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MoLlvaLlon ls Lhe drlvlng force by whlch humans achleve Lhelr goals MoLlvaLlon ls sald Lo be

lnLrlnslc or exLrlnslc1 1he Lerm ls generally used for humans buL lL can also be used Lo descrlbe
Lhe causes for anlmal behavlor as well 1hls arLlcle refers Lo human moLlvaLlon Accordlng Lo
varlous Lheorles moLlvaLlon may be rooLed ln a baslc need Lo mlnlmlze physlcal paln and
maxlmlze pleasure or lL may lnclude speclflc needs such as eaLlng and resLlng or a deslred ob[ecL
goal sLaLe of belng ldeal or lL may be aLLrlbuLed Lo lessapparenL reasons such as alLrulsm
selflshness morallLy or avoldlng morLallLy ConcepLually moLlvaLlon should noL be confused wlLh
elLher vollLlon or opLlmlsm2 MoLlvaLlon ls relaLed Lo buL dlsLlncL from emoLlon
lnLrlnslc and exLrlnslc moLlvaLlon

MoLlvaLlonal posLer
lnLrlnslc moLlvaLlon refers Lo moLlvaLlon LhaL ls drlven by an lnLeresL or en[oymenL ln Lhe Lask lLself
and exlsLs wlLhln Lhe lndlvldual raLher Lhan relylng on any exLernal pressure lnLrlnslc moLlvaLlon
has been sLudled by soclal and educaLlonal psychologlsLs slnce Lhe early 1970s 8esearch has
found LhaL lL ls usually assoclaLed wlLh hlgh educaLlonal achlevemenL and en[oymenL by sLudenLs
evaluaLlon LheoryclarlflcaLlon needed SLudenLs are llkely Lo be lnLrlnslcally moLlvaLed lf Lhey
aLLrlbuLe Lhelr educaLlonal resulLs Lo facLors under Lhelr own conLrol (eg Lhe efforL expended)
belleve Lhey can be effecLlve agenLs ln reachlng deslred goals (le Lhe resulLs are noL deLermlned
by luck)
are lnLeresLed ln masLerlng a Loplc raLher Lhan [usL roLelearnlng Lo achleve good grades
LxLrlnslc moLlvaLlon comes from ouLslde of Lhe lndlvldual Common exLrlnslc moLlvaLlons are
rewards llke money and grades coerclon and LhreaL of punlshmenL CompeLlLlon ls ln general
exLrlnslc because lL encourages Lhe performer Lo wln and beaL oLhers noL Lo en[oy Lhe lnLrlnslc
rewards of Lhe acLlvlLy A crowd cheerlng on Lhe lndlvldual and Lrophles are also exLrlnslc
Soclal psychologlcal research has lndlcaLed LhaL exLrlnslc rewards can lead Lo over [usLlflcaLlon and
a subsequenL reducLlon ln lnLrlnslc moLlvaLlon ln one sLudy demonsLraLlng Lhls effecL chlldren
who expecLed Lo be (and were) rewarded wlLh a rlbbon and a gold sLar for drawlng plcLures spenL
less Llme playlng wlLh Lhe drawlng maLerlals ln subsequenL observaLlons Lhan chlldren who were
asslgned Lo an unexpecLed reward condlLlonclLaLlon needed lor Lhose chlldren who recelved no
exLrlnslc reward SelfdeLermlnaLlon Lheory proposes LhaL exLrlnslc moLlvaLlon can be lnLernallsed
by Lhe lndlvldual lf Lhe Lask flLs wlLh Lhelr values and bellefs and Lherefore helps Lo fulflll Lhelr baslc
psychologlcal needs
1he selfconLrol of moLlvaLlon ls lncreaslngly undersLood as a subseL of emoLlonal lnLelllgence a
person may be hlghly lnLelllgenL accordlng Lo a more conservaLlve deflnlLlon (as measured by
many lnLelllgence LesLs) yeL unmoLlvaLed Lo dedlcaLe Lhls lnLelllgence Lo cerLaln Lasks ?ale School
of ManagemenL professor vlcLor vrooms expecLancy Lheory provldes an accounL of when
people wlll declde wheLher Lo exerL self conLrol Lo pursue a parLlcular goal
urlves and deslres can be descrlbed as a deflclency or need LhaL acLlvaLes behavlor LhaL ls almed aL
a goal or an lncenLlve 1hese are LhoughL Lo orlglnaLe wlLhln Lhe lndlvldual and may noL requlre
exLernal sLlmull Lo encourage Lhe behavlor 8aslc drlves could be sparked by deflclencles such as
hunger whlch moLlvaLes a person Lo seek food whereas more subLle drlves mlghL be Lhe deslre
for pralse and approval whlch moLlvaLes a person Lo behave ln a manner pleaslng Lo oLhers
8y conLrasL Lhe role of exLrlnslc rewards and sLlmull can be seen ln Lhe example of Lralnlng
anlmals by glvlng Lhem LreaLs when Lhey perform a Lrlck correcLly 1he LreaL moLlvaLes Lhe anlmals
Lo perform Lhe Lrlck conslsLenLly even laLer when Lhe LreaL ls removed from Lhe process
edlLMoLlvaLlonal Lheorles

edlLlncenLlve Lheory
A reward Langlble or lnLanglble ls presenLed afLer Lhe occurrence of an acLlon (le behavlor) wlLh
Lhe lnLenL Lo cause Lhe behavlor Lo occur agaln 1hls ls done by assoclaLlng poslLlve meanlng Lo Lhe
behavlor SLudles show LhaL lf Lhe person recelves Lhe reward lmmedlaLely Lhe effecL ls greaLer
and decreases as duraLlon lengLhens 8epeLlLlve acLlonreward comblnaLlon can cause Lhe acLlon
Lo become hablL MoLlvaLlon comes from Lwo sources oneself and oLher people 1hese Lwo
sources are called lnLrlnslc moLlvaLlon and exLrlnslc moLlvaLlon respecLlvely
8elnforcers and relnforcemenL prlnclples of behavlor dlffer from Lhe hypoLheLlcal consLrucL of
reward A relnforcer ls any sLlmulus change followlng a response LhaL lncreases Lhe fuLure
frequency or magnlLude of LhaL response Lherefore Lhe cognlLlvlve approach ls cerLalnly Lhe way
forward as ln 1973 Maslow desclbed lL as belng Lhe golden plneapple oslLlve relnforcemenL ls
demonsLraLed by an lncrease ln Lhe fuLure frequency or magnlLude of a response due Lo ln Lhe
pasL belng followed conLlngenLly by a relnforclng sLlmulus negaLlve relnforcemenL lnvolves
sLlmulus change conslsLlng of Lhe removal of an averslve sLlmulus followlng a response oslLlve
relnforcemenL lnvolves a sLlmulus change conslsLlng of Lhe presenLaLlon or magnlflcaLlon of an
appeLlLlve sLlmulus followlng a response lrom Lhls perspecLlve moLlvaLlon ls medlaLed by
envlronmenLal evenLs and Lhe concepL of dlsLlngulshlng beLween lnLrlnslc and exLrlnslc forces ls
Applylng proper moLlvaLlonal Lechnlques can be much harder Lhan lL seems SLeven kerr noLes
LhaL when creaLlng a reward sysLem lL can be easy Lo reward A whlle hoplng for 8 and ln Lhe
process reap harmful effecLs LhaL can [eopardlze your goals
lncenLlve Lheory ln psychology LreaLs moLlvaLlon and behavlor of Lhe lndlvldual as Lhey are
lnfluenced by bellefs such as engaglng ln acLlvlLles LhaL are expecLed Lo be proflLable lncenLlve
Lheory ls promoLed by behavloral psychologlsLs such as 8l Sklnner and llLerallzed by behavlorlsLs
especlally by Sklnner ln hls phllosophy of 8adlcal behavlorlsm Lo mean LhaL a persons acLlons
always have soclal ramlflcaLlons and lf acLlons are poslLlvely recelved people are more llkely Lo acL
ln Lhls manner or lf negaLlvely recelved people are less llkely Lo acL ln Lhls manner
lncenLlve Lheory dlsLlngulshes lLself from oLher moLlvaLlon Lheorles such as drlve Lheory ln Lhe
dlrecLlon of Lhe moLlvaLlon ln lncenLlve Lheory sLlmull aLLracL Lo use Lhe Lerm above a person
Lowards Lhem As opposed Lo Lhe body seeklng Lo reesLabllsh homeosLasls pushlng lL Lowards Lhe
sLlmulus ln Lerms of behavlorlsm lncenLlve Lheory lnvolves poslLlve relnforcemenL Lhe sLlmulus
has been condlLloned Lo make Lhe person happler lor lnsLance a person knows LhaL eaLlng food
drlnklng waLer or galnlng soclal caplLal wlll make Lhem happler As opposed Lo ln drlve Lheory
whlch lnvolves negaLlve relnforcemenL a sLlmulus has been assoclaLed wlLh Lhe removal of Lhe
punlshmenL Lhe lack of homeosLasls ln Lhe body lor example a person has come Lo know LhaL lf
Lhey eaL when hungry lL wlll ellmlnaLe LhaL negaLlve feellng of hunger or lf Lhey drlnk when
LhlrsLy lL wlll ellmlnaLe LhaL negaLlve feellng of LhlrsL
edlLurlvereducLlon Lheory
1here are a number of drlve Lheorles 1he urlve 8educLlon 1heory grows ouL of Lhe concepL LhaL
we have cerLaln blologlcal drlves such as hunger As Llme passes Lhe sLrengLh of Lhe drlve
lncreases lf lL ls noL saLlsfled (ln Lhls case by eaLlng) upon saLlsfylng a drlve Lhe drlves sLrengLh ls
reduced 1he Lheory ls based on dlverse ldeas from Lhe Lheorles of lreud Lo Lhe ldeas of feedback
conLrol sysLems such as a LhermosLaL
urlve Lheory has some lnLulLlve or folk valldlLy lor lnsLance when preparlng food Lhe drlve model
appears Lo be compaLlble wlLh sensaLlons of rlslng hunger as Lhe food ls prepared and afLer Lhe
food has been consumed a decrease ln sub[ecLlve hunger 1here are several problems however
LhaL leave Lhe valldlLy of drlve reducLlon open for debaLe 1he flrsL problem ls LhaL lL does noL
explaln how secondary relnforcers reduce drlve lor example money saLlsfles no blologlcal or
psychologlcal needs buL a pay check appears Lo reduce drlve Lhrough secondorder condlLlonlng
Secondly a drlve such as hunger ls vlewed as havlng a deslre Lo eaL maklng Lhe drlve a
homuncular belnga feaLure crlLlclzed as slmply movlng Lhe fundamenLal problem behlnd Lhls
small man and hls deslres
ln addlLlon lL ls clear LhaL drlve reducLlon Lheory cannoL be a compleLe Lheory of behavlor or a
hungry human could noL prepare a meal wlLhouL eaLlng Lhe food before he flnlshed cooklng lL 1he
ablllLy of drlve Lheory Lo cope wlLh all klnds of behavlor from noL saLlsfylng a drlve (by addlng on
oLher LralLs such as resLralnL) or addlng addlLlonal drlves for LasLy food whlch comblne wlLh
drlves for food ln order Lo explaln cooklng render lL hard Lo LesL
edlLCognlLlve dlssonance Lheory
SuggesLed by Leon lesLlnger cognlLlve dlssonance occurs when an lndlvldual experlences some
degree of dlscomforL resulLlng from an lncompaLlblllLy beLween Lwo cognlLlons lor example a
consumer may seek Lo reassure hlmself regardlng a purchase feellng ln reLrospecL LhaL anoLher
declslon may have been preferable
Whlle noL a Lheory of moLlvaLlon per se Lhe Lheory of cognlLlve dlssonance proposes LhaL people
have a moLlvaLlonal drlve Lo reduce dlssonance 1hey do Lhls by changlng Lhelr aLLlLudes bellefs
or acLlons ulssonance ls also reduced by [usLlfylng blamlng and denylng lL ls one of Lhe mosL
lnfluenLlal and exLenslvely sLudled Lheorles ln soclal psychology
edlLneed Lheorles
edlLneed hlerarchy Lheory
1he conLenL Lheory lncludes Lhe hlerarchy of needs from Abraham Maslow and Lhe Lwo facLor
Lheory from Perzberg Maslows Lheory ls one of Lhe mosL wldely dlscussed Lheorles of moLlvaLlon
1he Amerlcan moLlvaLlon psychologlsL Abraham P Maslow developed Lhe Plerarchy of needs
conslsLenL of flve hlerarchlc classes lL shows Lhe complexlLy of human requlremenLs Maslow says
LhaL flrsL of all Lhe baslc requlremenLs have Lo be saLlsfled 1he baslc requlremenLs bulld Lhe flrsL
sLep ln hls pyramld 1hey declde abouL Lo be or noL Lo be lf Lhere ls any deflclL on Lhls level Lhe
whole behavlor of a human wlll be orlenLed Lo saLlsfy Lhls deflclL SubsequenLly we do have Lhe
second level whlch awake a need for securlLy 8aslcally lL ls orlenLed on a fuLure need for securlLy
AfLer securlng Lhose Lwo levels Lhe moLlves shlfL ln Lhe soclal sphere whlch form Lhe Lhlrd sLage
sychologlcal requlremenLs conslsL ln Lhe fourLh level whlle Lhe Lop of Lhe hlerarchy comprlse Lhe
self reallzaLlon So Lheory can be summarlzed as follows
Puman belngs have wanLs and deslres whlch lnfluence Lhelr behavlor Cnly unsaLlsfled needs
lnfluence behavlor saLlsfled needs do noL
Slnce needs are many Lhey are arranged ln order of lmporLance from Lhe baslc Lo Lhe complex
1he person advances Lo Lhe nexL level of needs only afLer Lhe lower level need ls aL leasL mlnlmally
1he furLher Lhe progress up Lhe hlerarchy Lhe more lndlvlduallLy humanness and psychologlcal
healLh a person wlll show
1he needs llsLed from baslc (lowesLearllesL) Lo mosL complex (hlghesLlaLesL) are as follows
hyslology (hunger LhlrsL sleep eLc)
Self acLuallzaLlon
edlLPerzbergs LwofacLor Lheory
lrederlck Perzbergs LwofacLor Lheory aka lnLrlnslc/exLrlnslc moLlvaLlon concludes LhaL cerLaln
facLors ln Lhe workplace resulL ln [ob saLlsfacLlon buL lf absenL Lhey donL lead Lo dlssaLlsfacLlon
buL no saLlsfacLlon1he facLors LhaL moLlvaLe people can change over Lhelr llfeLlme buL respecL
for me as a person ls one of Lhe Lop moLlvaLlng facLors aL any sLage of llfe
Pe dlsLlngulshed beLween
MoLlvaLors (eg challenglng work recognlLlon responslblllLy) whlch glve poslLlve saLlsfacLlon and
Pyglene facLors (eg sLaLus [ob securlLy salary and frlnge beneflLs) LhaL do noL moLlvaLe lf
presenL buL lf absenL resulL ln demoLlvaLlon
1he name Pyglene facLors ls used because llke hyglene Lhe presence wlll noL make you healLhler
buL absence can cause healLh deLerloraLlon
1he Lheory ls someLlmes called Lhe MoLlvaLorPyglene 1heory and/or 1he uual SLrucLure
Perzbergs Lheory has found appllcaLlon ln such occupaLlonal flelds as lnformaLlon sysLems and ln
sLudles of user saLlsfacLlon (see CompuLer user saLlsfacLlon)
edlLAlderfers L8C Lheory
Alderfer expandlng on Maslows hlerarchy of needs creaLed Lhe L8C Lheory 1hls Lheory poslLs
LhaL Lhere are Lhree groups of core needs exlsLence relaLedness and growLh hence Lhe label
L8C Lheory 1he exlsLence group ls concerned wlLh provldlng our baslc maLerlal exlsLence
requlremenLs 1hey lnclude Lhe lLems LhaL Maslow consldered Lo be physlologlcal and safeLy needs
1he second group of needs are Lhose of relaLedness Lhe deslre we have for malnLalnlng lmporLanL
lnLerpersonal relaLlonshlps 1hese soclal and sLaLus deslres requlre lnLeracLlon wlLh oLhers lf Lhey
are Lo be saLlsfled and Lhey allgn wlLh Maslows soclal need and Lhe exLernal componenL of
Maslows esLeem classlflcaLlon llnally Alderfer lsolaLes growLh needs an lnLrlnslc deslre for
personal developmenL 1hese lnclude Lhe lnLrlnslc componenL from Maslows esLeem caLegory
and Lhe characLerlsLlcs lncluded under selfacLuallzaLlon
edlLSelfdeLermlnaLlon Lheory
SelfdeLermlnaLlon Lheory developed by Ldward uecl and 8lchard 8yan focuses on Lhe
lmporLance of lnLrlnslc moLlvaLlon ln drlvlng human behavlor Llke Maslows hlerarchlcal Lheory
and oLhers LhaL bullL on lL Su1 poslLs a naLural Lendency Loward growLh and developmenL unllke
Lhese oLher Lheorles however Su1 does noL lnclude any sorL of auLoplloL for achlevemenL buL
lnsLead requlres acLlve encouragemenL from Lhe envlronmenL 1he prlmary facLors LhaL encourage
moLlvaLlon and developmenL are auLonomy compeLence feedback and relaLedness
edlL8road Lheorles
1he laLesL approach ln developlng a broad lnLegraLlve Lheory of moLlvaLlon ls 1emporal
MoLlvaLlon 1heory lnLegraLlng Lheorles of moLlvaLlon lnLroduced ln Lhelr 2007 Academy of
ManagemenL 8evlew arLlcle lL synLheslzes lnLo a slngle formulaLlon Lhe prlmary aspecLs of all
oLher ma[or moLlvaLlonal Lheorles lncludlng lncenLlve 1heory urlve 1heory need 1heory Self
Lfflcacy and Coal SeLLlng noLably lL slmpllfles Lhe fleld of moLlvaLlon conslderably and allows
flndlngs from one Lheory Lo be LranslaLed lnLo Lerms of anoLher
Also AchlevemenL MoLlvaLlon ls an lnLegraLlve perspecLlve based on Lhe premlse LhaL
performance moLlvaLlon resulLs from Lhe way broad componenLs of personallLy are dlrecLed
Lowards performance As a resulL lL lncludes a range of dlmenslons LhaL are relevanL Lo success aL
work buL whlch are noL convenLlonally regarded as belng parL of performance moLlvaLlon
Lspeclally lL lnLegraLes formerly separaLed approaches as need for AchlevemenL wlLh eg soclal
moLlves llke domlnance 1he AchlevemenL MoLlvaLlon lnvenLory ls based on Lhls Lheory and
assesses Lhree facLors (17 separaLed scales) relevanL Lo vocaLlonal and professlonal success
edlLCognlLlve Lheorles
edlLCoalseLLlng Lheory
CoalseLLlng Lheory ls based on Lhe noLlon LhaL lndlvlduals someLlmes have a drlve Lo reach a
clearly deflned end sLaLe CfLen Lhls end sLaLe ls a reward ln lLself A goals efflclency ls affecLed by
Lhree feaLures proxlmlLy dlfflculLy and speclflclLy An ldeal goal should presenL a slLuaLlon where
Lhe Llme beLween Lhe lnlLlaLlon of behavlor and Lhe end sLaLe ls close 1hls explalns why some
chlldren are more moLlvaLed Lo learn how Lo rlde a blke Lhan Lo masLer algebra A goal should be
moderaLe noL Loo hard or Loo easy Lo compleLe ln boLh cases mosL people are noL opLlmally
moLlvaLed as many wanL a challenge (whlch assumes some klnd of lnsecurlLy of success) AL Lhe
same Llme people wanL Lo feel LhaL Lhere ls a subsLanLlal probablllLy LhaL Lhey wlll succeed
SpeclflclLy concerns Lhe descrlpLlon of Lhe goal ln Lhelr class 1he goal should be ob[ecLlvely
deflned and lnLelllglble for Lhe lndlvldual A classlc example of a poorly speclfled goal ls Lo geL Lhe
hlghesL posslble grade MosL chlldren have no ldea how much efforL Lhey need Lo reach LhaL goal
edlLModels of behavlor change
SoclalcognlLlve models of behavlor change lnclude Lhe consLrucLs of moLlvaLlon and vollLlon
MoLlvaLlon ls seen as a process LhaL leads Lo Lhe formlng of behavloral lnLenLlons vollLlon ls seen
as a process LhaL leads from lnLenLlon Lo acLual behavlor ln oLher words moLlvaLlon and vollLlon
refer Lo goal seLLlng and goal pursulL respecLlvely 8oLh processes requlre selfregulaLory efforLs
Several selfregulaLory consLrucLs are needed Lo operaLe ln orchesLraLlon Lo aLLaln goals An
example of such a moLlvaLlonal and vollLlonal consLrucL ls percelved selfefflcacy Selfefflcacy ls
supposed Lo faclllLaLe Lhe formlng of behavloral lnLenLlons Lhe developmenL of acLlon plans and
Lhe lnlLlaLlon of acLlon lL can supporL Lhe LranslaLlon of lnLenLlons lnLo acLlon
edlLunconsclous moLlvaLlon
Some psychologlsLs belleve LhaL a slgnlflcanL porLlon of human behavlor ls energlzed and dlrecLed
by unconsclous moLlves Accordlng Lo Maslow sychoanalysls has ofLen demonsLraLed LhaL Lhe
relaLlonshlp beLween a consclous deslre and Lhe ulLlmaLe unconsclous alm LhaL underlles lL need
noL be aL all dlrecL
edlLlnLrlnslc moLlvaLlon and Lhe 16 baslc deslres Lheory
SLarLlng from sLudles lnvolvlng more Lhan 6000 people rofessor SLeven 8elss has proposed a
Lheory LhaL found 16 baslc deslres LhaL gulde nearly all human behavlor 1he 16 baslc deslres LhaL
moLlvaLe our acLlons and deflne our personallLles as
AccepLance Lhe need for approval
CurloslLy Lhe need Lo learn
LaLlng Lhe need for food
lamlly Lhe need Lo ralse chlldren
Ponor Lhe need Lo be loyal Lo Lhe LradlLlonal values of ones clan/eLhnlc group
ldeallsm Lhe need for soclal [usLlce
lndependence Lhe need for lndlvlduallLy
Crder Lhe need for organlzed sLable predlcLable envlronmenLs
hyslcal acLlvlLy Lhe need for exerclse
ower Lhe need for lnfluence of wlll
8omance Lhe need for sex
Savlng Lhe need Lo collecL
Soclal conLacL Lhe need for frlends (peer relaLlonshlps)
SLaLus Lhe need for soclal sLandlng/lmporLance
1ranqulllLy Lhe need Lo be safe
vengeance Lhe need Lo sLrlke back/Lo wln

ln Lhls model people dlffer ln Lhese baslc deslres 1hese baslc deslres represenL lnLrlnslc deslres
LhaL dlrecLly moLlvaLe a persons behavlor and noL almed aL lndlrecLly saLlsfylng oLher deslres
eople may also be moLlvaLed by nonbaslc deslres buL ln Lhls case Lhls does noL relaLe Lo deep
moLlvaLlon or only as a means Lo achleve oLher baslc deslres