DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING
AARUPADAI VEEDU INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY,
Old Mahabalipuram Road, Paiyanoor-603104, Kanchipuram (dt), Tamilnadu
VINAYAKA MISSIONS UNIVERSITY
Name of the Laboratory
: ELECTRICAL MACHINES-
This Laboratory book in Electrical Machines – II has been revised in order to be up to date with Curriculum changes, laboratory equipment upgrading and the latest circuit simulation. Every effort has been made to correct all the known errors, but nobody is perfect, if you find any additional errors or anything else you think is an error, Please contact the HOD/EEE at email@example.com The Authors thanked all the staff members from the department for their valuable Suggestion and contribution
The Authors Department of EEE
I II III IV Page No 1
1. V and inverted V curve of synchronous motors. Study of induction motor starters. No load and blocked rotor test on 3-phase induction motor.TABLE OF CONTENTS
Safety Rules and operating Procedures Laboratory Safety information Guidelines for Laboratory Notebook Sl. 4. Equivalent circuit and pre–determination of performance characteristics of single-phase induction motor.
. 5. 12. Load test on 3-phase induction motor. 8. Load characteristics of 3-phase alternator by bus bar loading. Study of Synchronous induction motor. Separation of losses in three-phase induction motor. 2. Regulation of 3-phase alternator by ZPF and ASA methods. 7. 10. 9. Slip test on 3-phase alternator.No Troubleshooting Hints Experiment Name Regulation of 3-phase alternator by EMF and MMF methods. 6. 11. Load test on 1-phase induction motor. 3.
bangles. (When you move your hand/body. such conducting items may create a short circuit or may touch a live point and thereby subject you to electrical shock) 8. SAFETY is of paramount importance in the Electrical Engineering Laboratories.Ensure that the power is OFF before you start connecting up the circuit. any such contact may subject you to electrical shock) 4. bracelets. 7.Appendix
1.Wear rubber-soled shoes. So. 2.Wear laboratory-coat and avoid loose clothing. wristwatches and neck chains. (Wet parts of the body reduce the contact resistance thereby increasing the severity of the shock) 9. (Otherwise. 3. (To insulate you from earth so that even if you accidentally contact a live point.Do not wear any metallic rings. current will not flow through your body to earth and hence you will be protected from electrical shock) 5. (Electricity is a good servant but a bad master). (Loose clothing may get caught on an equipment/instrument and this may lead to an accident particularly if the equipment happens to be a rotating machine) 6. exercise enough care and attention in handling electrical equipment and follow safety practices in the laboratory.Be certain that your hands are dry and that you are not standing on wet floor.Girl students should have their hair tucked under their coat or have it in a knot.(Otherwise you will be touching the live parts in the circuit)
.Avoid direct contact with any voltage source and power line voltages.Electricity NEVER EXECUSES careless persons.
19. 12. Avoid the brake-drum from getting too hot by putting just enough water into the brakedrum at intervals. resistor heating up etc ).After completing the experiment show your readings to the staff member and switch off the power to your circuit after getting approval from the staff member. use the plastic bottle with a nozzle (available in the laboratory ) to pour the water.In case you notice any abnormal condition in your circuit ( like insulation heating up.Determine the correct rating of the fuse/s to be connected in the circuit after understanding correctly the type of the experiment to be performed: no-load test or full-load test. 20.When using connection leads. the hot water in the brake-drum will splash out on you) After completing the load-test.Do not make any change in the connection without the approval of the staff member. 11.(While an over-rated fuse will damage the equipment and other instruments like ammeters and watt-meters in case of over load. 15. (Otherwise. 13. switch off the power to your circuit immediately and inform the staff member. ii. iii.While performing load-tests in the Electrical Machines Laboratory using the brake-drums: i. the maximum current expected in the circuit and accordingly use that fuse-rating. check for any insulation damage in the leads and avoid such defective leads. suck out the water in the brake-drum using the plastic bottle with nozzle and then dry off the drum with a spongewhich is available in the laboratory.Keep hot soldering iron in the holder when not in use. it will burn out the braking belts) Do not stand in front of the brake-drum when the supply to the load-test circuit is switched off. will corrode it)
21.Check power chords for any sign of damage and be certain that the chords use safety plugs and do not defeat the safety feature of these plugs by using ungrounded plugs. 18. 14. an under-rated fuse may not allow one even to start the experiment)
. 17.Do not defeat any safety devices such as fuse or circuit breaker by shorting across it. Safety devices protect YOU and your equipment. (To avoid shock in case you accidentally touch two points at different potentials with your two hands) 16.Switch on the power to your circuit and equipment only after getting them checked up and approved by the staff member.(When the drum gets too hot.Get your circuit diagram approved by the staff member and connect up the circuit strictly as per the approved circuit diagram. (The water.Take the measurement with one hand in your pocket.10. if allowed to remain in the brake-drum.
lab records. unused meters etc. causing meters to fall down the table.c. measurement. No such switch is therefore provided on these meters. ii. as the starting current is around 5 times the full load rating of the motor.
.22. Moving iron ammeters and current coils of wattmeters are not so delicate and hence these can stand short time overload due to high starting current. I understand that failure to follow these rules and procedures will result in my immediate dismissal from the laboratory and additional disciplinary action may be taken. Putting pressure on the meter (specially glass) while making connections or while talking or listening somebody. the ammeter connected in the armature circuit overshoots. Moving coil instruments are however more sensitive and more accurate as compared to their moving iron counterparts and these can be used for d.. measurements only. Moving iron meters are cheaper and more rugged compared to moving coil meters. I agree to abide by these rules and procedures at all times while using these facilities. Moving iron meters can be used for both a. Observe these yourself and help your friends to observe. This switch should be closed after the motor attains full speed. A switch has been provided on such meters to disconnect the moving coil of the meter during starting. Some students have been found to damage meters by mishandling in the following ways: i. may get damaged due to high starting current.
I have read and understand these rules and procedures.c. Moving coil ammeters being very delicate.
Copy these rules in your Lab Record.
STUDENTS ARE STRICTLY WARNED THAT FULL COST OF THE METER WILL BE RECOVERED FROM THE INDIVIDUAL WHO HAS DAMAGED IT IN SUCH A MANNER. Keeping unnecessary material like books. and d. At the time of starting a motor. 23. Good features of moving coil instruments are not of much consequence for you as other sources of errors in the experiments are many times more than those caused by these meters.c.
Keep in mind the fact that the experiment must be reproducible from the information given in your notebook.Procedure: In general. Descriptive headings should be used to separate and identify the various parts of the experiment. 2. Short commentaries along side the corresponding data may be used.Diagram: A circuit diagram should be drawn and labeled so that the actual experiment circuitry could be easily duplicated at any time in the future.Equipment List: List those items of equipment which have a direct effect on the accuracy of the data. Think carefully about what data is required and prepare suitable data tables. Be brief. Record instrument readings directly. Record everything directly into the notebook during the experiment. Heading:
The experiment identification (number) should be at the top of each page. It may be necessary later to locate specific items of equipment for rechecks if discrepancies develop in the results.Calculations: Not always necessary but equations and sample calculations are often given to illustrate the treatment of the experimental data in obtaining the 6. lengthy explanations of procedures are unnecessary. organized and complete record of an experiment is just as important as the experimental work. however. A neat. Be especially careful to record all circuit changes made during the experiment. Record data in chronological order. 7. Do not use scratch paper for recording data.Your name and date should be at the top of the first page of each day's experimental work. 4. Data tables should be clearly identified and each data column labeled and headed by the proper units of measure. This record should be sufficiently complete so that you or anyone else of similar technical background can duplicate the experiment and data by simply following your laboratory notebook. 5.Data:
.Object: A brief but complete statement of what you intend to find out or verify in the experiment should be at the beginning of each experiment 3. 1. Do not use calculated results in place of direct data. Organization in your notebook is important.GUIDELINES FOR LABORATORY NOTEBOOK
The laboratory notebook is a record of all work pertaining to the experiment. calculated results may be recorded in the same table with the direct data. Do not trust your memory to fill in the details at a later time.
Graphs are used to present large amounts of data in a concise visual form. Data to be presented in graphical form should be plotted in the laboratory so that any questionable data points can be checked while the experiment is still set up.Results: The results should be presented in a form which makes the interpretation easy. Use units of measure.Conclusion: This is your interpretation of the results of the experiment as an engineer. 9.
. Label and scale the axes. Large amounts of numerical results are generally presented in graphical form. Label each curve if more than one on a graph.
8. 10. Give all graphs a short descriptive title. The grid lines in the notebook can be used for most graphs. Theoretical and experimental results should be on the same graph or arrange in the same table in a way for easy correlation of these results. Tables are generally used for small amounts of results.results. Be brief and specific. affix the graph permanently into the notebook. If special graph paper is required. Give reasons for important discrepancies.
It is also possible that the equipment does not work (although this is not probable0 or the protoboard you are using may have some unwanted paths between nodes. Be sure that the equipment is set up correctly and you are measuring the correct parameters 6. Be sure that the supply voltages are correct 5. Be sure the ground connections are common 3. Be sure the circuit you build is identical to your circuit diagram (Do a node by node check) 4.TROUBLE SHOOTING HINTS
1. If steps I through 5 are correct then you probably have used a component with the wrong value or one that doesn’t work. To find your problem you must trace through the voltages in your circuit node by node and compare the signal you expect to have. Then if they are different use your engineering judgment to decide what is causing the different or ask your lab assistant
. Be Sure that the power is turned ON 2.
The regulation is then determined at different power factors by calculations using vector diagrams. 3. The alternator field potential divider should be kept in the minimum voltage position. Connections are made as per the circuit diagram.8 A ---Quantity 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
THEORY: The regulation of a 3-phase alternator may be predetermined by conducting the Open Circuit (OC) and the Sort Circuit (SC) tests. PRECAUTIONS: (i) (ii) (iii) The motor field rheostat should be kept in the minimum resistance position. Note down the name plate details of the motor and alternator.
PROCEDURE: (FOR BOTH EMF AND MMF METHODS) 1.
.NO. The OC and SC graphs are plotted from the two tests. Switch ON the supply by closing the DPST switch. Initially all switches are in open position. The methods employed for determination of regulation are EMF or synchronous impedance method. 1
REGULATION OF 3–PHASE ALTERNATOR BY EMF AND MMF METHODS AIM: To predetermine the regulation of 3-phase alternator by EMF and MMF methods and also draw the vector diagrams. In both methods the OC and SC test data are utilized. MMF or Ampere Turns method and the ZPF or Potier triangle method.NO 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Name of the Apparatus Ammeter Ammeter Voltmeter Voltmeter Rheostat Rheostat Tachometer TPST knife switch Type MC MI MC MI Wire wound Wire wound Digital -Range 0 – 1/2 A 0 – 5/10 A 0 – 10 V 0 – 600 V 250 Ω. In the MMF method the armature leakage reactance is treated as an additional armature reaction.EXP.5 A 1200Ω. 0. the EMF and MMF methods are used. 2. 1. The synchronous impedance is found from the OC test. The EMF method is also called pessimistic method as the value of regulation obtained is much more than the actual value. APPARATURS REQUIRED: SL. The MMF method is also called optimistic method as the value of regulation obtained is much less than the actual value. In this experiment.
By using respective formulae find the Zs. Draw the Open Circuit Characteristic curve (Generated Voltage per phase VS Field current). Synchronous Impedance Zs = O. √(V + IaRa)2 + ( IaXs)2
. = √(VcosΦ + IaRa)2 + (VsinΦ – IaXs)2 6. Draw the Short Circuit Characteristics curve (Short circuit current VS Field current) 3. voltage S. Open circuit voltage for lagging p. Synchronous Reactance Xs = √ Zs2 – Ra2 4. Conduct Short Circuit test by closing the TPST switch and adjust the potential divider to set the rated armature current and tabulate the corresponding field current. 2.f. 7. start the motor to run at the synchronous speed by adjusting the motor field rheostat.C. 2. current 3. Conduct Open Circuit test by varying the potential divider for various values of field current and tabulate the corresponding Open Circuit Voltage readings. The Stator resistance per phase is determined by connecting any one phase stator winding of the alternator as per the circuit diagram using MC voltmeter and ammeter of suitable ranges. From the graph find the open circuit voltage per phase (E1 (ph) for the rated short circuit current (Isc). Using the Three point starter. 6. PROCEDURE TO DRAW GRAPH FOR MMF METHOD: 1.4. Xs. Draw the Short Circuit Characteristics curve (Short circuit current VS Field current) 3.C. Armature Resistance Ra =
2.f = √(VcosΦ + IaRa)2 + (VsinΦ + IaXs)2 5. Draw the Open Circuit Characteristic curve (Generated Voltage per phase VS Field current). Eo and percentage regulation. 5.f = 7. Open circuit voltage for leading p. Open circuit voltage for unity p. Draw the line OL to represent
FORMULAE: 1. PROCEDURE TO DRAW GRAPH FOR EMF METHOD: 1. 4. Percentage regulation = Eo – V x 100 V RESULT: Thus the regulation of 3-phase alternator has been predetermined by the EMF and MMF methods.
What is SC test? 5. What is meant by Synchronous Impedance? 3. What is OC test ? 4. What is meant by voltage regulation? 2. What is meant by mmf or field ampere turns?
.VIVA QUESTIONS: 1.
Field Current (If) Amps Short Circuit Current (120% to 150% of rated current) (ISC) Amps
.REGULATION OF 3-PHASE ALTERNATOR BY EMF AND MMF METHODS TABULAR COLUMNS OPEN CIRCUIT TEST: Field Current (If) S.No.No. Amps Open Circuit Line Voltage (VoL) Volts Open circuit Phase Voltage (Voph) Volts
SHORT CIRCUIT TEST: S.
NO.REGULATION OF 3-PHASE ALTERNATOR BY EMF AND MMF METHODS TABULAR COLUMNS EMF METHOD: Eph (V) SL. P. Power factor Lag Lead % Regulation Lag Lead
MMF METHOD: SL.NO.F Vph (V) If1 (A) If2 (A) Ifr (A) Lead Eph (V) Lag Lead % Regulation Lag Lead
APPARATURS REQUIRED: SL. 6. tabulate the corresponding Field current. (ii) The Alternator field potential divider should be in the position of minimum potential. PROCEDURE FOR BOTH POTIER AND ASA METHODS: 1. Conduct a ZPF test by adjusting the potential divider for full load current passing through either an inductive or capacitive load with zero power and tabulate the readings. 2
REGULATION OF 3-PHASE ALTERNATOR BY POTIER AND ASA METHODS AIM: To predetermine the regulation of three phase alternator by Potier and ASA methods and also to draw the vector diagrams. 1. Note down the complete nameplate details of motor and alternator.
. 7.8 A ----
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
FORMULAE USED: Percentage regulation = Eo – Vrated x 100 (For both POTIER & ASA methods)
Vrated PRECAUTION: (i) The motor field rheostat should be kept in the minimum resistance position. start the motor to run at the synchronous speed by varying the motor field rheostat. 3. Conduct an Open Circuit Test by varying the Potential Divider for various values of Field current and tabulate the corresponding Open circuit voltage readings. 5. Conduct a Stator Resistance Test by giving connection as per the circuit diagram and tabulate the voltage and Current readings for various resistive loads. Switch on the supply by closing the DPST main switch. 2. Conduct a Short Circuit Test by closing the TPST knife switch and adjust the potential divider the set the rated Armature current. 8. Using the Three point starter.NO.5 A 1200Ω.NO
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Name of the Apparatus
Ammeter Ammeter Voltmeter Voltmeter Rheostat Rheostat Tachometer TPST knife switch
MC MI MC MI Wire wound Wire wound Digital --
0 – 1/2 A 0 – 5/10 A 0 – 10 V 0 – 600 V 250 Ω. Connections are made as per the circuit diagram.EXP. 4. (iii) Initially all switches are in open position. 0.
mark the point B for the field current to the corresponding rated armature current and the rated voltage. 10. 5. From the ZPF test.) air gap line. Unity) draw the voltage vector and current vector OB.PROCEDURE TO DRAW THE POTIER TRIANGLE (ZPF METHOD): (All the quantities are in per phase value) 1. Draw the perpendicular line to the vector OG from the point O and extend CD in such a manner to intersect the perpendicular line at the point H. which will be equal to the field excitation current (If). which will be equal to the air gap voltage (Eair). Find out the open circuit voltage (Eo) for the corresponding field excitation current (If) from the OCC curve. Draw the ZPF curve which passing through the point A and B in such a way parallel to the open circuit characteristics curve. Find out the field current (Ifc) for the corresponding air gap voltage (Eair) from the OCC curve. PROCEDURE TO DRAW THE VECTOR DIAGRAM (ZPF METHOD) 1. Find out the regulation from the suitable formula. 8. Draw the perpendicular CD to AC from the point C with the magnitude of IXL drop. which should be parallel to the vector OB. Draw the vector AC with the magnitude of IRa drop. For the corresponding power angle ( Lag. Draw the line BC from B towards Y-axis. Draw the vector FG from F with the magnitude Ifa in such a way it is parallel to the current vector OB. 4. From the ZPF test. which is parallel and equal to OA. Lead. 3. 6. Select the suitable voltage and current scale. 8. Draw the vector OF with the magnitude of Ifc which should be perpendicular to the vector OD.e. PROCEDURE TO DRAW THE POTIER TRIANGLE (ASA METHOD): (All the quantities are in per phase value) 1. which is obtained from short circuit test with full load armature current. 12. 7. Mark the point A at X-axis.
. which is obtained from short circuit test with full load armature current. Join the points B and D also drop the perpendicular line DE to BC. 4. Mark the point A at X-axis. Draw the parallel line for the tangent from C to the OCC curve. 3. 11. 3. mark the point B for the field current to the corresponding rated armature current and the rated voltage. 9. 7. 5. where the line DE represents armature leakage reactance drop (IXL) BE represents armature reaction excitation (Ifa). Draw the tangent for the OCC curve from the origin (i. 6. Join the points O and D. Draw the Open Circuit Characteristics (Generated Voltage per phase VS Field Current) 2. Draw the Open Circuit Characteristics (Generated Voltage per phase VS Field Current) 2. 2. Join the points O and G.
5. Draw the ZPF curve which passing through the point A and B in such a way parallel to the open circuit characteristics curve. 11. Where O’F is the field excitation current (If). RESULT: Thus the regulation of 3-phase alternator has been predetermined by the Potier and ASA methods.e. What is meant by ZPF Test? 2. Let this line cut the air gap line at point H and the OCC curve at point F. 5. 2. Mark the point I in Y-axis with the magnitude of Eair and draw the line from I towards OCC curve which should be parallel to X-axis. 7. Find out the regulation from the suitable formula. Extend the line BC towards the Y-axis up to the point O’.) air gap line. VIVA QUESTIONS: 1. 9. What is the significance of the ASA modification of MMF method? 5. HF and OA. Draw the line BC from B towards Y-axis. 8. where the line DE represents armature leakage reactance drop (IXL) BE represents armature reaction excitation (Ifa). 10.4. Mention the length O’G. Draw the vector with the magnitude O’G. 6. Draw the tangent for the OCC curve from the origin (i. What is air gap line in Potier method?
. Draw the parallel line for the tangent from C to the OCC curve. 4. Join the points B and D also drop the perpendicular line DE to BC. What is meant by armature reaction reactance? 4. Find out the open circuit voltage (Eo) for the corresponding field excitation current (If) from the OCC curve. which is parallel and equal to OA. Join the points O’ and. From G draw a vector with the magnitude of GH (OA) in such a way to make an angle of (90 ± Φ) from the line O’G [ (90 + Φ) for lagging power factor and (90 – Φ) for leading power factor] 3. The same line intersects the air gap line at point G. H also extend the vector O’F with the magnitude HF. PROCEDURE TO DRAW THE VECTOR DIAGRAM (ASA METHOD) (To find the field Excitation current If) 1. What is Potier reactance? How is it determined by Potier triangle? 3.
EXP.NO. 3 SLIP TEST ON 3-PHASE ALTERNATOR
To conduct a slip test on 3-Ф alternator and pre-determine the regulation through vector diagram. APPARATUS REQUIRED: S.no 1 2 3 4 5 6 FUSE RATING: (a)For Motor- 125% of rated current = 125% of 17A=21.25A=25A (b)For Alternator- 125% of rated current =125% of 4A= 5A THEORY: In a salient pole alternator, the reactance of magnetic circuit along is along its quad stator axis. The alternator is driven by auxiliary prime mover at a speed slightly less than the synchronous speed under these conditions. The armature current is when the armature current mmf is in line with the field poles. The reactance by the magnetic field current is minimum. The ratio of maximum voltage to minimum current gives the direct axis impedance and the ratio of minimum voltage to maximum current gives the armature axis impedance. PRECAUTIONS: 1. The motor field rheostat should be kept in minimum. 2. The direction of the rotation due to prime mover and the alternator on the motor should be the same. 3. Initially all the switches are kept open. Name of Apparatus Ammeter Voltmeter Rheostat Tachometer TPST Switch Connecting Wires Range (0-5)A (0-1)A (0-150)V (0-5)V 250 Ω /1.5A Type MI MC MI MC Digital Quantity 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 As reqd.
PROCEDURE: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Note down the name plate details of motor and alternator. Connections are made as per the circuit diagram. Give the supply by closing the DPST switch. Using the three point starter, start the motor to run at the synchronous speed by varying the motor field rheostat at the same time check whether the alternator field has been opened or not. Apply 20% to 30% of the rated voltage to the armature of the alternator by adjusting the autotransformer. To obtain the slip and the maximum oscillation of pointers the speed is reduced slightly lesser than the synchronous speed. Maximum current, minimum current, maximum voltage and minimum voltage are noted. Find out the direct and quadrature axis impedances.
PROCEDURE TO DRAW THE VECTOR DIAGRAM: 1. Draw the line OA that represents the rated voltage V. 2. Draw the line OB vector to represent the rated current I, which makes an angle Φ (it may lag/lead/in phase) with the voltage. 3. Draw the line AC vector to represent IRa drop, which is parallel to OB vector. 4. Draw the perpendicular line CD to the line AC (IRa drop) that represents IXq drop. 5. Draw the line from the origin through the point D, which represents the no load voltage (Eo). 6. Draw the pole axis through origin, which should be perpendicular to vector OD. 7. Draw a perpendicular line to the pole axis from the same point E which should pass through the point B [where vector OE represents Direct Axis Current (Id) and Vector EB represents Quadrature Axis Current (Iq)]. 8. Find out the reactive voltage drops IdXd and IqXq. 9. Draw a parallel line (ie perpendicular to Id) to OD vector from the point C, with the magnitude of the drop IdXd (Line CF). 10. Draw a parallel line (ie perpendicular to Iq) to OE vector from the point F, with the magnitude of the drop IqXq (Line FG). 11. Let the point at where the IqXq drop meets the OD line be G. here the vector OG represents the no load voltage (Eo). 12. Find out the voltage regulation by using the suitable formula. FORMULAE USED: 1. Rac=1.6Rac Ω 2. Zd = Vmax/Imin Ω 3. Zq = Vmin/Imax Ω 4. Xd = √Zd2 – Rd2 Ω
5. Xq = √Zq2 – Rd2 Ω 6. Id = Ia sinФ amps 7. Iq = Ia cos Ф amps 8. %Reg = (Eo-V/V)*100 Where, Zd = direct axis impedance in Ω Zq = quadrate axis impedance in Ω Xd = direct axis reactance in Ω Xq = quadrate axis reactance in Ω Id = direct axis current in amps Ia = quadrate axis current in amps GRAPH: Power Factor VS % regulation. RESULT: Thus the pre-determination of regulation of 3-phase alternator by vector diagram was obtained.
VIVA QUESTIONS: 1. What is the purpose of slip test on 3 phase alternator? 2. What is meant by direct axis reactance? 3. What is meant by quadrature axis reactance? 4. How is the regulation of alternator predetermined by slip test? 5. What is the difference between salient pole alternator and cylindrical rotor type alternator?
6 0.NO 1 2 Vmax Vmin Imax Imin
(ii) To predetermine % Regulation: S.0 % Regulation Leading Unity -----
.NO Power Factor Lagging 1 2 3 4 5 0.SLIP TEST ON 3-PHASE ALTERNATOR
TABULAR COLUMNS (i) To find the Direct Axis and Quadrature axis impedances: S.8 1.4 0.2 0.
(2) The Alternator field Potential divider should be at minimum voltage position. (3) Initially all switches are in open position.5 A --
1 1 1 1 1 1 1
(1) The motor field rheostat should be in minimum resistance position. 4
LOAD CHARACTERISTICS OF 3-PHASE ALTERNATOR BY BUS BAR LOADING AIM:
To synchronize and operate the two electric sources in parallel with bus bar arrangement and draw the performance characteristic curves.NO.No Name of apparatus Type Range
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Ammeter Ammeter Voltmeter Frequency meter Rheostat Rheostat Tachometer MC MI MI Reed Wire wound Wire wound Digital 0-2A 0 – 10 A 0 – 600 V 0 – 60 Hz 1200 Ω 0.
.8 A 250 Ω 1.
NAME PLATE DETAILS:
DC shunt motor
125% of rated current (full load current) For DC shunt motor: For ac alternator
What is infinite bus? 4. What are the conditions for synchronization? 3. V2 Vs I1 and V1 Vs I1. What is meant by synchronization? 2. How can the voltage and frequency be adjusted?
. If flickering is not uniform then the phase sequences of any two lines are changed.
(1) (2) (3) Connect the synchronized output with variable load. generated voltage is built up to rated voltage.PROCEDURE: SYNCHRONISATION:
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) Note down the name plate details of motor and alternator. by varying motor field rheostat. For various loads.curve draw the graph between Armature current and Field current
The 3 phase alternator has been synchronized with the bus bars and the load characteristics obtained.). Close the DPST switch. Now the two sources are synchronized. Now synchronization switch is closed when lamps are in dark period . By varying the potential divider . Now close the TPST switch. To obtain V. By adjusting the potential barrier tabulate the various Field currents and corresponding Armature readings. Draw the graph between respective voltage and currents (V1 Vs V2. When TPST is closed the lamps may flicker uniformly.
(1) (2) (3) After synchronization the prime mover should be switched off and Potential divider should be brought to the maximum position. Connections are made as per the circuit diagram. Using the 3-point starter start the motor. What are the methods of synchronization? 5. TPST is closed and by varying the potential divider the field current is varied so that voltmeter reads the same voltage as measured above. note all the corresponding ammeter and voltmeter readings.
Quantity 2 2 1 1 2
. 3. 5
V AND INVERTED V CURVE OF THREE PHASE SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR
To draw the V and inverted V curves of a 3 phase Synchronous Motor. 5. 4.No Name of the Type apparatus 1 Ammeter MI 2. Voltmeter Ammeter Rheostat Wattmeter UPF MI MC
range (0-5)A (0-600)V (0-2)A 200Ω.15 A 600V.NO.
NAME PLATE DETAILS:
3ǾSYNCHRONOUS MOTOR DC EXCITATION
125% of rated current (full load current) For DC excitation: For synchronous motor:]
APPARATUS REQUIRED: S.
Connections are made as pr the circuit diagram.
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) Note down the name plate details of the motor.. In order to give the excitation to the field for making it to run as the synchronous motor. Close the TPST switch. By adjustingthe autotransformer from the minimum position to the maximum position the rated supply is given to motor. close the DPST switch. (3) Initially TPST switch is in open position. (2) Power factor Vs Excitation current. The same process has to be repeatedfor loaded condition.
. By varying the field rheostat note down the excitation current. (2) The motor should be started without load . Later the motor is switched offand the graph is drawn.
The graph is drawn for(1) Armature current Vs Excitation current. The motor starts as an induction motor.PRECAUTION:
(1) The Potential barrier should be in maximum position. armature current and the power factor for various values of excitation.
The V-curves and inverted V-curves of the 4 phase synchronous motor have been drawn.
A 3-phase current is fed to the 3-phase winding. The windings of the three phase are displaced in space by 120º. FUSE RATING. 3. 6 A
LOAD TEST ON 3-PHASE SQUIRREL CAGE INDUCTION MOTOR
AIM: To draw the performance characteristics of 3-phase squirrel cage induction motor by conducting load test.No 1. 1 1 2 1 1
. Name of apparatus Ammeter Voltmeter Wattmeter Tachometer 3-Ф autotransformer Range (0-5)A (0-600)V (600V. a 3-phase winding is provided.EXP. 2.5A) Type MI MI UPF Digital Qty. 5.8A=6A=10A THEORY: A 3-phase induction motor consists of stator and rotor with the other associated parts. In the stator. 4. 125% of 4.NO. APPARATUS REQUIRED: S. These windings produce a resultant magnetic flux and it rotates in space like a solid magnetic poles being rotated magnetically.
wattmeters.The no load readings are taken.Connections are given as per circuit diagram. 2.TPST switch is kept open initially.There must be no load when starting the load. The motor is loaded step by step till we get the rated current and the readings of the voltmeter. 3.
. spring balance are noted.3-Ф induction motor is started with DOL starter. 4.Autotransformer is kept at min. ammeter. 2.PRECAUTIONS1. interchange the current coil terminals and take the reading as negative. 3. 3. If the pointer of one of the wattmeter readings reverses. voltage position. PROCEDURE1.81*(S1-S2)*R N-m % efficiency = (o/p power/i/p power)* 100
RESULT Thus the performance characteristics of a 3-Ф squirrel cage induction motor by conducting load test has been drawn. FORMULAE USED1) 2) 3) 4) 5) GRAPHS1) 2) 3) 4) Output Power vs Efficiency Output Power vs Torque Output Power vs Speed Output Power vs %s % slip= (Ns-N/Ns)*100 Input Power = (W1+W2)watts Output Power = 2∏NT/60 watts Torque = 9.
LOAD TEST ON 3-PHASE SLIP RING INDUCTION MOTOR
AIM : To conduct a direct load test on a 3-phase slip ring induction motor and to draw the performance characteristics. 1 1 2 1
. This makes possible the introduction of an additional resistance in the rotor circuit during starting period for increasing starting torque of the motor.10A) TYPE MI MI UPF Digital QTY.NO. The other three windings are brought out and connected to three insulated slip-rings mounted on the shaft with brushes resting on them.5A = 10A FOR ROTOR – 125% of 11A = 15A THEORY: Slip ring induction motor is also called as phase wound motor.125% 0f 7. APPARATUS REQUIRED : S.STATOR.NO 1 2 3 4 NAME OF APPARATUS Ammeter Voltmeter Wattmeter Tachometer RANGE (0-10)A (0-600)V (600V. The motor is wound for as many poles as the no. of stator poles and always wound 3-Ф even while the stator is wound two-phase. These three brushes are further externally connected to a three phase star connected rheostat.
5. After observing precautions motor is started on no load.PRECAUTIONS: 1. As speed increases. The external resistance in the rotor circuit should be kept at max.81*100 N-m O/P Power= 2πNT/60 watts I /P Power = (W1+W2) watts η % = (o/p power/ i/p power)*100 %s = (Ns-N)/Ns*100
GRAPHS: 1. 3. 2. 4. 2. 3. 4. If the pointer in one of the wattmeter reverses. Torque= (S1-S2)*9. 3. TPST switch is kept open initially. Connections are given as per circuit diagram. PROCEDURE: 1. O/P power vs Speed O/P power vs Torque O/P Power vs η O/P Power vs slip Torque vs Speed Torque vs Slip
RESULT: The load test on 3-Ф slip ring induction motor was conducted and the performance characteristics curves were plotted. 2. 6. the external resistance is gradually cut out. interchange the current coil terminals and take the reading as negative. 6. 4. The meter readings are then noted for various load conditions. 5. The no-load readings are taken. FORMULAE USED: 1. 5.
. value. 2.
NO 1. Initially TPST switch is kept open.5A) (150V. rotor & other associated parts.NO. In the stator .a 3. Autotransformer must be kept at minimum potential position.10A) TYPE MI MI MI UPF LPF QTY 01 01 01 01 01 As required
FUSE RATING :125/100 * 7. (3). 2. The rotor starts rotating due to the induction effect produced due the relative velocity between the rotor Winding & the rotating flux. The machine must be started at no load.5 A ≈ 10A
THEORY :A 3-phase induction motor consists of stator.phase winding (provided) are displaced in space by 120. 7
NO LOAD AND BLOCKED ROTOR TEST ON 3. 3.phase current is fed to the winding so that a resultant rotating magnetic flux is generated. PRECAUTIONS NO LOAD TEST – (1).EXP.PHASE INDUCTION MOTOR
AIM: To conduct the no load & blocked rotor test on 3.
APPARATUS REQUIRED :z S. :-
. A3. (2). NAME OF APPARATUS Voltmeter Ammeter Wattmeter Connecting wire RANGE (0-600)V (0-150)V (0-10)A (600V.phase induction motor & to draw the equivalent circuit of 3.phase squirrel cage induction motor. 4.
(2). (3). (2). (4). (3). Precautions are observed and motor is started on the no load. Connections are given as per circuit diagram. PROCEDURE :NO LOAD TEST (1). Autotransformer must be kept at minimum potential position. Connections are given as per the circuit diagram. The meter readings are then tabulated.
. (4). The machine should be started on full load. (3). Precautions are observed and motor is started on full load or blocked rotor position. Initially the TPST switch is kept open. (2).BLOCKED ROTOR TEST (1).
BLOCKED ROTOR TEST :(1). The meter readings are then tabulated. Autotransformer is varied to have rated voltage applied.
FORMULA USEDFOR NO LOAD TESTWsc = √3 Vo IoCOSФ watts Iw = Io cosФ amps Ro= V0/ Iw Ω Xo= Vo/Iu Ω FOR BLOCKED ROTOR TESTWsc =3I2*Ro watts Ro1 = Wsc/3(Isc)2 Ω Zo1 = Vsc/Isc Ω Xo1 = √Zo1^2-Ro1^2 Ω RESULT:Thus the no load and blocked rotor test on 3-Фsquirrel cage induction motor is performed and the equivalent circuit of 3-phase squirrel cage induction motor has been drawn. Autotransformer is varied to have rated current flowing in motor.
Voltage Vsc Volts 1.No.No Voltage Voc Volts 1 Current Ioc Amps Wattmeter readings (W1) Observed W1 x mf1 Actual Watts Wattmeter readings (W2) Observed W2 x mf2 Actual Watts
Voc= open circuit voltage Ioc = open circuit current BLOCKED ROTOR TEST: S. Vsc = short circuit voltage Isc = short circuit current Current Isc Amps Wattmeter readings(W1) Observed W1 x mf1 Actual Watts Wattmeter W2 x readings(W2) mf2 observed Actual Watts
.TABULAR COLUMNS NO LOAD TEST: S.
supply to the rotor through slip rings. As the motor is running as induction motor initially high starting torque (up to twice full load value) can be developed. current while the other two carries half the full d. One phase carries full d. large starting torque. Consider a normal slip ring induction motor having three phase winding on the rotor as shown in the figure.1 Tachometer . The motor is connected to the exciter which gives d. The rotor resistance starter should be kept in the maximum resistance position while starting. working principle and performance characteristics of Synchronous Induction Motor. APPARATUS REQUIRED:3 Phase Synchronous Induction Motor with loading arrangement Auto Induction Starter panel – 1 TPDT knife switch . 3.c. excitation is provided it is pulled into synchronism and starts running at constant speed.c. 2. permanent poles (N and S) formed on the rotor. When the d. Thus synchronous induction motor provides constant speed.NO. Initially it is run as a slip ring induction motor with the help of starting resistances.EXP. The field potential divider should be kept in the maximum resistance position. current as they are connected in parallel. It has the advantages of both synchronous motor and induction motor. Due to this d.c. The synchronous motor gives constant speed whereas induction motors can be started against full load torque. Now the connections are changed and the exciter is connected in series with the rotor windings which will remain in the circuit permanently. The motor should be started without load.1 THEORY:In the applications where high starting torque and constant speed are desired then synchronous induction motor can be used.c.c. excitation. PRECAUTIONS: 1. low starting current and power factor correction.
DATE: STUDY OF SYNCHRONOUS INDUCTION MOTOR
AIM:To study the construction. When the resistances are cut out the motor runs with a slip.
6.PROCEDURE: 1. Start the motor by closing the TPDT switch (position 123) with the rotor resistance starter in maximum resistance position to run the motor at rated speed. Connections are given as per the circuit diagram. 2. 5. The resistance if the stator can be measured using Dc supply with voltmeter and ammeter or directly using a multimeter.
. 3. Close the TPST switch in order to supply the rated voltage to the motor. Note down the name plate details of the motor. RESULT: The working principle and performance characteristics of the synchronous induction motor have been studied. Change the position of TPDT switch (position 1’2’3’) in order to excite the rotor by DC source where the excitation should be given gradually through the potential divider to maintain the synchronous speed. 4.
a very large current of about 5-8 times full load current flow initially. 1 No. Star Delta Starter 4. This initial excessive starting current is objectionable. TYPES OF STARTERS: (1) Direct Online Starter (2) Auto transformer Starter (3) Star Delta Starter (4) Rotor Resistance Starter
DIRECT ON LINE STARTER [DOL STARTER]:Generally when the starter winding of on induction motor are connected to the Supply directly .
THEORY: NECESSITY OF STARTERS: An induction motor is similar to a secondary short circuit three phase transformer so if normal voltage is applied to the motor it takes 5 to 6 times of normal current from the mains and starting torque is also increased to around 1. Auto transformer Starter 3.NO NAME OF APPARATUS 1.of the induction motor is called direct on line starting.5 times of their full load torque. 1 No. which in turn will affect the operation of the other electrical equipments connected to the same mains. 1 No. because it will produce large line voltage drop. 9 STUDY OF INDUCTION MOTOR STARTERS AIM: To study and connect (1) Direct Online Starter (2) Auto transformer Starter (3) Star Delta Starter (4) Rotor Resistance Starter APPARATUS REQUIRED: SL. Rotor Resistance Starter
QUANTITY 1 No.5 to 2. DOL Starter 2.EXP.NO. So the starters are used to reduce the starting current of induction motor and also to protect the motor and also used to protect the motor from overloading and low voltages. such a starting . The initial stage
back Emf at start induction motor can le started . Unlike d.current decreases of the motor starts accelerating and running at normal speed.This way through out not expandly in a short space of time called cycling .hence direct an line
.The only effect of the shorting is the sudden line voltage drop that occurs which may affect other electrically equipments on the same time line .c motors where such a starting can damage the windings due to a lsent 0/.
In case of loads having high inertia like centrifugal oil separate time may also be a factor
REASON FOR AVOIDING FAST CYCLING At start the starting current Ist is about 5-8 times normal full load current . Under excess current leaving drawn the over current trip coil are energized magnetic coil or the normally open (NO) the overload trip contact and stop the motor. The points to be kept in mind for DOL starting are •
Whether other electrical equipment connected to the same lines can with stand The sudden voltage fluctuation caused by the starting. HOW THE STARTER WORKS: Control circuit: Thus circuit consists of conductor coil in series with start button stop Button and over load trip contacts is called control circuit. Hence repeated starting in short space of time or fast cycling may cause successive heat and damage of coil .
.starting is not advisable for motor with rating greater than 5 HP. AUTO TRANSFORMER STARTER This stator is useful and suitable for motor in which each and of the 3-phase are not all throughout and hence are not suitable for star delta starting gapped or variable autotransformer can be used for starting. But the starting torque is also reduced by a factor of 1/√3. When the start button is pressed the control circuit energized to via lines of the 3 phase supply is connected the control coil the contactor classes and starts The motor after releasing the start .therefore The starting heat generated itself is related to 1st as Hst α Ist2 And Hst is 26-64 times normal heating also at start there is no winding and other losses . it break the circuits & the contactors trips & the motor stops. The advantages of having a star connected winding the voltage applied over each motor phase is reduced to 1/√ 3 times the normal value and the current to 1/√3 time normal value .It spring back but the contactor is kept enargised by another auxillary winding . The autotransformer are generally used for large motor drives like electric cargo pumps because of cost factors . When the stop button is released proceed. Basically it consist a two way switch that connected the motor star type of the time of start and delta type under normal running connection . Whether the generator and distribution system can with stand the high voltage Dip and large current drawn . STAR-DELTA-STARTER This starter is used in case of motor which are built normally with a delta connected stator winding.
6. 9. now the motor will start running. There is inter locking mechanism for ensuring proper operation of line contactor and starter. This method is similar to the starter used for starting dc motor in which too. 8. Now adjust the required settings on autotransformer starter that is above 60%. The starter also consist of low voltage and over current protective devices.
. 7. 4. Connect the auto transformer terminals with the motor terminals and motor switch as shown in figure. Connect the Star Delta starter with the motor on one side and motor switch in another side as shown in figure. Press the stop button (red) to stop the motor. The two advantages of this starting is:1) starting current is reduced 2) starting torque is increased due to power factor improvement. (2) Metallic body of every equipment used must be properly earthed. the resistance is cut out gradually ones the motor was started running normally. Out ON the switch. Put on the switch and move the handle of the starter first in downward position thus connecting the winding first in Star and after a few seconds move it in upward position thus connecting the winding in Delta connection. then move the handle of the starter and to other side for giving full voltage to the motor. PRECAUTIONS: (1) All connections should be tight. 5. When the motor speed reaches to about 80% of the normal speed. Connect the DOL starter with the motor terminal in one side and motor switch on another side as shown in figure.ROTOR RHEOSTAR STATOR
This stator is used for starting slip motors in this the stator terminal are Connected to supply via a variable resistance in series to the stator circuit . The controlling rheostat may be of speed or contactor type and may also be manual or auto noted. 3. Connect the rotor resistance starter with the motor on one side and motor switch on another side as shown in figure. PROCEDURE: 1. Put ON the switch and press the start button (green) of the starter to start the motor. The controlling resistance is after connected rheostat type with resistance being gradually cot out as Motor gain speed. 2.
RESULT: Hence various types of the three phase induction motor starters have been studied. Put ON the switch and start the motor with the rotor resistance.
3. NAME PLATE DETAILS: 3Ø induction motor Auto Transformer
FUSE RATING: No load :10% of rated current (full load current).5A (415/0470)V 1200Ω/0. 10
SEPARATION OF LOSSES IN THREE PHASE SQUIRREL CAGE INDUCTION MOTOR
AIM: To separate the no load losses of a 3 phase squirrel cage induction motor as iron losses and mechanical losses. 4. APPARATUS REQUIRED: S.No Name of the apparatus 1.
Wattmeter 3-Ф Auto Transformer Rheostat
PRECAUTIONS: (1) The autotransformer should be kept in minimum voltage position. Ammeter
Type MI MC
Range (0-10)A (0-1)A (0-600)V (0-5)V 600V.NO.
Quantity 1 1 1 1 2 1 1
2.EXP. 5. (2) the motor should not be loaded throughout the experiment.
start the motor. (2) by giving three phase supply . GRAPH: The graph drawn between constant losses(watts) and input voltage(volts).PROCEDURE: (1) Connections should be made as per the circuit diagram. MODEL CALCULATIONS: 1. Input power(W) =(W1+W2)in watts 2. (3)vary the autotransformer till rated speed is attainsd and note the input power. (6)draw the suitable graph to find the mechanical losses. (5)find the stator copper loss and constant loss by respective formulas. (7)obtain the core los by separating the mechanical loss fom constant losses. voltage and current. Constant loss/phase(Wc)= (W-3I2Rs)/3 in watts 4 Core loss/phase (Wi)= (constant loss/phase)-mechanical loss
RESULT: Thus the no load losses of 3-phase squirrel cage induction motor was separated as core losses and mechanical losses.
. (4)repeat the same procedure for and tabulate the reading. Stator copper loss =3I2Rs in watts 3.
NO 1 2 3 4 5 FUSE RATING :
APPARATUS RANGE Voltmeter (0-300)V Ammeter (0-10)A Wattmeter 300 V. 2) Initially these should be on no load while starting the motor.
. 10A Tachometer Connecting wires
TYPE MI MI UPF
QUANTITY 1 1 1 1 As required
Fuse rating = 125% of rated current = 125/100 * 7. PRECAUTION: 1) Before switching on the supply the variac is kept in minimum position. These are two types of starting a 1 phase induction motor namely capacitor-start and other is splitphase. The only difference is that is given supply in single phase.EXP. APPARATUS REQUIRED:
SL. These motors are widely used in domestic purpose. 11
LOAD TEST ON SINGLE PHASE INDUCTION MOTOR AIM:
To determine the performance characteristic of a given single phase capacitor start induction motor by conducting load test.5 ≈ 10A THEORY: The single phase induction motor is more or less a polyphase induction motor. This motor connect and motor function without any initial start the motor having some part which is called starter and rotor.NO.
Switch on the supply at no load condition.
.81*R N.T = (S1~S2)*9.PROCEDURE: 1) 2) 3) Connections are given as per the circuit diagram.m 2) Output power = 2π NT/60*W 3) Effecting (η%) = 0/P Power/I/p Power*100 4) Slip (%S) = NS – N/NS*100 5) Power factor = Cos φ=W/VI GRAPH : 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Output Power Vs speed Output power Vs Torque Output power Vs Effecting Output power Vs slip Output power Vs Power factor
RESULT: Thus load test on the single phase induction motor has been conducted and its performance characteristics determined. 4) Vary the load in suitable steps and note down all the meter readings till fill load condition. Apply the rotor voltage to the motor using the variac and note down the readings at ammeter And wattmeter.
FORMULA USED: 1) Torque .
where R is the radius of the brake drum in metre Output power Efficiency η = Input power x 100
.No.TABULAR COLUMN Sl.81*R N-m.f = Watts Output power = 2лNT/ 60 Watts % slip = (Ns – N)/Ns x 100 pf= cosΦ = W/VLIL
Torque T= (S1~S2)*9. VL V IL A Speed(N) RPM S1 Kg S2 Kg S1 ̃~ S2 Kg m.f = Torque Wattmeter Reading N-m Observed Actual Output Efficiency Power η PF= cosΦ W %
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 MODEL CALCULATION: Input power = W x m.
The rotor starts rotating due to the induction effect produced due to the relative velocity between the rotor winding and the rotating flux.
.Ф winding(provided) are displaced in space by 120º.EXP.A single phase current is fed to the windings so that a resultant rotating magnetic flux is generated.The windings of a 1.In the rotor of a single phase winding is provided.10A) (300V. PRECAUTIONS: NO LOAD TEST: • • • Initially TPST Switch is kept open. 1 1 1 1 1 1 As reqd.5A) Type MI MI MI MI UPF LPF Qty. 12
EQUIVALENT CIURCUIT AND PRE-DETERMINATION OF PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS OF 1Ф INDUCTION MOTOR AIM: To draw the performance characteristics of a single phase induction motor by conducting the no-load and blocked rotor test. The machines must be started on no load. Autotransformer is kept at minimum potential position. APPARATUS REQUIRED: S.No 1 2 3 4 Name of Apparatus Voltmeter Ammeter Wattmeter Connecting wires Range (0-300)V (0-150)V (0-10)A (0-2)A (330V.
FUSE RATING: 125% of 7.NO.6A=10A THEORY: A 1-Ф induction motor consists of stator.rotor and other associated parts.
4. 3. The machine must be started at full load(blocked rotor).
PROCEDURE: NO LOAD TEST: 1. 3.
Reff = 1. BLOCKED ROTOR TEST: 1. Autotransformer is kept at minimum potential position. 2.5*Rdc FORMULAENO LOAD TEST• • • • • cos Ф = Wo/VoIo Iw = Io cosФ Im = Io sin Ф Ro = Vo/Iw Xo = Vo/Im
BLOCKED ROTOR TESTZsc = Vsc/Isc Ω Rsc = Wsc/Isc2 Ω Xsc = √(Zsc2 – Rsc2) Ω RESULTThus the no load and blocked rotor test on the single phase induction motor has been conducted and the equivalent circuit has been drawn. Connections are given as per the circuit diagram. Precautions are observed and the motor is started at no load.BLOCKED ROTOR TEST: • • • Initially the TPST Switch is kept open. Autotransformer is varied to have rated current flowing in motor. Autotransformer is varied to have a rated voltage applied. 2. Connections are given as per the circuit diagram.
. Precautions are observed and motor is started on full load or blocked rotor position. Meter readings are the noted.
JNTUWORLD.TABULATION NO LOAD TESTS.f Wsc(watts) Observed Actual
. Vsc(volts) Isc(amps) m.No. Vo(volts) Io(amps) m.No.f Wo(watts) Observed Acual
BLOCKED ROTOR TESTS.