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• The cohesive effect achieved by vocabulary (thus established at the lexico-grammatical level); reflecting the field of discourse • examples:
(1) Did you know that the chancellor was expected to resign? – Yes. It seems to have made no impression on the man. (2) Can you recommend somewhere to stay in Brussels? I‘ve never been to the place. (3) I went to Brisbane to see my great-aunt. The poor old girl‘s getting forgetful these days.
Types of lexical cohesion
• GENERAL NOUNS • appear in the context of REFERENCE, i.e., they have the same referent as the presupposed item • But these need not be the case: „There is cohesion between between any pair of lexical items that stand to each other in some recognizable lexicosemantic relation” (Halliday & Hasan, 1976:285) • More generally: REITERATION
Types of lexical cohesion
Why does this little boy have to wriggle all the time? a) Other boys don’t wriggle. b) Boys always wriggle. c) Good boys don’t wriggle. d) Boys should be kept out of here.
a) no coreference; possibly: comparative reference b) weak relation of coreference by implication and no reference item (cf. they) c) no implication of inclusion nor a form of reference d) shows that it’s not the repetition of wriggle that creates the cohesion.
He practically lives in the car. Types of lexical cohesion • ANTONYM (7) They left London on the 6 o’clock train... they didn’t leave without sleeeping bags.. I took leave and turned to the ascent of the peak.. The climb is perfectly easy.. (1) Repetition (2) Synonym (3) Supernym (4) General noun [(5) Reference item] general 2 . is perfectly easy. They travelled a lot when they were younger. a. • HYPONYM (+ co-hyponym) (9) a. they took a taxi to the hotel. Having arrived at Manchester. The rose is typically associated with love. and peeped over the edge of the mushroom. (9) b. His fingers were fine. The tulip is the messenger of spring. He could not bend his index finger since. b. [ ] She stretched herself up on tiptoe. • SUPERORDINATE (SUPERNYM) (6) Henry‘s bought himself a new Jaguar. • MERONYM (+ co-meronym) (8) He wounded his left hand in the war. Usually. about the same height as herself. Types of lexical cohesion The ascent The climb The task The thing It specific I turned to the ascent of the peak.Types of lexical cohesion • REPETITION (4) There was a large mushroom growing near her. • SYNONYM (+ near synonym) (5) Accordingly . But he lost his thumb.
and of dark. (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (7) no. mediated (intervening s ≥ 1. of course.1 0 N. of ties cohesive item wool Alice looked a sheep counter rub Distance: 0 immediate M not immediate. involved in presupposition N not immediate. who seemed to have suddenly Wrapped herself up in wool. (3) Alice rubbed her eyes.3 Lexical cohesion types: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 REPETITION SYNONYM ANTONYM SUPERNYM HYPONYM MERONYM COLLOCATION (H & H. Analysis of sample text S.“ • Not only within sentences. (5) Was she in a shop? (6) And was that really – was that really a sheep that was sitting on the other side of the counter? (7) Rub as she would. so like a sheep that Alice quite started. not involved in presupposition) type distance presupposed item sheep Alice looked a sheep shop rubbed 1 1 1 2 1 L7 L1 L1 L1 L6/7 L1 0 N. and looked again.Types of lexical cohesion • COLLOCATION: the mutual expectancy between lexical items • Firth (1957:196): „One of the meanings of night is its collocability with dark. (2) She looked at the Queen. (4) She couldn‘t make out what happened at all. nonmediated (intervening s ≥ 1. but across sentences: predictability of discourse Analysis of a sample text (1) The last word ended in a long bleat. 76:339-340) 3 . collocation with night. she could make nothing more of it.4 0 N. no.
Taxonomies Lexical cohesion and word senses • Dictionary (Oxford Advanced Learner’s) evidence n 1. give/bear ~ of: show signs of: When the ship reached port. exemplars – Thesaurus: semantically motivated organization • Examples • WordNet.].. be ~ of: His answers ~d a guilty conscience. anything that gives reason for believing sth.. The scientist must produce evidence in support of his theories. trace: There were ~s of glacial action on the rocks. vt (rare) prove by ~. [. mark. it bore abundant evidence of the severity of the storm. paraphrases. 4 .. [. 2 (used in pl) indication.Lexical cohesion and word senses • Sense relations (Lyons 68/77)/Sinnrelationen • Relations – of sense holding between lexemes – paradigmatic relations • • • • Homonymy and polysemy Opposition and contrast Hyponymy Synonymy Lexical cohesion and word senses • 2 approaches to the study of lexis: the dictionary and the thesaurus • Method of organization – Dictionary: semantically arbitrary listing of lexical items..]: There wasn‘t enough ~ to prove him guilty.
p. CONFUTATION Lexical cohesion and word senses • WordNet (Fellbaum et al. exhibit.. Fellbaum 1998). acknowledgement. bear witness. show..nphil. Lexical cohesion and word senses WordNet example (Fellbaum et al 1993. proof. ? Ben walked into the house. attestation.] 2.. evince. display. tulip. evidence.edu/~wn/ • GermaNet: http://www. grounds. URL: http://www. 25) group person natural object substance family relative body organic s.] 2. Ben admired the flowers. facts.. manifest. support. premises. [. The book cases were full..] Verbs-1. Ben walked into the room. DEMONSTRATION.Lexical cohesion and word senses • Thesaurus (Roget’s) evidence Nouns-1.princeton. evidence.] Antonyms. brother sister arm leg flesh bone hyponomy antonymy meronymy 5 . declaration [. – Part .subtype: flower – rose closer than plant – rose. e.sfs.. testify.subtype relations (super/hyponymy): plant – flower – rose.cogsci.. [.whole: house – room – book cases. The book cases were full.g.de/lsd/ • Type . data. especially the roses.g.. e. 1993. confirmation corroboration.. etc • Part-whole relations (meronymy) • Taxonomic distance and cohesion? – Type. authentication. testimony. ratification. see NEGATION.unituebingen. [. give evidence.
systematic classification of some phenomenon based on the principles of subordination (kind-of) and composition (partof) • Types of taxonomies: ‘folk’ (vernacular) taxonomies. thighs legs calves arms hamstrings quads A kind-of taxonomy (uninformed: folk) Eagles Hawks Birds of Prey Kookaburras Magpies 7 . geography. 93:139-142) A part-of taxonomy (body parts) chest shoulders back body .. medicine. chemistry etc) • Taxonomy: ordered.. specialized taxonomies. birds of prey (Halliday & Marin.Lexical cohesion and taxonomy • conceptualizations of the world – reflected in words (language – thought) • used in specialized areas (biology. scientific taxonomies • Examples: body parts.
WordNet: An Electronic Lexical Database. • Lyons. 5 Papers on Wordnet. Cohesion in English.A kind-of taxonomy (informed: birdwatchers’) Eagles . Black falcon Peregrine falcon Little falcon Grey falcon Brown Falcon Nankeen kestrel Falconidae Harriers .R Martin 1993. C.. et al 1993. London: Longman. 1986. hawks.4) • Martin. J. London: The Falmer Press.. Literary and Discursive Power. • Fellbaum. Writing Science....] Falconidae Falco subniger (black falcon) Falco peregrinus (peregrine falcon) Falco longipennis (littel falcon) Falco hypoleucus (grey falcon) Falco cenchroides (nankeen kestrel) Falco berigora (brown falcon) Pandionidae References • Fellbaum. (ed) 1998. A synopsis of Linguistic Theory. Hawks . English text: system and structure. MAK and J. 1976. eagles. A kind-of taxonomy (scientific: ornithologists’) Acciptridae .cogsci. Amsterdam: Benjamins (chapter 5) 8 . MAK and Hasan. London: Blackwell.. R. www..edu/~wn/ • Firth. Kites . Studies in Linguistic Analysis. harriers in birdwatchers‘ t. • Halliday.. J.. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press (chapter 10. 1-31. J. [kites. Vol 1. 1977.R. 1930-1955.princeton. 1992. Semantics. • Halliday. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press • Lyons. C. Introduction to Theoretical Linguistics. 1957.R. MIT Press..1-10. J.
Organisms. For if we knew this. including ourselves. grinding. rapid prototyping is a remarkable technology that is revolutionizing the manufacturing process. large production runs. to understand everything that is essential about organisms. time savings of 70 to 90 percent" by incorporating rapid prototyping into their investment casting process. For example. rapid prototyping is not perfect. rapid prototyping is often the best manufacturing process available. whereas the genes are potentially immortal. to be replaced by genes as their most basic and important components. This may seem slow. as well as the many invisible forms such as bacteria and other microbes. Part volume is generally limited to 0. Of course. depending on the RP machine. an aerospace engineer might mount a model airfoil in a wind tunnel to measure lift and drag forces. which have taken over all the basic properties that used to characterize living organisms.Assignment 1 Analyze the sample texts attached in terms of lexical cohesion. At least six different rapid prototyping techniques are commercially available. For small production runs and complicated objects. combining layers of paper. This leads naturally and evitably to the conclusion that.1 mm) layers. They make excellent visual aids for communicating ideas with co-workers or customers. RP allows them to be made faster and less expensively. But behind the front that we see as the living. Metal prototypes are difficult to make. And in addition to all this. they evolve by competitive interaction. In 1994. those familiar plants and animals. This is why organisms have vanished from biology as the fundamental units of life. rather than just two-dimensional pictures. The organism itself is mortal. that we see all about us. the living stream of heredity that is the essence of life. 1 Whatever happened to organisms? Introduction Something very curious and interesting has happened to biology in recent years. . which are then built up one atop another. etc. Pratt & Whitney achieved "an order of magnitude [cost] reduction [and] . describe them briefly. These dramatic time savings allow manufacturers to bring products to market faster and more cheaply. in the same way that we can predict the output of a computer from the information contained in the program it is given to read. These limitations aside. what we need to know is the information in their genes. The latter term is particularly descriptive of the manufacturing process used by all commercial techniques. RP's additive nature allows it to create objects with complicated internal features that cannot be manufactured by other means. prototypes can be used for design testing. Of course. Rapid prototyping is an "additive" process. Because RP technologies are being increasingly used in non-prototyping applications. "rapid" is a relative term. we would be able to compute the adult organism in all its details of form and function from the information in its genes. In contrast. Told now in terms of the adventures of their genes. Genes multiply by making more copies of themselves: they vary by mutation.125 cubic meters or less. In their place we now have genes. Such models have numerous uses. Also. RP techniques can also be used to make tooling (referred to as rapid tooling) and even production-quality parts (rapid manufacturing). using the table representation from Halliday & Hasan 76 (as exemplified in the seminar). In addition. It is a beautifully simple and elegant story of how the various types of organism that we sec about us. Most prototypes require from three to seventy-two hours to build. but it is much faster than the weeks or months required to make a prototype by traditional means such as machining. depending on the size and complexity of the object. In addition to prototypes. though this should change in the near future. It is they alone that persist from one Generation to the next and so evolve. behaving. For metal parts. reproducing organism is a gang of genes that is in control. each with unique strengths. the better versions increasing in number at the expense of less useful variants. Can you detect patterns of lexical cohesion? If so. computer automated manufacturing. or layered manufacturing. conventional manufacturing techniques are usually more economical. drilling. 9 . A software package "slices" the CAD model into a number of thin (~0.) are "subtractive" processes that remove material from a solid block. come into being and pass away. the legacy of Darwin's vision of life as chance variation in the hereditary material of organisms and persistence of the better variants via natural selection. have disappeared as the fundamental units of life. Designers have always utilized prototypes. note any difficulties you may encounter with the task of lexical cohesion analysis. and the fossil forms that have left their traces. or plastic to create a solid object. Rapid Prototyping Primer 1 Overview of Rapid Prototyping The term rapid prototyping (RP) refers to a class of technologies that can automatically construct physical models from Computer-Aided Design (CAD) data. or simple objects. dying after a mere Generation. wax. This is the biology we all know and many love. the techniques are often collectively referred to as solid free-form fabrication. Better organisms made by better genes are the survivors in the lottery of life. These "three dimensional printers" allow designers to quickly create tangible prototypes of their designs. most machining processes (milling. genes make organisms as a means of exploiting different environments over the face of the earth so that they can increase and prosper. .