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Google announced the operating system on July 7, 2009 and made it an open source project, called Chromium OS, that November. Unlike Chromium OS, which can be compiled from the downloaded source code, Chrome OS only ships on specific hardware from Google's manufacturing partners. The user interface takes a minimalist approach, resembling that of the Chrome web browser. Since Google Chrome OS is aimed at users who spend most of their computer time on the Internet, the only application on the device is a browser incorporating a media player and a file manager. The expected launch date for retail hardware featuring Chrome OS slipped after Google first announced the operating system: from an initial forecast date in late 2010 to June 15, 2011, when "Chromebooks" from Samsung (and then Acer in July) actually shipped.
1 History o 1.1 Cr-48 prototype hardware o 1.2 Commercial hardware: Chromebooks 2 Reception o 2.1 Relationship to Android 3 Design goals and direction o 3.1 User interface o 3.2 Architecture o 3.3 Remote application access and virtual desktop access o 3.4 Hardware support o 3.5 Integrated media player, file manager o 3.6 Printing o 3.7 Link handling o 3.8 Security o 3.9 Shell access 4 References 5 External links o 5.1 Historical
Google developers began coding the operating system in 2009, inspired by the growing popularity and lower power consumption of netbooks and the focus of these small laptops on Internet access. To ascertain marketing requirements for an operating system focused on netbook Web transactions, the company did not do the usual demographic research generally associated with a large software development project. Instead, engineers relied on more informal metrics, including monitoring the usage patterns of some 200 Chrome OS machines used by Google employees. Developers also noted their own usage patterns. Matthew
 InformationWeek reviewer Serdar Yegulalp wrote that Chrome OS will be a product. a consumer version and an enterprise version. Google released Chrome OS's source code as the Chromium OS project. which take less space and can be pinned for easier access. and will only run on hardware designed for the purpose. 2009. 2009 news conference. "a common baseline from which the finished work is derived" as well as a pool for derivative works. In our discussions. As with other open source projects. put three machines in his house and found himself logging in for brief sessions: to make a single search query or send a short email. Chris Kenyon. Chrome OS will be automatically updated to the latest version. images and a video of a conceptual design showing how a Chrome OS user interface might look on a tablet PC with a 5–10 inch screen. The posting was made two days before Apple announced the iPad tablet. square icons placed above the tabs. On March 16. the operating system booted up in seven seconds. and panels placed along the bottom edge that could be opened with an upward dragging motion. . several changes to Chromium OS were made which indicate the development of a tablet version of Google Chrome OS. Also on November 19. wherever feasible. the Google vice president overseeing Chrome. but with a touch interface. At the conference.Papakipos. The design would include the same basic layout as on netbooks. developers are modifying code from Chromium OS and building their own versions. large. The product and project will be developed in parallel and borrow from each other. At a November 19. vice president of OEM services at Canonical Ltd announced that Canonical "is contributing engineering to Google [Chrome OS] under contract. Google posted notes. and in addition to the regular browser tabs also had application tabs. This clear focus should benefit a wide variety of existing projects and we welcome it. 2011. Google indicated that consideration is being given to developing two versions of the operating system. 2010. an onscreen qwerty keyboard in different layouts. demonstrated an early version of the operating system. a time Google said it would work to reduce. In March 2010. 2009. former engineering director for the Chrome OS project. Sundar Pichai." On January 25. Unlike Chromium OS. On November 19. Sundar Pichai and Linus Upson made it clear that they want. He previewed a desktop which looked very similar to the Chrome browser. developed to "a level of polish and a degree of integration with its host hardware that Chromium OS does not have by default. to build on existing components and tools from the open source community without unnecessary re-invention. whereas Google Chrome OS code will only be supported by Google and its partners." whereas Chromium OS is a project.
Google Product Management vice president Sundar Pichai stated that the last of the 60. or USB storage port and will not work as a printer port as there is no print stack on the operating system. The Cr-48 notebooks have additional unused hardware components for implementation at a future date. Users are encouraged to use a secure service called Google Cloud Print to print to legacy printers connected to their desktop computers. ethernet adapter. 2010 press briefing. Google addressed complaints that the operating system offers little functionality when the host device is not connected to the Internet. The USB port only acts as a keyboard. including a Bluetooth 2. Commercial hardware: Chromebooks Main article: Chromebook . The company demonstrated an offline version of Google Docs running on Chrome OS and announced a 3G plan that would give Chrome OS users 100 MB of free data each month. Google announced the Cr-48 laptop.000 Cr-48s had been shipped. a reference hardware design to test the Chrome OS operating system. The laptop's design broke convention by replacing the Caps lock key with a dedicated search key. or connect an HP ePrint printer to the Google Cloud Print service for a "cloud aware" printer connection. with additional paid plans available from Verizon.000 Cr-48s were distributed to testers and reviewers in early December 2010. About 60. 2011.Cr-48 prototype hardware The Cr-48 showing the setup screen seen when first booting up a Chromebook At a December 7. Adding further hardware outside of the previously mentioned items will likely cause problems with the operating system's "self knowing" security model. not retail sales. On March 8. it still had some distance to go before being ready for market. Reviews of Chrome OS running on the Cr-48 in mid-December 2010 indicated that while the project held promise. The Cr-48 was intended for testing only.1 controller. mouse.
the United Kingdom. Some observers claimed that other operating systems already fill the niche that Chrome OS is aiming for. Google is also working on a Chrome OS desktop machine. if not all. which lack the computational power to run a resource-intensive program like Photoshop. I think that the operating system could appeal to some niche audiences." A year later. with others named in the press. but wondered whether mainstream computer users would accept an operating system whose only application is a browser. Samsung. Italy and Spain. Ryan Paul of Ars Technica came to similar conclusions. Intel. Google announced that the first two commercially available laptops incorporating Chrome OS would be manufactured by Acer Inc. "In its current form. He wrote that Google's Cr-48 prototype "met the basic requirements for Web surfing. but falls short for more intensive tasks. Texas Instruments. The ship date was June 15 for the United States. with an additional gigabyte at $20 per month. both directly to Microsoft Windows and indirectly the company's word processing and spreadsheet applications—the latter through Chrome OS's reliance on cloud computing. The Chromebooks are sold in the United States through Amazon and Best Buy. Chrome OS was viewed as a competitor to Microsoft. internationally through "leading retailers". Qualcomm. and they provide a web-centric computing experience today. But Chrome OS engineering director Matthew Papakipos argued that the two operating systems would not fully overlap in functionality because Chrome OS hosted is intended for netbooks. HewlettPackard. including Acer. per month. like regular consumers users who really just need browsing or office productivity workers at companies that have gone Google or only use intranet apps. Netbooks have been successful at capturing the low-end PC market. Freescale. 2011 at its Google I/O developer conference. and Dell. and personal productivity. but locked into doing it from the fourth-place web browser. respectively for a three-year contract.. Adobe. gaming. and said that the chromebooks would require no virus protection. Asus. Toshiba. Reception Early on.Google initially named several development partners working on hardware for the operating system. Netherlands." Paul wrote that most of Chrome OS's . users can simply not install anything but a web browser and connect to the vast array of Google products and other web-based services and applications. On May 11. Google also announced a monthly payment scheme for business and education customers at $28 and $20 per user. France. I am not sure why we should get excited that a year from now we'll be able to do the same thing. Models equipped with 3G connectivity receive 100 megabytes of wireless data per month. with the added advantage of supporting native applications in addition to a browser. with a retail price beginning at $349. It's decidedly not a full-fledged alternative to the general purpose computing environments that currently ship on netbooks. Germany. free for two years." He praised Google's approach to security. Google claimed an eight-second bootup time and eight-hour operation on one battery charge. Using a Windows 7 or Linux-based netbook. Tony Bradley of PC World wrote in November 2009: "We can already do most. Lenovo. including replacements and upgrades. of what Chrome OS promises to deliver. and Samsung Electronics Co.
" In ongoing testing. scrolling support. Wolfgang Gruener. mobile and personal computing. Google put online many details of Chrome OS's design goals and direction. "Each day of the event featured a keynote devoted to one system followed by a press briefing where each team leader (Android's Andy Rubin and Chrome's Sundar Pichai) unconvincingly tried to explain why the systems weren't competitive. also writing in Conceivably Tech." Steven Levy wrote that "the dissonance between the two systems was apparent" at the 2011 Google I/O developer conference. Relationship to Android Google's successive introduction of the popular Android and Google Chrome OS has put the company behind two open source. But the company has not followed up with a technical description of the completed operating system. Kurt Bakke of Conceivably Tech said: "in my household the Chromebook has turned into a family appliance and the most frequented computer in our household. "It's difficult to use the Chromebook as an everyday device and give up what you are used to on a Mac/Windows PC. Co-founder Sergey Brin suggested that the two systems "will likely converge over time. The biggest complaint I heard was its lack of performance in Flash applications. Microsoft CEO Steve Ballmer accused Google of not being able to make up its mind. which remain distinct despite the growing convergence of the devices. User interface . Google has suggested that the two operating systems address different markets. Co-founder Sergey Brin addressed the question by saying that owning two promising OS's was a problem that most companies would love to face". It has not turned into a device that can rival the appeal of any of our other notebooks – we have one gaming laptop." In reviewing the Cr-48 on December 29. said that cloud computing at cellular data speeds is unacceptable and that the lack of offline capability turns the Cr-48 "into a useless brick" when not connected. Its 15 second startup time and dedicated Google user accounts made it the go-to device for quick searches. power improvements and a large number of bug fixes. while you surely enjoy the dedicated cloud computing capabilities occasionally. 2010. Design goals and direction Early in the project. client-based operating systems. email as well as YouTube and Facebook activities.advantages "can be found in other software environments without having to sacrifice native applications." He praised a March 2011 update that included new trackpad control features. two mainstream notebooks and two netbooks in our household with five kids.
Google software engineer Gary Kačmarčík wrote that Chrome OS will access remote applications through a technology unofficially called "Chromoting. The name has since been changed to "remoting. and notifications. with management by Upstart. Secondary tasks would be handled with "panels": floating windows that dock to the bottom of the screen for tasks like chat and music players. browser and window manager. that are no longer common on computers. background processing. such as floppy disk drives. especially netbooks. which can launch services in parallel. Google Chrome OS would follow the Chrome browser's practice of leveraging HTML5's offline modes. Split screens were also under consideration for viewing two pieces of content side-by-side. and defer services in the interest of faster booting The window manager handles user interaction with multiple client windows much like other X window managers. . Userland software has been trimmed to essentials. Designers proposed using search and pinned tabs as a way to quickly locate and access applications. Designers considered a reduced window management scheme that would operate only in full-screen mode. rather than separating the two. Remote application access and virtual desktop access In June 2010. Initial roll-outs of Chrome-OS laptops (Chromebooks) indicate an interest in enabling users to access virtual desktops. The firmware also contributes to security by verifying each step in the boot process and incorporating system recovery[ System-level software includes the Linux kernel that has been patched to improve boot performance." and is "probably closer to running an application via Terminal Services or by first connecting to a host machine by using RDP or VNC. The firmware contributes to fast boot time by not probing for hardware."." which would resemble Microsoft's Remote Desktop Connection. Google described a three-tier architecture: firmware.[ Architecture In preliminary design documents for the Chromium OS open source project. and system-level software and userland services. re-spawn crashed jobs.Chrome / Chromium OS Login Screen Design goals for Google Chrome OS's user interface included using minimal screen space by combining applications and standard Web pages into a single tab strip.
and if so. Link handling This section may contain original research." However. manage the print jobs." As the number of Web applications increases. which is fighting with Chrome. the task of "developing and maintaining print subsystems for every combination of hardware and operating system – from desktops to netbooks to mobile devices – simply isn't feasible. Printing Google Cloud Print is Google's proposed solution to help any application on any device to print on any printer. called a proxy.net. Matthew Papakipos. The proxy would register the printer with the service. and handle other multimedia files while offline. which website should open: Microsoft Office Live. not as a user's primary PC. . In November 2009 Matthew Papakipos. Gview. both Chrome OS and the Chrome browser have unresolved decisions regarding handling specific file types offline. if a JPEG is opened from a local storage device. Chrome OS also includes an integrated file manager resembling those found on other operating systems. However. should a specific Web application be automatically opened to view it. the same problem arises. For example. (September 2011) Chrome OS was designed with the intention of having user documents and files stored on online servers. or a previewing utility? The project director at that time. Google has requested that its hardware partners use solid-state drives "for performance and reliability reasons" as well as the lower capacity requirements inherent in an operating system that accesses applications and most user data on remote servers. view JPEGs. which one? Similarly. and will run on hardware incorporating an x86 or ARM-based processor.Hardware support Google Chrome OS is initially intended for secondary devices like netbooks. if a user clicks on a . including Google Docs and Box. provide the printer driver functionality. More details may be available on the talk page. noted that Windows developers have faced the same fundamental problem: "Quicktime is fighting with Windows Media Player. the cloud service would entail installing a piece of software. engineering director for the Google Chrome OS claimed that the Chrome OS consumes one-sixtieth as much drive space as Windows 7. Integrated media player. enabling users to play back MP3s. file manager Google integrates a media player into both Chrome OS and the Chrome browser. and give status alerts for each job. While the cloud provides virtually any connected device with information access. While Chrome OS will support hard disk drives. as part of Chrome OS. with the ability to display folders and their associated files. as well as preview and manage file contents using a variety of Web applications.doc file. Statements consisting only of original research may be removed. Please improve it by verifying the claims made and adding references.
2009). ^ Google (2010).blogs.811. Saul (July 8. 5. stored in read-only memory. 3.Security In March 2010.pcworld. the Future Is the Web". 2009. Retrieved January 23. 2009.chromium.html.nytimes. Inc. checks for system compromises. New York Times. Official Google Blog.org/chromiumos/chromiumos-design-docs/chromium-os-kernel. abc 4. 2010). "Google talks Chrome OS. 2009). "Google Announces Chrome OS". Retrieved July 8. ^ Mediati. 10. Shell access Chrome OS includes the Chrome Shell. Google software security engineer Will Drewry discussed Chrome OS security.Y. In developer mode. 2009). and is also accessible via the crosh command shell.blogspot.com/accounts/TOS. http://googleblog.html.132 ^ "Kernel Design: Background.. Inc. a full-featured Bash shell can be opened via VT-2. Nick (July 7. 2009). Upgrades".wired.html. which offers minimal functionality such as ping and ssh. HTML5. http://www. He said that Chrome OS netbooks will be shipped with Trusted Platform Module. "Releasing the Chromium OS open source project". Jon (January 19. ^ Hansell. Retrieved May 19. PC World. http://www. ab 8. 2009. http://arstechnica. Google. 6. http://googleblog.ars. http://www. and include both a "trusted bootpath" and a physical switch under the battery compartment that actuates a developer mode. or "crosh". ^ Stokes. ^ Dylan F. . Retrieved July 8.com/gadgetlab/2009/11/google-chrome-os-ditch-your-hard-drives-the-future-isthe-web/. 9. Wired. Retrieved 7 September 2011. 2010. Sundar (July 7.com/2009/07/08/would-you-miss-windows-with-a-google-operatingsystem/. "Gadget Lab Hardware News and Reviews Google Chrome OS: Ditch Your Hard Drives. in which the initial boot code. and the future of software". At a December 2010 press conference. "Would you miss Windows with a Google operating system?". That mode drops some specialized security functions but increases developer flexibility.com/business/news/2010/01/chrome-os-interview-1.. Retrieved July 8. "Introducing the Google Chrome OS". "Google to Challenge Microsoft With Operating System".bloomberg. Drewry described Chrome OS as a "hardened" operating system featuring autoupdating and sandbox features that will reduce malware exposure.com/article/168028/google_announces_chrome_os. ^ CR-48 Stable Channel Update: 0. ^ Pichai.14. "Google Chrome OS Terms of Service". Bloomberg. 2. 2009. but no Bash-like shell capabilities. Retrieved November 19. Google.blogspot. Tweney (November 19. 2009.com/2009/11/releasing-chromium-osopen-source.com/2009/07/introducing-google-chrome-os. References 1. abcd 7. Retrieved November 22. 2009. Google. ^ Womack. Brian (July 8. 2009). ^ Sengupta. Google claimed that Chrome OS would be the most secure consumer operating system due in part to a verified boot capability. Official Google Blog. Caesar (November 19. http://bits.com/apps/news?pid=20601087&sid=aTd2k. http://www. 2009). Drewry also emphasized that the open source nature of the operating system will contribute greatly to its security by allowing constant developer feedback. Ars Technica. Retrieved July 16. 2011. http://www.YdQZ.google.
Google Chrome OS is an open source. A tax preparation button called ―I am feeling lucky‖ will be on desktop 7. 5. It's been an exciting nine months since we launched the Google Chrome browser. Beta status will be there up to 2038 11. we're announcing a new project that's a natural extension of Google Chrome — the Google Chrome Operating System. It will removes all Falun Gong references from your files. the operating systems that browsers run on were designed in an era where there was no web. Invests in. This Blog Linked From Here 19. shopping or just staying in touch with friends. It's our attempt to re-think what operating systems should be. So today. develops. Introducing the Google Chrome OS 20. 2. Masseuse will come on every monday afternoon automatically 9. acquires. lightweight operating system that will initially be targeted at netbooks.11 Undisclosed Features of Google Chrome OS 1. 4. However. and abandons your best ideas. Will change your desktop icons everyday automatically 6. We designed Google Chrome for people who live on the web — searching for information. Will stop all all activities as soon as it smells anything suspicious 10. and netbooks . Later this year we will open-source its code. Your hard drive will automatically get defragged every month 3. Your family photos are accompanied by text ads for skin care and diet plans. over 30 million people use it regularly. Maximum system crashes will happen in initial days 12. catching up on the news. 7/07/2009 09:37:00 PM 21. Already. checking email. 20% of time it will not perform what you want it to do 8.
Google Chrome OS is a new project. Because we're already talking to partners about the project. They want their data to be accessible to them wherever they are and not have to worry about losing their computer or forgetting to back up files. Google Chrome OS is being created for people who spend most of their time on the web. we wanted to share our vision now so everyone understands what we are trying to achieve. The user interface is minimal to stay out of your way. and we'll soon be working with the open source community. but on any standards-based browser on Windows. Stay tuned for more updates in the fall and have a great summer. and we're definitely going to need a lot of help from the open source community to accomplish this vision.running Google Chrome OS will be available for consumers in the second half of 2010. We're designing the OS to be fast and lightweight. People want to get to their email instantly. Android was designed from the beginning to work across a variety of devices from phones to set-top boxes to netbooks. simplicity and security are the key aspects of Google Chrome OS. Google benefits as well by having happier users who are more likely to spend time on the Internet. we believe choice will drive innovation for the benefit of everyone. or have to worry about constant software updates. We have a lot of work to do. All webbased applications will automatically work and new applications can be written using your favorite web technologies. Google Chrome OS will run on both x86 as well as ARM chips and we are working with multiple OEMs to bring a number of netbooks to market next year. The software architecture is simple — Google Chrome running within a new windowing system on top of a Linux kernel. without wasting time waiting for their computers to boot and browsers to start up. And of course. We're excited for what's to come and we hope you are too. Even more importantly. to start up and get you onto the web in a few seconds. It should just work. the web is the platform. We hear a lot from our users and their message is clear — computers need to get better. While there are areas where Google Chrome OS and Android overlap. malware and security updates. including Google. these apps will run not only on Google Chrome OS. and is being designed to power computers ranging from small netbooks to full-size desktop systems. . Speed. separate from Android. And as we did for the Google Chrome browser. we are going back to the basics and completely redesigning the underlying security architecture of the OS so that users don't have to deal with viruses. they don't want to spend hours configuring their computers to work with every new piece of hardware. For application developers. Mac and Linux thereby giving developers the largest user base of any platform. And any time our users have a better computing experience. They want their computers to always run as fast as when they first bought them. and most of the user experience takes place on the web.
Is Google Over-extending Itself? » Google Lists HP. Acer Among Chrome OS Partners Google's Chrome OS May Fail Even as It Changes Computing Forever » 5 Ways Microsoft Will Bring the Hurt to Google Chrome OS » Is Chrome OS The Future Of Computing? I Hope Not. will be an open-source operating system initially geared toward netbooks." Google stated in its announcement. 6. » Alas. Chrome OS will run on x86-based PCs. It should just work. "The user interface is minimal to stay out of your way. With Chrome OS. malware and security updates. poor Microsoft. The new operating system. Google claims the new operating system. considering every current operating system sees its fair share of security flaws and patches. The company notes it will be "going back to the basics and completely redesigning the underlying security architecture of the OS so that users don't have to deal with viruses. Google plans to follow the same formula it used with its browser: "Speed. . And then Google jumps into the browser market with Chrome. Tonight Google has upped the ante yet again with its plans for a new operating system based on Google Chrome. to start up and get you onto the web in a few seconds." Google will also make security a high priority with Chrome. We're designing the OS to be fast and lightweight. Then Google enters the Webbased e-mail market. 5. Google announced in a blog posting late Tuesday evening. as well as machines built around the ARM processor (such as socalled smartbooks).Google Announces Chrome OS By Nick Mediati. simplicity and security are the key aspects of Google Chrome OS. First Google dominates the search engine market. 7. will be "lightweight" and heavily Web-centric. which should ship on netbooks starting in the second half of next year. 4. PCWorld Jul 7. 2009 10:36 PM Google's New OS The open-source operating system builds on the speedy and streamlined Chrome browser. 3. 8. 2." As you might assume. Android invades Windows Mobile's turf. 1. that is a pretty ambitious goal. and most of the user experience takes place on the web. aptly named Google Chrome OS. FAQ: Google Chrome OS » Will Google's OS Make the Desktop Safe? » » Google’s Chrome OS: Not the first Web-based OS » With OS Project.
in the announcement.So what does this mean for Android? According to Google. but I think that Chrome's launch makes one thing is clear: The Web browser is Google's operating system. I remarked in my review that "In the past there has been some speculation that Google would develop its own operating system.com/doc/43116426/Google-Chrome-OS-Ppt . these apps will run not only on Google Chrome OS. http://www." While Chrome OS goes beyond being a mere Web browser. and a modern OS needs to be built around the Web first. Chrome OS "is being created for people who spend most of their time on the web" and will be able to run on practically any PC that meets the minimum requirements. In fact." Even better: "And of course. Google flatly states. and other devices in mind. and that while Android was created with smartphones.com for more on Chrome OS. When Google first introduced the Chrome browser last year. Mac and Linux thereby giving developers the largest user base of any platform. ranging from netbooks on the low-end to high end power desktops. but on any standards-based browser on Windows. Stay tuned to pcworld. Google's vision of the future is as clear with Chrome OS as it was with the introduction of the Chrome browser: The Web is the OS of the future. and follow us on Twitter @pcworld. the web is the platform.scribd. "For application developers." So has Google just killed the operating system war? Or is it just getting started? Share your thoughts and post a comment below. Chrome OS is in no way connected to Android. netbooks.
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