parrot Neophema chrysogaster (IUCN: Critically Endangered C2b, NPW Act: Endangered), Migratory wadders (CAMBA and JAMBA listed) including: Sharp-tailed Sandpiper Calidris acuminata, Curlew Sandpiper Calidris ferruginea, Red-necked Stint Calidris ruficollis,
19

Narrung Wetland Management Plan 2006

Common Greenshank Tringa nebularia and Waterbirds listed in schedules 8 and 9 of the National Parks and Wildlife Act 1972 Freckled duck Stictonetta naevosa Musk duck Biziura lobata Baillon‟s crake Porzana pusilla Golden headed cisticola Cistiola exillis Great-crested grebe Podiceps cristatus The CAMBA (China Australia Migratory Birds Agreement) and JAMBA (Japan Australia Migratory Birds Agreement) listed species were taken from (1986b; 1986a). CAMBA and JAMBA are intergovernmental agreements for the protection of migratory birds and their habitats. Further, a duck hunter has reportedly, seen a painted snipe Rostratula benghalensis (CAMBA listed & listed as vulnerable in the National Parks and Wildlife Act 1972) in samphire area close to Narrung, however this sighting was not been confirmed by D. Dadd (2005). The following list of birds has been observed at Narrung wetland by David Dadd (Dadd 2006); Swan Cygnus spp. (black swan Cygnus atratus) Australian shelduck Tadorna tadornoides (which need tree hollows for breeding and therefore wander) Black duck Anas superciliosa Grey teal Anas gracilis Chestnut teal Anas castanea – seen mainly in winter, however not as many as the grey teal Australasian shoveler Anas rhynchotis Pink-eared duck Malacorhynchus membranaceus Freckled duck Stictonetta naevosa (also seen at nearby Poltalloch wetland in numbers of 300 plus) Crested Tern Sterna bergii Whiskered Tern Chlidonias hybridus (seasonal) Great egret Ardea alba White faced heron Egretta (Ardea) novaehollandiae Wading birds, which have been observed at Narrung wetland by David Dadd, include: Black-winged Stilt Himantopus himantopus Sharp-tailed Sandpiper Calidris acuminata (CAMBA/JAMBA listed) Red-Necked stint Calidris ruficollis (CAMBA/JAMBA listed) Marsh Sandpiper Tringa stagnatilis (CAMBA listed) Common Greenshank Tringa nebularia (CAMBA/ JAMBA listed). (not seen at Narrung but seen at Poltalloch wetland close by and could therefore use Narrung wetland) Red capped plover Charadrius ruficapillus (which also nest at Narrung wetland) Masked lapwing Vanellus miles. D. Dadd (2006) observed the sharp tailed sandpiper, a migratory wader, foraging in the samphire areas between the wetland and Lake Alexandrina. This foraging activity was observed shortly after
20

Narrung Wetland Management Plan 2006

the arrival of the species in September. D. Dadd assumes the choice of foraging at this site at this time of the year could be due to the high water levels of the Coorong. There were a number of birds identified during a community survey assisted by D. Dadd, foraging at the wetland, see in Table 9. As there was a limited amount of macroinvertebrates identified at the wetland, the birds were assumed to be foraging on the submerged aquatic plants and algae (Frears 2006).
Table 9: Birds identified during community survey

No.
16 30 2 1 3 15 16 40 14 40 1 2

Species
Black Swan Australian Shelduck Swamp Harrier Masked Lapwing Red-capped Plover Sharp-tailed Sandpiper Black-winged Stilt Banded Stilt Silver Gull Whiskered Tern Caspian Tern Crested Tern

Scientific Name
Cygnus atratus Tadorna tadornoides membranaceus Circus approximans Vanellus miles Charadrius ruficapillus Calidris acuminata Himantopus himantopus Cladorhynchus leucocephalus Larus novaehollandiae Chlidonias hybridus Sterna caspia Sterna bergii

Note
Flying Flying Dependent young (2)

(ii) Frogs No frog species were recorded at Narrung during the survey. The lack of frogs is presumably due to the shallow and saline nature of the wetland. The lack of suitable frog habitat would have a large role in the lack of frogs in the wetland (SKM 2004). (iii) Fish The baseline survey did not include a fish survey for Narrung wetland due to the lack of water during the survey. As no fish were collected within the wetland, the Lower Lakes Fish Inventory (Wedderburn and Hammer 2003), provides the best available data as to the fish that may potentially migrate into the wetland complex. Within the Lower Lakes Fish Inventory (Wedderburn and Hammer 2003) the fish species and relative abundance presented in Table 10 and Table 11 were recorded for Lake Alexandrina and Lake Albert on either side of the Narrung Narrows (tables were adapted from (Wedderburn and Hammer 2003)) which is close to the Narrung wetland. The sampling points of the Lower Lakes Fish Inventory for Narrung wetland were located (coordinates in GDA 94 zone 54): R 24 (Lake) - Next to the Narrung Jetty (335348 E 6068542 N) R 26 (Wetland) - In the Narrung narrows wetland close to where a culvert to Narrung wetland will be located (334874 E 6068214 N) S 1 (Swamp) - On the east side of the Narrung Narrows in Lake Alexandrina (336000 E 6069000 N) Wedderburn and Hammer (2003) recommend the protection and restoration of sheltered fish habitat around the lake. However, flow control structures can have an impact on the movement of fish in and out of wetland environments, due to changes in water quality and/or water flow (velocities,
21

Narrung Wetland Management Plan 2006

turbulence) (see Your Wetland: Supporting Information (Tucker, Dominelli et al. 2003)). This will be taken into account when considering flow management and flow control structure design.
Table 10: Native fish

Abundance R 24 17/02/03 R 26 18/02/03 S1 17/09/01 Common Name Scientific Name SA Lake Albert

Status Australia

Bony herring Common galaxias Dwarf flathead gudgeon Flathead gudgeon Flyspecked hardyhead Golden perch Lagoon goby Smallmouthed hardyhead Western blue spot goby Number of Species

Nematalosa erebi Galaxias maculatus Philypnodon sp. Philypnodon grandiceps Craterocephalus stercusmuscarum fulvus Macquaria ambigua Tasmanogobius lasti Atherinosoma microstoma Pseudogobius olorum

3 5

1 72 2 1

30 579 2 90 3 R (C)

17

48 2

1 91 8 17 18 5 8 1

1 239 189 251

C = provisional State conservation concern under the draft Threatened Species Schedule NPWSA (National Parks and Wildlife Council and Department for Environment and Heritage 2003)

Table 11: Introduced fish

Abundance R 24 17/02/03 R 26 18/02/03 S1 17/09/01 Common Name Scientific Name SA Lake Albert

Status Australia

Gambusia Goldfish Redfin Number of Species

Gambusia holbrooki Carassius auratus Perca fluviatilis 0

51 4 4 3

1

71 4 128

1

(iv) Macroinvertebrates The River Murray Wetlands Baseline Survey (SKM 2004) did not monitor macroinvertebrates at Narrung wetland. However, the local community monitored macroinvertebrates on 2 separate occasions using waterwatch techniques over a 5-month period (from spring 2003 to late summer 2005). The overall abundance of macroinvertebrates collected at the late summer monitoring session was significantly less than in the early spring session. The reducing water levels and high salinities have significantly reduced the diversity of species. Only adult forms of species were found (Frears 2006). For a description of the function of macroinvertebrates in wetlands refer to Your Wetland: Supporting Information (Tucker, Dominelli et al. 2003).
22

Narrung Wetland Management Plan 2006 Table 12: Community collected macroinvertebrates (table provided by A. Frears (2006))

Common Name Freshwater snail Water flea Mosquito larvae Predacious diving beetle (adult) Scavenger beetle larvae Scavenger beetle adult Scud/side swimmer Whirligig beetle larvae Whirligig beetle adult Seed shrimp Water boatman Non-biting midge larvae (v) Implications for management

Sensitivity Rating 6 6 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 4 4 3

14/9/03 (early spring)          

12/2/04 (late Summer) 

 

  

The SKM (2004) bird survey found the abundance and diversity of birds at Narrung to be above the mean of all wetlands included in the survey. The birds were seen on the open water and wet mud. Their recommendations aimed at increasing waterbird diversity and numbers within the wetland with the development of more diverse habitat. However, it was seen as important to maintain the open water and mud areas for the birds presently using the wetland. The lack of frogs was probably due to the saline nature of the wetland and the lack of suitable habitat. No fish were found in the wetland, however, with the construction of a culvert connecting the wetland with Lake Albert a large potential exists for the migration of fish into the wetland. This would need to be monitored and the water quality and volume balanced between the needs of the fish and the waterbirds. No information exists on the macroinvertebrates of the wetland. Therefore, it is difficult to assess the possible impacts on the macroinvertebrate population following a reduction in surface water salinity within the wetland. This may increase the food source for fish and water birds. The future monitoring and assessment will therefore need to assess the implications of the freshening of the wetland on not only vegetation and water quality but also on the species diversity and abundance of the birds using the wetland. Therefore, to manage the wetland with an aim of increasing bird habitat availability, the diversity of habitat must be increased and the existing habitat of open water and mud maintained. With the establishment of more diverse and healthy aquatic habitats, the abundance of frogs within Narrung wetland itself should potentially also increase. The improvement in connection between the wetland and the lakes should provide fish habitat. The movement of fish in and out of the wetland should play a role in contributing to their reproduction in the lakes as well as serving as an additional food source for water birds.

23

Narrung Wetland Management Plan 2006

Chapter 3. SOCIAL, ECONOMIC AND CULTURAL VALUES
The wetland is of importance to the local residents and the traditional owners the Ngarrindjeri nation. The wetland is inherently of importance to the Ngarrindjeri as is the case for all wetlands along the River Murray. Some of the cultural significant aspects include through past uses such as food gathering, gathering the reed Cyperus gymnocaulos for basket weaving. This important tradition is still practiced and the presence of Cyperus gymnocaulos is an important cultural resource. Other cultural reasons for wetland rehabilitation include the importance of wetlands as part of its role in the environment such as the complex food web including fish nurseries and bird habitat. Narrung wetland is a significant area for the Ngarrindjeri community and they are very supportive of its restoration, not only for the ecological benefits but also for cultural values. For the residents of Narrung the wetland is a major feature of the town landscape as it spans the length of the town. The wetlands value is both through its aesthetics and ecological importance. The local residents take pride in the diversity and abundance of waterbirds and waders, which use Narrung wetland. The structural improvement of the wetland flow structures, the potential improvement for native fish species and the revegetation considered as a part of the restoration works, receiving unanimous approval at a community meeting organised by the town progress association and held at the town hall. Due to the wetlands importance to the town and its highly visible nature, interest in participation in monitoring, management, and revegetation of the wetland environment was high with many committing to specific roles of the wetland management. Further values of Narrung wetland in a broader context include its role in regional tourism. The Narrung Narrows attracts a number of tourists who camp adjacent to the ferry crossing at the edge of Narrung town. The rehabilitation of the wetland will therefore contribute to the increase in regional tourism value.

24

Narrung Wetland Management Plan 2006

Chapter 4. LAND TENURE, MANAGEMENT ARRANGEMENTS
SECTION 4.01 LAND TENURE

JURISDICTION

AND

There are multiple properties that encompass Narrung wetland and the surrounding land. The wetland lagoons themselves are on four of these properties, three in private ownership, freehold (fee simple entirety), and one unallotted crown land in the ownership of the Minister for Environment and Heritage. Some of the surrounding properties are residential, these encompassing the Narrung town. A large part of the land to the east of the wetland is in the ownership of Point McLeay Community Council Inc. with the shoreline owned by the Coorong District Council and the Minister for Environment and Heritage. The property boundaries and the key ownership details can be seen in Map 6.

Map 6: Cadastral boundaries covering Narrung wetland and surrounds.

SECTION 4.02 LAND AND WATER USE
The main land use in the surrounding area is cattle grazing. In the past Narrung wetland was open to stock access. Most of the wetland is now fenced off to exclude all stock. See Map 1 for fence locations. However, evidence of stock grazing impact was evident for both the baseline survey (SKM 2004) and the report complied by Woodward-Clyde (2000), which had the aim of identifying potential wetland rehabilitation sites. Therefore the River Murray Wetlands Baseline Survey (SKM 2004) recommends the exclusion of stock from sensitive areas to promote the value and diversity of natural habitats this recommendation is echoed in the report by Woodward-Clyde (2000). The social, economic and environmental benefits of stock exclusion from sensitive areas, identified by Woodward-Clyde (2000) are;
25

Narrung Wetland Management Plan 2006

Improved wetland water quality Increased aquatic invertebrate diversity and abundance Promotion of wading bird habitat Promotion of waterbird habitat The restoration of areas culturally significant to the Ngarrindjeri Of significance currently is the lack of fencing around the northern wetland bordering Lake Alexandrina. This wetland has three plants of conservation significance, identified by the baseline survey; see Section 2.04(a).

SECTION 4.03 JURISDICTION AND MANAGEMENT AUTHORITY
The Narrung community members with support from the Coorong District LAP and the SA MDB NRM Board will be responsible for the management of the wetland in consultation with the principal landholder. Contact persons for Narrung wetland management will be Coorong District LAP Officers, Wetland Management Planning Officer or SA MDB NRM BOARD Wetland Project Officer, see Table 13 for contact details. Access to the wetland will need to be arranged through consultation with the relevant landowner.
Table 13: Narrung wetland responsible positions contact details

Position

Present Officers

Organisation

Mailing Address
Tintinara SA 5266

Phone number
(08) 8757 2100 (08) 8532 5262 2100 (08) 8391 7515

Coorong District Graham LAP Project Gates Officer Lower Lakes Project Officer Jem Tesoriero

Coorong District LAP PO Box 1021

Coorong District LAP PO Box 2056 & Goolwa to Wellington LAP

Murray Bridge

SA 5253

Wetland Tumi Lower LAPS Management Bjornsson Planning Officer Wetland Project Adrienne Officer, Lower Frears Murray SA MDB NRM BOARD

Mt. Lofty Ranges Mount Catchment Centre Barker Upper Level, Cnr Mann and Walker St's PO Box 2056 Murray Bridge

SA 5251

SA 5253

(08) 8532 6753

26

Narrung Wetland Management Plan 2006

Chapter 5. THREATS NARRUNG WETLAND

AND

POTENTIAL

SOLUTIONS

TO

There are a number of existing and potential threats to Narrung wetland, some of which have become apparent in the description of the wetland and available data in the chapters above. The identification of these threats is essential for appropriate adaptive management of the wetland. Their early recognition allows for an appropriate monitoring strategy for early identification of adverse impacts of management and therefore rapid response through altered management. The major current threat to the wetland is the infrequent inundation and associated groundwater salinity intrusion and the loss of biodiversity such as the surrounding vegetation and therefore habitat. The lack of exchange compounds the impact of saline groundwater intrusion through evapoconcentration leading to salinisation of the wetland soil with saltpans evident. This threat, a lack of water exchange, is being addressed by this management plan. The past clearing of the wetland area has degraded native habitat leaving few native flora and fauna species. The disconnection from the Lake Albert also limits the use of the wetland by native fish. However, the altered management of a wetland will in itself bring with it potential threats that need to be identified, these and other threats identified so far have been listed in Table 14. One threat recently identified in the Lower Lakes area is the invasive weed sharp rush Juncus acutus Figure 19 and Figure 20. It should be included in future weed removal strategies as part of the wetland surrounding area restoration work. Other weeds of potential concern include the African boxthorn Lycium ferocissimum and saltwater couch Paspalum vaginatum.

Figure 19: Juncus acutus (JT)

Figure 20: Juncus acutus detail (JT)

27

Narrung Wetland Management Plan 2006 Table 14: Existing and prospective threats to Narrung wetland

THREATS
Altered hydrology

SYMPTOM
Dry wetland Saline ground water intrusion Loss of vegetation/habitat

CAUSE
Causeway road (Alexandrina Drive) Drop in Lake Level/ Barrage Operation

IMPACT
Dieback of native vegetation (Aquatic and riparian) Loss of habitat variability for fauna (birds, fish, frogs, turtles & macroinvertebrates) Saltpans on dry lagoon beds Hypersaline wetland when inundated

CATEGORY
Regional & Local Local management response

EXTENT (IF KNOWN)
Wetland proper and fringing low lying areas

POTENTIAL SOLUTION
Addressed in this management plan Introduce “natural” water regime allowing the wetland not only to fill but to flush out into the adjacent lakes Clearing/maintenance of flow channels between wetland and lakes Installation of culvert/flow control structures through causeway Removal of part of causeway between main lagoon and south east lagoon Flushing through installation of a culvert under road connecting the wetland with Lake Albert Adaptive management to maintain wader habitat, restore vegetation and improve fish, frog and water bird habitat Not connect the east lagoon or inundate wetland for extended period of time to develop freshwater lens under wetland Do not allow wetland to remain dry more than 6 months

Existing
Salinisation of the wetland

Increasing EC of wetland water body Increasing salinity in wetland base/soil Saline water in wetland Only salt tolerant species present Salt pan Saline wetland base/soil Few native vegetation species in the area No large native trees in the area Invasive species present Impact on native fauna species diversity and abundance Low species diversity following clearing (State Library of South Australia)

Lack of exchange with lakes Saline seepage from groundwater (particularly in the east lagoon) Evapoconcentration No culvert therefore no flushing Wetland maintained at a dry phase for to long leading to a loss of freshwater lens Hydraulic pressure from lake Alexandrina (pushes saline groundwater toward southern end of wetland) Clearing Grazing Lack of water (inundation) Weed infestation Mismanagement of wetland hydrology

Degradation of wetland water quality (hypersaline, long term degradation of wetland) Degradation of wetland environment Reduced biodiversity Degradation of habitat quality for native fish Degradation of bird habitat (increased fish and macroinivertebrates may improve bird habitat for water birds) Only salt tolerant species present Wetland turned into a hypersaline swamp Loss of habitat/breeding hollows (birds) Loss of snags in water body Loss of windbreak

ABIOTIC

Local

Wetland proper and fringing low lying areas

Existing
Loss of native riparian vegetation

Local

Existing

Surrounding area. Extensive. Revegetation option for riparian area.

Revegetate with local native species Freshen wetland

Reduction in biodiversity

Existing

Weeds (e.g. kikuyu)

Their presence

Loss of natural variability of inundation Loss of native species (fish, riparian and aquatic vegetation) Grazing – reduction of biodiversity Grazing – introduction of weeds (introduction of seed, aiding invasion) Mismanagement of wetland hydrology Mismanagement of wetland environment Degradation of native vegetation

BIOTIC

Extensive degradation of wetland ecosystem (Domino effect on food chain)

Local and Regional

Wetland and wetland influenced surrounding area

Rehabilitate wetland/freshen/revegetate Addressed in this management plan and future revegetation plan

Existing

Exotic species Competition with native vegetation Loss of habitat (food source?)

Local

Floodplain

Active removal – poisoning

28

Narrung Wetland Management Plan 2006

THREATS
Lack of habitat (birds)

SYMPTOM
Less bird species observed during survey than potentially could use wetland

CAUSE
Degradation of wetland ecosystem Lack of fish and macroinvertebrates as food source Lack of floodplain vegetation (habitat) Possibly due to lack of suitable habitat Degradation of wetland ecosystem Blockage of flow channels into wetland No connection to Lake Albert Saline wetland Channel to Lake Alexandrina not appropriate for fish migration Well known environmental problem in region (large pest population) Rapid breeding cycles (carp ~2/year), live bearing (gambusia), unpalatable eggs (redfin)

IMPACT
Loss of bird habitat

CATEGORY
Local and Regional

EXTENT (IF KNOWN)
Wetland and wetland surrounding area

POTENTIAL SOLUTION
Restore wetland ecology/habitat availability Restore hydrology/Freshen wetland Revegetate Increase habitat availability

Existing
Lack of frogs

Existing

Lack of frogs

Loss/reduction of frogs in ecosystem

Local

Wetland and wetland surrounding area Wetland and lake fringe

Lack of native fish habitat

No fish in wetland

Reduction in available breeding areas (nurseries)

Local and Regional

Existing

Restore wetland ecology/habitat availability Restore hydrology/Freshen wetland Revegetate Increase habitat availability Restore wetland ecology/habitat availability Restore hydrology/Freshen wetland Revegetate (provide shade and snags) Allow fish passage between wetland and lake

Potential

Invasive fish species (carp, gambusia, goldfish and redfin)

Turbid wetlands

Loss/reduction of wading birds

Less birds observed

Potential

Change in habitat suitability - Depth to mud/ macroinvertebrates changed - Change in macroinvertebrate population composition

Competition for habitat. (domination of available habitat) Predation/aggressive interaction on/with small and young native fish (redfin/gambusia) Damage to aquatic vegetation Decrease in water quality (Turbidity increase) Predation on native fish (redfin) Loss of wading bird habitat Loss of value of wetland in respect to wading bird population

Regional and local (Managed locally)

Wetland water body (when wet)

If carp exclusion trials are successful in other wetlands it could be considered for Narrung Monitor abundance of invasive species with comparative monitoring of abundance of native species Removal of carp following drawdown Instillation of carp (large fish) screens

Regional and local (Managed locally)

Wetland/regional (bird habitat)

Adaptive management (monitor bird population and habitat use If the reduction in bird numbers is due to a loss in mudflats, then change the hydrology regime appropriately If the reduction in bird numbers is due to a change in the macroinvertebrate community, consider reversing wetland water freshening. Dry wetland before reeds establish (i.e. at the end of every year) Allow salinity to increase during drying event to prevent their spread

Spread of reeds into/throughout wetland

Loss of plant species considered to be of conservation significance currently found in wetland area adjacent to lake Alexandrina

Potential

Loss of open water Monoculture of reeds Loss of significant habitat Loss of plant species

Potential

Perfect growing environment (shallow fresh wetland) Earthworks (fresh soil)

Loss of open water habitat (for water birds, waders, fish etc.) Loss of mudflats (wet & dry mud) Complete change in wetland type and habitat offered to native fauna Severe impact on habitat of the species Loss of plant species

Local

Wetland water body

Grazing impact

Regional and local (Managed locally)

Wetland fringing Lake Alexandrina (outside of Narrung wetland proper)

Consider fencing of this wetland area from grazing (would need landholder agreement/ cooperation)

29

Narrung Wetland Management Plan 2006

Chapter 6. MANAGEMENT OBJECTIVES
The main management objective is the rehabilitation of the ecology of Narrung wetland and therefore the restoration of the cultural and aesthetic values of the wetland to the local community and the Ngarrindjeri nation. Based on the objectives presented in Section 1.02(c) and the threats to the wetland discussed in Chapter 5, more detailed ecology based management objectives can now be developed. The objectives, including solutions, actions needed, and priorities are detailed in Table 15. Adaptive management will drive the actions undertaken to achieve the objectives. Due to the complexity of the habitat requirements of waders, water birds, native fish, macroinvertebrates and frogs and identified potential threats to the wetland (see Chapter 5) the management and therefore detailed objectives will need to be flexible. A minor review of the objectives and the wetland management plan is recommended at the end of each year, community groups can achieve this by reviewing their monitored data. A major review should follow after 5 years.

30

Narrung Wetland Management Plan 2006 Table 15: Management objectives for Narrung wetland.

MANAGEMENT OBJECTIVES
Regeneration of riparian vegetation

SOLUTIONS
Manage water regime to restore vegetation (woodland, sedgeland and herbland plant communities) Establish native re-vegetation projects Management of inundation/drying periods to maintain a salinity level within the wetland not below 5000 EC, as this may detrimentally impact on Ruppia polycarpa growing in the wetland Manage water regime to trigger/induce aquatic and riparian vegetation regeneration Establish weed removal projects in the wetland area (boxthorn, artichoke thistle etc.) Allow wetland to increase in salt concentration as it dries

ACTIONS (Management (M) or Engineering or structural (ES))
Establish a water regime which includes flushing and draw down (ES) Actively revegetate using locally collected seed Open flow control gates (ES) Control hydraulic regime adaptively (see Section 7.02) Slow drying of wetland Monitor water levels and salinity and respond adaptively to maintain shallow water and mud flats and EC of around 5000 Weed control as per revegetation plan

QUANTIFIABLE /MEASURE OF ACHIEVEMENT
Re-establishment and survival of missing species (e.g. Melaleuca halmaturorum and Gahnia filum) Numbers based on expert recommendation Diversity of aquatic species, continued presence of Ruppia polycarpa, Lepilaena sp. and Nitella sp. Establishment of fringing reeds Maintain clear wetland (Turbidity NTU 70 100% of time)

MONITOR (TIMING)*
Photo point (Q) Vegetation survey (Y) Photo point (Q) Vegetation survey (Y) Monitor water quality (M)

LEGISLATION
WAP (water license)

PRIORITY
High

Native

VEGETATION

Native

Regeneration/maintain wetland aquatic species (maintain water plant communities)

WAP (water license)

Medium

Invasive

Removal of weeds from wetland area

Reduction of weeds (as per revegetation plan)

Vegetation survey (Y)

N/A

High

Native

Prevent spread of reeds etc. throughout wetland (maintain open water)

Native

Ease movement of fish between wetland and Lake Albert

Restore native fish habitat

Establish open connection through culvert between the wetland and Lake Albert Connect Main and south east lagoon Make sure culvert is as fish friendly as possible Reconnect wetland and Lake Albert Improved fish habitat through improved and more diverse ecological niches, such as macrophytes (emergent and submerged), snags (therefore need riparian vegetation) and open water. As well as more food sources, biofilms etc. This would lead to an
increased diversity and abundance of small native fish, which are prayed upon by larger native fish. Both are in turn prayed upon by waterbirds who also obtain a more diverse habitat though the development of aquatic and riparian vegetation

Close culvert at the end of late summer/Autumn to allow wetland to dry out Actively remove if necessary Adaptive management (increase salinity for a season if necessary) Construct culvert under Alexandrina Drive (ES) Culvert to have rough base to ease fish passage Open up causeway between main and south east lagoons (ES)

Reeds establish only on wetland fringe

Photo point (Q) Vegetation survey (Y) Monitor water quality (M) Fish survey (Y)

WAP (water license)

Medium

Visible migration during open connection Monitor in wetland

WAP (water license) Development Act Agreement by landowner Occupation of crown lands (in process)

Medium

Construct culvert under Alexandrina Drive (ES) Open up causeway between main and south east lagoons (ES) Restore riparian vegetation Manage culvert to allow both a slowly fluctuating water level and occasional open connection for fish passage Manage second culvert (north channel) to allow fish passage out of the wetland prior to drying

Presence of 3 or more native fish species found outside of wetland (see Table 10)

Fish survey (Y)

WAP (water license) Development Act Agreement by landowner Occupation of crown lands (in process)

High

FISH

Native
Maximise fish passage into and out of the wetland Minimise impact of carp

Construct the culvert in a fish friendly fashion

Use up to date fish friendly culvert construction

Monitored movement of fish in and out of the wetlnad

Fish survey (Y)

Native

WAP (water license) Development Act Agreement by landowner Occupation of crown lands (in process)

High

Invasive

Install carp grills at culvert

Part of culvert construction

No large carp in wetland

Fish survey (Y)

Medium

31

Narrung Wetland Management Plan 2006

MANAGEMENT OBJECTIVES
Restore native frog habitat

SOLUTIONS
Manage water regime to restore habitat values for frogs and therefore enhance their breeding. Improved frog habitat through improved and more diverse ecological niches (habitat) Decrease surface water salinity

ACTIONS (Management (M) or Engineering or structural (ES))
Construct culvert under Alexandrina Drive (ES) Open up causeway between main and south east lagoons (ES) Control refilling speed to optimize for aquatic vegetation germination and growth Restore riparian vegetation (revegetate) Restoration of wetland habitat and conditions for native fish species, migratory water birds, native water birds and fringing species, and aquatic and riparian plant species. (See vegetation objectives & Section 7.02) Maintain hydrology regime/refresh water Revegetate as per revegetation plan (to be developed) Inundate wetland for an extended time period Establish a hydrological regime based on best knowledge of past wetland hydrology Monitor effect of restored hydrology and adapt management accordingly Keep structure open for a month to allow for water exchange between lake and wetland Close structure to reintroduce the minimal connection between the wetland and lakes allowing the slow drying of the wetland (existing hydrology regime) Revegetate riparian vegetation Maintain periodic/annual wetland dry phase Construct culvert under Alexandrina Drive (ES) Open up causeway between main and south east lagoons (ES) Fence of area (ES)

QUANTIFIABLE /MEASURE OF ACHIEVEMENT
Presence of native frog species in wetland

MONITOR (TIMING)*
Frog survey (Q)

LEGISLATION

PRIORITY
Low

FROGS

Native
Maintained/Improved habitat for water birds (waterfowl, waders and shorebirds)

Minimise groundwater impact on wetland

Manage water regime to restore habitat values for water birds and therefore enhance their breeding (where appropriate) (All habitat including open water, shallow water, wet and dry mud) Manage water regime to restore habitat values for migratory bird species e.g. migratory waders Revegetate surrounding area with native vegetation Keep wetland regularly inundated Allow increased exchange between wetland and Lake Albert to freshen wetland

Native/Migratory

BIRDS

Increase in bird abundance and diversity using wetland (more water birds, no reduction in waders) Increase in habitat diversity (fringing vegetation)

Bird survey (M) Vegetation survey (Y) Observation

High

Monitor wetland salinity (Significant reduction in the first year with a steady improvement over the following years. Not below 5000 EC as this may detrimentally impact on Ruppia polycarpa growing in the wetland) Rapid initial decrease in salinity Ongoing long term decrease of water salinity

Monitor water quality (M)

High

GW
Reduce/manage wetland salinity

Turbidity

Manage water regime to flush wetland Allow slow drying of wetland with development of wet and dry mud. Slow increase in water salinity acceptable as per expected for Evapoconcentration of dissolved salts Maintain aquatic and restore riparian vegetation Manage water regime to minimise turbidity of wetland water Restore flow paths into wetland

Monitor water quality (M)

High

MANAGEMENT

WQ

WQ

Visibly clear water Turbidity of wetland water below 70 NTU for majority of time (100%) Culvert Open causeway

Monitor water quality (M) Observation Photo point (Q) Observation WAP (water license) Development Act Agreement by landowner Occupation of crown lands (in process)

Medium

Structural

Improve connectivity of wetland with Lake Albert

High/paramount to restoration

* see Chapter 8; WAP, water allocation plan; GW, Ground Water; WQ, Water Quality; W, Weekly; M, Monthly; Y, Yearly

Structural

Control stock in wetland area

Fence of stock for entire wetland area including wetland fringing Lake Alexandrina

Fence around lake Alexandrina fringing wetland

Observation

High

32

Narrung Wetland Management Plan 2006

Chapter 7. IMPLEMENTATION OF PLAN
The essential restoration of Narrung wetland involves the freshening of the wetland water by managing the water flow into the wetland. This will be accomplished in two stages. The restoration was split into two stages to ensure the first stage is successfully completed before further investment in resources and funding is made, and to allow adequate time to accomplish the first stage without being delayed by the work of organising stage two. Stage one involves the reconnection of the main and south east lagoons to each other and then to Lake Albert. This involves the removal of the causeway between the two lagoons or in the least broken through, followed by the construction of a culvert with stop logs (flow control) under Alexandrina drive from the south east lagoon to Lake Albert. A second culvert with stop logs (flow control) is to be constructed across the North Channel between the main lagoon and Lake Alexandrina to allow better water level manipulation during hydrology management. The spill form the removal of the causeway can be used to block the redundant South Channel between the main lagoon and Lake Albert. The location of the on ground work including culverts and causeways can be seen in Map 7. This connection follows in part the recommendations made by Woodward-Clyde (2000), which can be seen in Map 3. The inclusion of the east lagoon as recommended by Woodward-Clyde (2000) was deemed to have a risk of increasing saline groundwater intrusion. This increased risk compared with the potential value of the 5 ha wetland area in an approximately 34 ha wetland was deemed to be inappropriate, particularly considering the added expense of on groundwork, the return on investment, and the potential necessity to re-separate this lagoon should the groundwater salinity have an adverse impact on the larger restored wetland.

Map 7: On ground work at Narrung wetland

33

Narrung Wetland Management Plan 2006

Map 8 shows the current and the anticipated flow direction of water following on-ground works. This map should provide some understanding of the anticipated flow following management within Narrung wetland and the potential for freshening of the wetland.

Map 8: Expected water movement within Narrung wetland

As discussed in Section 1.02(d), stock has been excluded from the main lagoon and south east lagoon. This will protect both future revegetation efforts and the wetlands from hoof and grazing damage. Stage two involves the protection of the Narrung inlet wetland. This would involve fencing off of this wetland and adjacent vegetation, which includes three conservation significant species identified by the baseline survey, see Section 2.04(a)(i). The location of the existing stock fence and the approximate location of a fence around Narrung inlet wetland are shown in Map 9. A short fence between the two wetland fences would separate the samphire and east lagoon from the rest of the property allowing added options for control of grazing. Excluding grazing from the samphire area during early spring would provide a less disturbed foraging area for the sharp-tailed sandpiper (Dadd 2006).

34

Narrung Wetland Management Plan 2006

Map 9: Wetland Fences (current and future)

SECTION 7.01 ON GROUND ACTION AND TIMETABLE
Table 16 provides a timetable and prioritisation for the on ground works in Narrung wetland. The table does not address monitoring which is discussed in Chapter 8. A log of all activities should be maintained. This log would assist in the review process of the wetland management plan discussed in Chapter 9.

35

Narrung Wetland Management Plan 2006 Table 16: Implementation plan for Narrung wetland land based activities.

ACTIVITY
Install permanent photo points

PRIORITY
High High

RESOURCES
2 persons 1 hrs Materials and tools (available) Funding Completed Winter 2006

TIMETABLE

RESPONSIBILITY
SAMDBNRMB/LAP (Adrienne Frears, Tumi Bjornsson, Jem Tesoriero) Council

PRIOR TO WETLAND INUNDATION

Reconnect main and south east lagoons (use some of the spill to block southern flow channel, possibly leave centre of causeway standing as an island for waterbirds. Construction of culverts (with carp screens) Clear flow path between Lake Alexandrina and the main lagoon Install gauge board in lagoons Install piezometers (2 or more) (to assess whether a freshwater lens develops below the wetland following freshening of the wetland) Block southern flow channel between Lake Albert and the wetland Allow slow filling Maintain open flow path for initial month to flush wetland

High Medium Medium Low High Medium

Funding Materials and tools (available) Funding Gauge board 2 person/ ~1hrs Funding Materials and tools Spill from causeway Installed culvert etc. (OGW completed)

Winter 2006 As required Completed Winter 2006 Winter 2006 Spring (September)

Council LAP/Community group/Council SAMDBNRMB/LAP (Adrienne Frears, Tumi Bjornsson, Jem Tesoriero) SAMDBNRMB/LAP (Adrienne Frears, Tumi Bjornsson, Jem Tesoriero) Council Community group

DURING INUNDATION (WETLAND FLOODING)

INUNDATION

AFTER

Maintain wet and dry mud Wetland connection opened and closed regularly to induce slow drying, and therefore expose wet/dry mud, and slow refill open connection for fish passage Maintain clear flow path Monitor as per monitoring plan Weed removal kikuyu Pennisetum clandestinum and saltwater couch Paspalum vaginatum Revegetation Fence of separate Narrung Inlet wetland Develop appropriate grazing regime in Narrung Inlet wetland area Annual review of monitored data

High

1 person 1 hour/week (15 minutes four times per week)

Continual as per wetland water operational plan see Section 7.02 below

Community group

Medium High Medium High Medium Medium High

As appropriate Funding See Chapter 8 below Funding Funding Seed collection Funding Funding Monitored data

As required See Chapter 8 below As appropriate. As per expert recommendation. As appropriate for seed collection and revegetation works. As per expert recommendation. When funding becomes available When funding becomes available End of each inundation year (End of Summer)

Community group with assistance from LAP See Chapter 8 below LAP/Community group LAP/Community group LAP/landowner LAP/landowner Community group with assistance from LAP

AS APPROPRIATE

36

Narrung Wetland Management Plan 2006

SECTION 7.02 WETLAND WATER OPERATIONAL PLAN
The strongest tool in managing a wetland is the control of the wetland hydrology. Hydrology controls the germination and growth of aquatic and riparian vegetation. The healthy vegetation and appropriate inundation leads to the growth of biofilms, the vegetation and biofilms being a food source for macroinvertebrates and small native fish. The vegetation and appropriate water regime also provide a more diverse habitat for waterbirds and fish. The restoration of Narrung wetland and fulfilment of the major objectives is therefore reliant upon the establishment of a better flow connection between the wetland and the Lakes. (a) WATER REGIME The wetland currently receives water from Lake Alexandrina when the lake levels are high, by flowing through the north inlet channel and through the south inlet channel connecting to Lake Albert, both shown in Map 8. Following onground works, i.e. the clearing of the flow channel connecting the wetland to Lake Alexandrina, the instillation of culverts where appropriate (see Section 7.01), the inflow into the wetland should be achievable even at low lake levels allowing full control of the wetland hydrology and therefore the freshening of the wetland. The median water levels within Lake Alexandrina for a 10-year period (1994 to 2004) is 0.774 m AHD (calculated from the daily mean water level obtained from the DWLBC Surface Water Archive (Department of Water Land and Biodiversity Conservation 2005)) and would have had a great influence on the wetland water levels. The new water regime will to some degree rely on the lake levels at the time of inundation, i.e. spring. The spring median lake levels (September and October), 0.83 m AHD, were therefore used to set the maximal depth the wetland would reach, during initial flooding. The levels within the wetland will be manipulated to provide a similar slow drawdown and therefore provide shallow water and wet mud areas for waders that frequent the wetland, see Figure 21 for a representation of the water level fluctuations. This water regime is dependent on Lake Levels being operated @ approximately 0.83 m AHD during September. The culvert connecting the wetland to Lake Albert will therefore be opened to allow a slow filling of the wetland of 2 cm/day. The wetland will then be left open to the lake for close on a month to allow water exchange and freshening of the wetland. Thereafter a slow drawdown with occasional freshening (refilling) will allow the development of wed mud and shallow areas. During the times when the wetland is being refilled, to account for evaporative loss and partial refilling, native fish will have free movement between the wetland and Lake Albert. An extended draw down will follow in December with a reconnection with the lake in late January or when the wetland is at 0.5 m (whichever occurs sooner) through the channel inlet culvert to allow the last opportunity for fish to vacate the drying and slowly salinising wetland.

37

Narrung Wetland Management Plan 2006
0 .9 0 .8

W e tla n d D e p th (m )

0 .7 0 .6 0 .5 0 .4 0 .3 0 .2 0 .1

S e p te m b e r

N o ve m b e r

Ja n u a ry

0

D e ce m b e r

F e b ru a ry

O cto b e r

A p ril

Ju ly

Figure 21: Water regime scenario

(b) VOLUME CALCULATIONS The baseline survey provided estimates of the volume within the wetland at four different depths. These depths did not include all the depths required for this wetland. Therefore, to obtain the water volume required at the main lagoon at the depth expected during filling, a polynomial relationship was established between the depth of the water in the wetland and the volume (both given in the SKM baseline survey data for 4 different depths). This polynomial relationship was based on the data from the DEM of the main lagoon. Equation 1, established to calculate the volume at a given depth for the main lagoon, where volume is in ML and depth in metres, had an R2 of 0.9999.
Equation 1: Volume
328 . 31 depth
2

103 . 68

depth

8 . 7441

The DEM was complete for the main lagoon only, not for the smaller lagoons the east and south east lagoons (see Map 7). Therefore, as little data existed for the south east lagoon the area of probable inundation was identified, the probable extent of inundation can be seen in Map 7. Based on this identified area and the assumption that the morphology of the lagoons in the wetland complex would be very similar, given the same soil structure and historically being the same wetland, an estimation of the volume of water within the smaller lagoons could be extrapolated from the main lagoon data. For this purpose, Equation 2 was established to calculate the volume at a given area, where volume is in ML and area in ha, the equation had an R 2 of 0.9875. Compared with the alternate option of calculating the volume within the basins, surface area multiplied by depth, this equation delivered a better fit when tested on the available main lagoon data. Given the lack of information on the accurate volumes of the south east and east lagoons the depth and surface areas are only estimates, the depth and the volume are based on the data from the main lagoon. The volume of the south east lagoon is however less than 10% of the volume of the total wetland once the main and south east lagoons have been re-joined. The inaccuracy, especially in such a small lagoon is therefore negligible.
Equation 2: Volume
0.3957 Area
1 . 4748

The evaporation rates were attained using the Wetland Loss Calculator obtained from RMWCMB. Equation 3 with an R2 of 0.9909 was used to estimate the surface area of the wetland exposed to
38

A u g u st

M a rch

Ju n e

May

Narrung Wetland Management Plan 2006

evaporation in each month when the wetland was inundated based on the expected wetland depth (wetland depth will be used to control the development of mudflats in the wetland lagoons). The details of the estimated volume of evaporation used for the calculation of water requirements can be seen in Appendix H along with the calculated surface area based on Equation 3.
Equation 3: Area
2 93344 Depth
2

852260 xDepth

125422

The total annual water requirements were calculated following Equation 5. As the wetland will be drawn down to facilitate the production of mud flats in the wetland the surface area of the wetland will change throughout the management period. To account for the change in evaporation with the reducing wetland surface area evaporation rates were calculated for each months targeted wetland depth. The change in evaporation and the change in wetland volume will change the water requirements to maintain the appropriate wetland volume, for this purpose Equation 4 was developed. In Equation 4 ΔWWR is the monthly change in wetland water requirement due to slow drawdown i.e. wet mud development, ΔWV is the change in wetland volume, which is based on the OGWV (original wetland water volume) and the NWV (the new wetland volume), and the Evaporation is calculated for each month.
Equation 4:
WWR Evaporatio n WV ( OGWV NWV )

The total annual water requirements were calculated following Equation 5.
Equation 5: TotalAnnua lWater Re quirements
Volume PotenialEv aporation

39

Narrung Wetland Management Plan 2006 Table 17: Water required over fill period of Narrung wetland
Month Average Lakes Level (1) Depth aimed for Wetland surface area (ha) at a given depth (2) 38 38 Volume ML from depth m (3) Difference in wetland volume based on surface area (4) N/A N/A Fill volume required per month (ML) Including evaporation 150 23 (Less difference in wetland volume) (5) N/A N/A Volume required (ML) (+10 for water level manipulations) Alternate (6) Description

Sept Oct

0.848 0.829

0.83 (filling) 0.83

149 149

150 23

148+25+5= (178) 23+2

Open culvert to allow inundation at 2 cm/day Maintain open Start slow drawdown and slow water level fluctuations (Opening culvert intermittently will allow passage of fish) Late in Dec. start extended drying period down to 0.6 m AHD. Water level fluctuations as required will continue. Reconnect for a short time in late January Start drying Drying Dry

Nov

0.802

0.73

34

108

41

41

0

0 (+10)

46+2

Dec

0.755

0.63

30

74

34

46

12 (+10)

58+4

Jan Feb Mar Apr

0.707 0.651 0.61 0.695

0.53 Drying Drying Dry

24 N/A N/A N/A

46 N/A N/A N/A

28 N/A N/A N/A

37 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A Total (7)

9 (+10) N/A N/A N/A 224

59+5

336

(1) Calculated from the daily mean water level obtained from the, DWLBC Surface Water Archive (Department of Water Land and Biodiversity Conservation 2005) (2) Obtained using Equation 3; (3) Obtained using Equation 1 (4) OGWV-FWV (5) Obtained using Equation 4 (6) If change in wetland volume is not considered and therefore evaporation is as per 38 ha the following would be the water requirement

(7) Obtained using Equation 5

40

Narrung Wetland Management Plan 2006

Using the above equations an estimated water use calculation for Narrung wetland, including evaporation loss, could be developed. This water use calculation can be seen in both Table 17 and Table 18. The total annual allocation requirements for Narrung wetland annually amounts to 240 ML (or 240,000 kL). At the end of each inundation season a review of monitored data is required to assess the impact of the changed hydrology, this would be part of an annual review of the wetland management plan. An annual review of the WMP is essential for best practice management to guide efforts according to the vision and objectives. This will assist to assess whether the current management of lowered sill level is an effective hydrology management strategy or whether a revision of the wetland management plan is required.
Table 18: Water use calculation

Lagoon

Surface area (ha)
38 to 24

Volume (ML)
148 to 46

Potential Evaporation (ML) (1)
23 to 46

Total Annual Water Requirement (ML)
224 (3) (336 ML if we don’t account for a change in evaporation due to draw down) 18.6 (4) 240 (or 380 ML)

Main

South east

3.3 (Equation 2)

2.3

16.3

Total (2)

(1) Obtained using Wetland Loss Calculator (Oct., Nov., Dec. & Jan. only) & Equation 3 (2) Rounded to nearest 10 ML (3) Obtained from Table 17 (4) Obtained using Equation 5

The salinity impact of wetland management was to be estimated using the SIWM model. However the Department of Water Land and Biodiversity Conservation (DWLBC) has withdrawn the use of the SIWM model. Some inherent difficulties were found in developing and finalising this model for general use leading to a new modelling approach to be undertaken. DWLBC is presently developing a new model for the simulation of, the impact wetland management will have on salt accumulation within wetlands, as well as, the potential impacts to the river (Croucher 2005). A salinity assessment will be conducted on Narrung wetland once the model is available for use, a brief report outlining the results of this modelling will be included in the plan in the future.

41

Narrung Wetland Management Plan 2006

Chapter 8. MONITORING
For the development of a wetland management plan, Narrung wetland was included in the River Murray Wetlands Baseline Survey (SKM 2004). The data collected during this survey provided a basis by which objectives for wetland management could be refined, hydrology guidelines could be developed and review procedures scheduled. However this data did not cover all the issues related to managing the Narrung wetland. Partly as a consequence, but also as part of adaptive management and best practise wetland management, monitoring of the wetland has been devised to answer some of the unknowns to the changed hydrological regime and water quality, the monitoring schedule can be seen in Table 20. That is, ongoing monitoring during wetland management plays a role in adaptive management by providing managers with information on how the wetland is responding to management strategies, whether the objectives are being met, whether there are off-target implications (wetland in regional context) or (as per Your Wetland: Monitoring Manual (Tucker 2004)) whether the Golden Rules are being broken. The Golden Rules being: Don‟t salinise your wetland. Don‟t kill long lived vegetation. Don‟t destroy threatened communities or habitats of threatened species. To ensure that monitored data is available for evaluation, review and reporting, a log of all activities, monitoring and site descriptions should be maintained at an accessible and convenient location. The data will ultimately be stored in the appropriate state government databases. See report by Hydro Tasmania (2003). The purpose of such a log is to maintain a record of management steps undertaken, their justification and observed impacts/implications. The maintenance of a log is both good management practice, allowing future reference to potential impacts of management, and a requirement of the Wetland Water License. Photopoints have been installed at the wetland to monitor impacts of wetland rehabilitation. The locations of the photopoints can be seen in Table 19. Refer to Your Wetland: Monitoring Manual (Tucker 2004) for examples of data log sheets and further description of monitoring methods.
Table 19: Photopoint locations

Date Site Name installed Directions Zone Easting Northing Datum Description
NARPP01 1 54 WGS 84 Near pump shed Along causeway separating two lagoons

NARPP02 08/03/06

4

54

334575

6068691

WGS 84

NARPP03 08/03/06

4

54

334083

6069255

WGS 84

Near inlet channel, far side of wetland

42

Narrung Wetland Management Plan 2006 Table 20: Monitoring plan for Narrung wetland.

Parameter
Groundwater

Method
Level and Conductivity Water quality monitoring (cond, turb, temp) Surface level (using gauge boards)

Priority
MODERATE

SEP OCT NOV DEC JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG Time Required Responsible
1 monitoring day event Community Group/Wetla nd Officer Community Group/Wetla nd Officer

 HIGH  HIGH

Surface Water

1 monitoring day event

Weekly during filling and maintenance HIGH  MODERATE  LOW  HIGH HIGH         

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

0.5 hour 1 monitoring day event

Dan Pratt Community Group/Wetla nd Officer Community Group/Wetla nd Officer Community Group/Wetla nd Officer Charles and Jo Andre David Dadd Community Group/Wetla nd Officer

Fish*

Seine net, dip net (and fyke nets if deep enough) Photopoint monitoring Quadrat/line intercept

Vegetation

2 hours 1 monitoring day event 0.5 hour

Frogs Birds Macroinvertebrates

Recording Calls Fixed area search Dip net survey

0.5 hour 1 monitoring day event (not including identification)

LOW  

* fish can be monitored both during connection to the wetland and once the wetland has been drawn down sufficiently to block movement of fish i.e. are there any threatened species the management may be having an impact on.

43

Narrung Wetland Management Plan 2006

Chapter 9. EVALUATION, REVIEW AND REPORTING
SECTION 9.01 EVALUATION AND REVIEW
A review, of the implications of changed management of Narrung wetland, needs to be an ongoing process. For the wetland management plan to be an adaptive and complete document, periodic reviews have been scheduled in the monitoring and evaluation framework. The full impact of a changed hydrology and water quality and the effectiveness of the new regime cannot be fully predicted. Therefore, the data obtained through monitoring need to be regularly reviewed to respond to impacts of the management strategy. An annual review of the monitored data and the condition of the wetland should be conducted by the Community group with assistance from the Coorong District LAP and the SA MDB NRM BOARD. This review should be scheduled following the drawdown/drying of the wetland prior to the following season of inundation. A full review of the wetland management plan should be scheduled in 5 years. For the annual review to be effective it needs to include an upgrade of the; Hydrological regime based on new knowledge and understanding, e.g. whether the freshening of the wetland has occurred and its implications to the wading birds population Monitoring schedule to reflect changes in the wetland management plan.

SECTION 9.02 REPORTING
The wetland management plan for Narrung wetland is comprehensive and includes an estimation of the water requirements over the period covered in this plan. The initial volume applied for will be for stage one which covers the main lagoon and the south east lagoon. A second water requirement application will need to be made following completion/finance of stage 2 on ground work. Should the volume used deviate substantially from the plan the Department of Water Land and Biodiversity Conservation (DWLBC) will need to be notified. The records noted in the activity and monitoring logs will assist in reporting to DWLBC. Further as part of the requirements of the water license, any substantial change in the wetland management plan, e.g. objectives, monitoring timetable or hydrology regime change, also needs to be reported to DWLBC.

44

Narrung Wetland Management Plan 2006

Chapter 10. REFERENCES
(1986a). Australian Treaty Series 1981 No 6 (Jamba). Accessed 16 June 2005, http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/other/dfat/treaties/1981/6.html. (1986b). Australian Treaty Series 1988 No 22 (Camba). Accessed 16 June 2005, http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/other/dfat/treties/1988/22.html. (2000). Coorong, and Lakes Alexandrina and Albert Ramsar Management Plan. Adelaide, South Australian Department for Environment and Heritage. Bjornsson, K. T., A. Brodie, et al. (2002). Riparian Areas and on-Farm Wetlands in the Australian Sugar Industry. Townsville, CRC for Sustainable Sugar Production. BOM (2005). Climate Averages. Accessed 18 March 2005, www.bom.gov.au/climate/averages/tables/cw_024518.shtml. Croucher, D. (2005). Personal Communication. Dadd, D. (2005). Personal Communication. Dadd, D. (2006). Personal Communication. Department of Water Land and Biodiversity Conservation (2005). Surface Water Archive. Accessed 3 August 2005, http://www.dwlbc.sa.gov.au/subs/surface_water_archive/a1pgs/mapindex.htm. Frears, A. (2006). Personal Communication. Wetland Project Officer, Lower Murray South Australian Murray-Darling Basin Natural Resources Management Board. Gosbell, K. (2004). Waterbird Surveys around the Shoreline of Lake Alexandrina and Lake Albert January 2003 to February 2004 in Response to a Drawdown in Water Levels. South East Region, South Australia, Department for Environment and Heritage. Draft Report 14-4-04 Hydro Tasmania (2003). River Murray Wetlands Data Management Project Final Report. River Murray Catchment Water Management Board. Jensen, A., P. Paton, et al. (1996). Wetlands Atlas of the South Australian Murray Valley. ADELAIDE, South Australian River Murray Wetlands Management Committee. South Australian Department of Environment and Natural Resources. National Parks and Wildlife Council and Department for Environment and Heritage (2003). 2003 Review of the Status of Threatened Species in South Australia: Proposed Schedules under the South Australian National Parks and Wildlife Act 1972. Government of South Australia. Discussion Paper National Wetlands Program (1998). Ramsar Convention on Wetlands (Convention on Wetlands of International Importance). Accessed 7 October 1999, http://www.anca.gov.au/environm/wetlands/ramindex.html. Nicol, J. (2005). The Ecology of Ruppia Spp. In South Australia, with Reference to the Coorong. Adelaide, South Australian Research and Development Institute (Aquatic Sciences): 44p. SARDI Aquatic Sciences Publication Number RD04/0247-2
45

Narrung Wetland Management Plan 2006

Nicol, J. (2006). Personal Communication. Senior Research Officer Wetland & Riparian Plant Ecology Inland Waters Sub-Program: Sardi Aquatic Sciences. Peck, D. (2000). The Ramsar Convention on Wetlands: The Annotated Ramsar List: Australia. Accessed 27 April 2005, http://www.ramsar.org/profiles_australia.htm. River Murray Catchment Water Management Board (2002). Water Allocation Plan for the River Murray Prescribed Watercourse. Berri, South Australia, Government of South Australia. River Murray Catchment Water Management Board and Department of Water Land and Biodiversity Conservation (2003). Guidelines for Development of Wetland Management Plans for the River Murray in South Australia. Seaman, R. L. (2003). Coorong and Lower Lakes Habitat-Mapping Program. South Australia, Department for Environment and Heritage. Conservation Programs SKM (2004). River Murray Wetlands Baseline Survey. South Australian Murray Darling Basin Natural Resources Management Board. State Library of South Australia River Murray Timeline. Accessed 23 February 2006, http://www.slsa.sa.gov.au/murray/timeline.htm. Tucker, P. (2004). Your Wetland: Monitoring Manual - Data Collection. Renmark SA, River Murray Catchment Water Management Board Australian Landscape Trust. Tucker, P., S. Dominelli, et al. (2003). Your Wetland: Supporting Information. Renmark SA, Australian Landscape Trust. Wedderburn, S. and M. Hammer (2003). The Lower Lakes Fish Inventory:Distribution and Conservation of Freshwater Fishes of the Rasmar Convention Wetland at the Terminus of the Murray Darling Basin, South Australia. Adelaide, Native Fish Australia (SA) Inc. Woodward-Clyde (2000). Identification of Potential Wetland Rehabilitation Sites.

46

Narrung Wetland Management Plan 2006

Appendix A. Wetlands Atlas Data for Wetland Main Body
Table 21: Narrung wetland, Wetland atlas data (Jensen, Paton et al. 1996)
South East Lagoon (not from East Lagoon (not Main lagoon atlas) from atlas) AREA PERIMETER WETLANDS_ WETLANDS_I AS2482 AUS_WETNR AUSDIRNO_9 AUSDIR_NO THOM_WETNR NAME COMPLEX WATERCOURS MDBC_DISTN WATER_REGI INTERNATIO NATIONAL BASIN VALLEY SHOULD_REA ConsValue ConsCode DataSource Wetland atlas Drawn polygon Drawn polygon 1 L019 NARRUNG LAKE ALBERT FRINGING WETLAND 1 2 TEMPORARY 1 1 1 1 Temporary Temporary 309613.135 3367.51452 1116 1115 44190 S0020 33010 786 53811 909

47

Narrung Wetland Management Plan 2006

Appendix B. Surface Water Archive Graph
DWLBC, Surface Water Archive
Period 11 Year Plot Start 00:00_01/01/1994 Interval 1 Month Plot End 00:00_01/01/2005 AW426583 LAKE ALEXANDRINA @ Narrung Jetty 102.00 Max & Min Lake Level (m) 1.2
HYPLOT V128 Output 13/10/2004

1994-05 Recording

1

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004

Figure 22: Lake Alexandrina water level at Narrung Jetty (10 year period)

48

Narrung Wetland Management Plan 2006

Appendix C. Baseline Survey Locations (Source SKM (2004)

49

Narrung Wetland Management Plan 2006

Appendix D. Baseline Survey DEM (Source SKM (2004)

50

Narrung Wetland Management Plan 2006

51

Narrung Wetland Management Plan 2006

Appendix E. Baseline Survey Groundwater

52

Narrung Wetland Management Plan 2006

53

Narrung Wetland Management Plan 2006

54

Narrung Wetland Management Plan 2006

55

Narrung Wetland Management Plan 2006

56

Narrung Wetland Management Plan 2006

57

Narrung Wetland Management Plan 2006

Appendix F.

Baseline Survey Vegetation Zones

58

Narrung Wetland Management Plan 2006

Appendix G. Species List for Narrung wetland
SECTION G.01 FLORA
Table 22: Plant Associations at Narrung wetland (adapted from River Murray Wetlands Baseline Survey (SKM 2004))

Species

Common Name Introduced

Conservati on Rating AUS MU SA

Plant Association * 1 2 3 4

Azolla filiculoides Bolboschoenus caldwellii *Cotula coronopifolia Crassula helmsii Eleocharis acuta Frankenia gunnii pauciflora var.

Pacific azolla Salt club-rush Water buttons Swamp Crassula Common Spike-rush Southern sea-heath Black-seed samphire X

X X X X X

X

X X X

Halosarcia pergranulata ssp. pergranulata Lepilaena ?cylindrocarpa Lilaeopsis polyantha *Ludwigia peploides montevidensis Mimulus repens Myriophyllum caput-medusae Myriophyllum salsugineum *Paspalum vaginatum Phragmites australis *Polypogon monspeliensis Ruppia polycarpa Samolus repens Sarcocornia quinqueflora *Spergularia marina Suaeda australis *Trifolium repens Triglochin striatum ssp.

Australian Lilaeopsis Water primrose Creeping monkey-flower Coarse milfoil Lake milfoil Salt-water couch Common reed Annual beard-grass Widgeon grass Creeping brookweed Beaded samphire Salt sand-spurrey Austral seablite White Clover Streaked arrowgrass X X X X X

R

X X X X

K Q

X

X X X X X

X X X X X X X X X

Total species % introduced

6 26

12 33

5 40

2 0

9 11

Q = possible regional conservation significance; K = uncertain regional conservation status; R = rare regional conservation rating. * Plant association: 1. Eleocharis acuta / Bolboschoenus caldwellii Closed Sedgeland 2. Myriophyllum caput-medusae Herbland over Azolla filiculoides

59

Narrung Wetland Management Plan 2006
3. Lepilaena ?cylindrocarpa / Ruppia polycarpa Herbland 4. Sarcocornia quinqueflora Low Closed Shrubland over Triglochin striatum and Ruppia polycarpa

Narrung Primary students collected the plants in Table 23, from the wetland. The majority of the exotic species were collected closer to the roadside. All species collected closer to the wetland (in more saline conditions) were native species.
Table 23: Vegetation identified by the local community (table provided by A. Frears (2006))

ID Name
NAR 01* NAR 02 NAR 03 NAR 04 NAR 05 NAR 06 NAR 07

Common Name

Scientific Name

Native/Exotic
Native

Description
Submerged aquatic plant Small, spiky grass Tall green reed Purple/green and shrubby Toothed leaves and long seed-head Prickly bush Purple flowers, small black seeds (Bad Weed!) Purple flower on end of long stem (roadside weed) Groundcover with tiny leaves and purple flowers Yellow flower on end of long stem (roadside weed) Grass with fluffy seed head Stumpy green or purple stems Long cylindrical leaves, long seed heads Long green turgid stems Large bush, long thin green spindly stems

Emu Grass Common Reed Austral Sea Blite Buckshore Plantain African Boxthorn Wild Sage

Distichlis distichophylla Phragmites australis Sueda australis Plantago coronopus Lycium ferocissimum Salvia verbenaceae

Native Native Native Exotic Exotic Exotic

NAR 08

Scabious (purple flower)

Scabiosa atropurpurea

Exotic

NAR 09

Southern Sea-Heath

Frankenia pauciflora

Native

NAR 10

Scabious (yellow flower)

Scabiosa atropurpurea

Exotic

NAR 11 NAR 12 NAR 13

Hares Tail Grass Beaded Glasswort Tall Wheatgrass

Lagurus ovatus Halosarcia sp. Elymus elongatus

Exotic Native Exotic

NAR 14 NAR 15

Samphire Lignum

Sarcocornia quinqueflora Muehlenbeckia florulenta

Native Native

* Note specimen NAR 01 (submerged aquatic plant tolerant of high salinity) is yet to be id’d.

60

Narrung Wetland Management Plan 2006

SECTION G.02 WETLAND AND FLOODPLAIN FAUNA
(a) BIRDS OF NARRUNG SURROUNDS AND LOWER LAKES
Table 24: Bird species identified at Narrung wetland (adapted from River Murray Wetlands Baseline Survey (SKM 2004))

Common Name

Scientific Name Site 1

Spring Site 2 Site 3 Site 1

Summer Site 2 Site 3
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 86 0 0 0 0 0

Total Conservation abundance status

Australian shelduck Australian white ibis Black swan Black-fronted Dotterel Caspian tern Crested tern Great egret Masked lapwing Pink-eared Duck Red-kneed dotterel Red-necked stint Silver gull Whiskered tern

Tadorna tadornoides Threskiornis molucca Cygnus atratus Elseyornis melanops Sterna caspia Sterna bergii Ardea alba Vanellus miles Malacorhynchus membranaceus Erythrogonys cinctus Calidris ruficollis Larus novaehollandiae Chlidonias hybridus

59 0 63 0 1 2 0 0 0 0 2 7 5

0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 5 43 0 0

0 3 0 0 4 66 1 3 0 0 0 1 32

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 4 75 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0

59 4 63 4 80 68 1 91 2 5 45 8 37

EPBC Migratory NA EPBC Migratory EPBC Migratory EPBC Migratory EPBC Migratory EPBC Migratory EPBC Migratory EPBC Migratory EPBC Migratory EPBC Migratory EPBC Migratory EPBC Migratory

Total

Individuals Species

139 7

51 4

110 7

0 0

81 3

86 1

467 13

Table 25: Water birds at 23 sites bordering Lakes Alexandrina and Albert (adapted from (Gosbell 2004))

WATERFOWL
Hoary head Grebe Australasian Grebe Great Crested Grebe Little Pied Cormorant

Number Observed
200 14 990 551

WADERS
Latham's Snipe Black-tailed Godwit Bar-tailed Godwit Godwit Spp.

Number Observed
0 1 0 0

61

Narrung Wetland Management Plan 2006
Little Black Cormorant Great Black Cormorant Pied Cormorant Black Faced Cormorant Australian Darter Australian Pelican Little Egret Intermediate Egret Great Egret White Faced Heron Australasian Bittern Royal Spoonbill Yellow -billed Spoonbill Straw-necked Ibis Australian White Ibis Glossy Ibis Cape Barren Goose Black swan Australian Shelduck Freckled Duck Wood Duck Hardhead Pacific Black Duck Australasian Shoveler Grey Teal Chestnut Teal Pink- eared Duck Blue-billed Duck Musk Duck Spotless Crake Australian Crake Baillon's Crake Buff-banded Rail Eurasian Coot Dusky Moorhen Purple Swamphen Blacktailed Native hen Pacific Gull Silver Gull Gull-billed Tern Crested Tern 3306 20839 7736 77 64 9869 11 36 344 153 2 202 311 3250 1114 256 1921 10011 26890 716 127 941 8520 1400 28478 962 921 0 6 2 3 0 0 64325 7 1080 2 0 5155 7 1424 Little Curlew Whimbrel Eastern Curlew Marsh Sandpiper Common Greenshank Wood Sandpiper Terek Sandpiper Common Sandpiper Grey-tailed Tattler Wandering Tattler Great Knot Red Knot Knot spp. Sanderling Red-Necked Stint Sharp-tailed Sandpiper Curlew Sandpiper Bush-stone Curlew Beach-stone Curlew Pied Oystercatcher Sooty Oystercatcher Black-winged Stilt Banded Stilt Red-necked Avocet Pacific Golden Plover Grey Plover Double-Banded Plover Lesser Sand Plover Sand Plover Spp. Oriental Plover Black-Fronted Dotterel Hooded Plover Red-Kneed Dotterel Banded Lapwing Red-capped Plover Masked Lapwing Unidentified Large Unidentified Meduim Unidentified Small Unidentified WaderSpecies Other Wader Species 0 0 0 132 173 32 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5498 2533 195 0 0 0 0 1460 345 635 3 0 152 0 0 0 6 0 64 49 256 2576 0 0 192 0 7

62

Narrung Wetland Management Plan 2006
Caspian Tern Little Tern Fairy Tern Whiskered Tern 2001 164 6 18704

TOTAL WATERFOWL

223,165

TOTAL WADERS TOTAL WATERBIRDS

14,945 238,110

63

Narrung Wetland Management Plan 2006

Appendix H. Evaporation and precipitation obtained using the Wetland Loss Calculator.
Table 26: Calculated water loss (evaporation – precipitation) from the Wetland Loss Calculator for the main lagoon
JAN Area used in calculation (ha) Net Loss (ML) Year 1 38 59 FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP 38 25 OCT 38 23 NOV 38 46 DEC 38 58 381 TOTAL (ML)

JAN Area used in calculation (ha) Net Loss (ML) Year 1 3.3 5

FEB

MAR

APR

MAY

JUN

JUL

AUG

SEP 3.3 2

OCT 3.3 2

NOV 3.3 4

DEC 3.3 5

TOTAL (ML)

33

64