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Anderson Rationale Paper for Master of Educational Technology e-Portfolio Fall, 2011 Boise State University
By the time I graduated high school, I knew beyond a shadow of a doubt that I wanted to be a math teacher. I went the traditional route to become a certified teacher in South Carolina. I was awarded a South Carolina Teaching Fellowship and went on to obtain a Bachelor of Science degree in Mathematics with secondary teacher certification from Lander University in 2009. During the four and a half years I spent at Lander, I was exposed to instructional tools and resources to aid teachers in providing quality instruction to their students. Having been a graduate of a very rural and impoverished school district, I was unfamiliar with these tools. My experiences in undergrad piqued my interest in educational technology. By the time I was a junior at Lander University, I came to the decision that I wanted to learn more about the instructional technologies available. I decided to pursue a Master of Educational Technology and was accepted to Boise State University in the Spring of 2010. Boise State University‟s graduate department of educational technology has provided me with tremendous experiences over the course of the past two years to work hands-on with web 2.0 tools, design and create instructional materials, and evaluate resources, for example. I have collected the projects and assignments as artifacts and evidence of my mastery of the standards set by the Association for Educational Communications and Technology. This rationale paper showcases those artifacts.
Standard 1: Design 1.1 Instructional Systems Design (ISD)
EdTech 503 was the instructional design course. In this course, I created several instructional design projects. The first instructional design project I created detailed the implementation of social networking sites into instruction for a fictitious school district. The project specifically outlined instruction for a teacher in-service workshop for using Facebook with their instruction. Learner objectives and goals were clearly defined. The desired outcomes were (1) for the trainees to create a secret course group and invite fictitious students using an introductory message and (2) for the trainees to create a course Facebook fan page, consisting of a page photo, welcome note, and link to site related to course. This project required me to analyze the learning process and design the delivery of instruction in order to achieve the learning goals.
1.2 Message Design
The artifact that exhibits my competence of indicator 1.2, message design, is the Unit of Instruction Plan that I designed in EdTech 506. This artifact provides evidence that I am sufficient in applying principles of attention, perception, and retention to communicate important instructional information to learners. This artifact is a plan for a specific instructional unit that applies basic principles of message design in order to communicate instructional messages to learners.
1.3 Instructional Strategies
“Instructional strategies are specifications for selecting and sequencing events and activities within a lesson” (Seels & Richey, 1994, p.31). I have three artifacts that demonstrate my competence in applying instructional strategies. The first artifact is a webpage I created in EdTech 502 to house an online jigsaw activity to teach classification of triangles. “Jigsaw is a cooperative learning strategy that enables each student of a „home‟ group to specialize in one aspect of a learning unit. Students meet with members from other groups who are assigned the same aspect, and after mastering the material, return to the „home‟ group and teach the material to their group members” (Aronson, Blaney, Stephin, Sikes & Snapp, 1978). The jigsaw learning activity provides students the opportunity to be introduced to new material and maintain personal responsibility (Bennett, Rolheiser & Stevahn, 1991). The second artifact is the webquest on the Pythagorean Theorem that I created in EdTech 502 as well. A WebQuest is an online learning strategy to promote cooperative learning and higher-level thinking. The third artifact is the unit website that I created in EdTech 506 on triangles. The website houses an entire unit of instruction that consists of eight learning modules that include interactive lessons that incorporate several learning strategies. These artifacts identify instructional strategies that are appropriate for a variety of learner characteristics and that are applied in practice experiences.
1.4 Learner Characteristics
The artifact of choice for indicator 1.4, learner characteristics, is the final instructional design project that I developed in EdTech 503. The learner description as outlined in the Analysis Report is the component that specifically illustrates learner characteristics. This section of the project includes a breakdown of student ethnicity and free/reduced lunch eligibility. Also included are the results of a survey given to determine the further socio-economic demographics, such as household size and highest educational level attained by parents or guardians. The survey was also used to determine their attitudes towards mathematics and their recent experiences in mathematic courses. Questions were asked about instructional preferences and how the learners felt they learn mathematical content best. The learner description describes and documents specific learner characteristics which influence the selection and implementation of instructional strategies and resources.
Standard 2: Development 2.1 Print Technologies
I reflect indicator 2.1 of the AECT Standards through several artifacts. The chosen artifacts include a bumper sticker that advertises educational technology, a brochure for students that are struggling and a flyer informing parents and students of an instructional event. The bumper sticker was designed and created during the EdTech 501 class as an assignment. The purpose of the assignment was to produce a bumper stick that would advertise educational technology. My bumper sticker was created using Microsoft Office PowerPoint. I used a blue background with white web icons as the design. The text stated: “Educational Technology...Get Connected.” The artifact demonstrates how I developed a professional product using technological tools to communicate information. The second artifact is a brochure that I designed and created while taking coursework at Boise State University. The purpose of the brochure was to inform my high school students of available resources and tips to help them become more successful in my class. This printed communication incorporates text and graphics and was created using desktop publishing software, Microsoft Office Publisher. The third artifact is a flyer that communicates the details about an orientation meeting for the implementation of an Edmodo Pilot
Program. Edmodo is a web 2.0 tool that provides a safe and easy way for classes to connect and collaborate, share content, and access homework, grades and school notices in a social media setting. I design and created this flyer using Microsoft Office Word.
2.2 Audiovisual Technologies
I selected three artifacts to demonstrate my use of mechanic devices to present auditory and visual messages for instruction. The three artifacts were produce while I was enrolled in EdTech 533: YouTube for Educators. The first artifact is a vlog or video blog on the pros and cons of using YouTube in education. The purpose of this video was to present researched information on the advantages and disadvantages of using YouTube for instructional purpose. The second artifact is an instructional video on triangle midsegments. The purpose of this video is to teach the properties and theorems associated with triangle midsegments. The third artifact is an interactive YouTube game that viewers participate in, rather than merely view. A series of short interactive clips were linked together through YouTube to create the play-a-long review game. The purpose of the game was to aid students in studying the Geometry concepts covered on the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT). All three video artifacts were created using appropriate video equipment, such as a camcorder, video editing software, and audio editing software. Several video editing software applications were used, including Camtasia Studio, Adobe Premiere Elements & Windows Live Movie Maker. Audacity was the audio editing software used. I used the audiovisual technology to facilitate the presentation of YouTube in education findings and instructionally with videos that taught curriculum topics.
2.3 Computer-Based Technologies
My competency of indicator 2.3 on computer-based technologies of the AECT Standards is demonstrated through three artifacts. The first artifact is the Virtual Field Trip I created a student enrolled in EdTech 502. This project extends the learning beyond the classroom by incorporating the use of the Internet to meet the learning needs of students by providing instructional for various learning modalities. The second artifact is a webpage built around the concept map idea. This webpage was created as an assignment for EdTech 502 for SAT preparation. This assignment was designed using computer-based technologies to organize and present digital information for the benefit of the learner. The information is easy to find and apply. The third artifact is the Technology Use Plan that I developed during EdTech 501. This plan outlines how the technology use plan will be developed for a fictitious school district. The plan includes broad guidelines for planning for acceptable use for all computerbased technologies including audio/visual instructional materials, imaging devices, electronic databases, and Internet. All three artifacts offer computer-based instruction or outline appropriate use of such technologies in instruction.
2.4 Integrated Technologies
I chose three artifacts as evidence of indicator 2.4, integrated technologies. The three artifacts selected encompass several forms of media. The first artifact is the mobile learning webpage that I created in EdTech 502. This project demonstrates how I developed instructional materials for distance learning using the mobile technology mediums. The second artifact is the Pi Day Prezi I created in celebration of Pi Day, a holiday I celebrate with my math students on March 14, 2011in honor of Pi, 3.14… This artifact was created by using Prezi as an authoring tool to combine multimedia instructional materials. The third artifact is a Prezi presentation as well. This Prezi on Dr. Ruby Payne‟s perspective on discipline in poverty was an assignment for the induction class for new teachers in South Carolina. The prezi was prepared as instructional material appropriate for teachers in order to teach cultural awareness when
using discipline in the classroom. All three artifacts are examples of hypermedia that provide high levels of interactivity and integrate audio, visual, and graphic media.
Standard 3: Utilization 3.1 Media Utilization
There are many available media resources that can be utilized for learning. The two artifacts that I chose to demonstrate media utilization both are concentrated on online communication. One method of online instructional communication is discussion forums. Discussion forums can be utilized in a variety of learning contexts. My first artifact is a comprehensive list of discussion board strategies. This list was compiled while I was enrolled in EdTech 523. The strategy compilation includes support for the curriculum and encourages recreational reading that aligns with goals and objectives of an educational institution. The second artifact, a list of principles for effective online instruction, was also created as an assignment for EdTech 523. This list identifies principles to recall during the selection of technologies for learning.
3.2 Diffusion of Innovations
With the onset of the Boise State University‟s Master of Educational Technology program, I was inspired to integrate new technologies in my school district. In my first semester of coursework, I learned of Edmodo. I was eager to try the new resource and develop a personal opinion of its effectiveness. Initially my plan to test the resource with my students was interrupted by the request for more information by my school district administration. I researched Edmodo and corresponded with teachers and administrators all of the country. I compiled the collected information and created a proposal. The proposal was presented to the district office staff. After a week or so of anticipation, the Superintendent informed me that I had been awarded approval to implement a pilot program using Edmodo. This happened while I was enrolled in EdTech 501, Spring 2009. I shared my success with my fellow classmates in EdTech 501and began the pilot program right away as the first high school in the surrounding area in South Carolina to use Edmodo. Since the initial implementation, the program has grown significantly in my school district. Teachers at every school in the district are using Edmodo with their instruction. The resource is also being used for extra-curricular and after-school programs as well as for professional learning communities. I am the district administrator for our Edmodo District Domain. My fight for innovation also sparked my classmates to push for Edmodo use in their own schools. Classmate Justin Reeves said, “One thing that seems nice about Edmodo is that it can provide a window in the classroom to parents, without being too disruptive to the learning process. One hesitation I‟ve had with allowing parents into our Moodle system, is all the horror stories I‟ve heard from teachers who say parents can‟t behave themselves. They constantly monitor other students‟ contributions, complain to the teacher about constructively critical comments students make about their child‟s posts in the forum, and students are less likely to write openly if they know mom and dad are always looking over their shoulder. Edmodo provides a nice middle ground, where the teacher controls exactly what the outside world can see.” Mumina Abdullah stated, “Before the break, I proposed using Edmodo with our 10 th and 11th grade classes to my director and colleagues (thank you Vertoria for the inspiration). Within a day, I had approval to use it with my Business Studies class.
We started using the site this week and I have received several student posts saying that they appreciate having another medium of communication outside of the classroom. They have already begun discussing class related issues with each other on the site. Using Edmodo was especially important for me because I needed a way to continue communicating with my students while on maternity leave. I‟m happy to announce that I just had a baby boy over the break, so it was nice to receive all the congrats from my students.” This story is truly a testament of diffusion of innovations. I had an initial goal that required a change to take place. The process included making stakeholders aware, raising interest, trying the program in pilot form, and ultimately adopting the program. I was able to spark the usage of innovative technology in my district and inspire others to push for innovation in their district as well.
3.3 Implementation and Institutionalization
One artifact I chose to represent implementation and institutionalization, indicator 3.3, was the Technology Use Plan (TUP) I developed in EdTech 501. The second artifact of choice is the evaluation report I created as a component of an evaluation project on Positive Behavior Intervention and Supports (PBIS) as an assignment in EdTech 505. The TUP identifies techniques for integrating innovations in learning contexts. The TUP provides for the development and adoption of new technologies into the district. The second artifact includes techniques and strategies for implementing and institutionalizing a behavior modification program. Within the evaluation report, strategies are identified to maintain the program after initial adoption. This program was implemented and evaluated in real, not simulated settings.
3.4 Policies and Regulations
“Policies and regulations are the rules and actions of society (or its surrogates) that affect the diffusion and the use of Instructional Technology” (Seels & Richey, 1994, p. 47). I have two artifacts to demonstrate my competence of this indicator. Both artifacts focus on policies for Internet etiquette or netiquette. The first artifact is a Rules of Netiquette webpage that I created as an assignment for EdTech 502. The second artifact is a presentation and scavenger hunt on netiquette that I developed n EdTech 521. Both artifacts were created with the purpose of identifying standards for using the Internet. Both artifacts detail expectations of ethics when using the Internet, information involving copyright and fair use, and policies regarding communication.
Standard 4: Management 4.1 Project Management
My portfolio consists of two artifacts for indicator 4.1, project management. The first artifact is the final instructional design project that I developed in EdTech 503. The second artifact is the PBIS Evaluation Report I compiled in EdTech 505. The instructional design project includes a mission and goals and objectives. The PBIS Evaluation Report required me to use a collaborative working relationship with school administration and staff. While completing this artifact, I also used my knowledge of the school and district to support the effective operation of the program, PBIS. Project management techniques were applied in both artifacts.
4.2 Resource Management
To demonstrate my competence in resource management, I have chosen the evaluation project I completed in EdTech 505 as an artifact. The evaluation project was completed with a fellow classmate. We were required to plan for such resources as personnel, budget, supplies, and time. We prepared and justified a budget of necessary resources.
4.3 Delivery System Management
“Delivery system management involves planning, monitoring and controlling „the method by which distribution of instructional materials is organized‟...[It is] a combination of medium and method of usage that is employed to present instructional information to a learner” (Seels & Richey, 1994, p. 51). The artifact I have chosen for this indicator the final instructional design project I completed in EdTech 503. I was required to plan techniques for the specific learning context. There is a component of the report where I include hardware and software requirements.
4.4 Information Management
I have also chosen the 503 final instructional design project as the artifact for information management. “Information management involves planning, monitoring, and controlling the storage, transfer, or processing of information in order to provide resources for learning” (Seels & Richey, 1994, p. 51). A component of in the instructional design project required me to organize instructional material and information in formats that were accessible for learners. I created a flowchart and timeline as tools to plan for the learning process.
Standard 5: Evaluation 5.1 Problem Analysis
“Problem analysis involves determining the nature and parameters of the problem by using information-gathering and decision-making strategies” (Seels & Richey, 1994, p. 56). To demonstrate my competence of this indicator, I have chosen the final instructional design project that I developed in EdTech 503 as an artifact. While completing the project, I was required to collect, analyze, and interpret data in order to improve instruction. The final design of the instruction was largely based on the results of the problem analysis performed. The instruction prior to implementation of the new instructional design was evaluated the weaknesses and issues were exposed. With the information revealed from the problem analysis, I was able to design new instruction to solve the problems.
5.2 Criterion-Referenced Measurement
As an educator, there were many assignments and assessments I had to choose from to serve as artifacts of criterion-referenced measurements. One particularly interesting criterion-referenced assignment I completed while pursuing my Master of Educational Technology was the Pythagorean Theorem webquest I created in EdTech 502. Components of the webquest assess the instruction retained by the learner based on South Carolina Geometry curriculum standards.
5.3 Formative and Summative Evaluation
I have chosen two artifacts to demonstrate my competence of indicator 5.3, formative and summative evaluation. Seels and Richey define formative evaluation as “gathering information on adequacy and using the information as a basis for further development” (1994, p. 57). “Summative evaluation involves
gathering information on adequacy and using [the] information to make decisions about utilization” (Seels & Richey, 1994, p. 57). The first artifact is the synthesis paper on learning theories that I wrote in EdTech 504. I chose this artifact because the content of the paper details formative and summative evaluation in education. Included in the paper are strategies for applying formative and summative evaluation in a variety of contexts as well as using various techniques for developing formative and summative assessments. The second artifact is the PBIS Evaluation Report I created in EdTech 505. I evaluated the implementation of Positive Behavior Intervention and Support (PBIS) within my school district. Some components of the report evaluate the program formatively and other components evaluate the program summatively. Results were shared with the district with the purpose of improving the adoption of the program.
5.4 Long-Range Planning
The artifact I chose to illustrate my competence of long-range planning, indicator 5.4, is an evaluation report I created in EdTech 505. A component of the report required me to plan for the evaluation. The planning involved detailing the budget and schedule of evaluation progress.
My time at Boise State University has provided me with a wealth of experiences and has opened many doors to numerous opportunities in the future. I am forever grateful for the knowledge I gained and the skills I have acquired. I am enjoying applying this knowledge in new situations every day. I aspire to continue learning and integrating technology for the benefit of my instruction and my students.
Aronson, E., N. Blaney, C. Stephin, J. Sikes & M. Snapp. (1978). The Jigsaw Classroom. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publishing Company.
Bennett B., Rolheiser, C., Stevahn, L. (1991). Cooperative learning: Where heart meets mind. Educational Connections, Ontario.
Seels, B. B., & Richey, R. C. (1994). Instructional technology: The definition and domains of the field. Washington, DC: Association for Educational Communications and Technology.
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