Project Life Cycle and Organization

Chapter 2

Akram Al-Najjar, PMP.
Source: pmbok guide 2000 Planning & Cost Control Manager Akram_alnajjar@hotmail.com +20105394312

AGENDA
n n n n

The Project Life Cycle Project Stakeholders Organizational Influences Discussion

Akram Al-Najjar, PMP.
Source: pmbok guide 2000 Planning & Cost Control Manager Akram_alnajjar@hotmail.com +20105394312

Life Cycle
n

Project Lifecycle: Describes what you need to do to do the work of the project. Project Management Lifecycle: Describes what you need to do to manage the project. It follows PMI’s Process groups:
n n n n n

n

Initiating Planning Executing Controlling Closing
Akram Al-Najjar, PMP.
Source: pmbok guide 2000 Planning & Cost Control Manager Akram_alnajjar@hotmail.com +20105394312

Project Management Processes
Commitment to executing project Initiating Processes Approach to executing project Planning Processes

Coordinating people and other resources Executing Processes Formal product acceptance and end of project
Akram Al-Najjar, PMP.
Planning & Cost Control Manager Akram_alnajjar@hotmail.com +20105394312

Controlling Processes Monitoring, measuring, and taking corrective action

Closing Processes

Source: pmbok guide 2000

Project Life Cycle

n n

Defines the beginning and end of the project Divides the project into phases that provide better management control and the appropriate links to the ongoing operations of the organization

Akram Al-Najjar, PMP.
Source: pmbok guide 2000 Planning & Cost Control Manager Akram_alnajjar@hotmail.com +20105394312

Characteristics of Life Cycle
n n

Defines the beginning and end of the project Deliverables usually approved before work starts on the next phase Sometimes a subsequent phase is begun prior to approval of the previous phase. This is called fast tracking. Defines technical work and implementers

n

n

Akram Al-Najjar, PMP.
Source: pmbok guide 2000 Planning & Cost Control Manager Akram_alnajjar@hotmail.com +20105394312

Characteristics of Life Cycle (cont.)
n

n

n

Cost and staffing levels are low at the start, higher towards the end, and drop as project closes Probability of project success is low at the start of the project and gets progressively higher as the project continues Cost of changes and of error correction generally increases as the project continues
Akram Al-Najjar, PMP.
Source: pmbok guide 2000 Planning & Cost Control Manager Akram_alnajjar@hotmail.com +20105394312

Phases and Resources Usage
Implement Cost and Staffing Level Concept Development Close Out

n n n n

Concept Development Implement Close Out
Source: pmbok guide 2000

5%

Time -à

20% 60% 15%

Akram Al-Najjar, PMP.
Planning & Cost Control Manager Akram_alnajjar@hotmail.com +20105394312

Phase Characteristics
• Deliverables : Tangible, verifiable work products • Reviews : Evaluation of deliverables and project performance • Phase Exit Criteria : Measurements used to determine if project should go into next phase
Akram Al-Najjar, PMP.
Source: pmbok guide 2000 Planning & Cost Control Manager Akram_alnajjar@hotmail.com +20105394312

Project Life Cycle and Product Life Cycle Relationships

Akram Al-Najjar, PMP.
Source: pmbok guide 2000 Planning & Cost Control Manager Akram_alnajjar@hotmail.com +20105394312

Project Stakeholders
Individuals and organizations who are actively involved in the project and whose interests may be positively or negatively affected by the project success or failure
Key Stakeholders
• Project manager • Customer • Performing organization • Sponsor
Source: pmbok guide 2000

Manages the project Uses the product or service Enterprise that does the project work Provides financial resources
Akram Al-Najjar, PMP.
Planning & Cost Control Manager Akram_alnajjar@hotmail.com +20105394312

Project Stakeholders
n

Stakeholders are the people involved in or affected by project activities Stakeholders include
n n n n n

n

the project sponsor and project team support staff customers users suppliers
Akram Al-Najjar, PMP.
Source: pmbok guide 2000 Planning & Cost Control Manager Akram_alnajjar@hotmail.com +20105394312

Stakeholders and the Project

Akram Al-Najjar, PMP.
Source: pmbok guide 2000 Planning & Cost Control Manager Akram_alnajjar@hotmail.com +20105394312

Organizational Influences
n

Organizational systems
n

Project-based
n n

Derive income by performing projects for others Treat on-going operations as projects (management by projects)

n

Non-Project-based
n

No project-oriented systems in place to support project needs efficiently and effectively

Akram Al-Najjar, PMP.
Source: pmbok guide 2000 Planning & Cost Control Manager Akram_alnajjar@hotmail.com +20105394312

Organizational Cultures & Styles
n

Reflected in norms, beliefs, and expectations Reflected in policies and procedures, view of authority relationships, etc. Direct influences the project

n

n

Akram Al-Najjar, PMP.
Source: pmbok guide 2000 Planning & Cost Control Manager Akram_alnajjar@hotmail.com +20105394312

Table 2-1. Organizational Structure Influences on Projects

Akram Al-Najjar, PMP.
Source: pmbok guide 2000 Planning & Cost Control Manager Akram_alnajjar@hotmail.com +20105394312

Organizational Structure
n

Functional organization – Hierarchy where each employee has one clear superior Projectized organization – Most of organization’s resources are involved in project work and report to the project manager Matrix organization – Blend of both
Akram Al-Najjar, PMP.
Source: pmbok guide 2000 Planning & Cost Control Manager Akram_alnajjar@hotmail.com +20105394312

n

n

Organizational Planning

Functional Organization

Akram Al-Najjar, PMP.
Source: pmbok guide 2000 Planning & Cost Control Manager Akram_alnajjar@hotmail.com +20105394312

Functional Organization
n n n n

Specialists grouped by function Difficult to cross functional lines Barriers exist on horizontal information flow Functional emphasis – loyalties may impede completion

Akram Al-Najjar, PMP.
Source: pmbok guide 2000 Planning & Cost Control Manager Akram_alnajjar@hotmail.com +20105394312

Projectized Organization

Akram Al-Najjar, PMP.
Source: pmbok guide 2000 Planning & Cost Control Manager Akram_alnajjar@hotmail.com +20105394312

Projectized Organization
n

Emerges from functional when latter impedes progress Line of authority is the PM Tendency to retain assigned personnel too long FMs feel threatened as people are removed from their areas
Akram Al-Najjar, PMP.
Source: pmbok guide 2000 Planning & Cost Control Manager Akram_alnajjar@hotmail.com +20105394312

n n

n

Matrix Organization

Akram Al-Najjar, PMP.
Source: pmbok guide 2000 Planning & Cost Control Manager Akram_alnajjar@hotmail.com +20105394312

Matrix Organization
n

Advantages
n n n n n

Visible objectives Efficient utilization of resources Better co-ordination Better information flow Retention of home after project More than one boss Complex structure to control Differing priorities of PM and FM Duplication of effort Akram Al-Najjar, PMP. Planning & Cost Control Manager Conflict Akram_alnajjar@hotmail.com
Source: pmbok guide 2000 +20105394312

n

Disadvantages
n n n n n

n

Any questions?

Akram Al-Najjar, PMP.
Source: pmbok guide 2000 Planning & Cost Control Manager Akram_alnajjar@hotmail.com +20105394312

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