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Clarisse D. Beltran Payawal BS Biology 4-1 Lab Activity No.

6 Urinalysis

Prof. Ruthela P. October 3, 2011

Urinalysis is done by collecting urine samples in a specimen cup. The proper collection of a sample is very important in order to avoid contamination of urine. This test is done to diagnose and screen many diseases and conditions. It can be helpful in diagnosing urinary tract infections (UTI), kidney stones, screening for and evaluating many types of kidney diseases, monitoring the progression of diseases such as diabetes mellitus and high blood pressure (hypertension). This test can be done microscopic or macroscopic. In this activity, the macroscopic urinalysis was done. It refers to the observations that are visible with the naked eye and do not need to examine under the microscope. It is done by merely looking on the physical appearance of the urine. Normal urine is light yellow and clear and without any cloudiness. Macroscopic urinalysis notes the amount, color, clarity, and cloudiness of the urine as well as any other visible characteristics of the urine such as the presence of blood or blood clots, precipitates, or sediments. Observable abnormalities in color, clarity, and cloudiness may suggest conditions such as; dehydration, infection, liver disease, or muscle breakdown (rhabdomyolysis) although certain medications may change the color of urine. Visible blood in the urine (gross hematuria) may suggest a kidney stone or a bladder disease. Foamy urine may designate the presence of protein in the urine (proteinuria) due to certain kidney conditions that spill protein out of the kidney from circulating blood (nephrotic syndrome).

Table 1. Tests for Urine Tests Test for Glucose 1. Fehling's test 2. Benedict's test Test for Ketone bodies 1. Rothera's test Test for Proteins

Changes happened Boy Girl Dirty Green Dirty Green yellowish red no change no change no change

1. Heat Coagulation Test 2. Heller's test Test for Bilirubin 1. Hay's test

no coagulum no coagulum sulfur remain on surface

no coagulum no coagulum sulfur remain on surface

The table above shows the different macroscopic analysis done in this activity. The color change in each of the tests signifies a specific abnormality found in the urine represented by that specific color. If there are no abnormalities in the urine, original color remains. The changes in color may take from a few seconds up to a couple of minutes to occur. glucose (sugar) in the urine, ketone in the urine (metabolic waste product), blood in the urine (detected as hemoglobin in the urine), l eukocyte esterase (suggests white blood cell in the urine), nitrites (indicated evidence of any bacteria in the urine), bilirubin, and urobilinogen in the urine (related to an elevated bilirubin level, denoting possible liver disease or red blood cell breakdown in the body). The color change in each of the squares signifies a specific abnormality found in the urine represented by that specific color. If there are no abnormalities in the urine, the squares maintain their original color. The changes in color may take from a few seconds up to a couple of minutes to occur. The interpretation of the urinalysis by a dipstick is simply done by comparing the colors on the stick to the reference color changes that are readily available on the dipstick box.