Instituto Tecnológico de las Américas

Nombre: Hugo A. Sanchez

Matricula: 2007-0012

Materia: Tecnologias WAN (CCNA 4)

Profesor(a): Wendy de la Rosa

did not achieve market dominance. since for a significant length of time it was impossible to forward IP packets entirely in hardware. not restricted to ATM transmission. introduced a related proposal. The primary benefit is to eliminate dependence on a particular data link layer technology. It was designed to provide a unified data-carrying service for both circuit-based clients and packetswitching clients which provide a datagram service model. Frame Relay. and thus is often referred to as a "layer 2. which was defined only to work over ATM. This allows one to create end-to-end circuits across any type of transport medium. and eliminate the need for multiple layer2 networks to satisfy different types of traffic. protocol agnostic. data-carrying mechanism. and Ethernet frames. Cisco Systems. and development of a consensus protocol that combined features from several vendors' work. One original motivation was to allow the creation of simple high-speed switches. including IP packets. It can encapsulate packets of various network protocols. In an MPLS network. Therefore the advantages of MPLS primarily revolve around the ability to support multiple service models and perform traffic management. .Multiprotocol Label Switching In 1996 a group from Ipsilon Networks proposed a "flow management protocol". data packets are assigned labels. It was handed over to the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) for open standardization. The IETF work involved proposals from other vendors. MPLS makes it easy to create virtual links between distant nodes. It can be used to carry many different kinds of traffic. Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) is a mechanism in high-performance telecommunications networks which directs and carries data from one network node to the next with the help of labels. called "Tag Switching". MPLS operates at an OSI model layer that is generally considered to lie between traditional definitions of layer 2 (data link layer) and layer 3 (network layer). However. advances in VLSI have made such devices possible. without the need to examine the packet itself. MPLS also offers a robust recovery framework that goes beyond the simple protection rings of synchronous optical networking (SONET/SDH). SONET. Packet-forwarding decisions are made solely on the contents of this label. Their "IP Switching" technology. and was renamed "Label Switching". MPLS belongs to the family of packet-switched networks. using any protocol.5" protocol. as well as native ATM. such as Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM). MPLS is a highly scalable.[4] It was a Cisco proprietary proposal. Synchronous Optical Networking (SONET) or Ethernet.

a 3-bit Traffic Class field for QoS (quality of service) priority (experimental) and ECN (Explicit Congestion Notification). At the same time. Many network engineers agree that ATM should be replaced with a protocol that requires less overhead. an 8-bit TTL (time to live) field. thus aligning these technologies with current and future technology needs. MPLS technologies have evolved with the strengths and weaknesses of ATM in mind. respectively. MPLS attempts to preserve the traffic engineering and out-of-band control that made frame relay and ATM attractive for deploying large-scale networks. In particular. . under penultimate hop popping this function may instead be performed by the LSR directly connected to the LER.   These MPLS-labeled packets are switched after a label lookup/switch instead of a lookup into the IP table. push an MPLS label onto an incoming packet[note 1] and pop it off the outgoing packet. Each label stack entry contains four fields:   A 20-bit label value. such as Frame Relay and ATM. which.g. MPLS is currently replacing some of these technologies in the marketplace. there is a significant loss of visibility and access into the MPLS cloud for IT departments MPLS works by prefixing packets with an MPLS header. containing one or more labels. While the traffic management benefits of migrating to MPLS are quite valuable (better reliability. MPLS recognizes that small ATM cells are not needed in the core of modern networks. label lookup and label switching were faster than a routing table or RIB (Routing Information Base) lookup because they could take place directly within the switched fabric and not the CPU. Routers that perform routing based only on the label are called label switch routers (LSRs). It is highly possible that MPLS will completely replace these technologies in the future. while providing connection-oriented services for variable-length frames. Alternatively. to support voice traffic — was the motivation for the cell nature of ATM). This is called a label stack. it signifies that the current label is the last in the stack. MPLS dispenses with the cell-switching and signaling-protocol baggage of ATM. If this is set. increased performance). The entry and exit points of an MPLS network are called label edge routers (LERs). a 1-bit bottom of stack flag. As mentioned above. since modern optical networks (as of 2008) are so fast (at 40 Gbit/s and beyond) that even full-length 1500 byte packets do not incur significant real-time queuing delays (the need to reduce such delays — e. when MPLS was conceived..A number of different technologies were previously deployed with essentially identical goals.

due to the prevalent use of Ethernet in corporate and. Ethernet on the MAN can be used as pure Ethernet. more recently. there exist extensions of the BGP protocol that can be used to manage an MPLS path. Metro Ethernet A Metro Ethernet is a computer network that covers a metropolitan area and that is based on the Ethernet standard. Ethernet over MPLS or Ethernet over DWDM. If one wants to carry two different types of traffic between the same two routers. SDH-based deployments are useful when there is an existing SDH infrastructure already in place. . bringing Ethernet in to the Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) introduces a lot of advantages to both the service provider and the customer (corporate and residential). 40Gbit/s or 100Gbit/s speeds. distribution (aggregation) and access. Furthermore. residential networks. hub-andspoke (star). and are typically used by large service providers. Ethernet over SDH. its main shortcoming being the loss of flexibility in bandwidth management due to the rigid hierarchy imposed by the SDH network. with different treatment by the core routers for each type. but may migrate to newer forms of Ethernet Transport in the form of 10Gbit/s. MPLS based deployments are costly but highly reliable and scalable. Ethernet also supports high bandwidths with fine granularity. Another distinct advantage of an Ethernet-based access network is that it can be easily connected to the customer network.There are two standardized protocols for managing MPLS paths: the Label Distribution Protocol (LDP) and RSVP-TE. or full or partial mesh. Ethernet has been a well known technology for decades. an extension of the Resource Reservation Protocol (RSVP) for traffic engineering. An MPLS header does not identify the type of data carried inside the MPLS path. The topology could be a ring. Pure Ethernet-based deployments are cheap but less reliable and scalable.[clarification needed] which is not available with traditional SDH connections. It is commonly used as a metropolitan access network to connect subscribers and businesses to a larger service network or the Internet. The network will also have a hierarchy: core. Businesses can also use Metro Ethernet to connect branch offices to their Intranet. and thus are usually limited to small scale or experimental deployments. An Ethernet interface is much less expensive than a SONET/SDH or PDH interface of the same bandwidth. one has to establish a separate MPLS path for each type of traffic. The core in most cases is an existing IP/MPLS backbone. A typical service provider Metro Ethernet network is a collection of Layer 2 or/and Layer 3 switches or/and routers connected through optical fiber. Therefore.

and may include ONT and/or Residential gateway. MAC traceroute.  Multiprotocol convergence: with the maturity on pseudowires standards (ATM Virtual Leased Line VLL. each switched path can have 4094 single tag VLANs. and Maintenance) is a protocol for installing. ATM aggregation for UMTS or TDM aggregation for GSM).  End to End OAM: MPLS-based MAN offers a wide set of troubleshooting and OAM MPLS-based tools which enrich Service Providers ability to effectively troubleshoot and diagnose network problems. MAC ping.1s MSTP (30 to sub 50ms sec convergence depending on network design) while MPLS-based MANs use mechanisms such as MPLS Fast Reroute to achieve SDH-like (50 msecs) convergence times. LSP ping etc. EOAM (Ethernet Operations.) an MPLS-based Metro Ethernet can backhaul IP/Ethernet traffic together with virtually any type of traffic coming from customer or other access networks (i. IEEE 802. Aggregation/Distribution. This is the network that connects customer equipment. while this could be more challenging in a pure Ethernet scenario. When using MPLS. Ethernet VLANs have local meaning only (like Frame Relay PVC). IEEE 802. FR VLL. and troubleshooting MANs and WANs.A comparison of MPLS-based Metro Ethernet against a pure Ethernet MAN:  Scalability: In a properly designed Ethernet VLAN network.[1]  Access devices normally exist at a customer's premises. although this issue can be managed by smart network design and choosing switches with MAC tables sufficient for the size of network segments. . unit. These include for example. etc.e.  Resiliency: pure Ethernet network resiliency relies on Spanning Tree Protocols STP.1w RSTP or IEEE 802. Metro. but this convergence time may vary from vendor to vendor. However there are now Ethernet OAM tools defined in IEEE 802. or wireless base station. and Core. Administration.1ab]]. monitoring. end segments and rings of single tag devices can receive only the traffic that they need. Some aggregation and core switches can classify traffic by two VLANs using IEEE 802. or office router. so with such aggregation devices properly placed in the center of a network.8031). Familiar network domains are likely to exist regardless of the transport technology chosen to implement Metro Area Networks: Access. Same scalability considerations apply to the MAC addresses where in a pure Layer 2 Ethernet MAN all MAC addresses are being shared across the network. Metro Ethernet can also utilise Link aggregation or Resilient Packet Ring where appropriate to add link redundancy and recovery in distribution networks. Ethernet protection switching is also standardised in (ITU G. Some Ethernet vendors' RSTP convergence is also sub-50ms.3ah[3]) for monitoring and troubleshooting Ethernet networks.1ad VLAN stacking.1ag[2] andEthernet in the First Mile (IEEE 802.

it became possible to isolate the customers' traffic from each other and from the core network internal signaling traffic. and also for a relatively simple initial configuration. Logical differentiation of the physical network helps to identify the rights that the traffic has and to ease the management of hosts' access rights with respect to other users and networks. This part of the network includes nodes such as Multi Tenanted Unit switches. Aggregation occurs on a distribution network such as an ODN segment. However. it was impossible to keep traffic isolated.1Qay (Provider Backbone Transport) (also known as PBT or PBB-TE).1ah (Provider Backbone Bridges) (also known as MAC in MAC or PBB) and IEEE 802. This allows for a very simple and cheap design. Spanning-tree. and VLAN Translation. Optical line terminals in an outside plant or central officecabinet. A Core Network often uses IP-MPLS to connect different Metro networks together. The original Ethernet technology was not well suited for service provider applications. A Metro Area Network may include transport technologies MPLS.1ad (Provider Bridges)(also known as QinQ or stacked VLANs) and IEEE 802. Ethernet MANs became feasible in the late 90s due to the development of new techniques to allow transparent tunneling of traffic through the use of Virtual LANs as "point to point" or "multipoint to multipoint" circuits. Ethernet is constantly evolving and has now carrier class features with the recent addition of IEEE 802. PBB-TE and T-MPLS. broadcast packets and dynamic MAC learning are disabled and sub 50ms failover features are introduced.   Much of the functionality of Metro Ethernet such as Virtual Private Line or Virtual Private LAN is implemented by the use of Ethernet VLAN tags that allow differentiation of each part of the network. Ethernet in the First Mile equipment. or provider bridges. . which made implementation of private circuits impossible. but some using point-to-point Ethernet over "home-run" direct fibre. Often Passive Optical Network or Digital Subscriber Line technologies are employed. A pure Ethernet MAN uses only layer 2 switches for all of its internal structure. as a shared-media network. Combined with new features such as VLAN Stacking (also known as VLAN Tunneling). each with its own resiliency and management solutions.

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