Pharmacist Hasif

Monday, 28 September 2009

The Key Concepts of Pharmacy Edited by: Md. Hasif Sinha M.Pharm (MS in Pharmaceutical Technology)

Posted by Hasif Sinha at 10:51 0 comments

Pharmacy: Pharmacy derived its name from the word ―Pharmakon‖ means ―A Drug‖. Pharmacy is concerned with the manufacture, formulation, quality control, and dispensing of medicaments used to treat disease. The majority of modern medicaments consist of tablets, capsules, and injections, all produced under stringent conditions. Usually only a tiny part of the product is active drug, the rest being the ‗excipients‘ which provides an appropriate vehicle for delivery to the patient.

• The art and science of preparing and dispensing drugs • Place where drugs are dispensed Pharmacist: Who is educated about pharmacy, prepare medicine by processing drug, give information to the public & dispense drugs. Mission of Pharmacy: The mission of pharmacy is to serve society as the profession responsible for the appropriate use of medications, devices, and services to achieve optimal therapeutic outcomes. Pharmaceutical Care: The components of pharmacy practice which entails the direct interaction of the pharmacist with the patient for the purpose of caring for that patient‘s drug-related needs. Careers of the Pharmacist: 1. Production & Manufacturing 2. Research & Development 3. Analysis & Testing 4. Marketing 5. Hospital Pharmacy 6. Community Pharmacy 7. Academics 8. Regulatory Affairs 9. Documentation, Library Information Services & Pharma 10. Journalism 11. Consultancy 12. Opportunities 13. Abroad Drug: A chemical substance used in the treatment, cure, prevention, or diagnosis of disease or used to otherwise enhance physical or mental well-being. Crude Drug: Natural substances of plant, animal or mineral origin; which process therapeutic properties & pharmacological actions & which have undergone no treatment other than collection & drying. Official Drugs: • Current issue of the pharmacopoeia of a country • Official used for therapeutic purpose Un-Official Drugs: • Recognized as a drug in the pharmacopoeia • No current issue of pharmacopoeia of a country Non-Official Drugs: • Possesses some medicinal properties • Unofficially used for therapeutic purposes • Never include in the pharmacopoeia Synthetic Drug: The term ‗synthetic drug‘ strictly refers to Psychoactive substances that are manufactured through a chemical process in which the essential psychoactive constituents are not derived from naturally occurring substances. Prodrugs: Prodrug is a term used to describe a compound that requires metabolic biotransformation after administration to produce the desired pharmacologically active

compound. The conversion of an inactive prodrug to an active compound occurs primarily through enzymatic biochemical clevage. Medicine: Medicine is the art and science of healing. It encompasses a range of health care practices evolved to maintain and restore health by the prevention and treatment of illness. Any drug which has a definite dosage form, dose, therapeutic mode of action and used for the treatment of disease is called medicine. Medication: A medication or medicine is a drug taken to cure or ameliorate any symptoms of an illness or medical condition, or may be used as preventive medicine that has future benefits but does not treat any existing or pre-existing diseases or symptoms. Dispensing of Medication: It is often regulated by governments into 3 categories — i. Over the Counter (OTC) Medications, which are available in pharmacies and supermarkets without special restrictions ii. Behind the Counter (BTC) Medications, which are dispensed by a pharmacist without needing a doctor's prescription iii. Prescription only Medicines (POM), which must be prescribed by a licensed medical professional, usually a physician Systemic Medications: Systemic drug therapy involves treatment that affects the body as a whole or that acts specifically on systems that involve the entire body, such as the cardiovascular, respiratory, gastrointestinal, or nervous systems. Psychiatric disorders also are treated systemically. Dosage Form: A dosage form is the physical form in which a drug is produced and dispensed, such as a tablet, a capsule, or an injectable. Loading Dose: Initial dose used to maintain plasma-drug concentration. Maintenance Dose: Dose used to regulate plasma-drug concentration. Standard Dose: Generally usable for all patients. In vivo: In vivo refers to experimentation using a whole, living organism as opposed to a partial or dead organism. Animal testing and clinical trials are two forms of in vivo research. In vitro: In vitro refers to the technique of performing a given procedure in a controlled environment outside of a living organism. Pharmacopoeia: An official publication which lists various drugs & therapeutic agents of current use with their monographs & specifies tests & standards for them (e.g. BP, USP, AP, IP). Hospital Pharmacy: A department of hospital which deals with procurement, storage, compounding, dispensing, manufacturing, testing, packaging & distribution of drugs. Drug Discovery: • Choose a disease [company‘s market strategists] • Choose a drug target [receptor, enzyme or nucleic acid] • Identify a bioassay [in vitro, in vivo, High throughput screening, Screening by NMR, Affinity screening] • Find a lead compound • Isolate and purify the lead compound if necessary • Determine the structure of the lead compound if necessary Drug Design: • Identify Structure Activity Relationships • Identify the pharmacophore • Improve Pharmacodynamics properties • Improve Pharmacokinetic properties

formulation and stability tests etc] • Design a manufacturing process [chemical and process development] • Carry out clinical trial • Register and market the drug • Make money Rx: An uppercase R with its tail crossed. aid in the formulation of pharmaceutically acceptable dosage forms. it was rendered as "Rx".e. increase the dissolution rates of a drug. and enhance the absorption of drugs. . When printing came.Drug Development: • Patent the drug • Carry out preclinical trials [pharmacology studies. drug metabolism. reduction of the particle size of a solid substance to a finer state. i. is used to facilitate crude drug extraction. toxicology. Posted by Hasif Sinha at 10:50 0 comments PHARMACEUTICS Pharmaceutics: An understanding of the basic physical chemistry necessary for the efficient design of dosage form (Physical Pharmaceutics) The design & formulation of medicines (Dosage form design) The manufacturing of these medicines on both a small (Compounding) scale & large (Pharmaceutical Technology) scale The cultivation avoidance & elimination of microorganisms in medicines (Microbiology) Pharmaceutics = Design + Formulation Purification of a substance by Crystallization: Mixing Filtration Evaporation Centrifugation Manufacture of a mixed powder: Mixing Size reduction Size separation Manufacture of a drug extract: Mixing Size reduction Extraction Evaporation Drying Size separation Distillation PRINCIPLE OF PHARMACEUTICAL PROCESSING Particle Size Reduction Communication. and was used as an abbreviation for the Latin word recipe = "take" (imperative). The surface area is increased by particle size reduction. an instruction to the pharmacist to take the items listed in order to prepare the medicine.

and has two main aims: To remove valuable products or byproducts To prevent environmental pollution Powder Flow The largest use of powders pharmaceutically is to produce tablets and capsules. Together with mixing and compression properties. initially in an unmixed or partially mixed state. Milling Milling is the mechanical process of reducing the particle size of solid.Particle Size Separation Solid separation is a process by which powder particles are removed from gases or liquids. Types of mixture: There are 3 types of mixture. so that unit (particle. Creams. or fine according to the size of milled products. Ointments. Types of Mills: Hammer Mill.g: Powders. Generally more difficult to form and maintain and require a higher degree of mixing efficiency. Colloid Mill Drying: The removal of liquid from a material by the application of heat. and is accomplished by the transfer of a liquid from a surface into an unsaturated vapor phase. and tend to approach a perfect mix. Drying is most commonly used inPreparation of granules Processing of materials Preparation of powder extracts Reduce bulk & weight Increase stability rate of the product Types of Dryer: Convective Drying for Wet Solids Fixed Bed Convective Drying Dynamic Convective Drying Conductive Drying for Wet Solids Vacuum Oven . i. the equipment. intermediate. the components have no tendency to mix spontaneously. Mixing A unit operation that aims to treat two or more components.g: Emulsions. Theoretically ideal mixture is called perfect mix.e. Particle Properties: Adhesion: Attraction between different particles (e. and viscous suspensions. Negative mixture: With negative mixture the components will tend to separate out. dispersion. Ball Mill. disintegration. Milling equipments is classified as coarse. and pulverization have been used synonymously with communication depending on the product. Pastes. and the process. Positive mixture: Positive mixtures are formed materials such as gases or miscible liquids which mix spontaneously and irreversibly by diffusion. E. between a particle & a hopper wall) Cohesion: Attraction between similar particles. Roller Mill. Various terms such as crushing. the flow ability of a powder is of critical importance in the production of pharmaceutical dosage form. grinding. molecule etc) of the components lies as nearly as possible in contact with a unit of each of the other components.g. Neutral mixture: Static in behavior. E. Fluid-Energy Mill.

Types of Clarification: Filtration . g = gravitational force. especially used in reference to soil. �� = density of dispersion medium. It is defined as the mass of many particles of the material is divided by the total volume they occupy. Non-Newtonian flow is characterized by a change in viscosity characteristics with increasing shear rates. granules and other "divided" solids. Materials are divided into two main categories. v = velocity. Consolidation: An increase in the mechanical strength of the material resulting from particleparticle interactions. squeezing from a tube or other deformable container. r = radius. interparticle void volume and internal pore volume. Velocity: Velocity is the rate of change of position in time. and semisolids. and even pumping the product from mixing & storage to filling equipment. �� = viscosity Bulk Density: Bulk density is a property of powders. Pharmaceutical Rheology Rheology: Rheology is the study of flow. Fluid = Liquids o/r Gases. σ = density of disperse phase. The total volume includes particle volume. addresses the viscosity characteristics of powders. regardless of the shear rates applied. Rheologic measurements are utilized to characterize the ease of pouring from a bottle. Bulk density = (Mass of oven dry soil )/(Core volume) Clarification Clarification is a process that involves the removal or separation of a solid from a fluid from other fluid.@) Compression & Consolidation of Powdered Solids: The physics of compaction stated that ―the compression & consolidation of a two-phase (solid .gas) system due to the applied force. rubbing the product onto & into the skin. Stoke‘s Law of Velocity: v = ( 2r2g(σ-ρ))/9η Here. Viscosity: Viscosity describes a fluid's internal resistance to flow and may be thought of as a measure of fluid friction. The study of viscosity is known as rheology.Vacuum Tumbling Drier Rotation Drying of Wet Solids Radiant heat transmission The use of microwave radiation Driers for Dilute Solution & Suspension Drum Dryer Spray Dryer Freeze Drying for Heat-Sensitive Materials Relative Humidity: RH= (Vapour pressure of water vapour in the air × 100%)/█(Vapour pressure of water vapour in air saturated at the same temp. maintaining product shape in a jar or after extrusion. fluids. Newtonian flow is characterized by constant viscosity.‖ Compression: A reduction in the bulk volume of the material as a result of displacement of the gaseous phase.

and stability. Among these are the drug‘s solubility. Theory of Filtration: Rate = (Driving force)/Resistance Poiseuille‘s Equation. partition coefficient. Factors affecting Sedimentation: Brownian Movement Size of particle Viscosity of the medium Gravity Pellet: Material that has accumulated on the bottom of a tube after centrifugation is called pellet. Filtrate: Clear liquid passing through the filter. Filter cake: Solids accumulated on the filter. following crystallization) Filtration: The separation of an insoluble solid. Supernatant: The overlying fluid is called the supernatant solution or simple the supernatant. Theory of Centrifugal Force: F/G = 2π2n2d/g = 2. A drug‘s partition coefficient is a measure of its distribution in a lipophilic-hydrophilic phase system and indicates its ability to penetrate biologic multiphase systems. Slurry: Mixture of solid and liquid to be filtered. dissolution rate. a drug molecule must first cross a biologic membrane of protein and lipid.g. The ability of a drug molecule to penetrate this barrrier is based in part on its preference for lipids [lipopholic] versus its preference for an aqueous phase [hydrophilic]. physical form.Centrifugation In pharmaceutical processing there are two main reasons for such processes: To remove unwanted solid particles from either a liquid product or from air To collect the solid as the product itself (e. Partition co-efficient =(Solubility of Drug in Organic Solvent )/(Solubility of Drug in Aqueous . PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORM DESIGN Preformulation Each drug substance has intrinsic chemical and physical characteristics that must be considered before the development of a pharmaceutical formulation. from a fluid by means of a porous medium that retains the solid but allows the fluid to pass. Filter medium: The porous membrane which is allows the liquid to flow but retains solid. dv/dT = AP/(µ(αW/(A+R))) Types of Filtration: Solid-Fluid Filtration Solid-Liquid Filtration Solid-Gas Filtration Fluid-Fluid Filtration Centrifugation: Centrifugal force can be either to provide the driving force for the filtration process or to replace the gravitational force in sedimentation processes. centrifugal acceleration or electromagnetism. These forces can be due to gravity.013 n2d Sedimentation: Sedimentation is the tendency for particles in suspension or molecules in solution to settle out of the fluid in which they are entrained. and come to rest against a wall. which acts as a lipophilic barrier to many drugs. Partition Co-efficient: To produce a pharmacological response.

Factors that influence Biopharmaceutics: The stability of the drug within the drug product The release of the drug from the drug product The rate of release or dissolution of the drug at the absorption site The systemic absorption of the drug Bioavailability: Bioavailability is defined as the rate and extent of the drug absorption. Directly administered into the blood The entire drug reaches the systemic circulation IV administrated drug is 100% bioavailable. . For intravenous administration of a drug. its critical to preparing a successful pharmaceutical product.Solvent) Physical Form: The crystal or amorphous forms and the particle size of a powdered drug can affect the dissolution rate. ANALYTICAL PREFORMULATION ATTRIBUTE TEST Identity Nuclear Magnetic Response [NMR] Infra Red Spectroscopy [IRS] Ultraviolet Spectroscopy [UVS] Thin Layer Chromatography [TLC] Differential Scanning Calorimetry Optical Rotation. and when combined with formulation components. For example. where applicable Purity Moisture (Water & Solvent) Inorganic Elements Heavy Metal Organic Impurities Differential Scanning Calorimetry Assay Titration Ultraviolet Spectroscopy [UVS] High Performance Liquid Chromatography [HPLC] Quality Appearance Odor Solution Color pH of Slurry (Saturated Solution) Melting Point Biopharmaceutics Biopharmaceutics is the science that examines the interrelationship of the physicochemical properties of the drug. thus the rate and extent of absorption. Stability: The chemical and physical stability of a drug substance alone. and the route of administration on the rate and extent of systemic drug absorption. The bioavailability exhibited by a drug is thus very important in determining whether a therapeutically effective concentration will be achieved at the site or sites of action. by reducing particle size and increasing powder fineness and therefore the surface area of a poorly soluble drug. the dosage form in which the drug is given. for a number of drug. its dissolution rate in the gut is enhanced and its biologic absorption increased.

About two-thirds of all prescriptions are dispensed as solid dosage forms. and pigments to make uncoated tablets visually attractive. Gelatin Coated Tablets. Chewable Tablets. extending its shelf life. Buccal & Sublingual Tablets. Minimum Effective Conc. Tablet Triturates. Effervescent Tablets. Film Coated Tablets. [MEC]: The minimal blood level at which a systemic drug exerts the desired effect. Hypodermic Tablets. Molded Tablets. Dispensing Tablets. A coating may be applied to hide the taste of the tablet's components. sweeteners or flavors to mask the taste of bad-tasting active ingredients. Sugar Coated Tablets. Enteric Coated Tablets. The excipients include binders. disintegrates to ensure that the tablet breaks up in the digestive tract. Lyophilized Foam. Multiply Compressed Tablets. it is usually taken orally. Maximum Therapeutic Conc.For orally administered of a drug. and half of these are compressed tablets. Instantly Disintegrating or Dissolving Tablets. Immediate Release Tablets. Area – Under – Curve [AUC]: The total amount of active drug that reaches to systemic circulation. Tablet = Active Ingredients (90-95%) + Excipients Type of Tablets: Compressed Tablets. [MTC] / Maximum Safe Concentration: The maximum blood level at which a systemic drug exerts the desired effect. usually in powder form. to make the tablet smoother and easier to swallow. A tablet can be formulated to deliver an accurate dosage to a specific site. and to make it more resistant to the environment. glidants (flow aids) and lubricants to ensure efficient tabletting. Vaginal Tablets Tablet Formulation: Compatibility of drug substance with excipients Flow ability Compactibility Lubricity Appearance Disintegration Dissolution . Completely released from the dosage form Fully dissolved in the GIT fluids Stable in solution in the GIT fluids Pass through the GIT barrier into the mesenteric circulation without being metabolized Pass through the liver into the systemic circulation unchanged Oral administrated drug is 100% bioavailable. Extended Release Tablets. but can be administered sublingually. Drug Binding Proteins: Human Serum Albumin (HAS) α1 – acidic Glycoprotein (AGP) Globulin Lipoprotein PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORM Tablet A tablet is a mixture of active substances and excipients. rectally or intra vaginally. pressed or compacted into a solid. The compressed tablet is the most popular dosage form in use today.

Friability below 0. Dry Granulation: This process is used when the product needed to be granulated may be sensitive to moisture and heat. Step 3: Screening the damp mass into pellets or granules Step 4: Drying the granulation Step 5: Dry screening Step 6: Lubrication Step 7: Liquid binder.5 More than 324 5 Friability: Friability is an important factor in tablet formulation to ensure that the tablet can stay intact and withhold its form from any outside force of pressure. It requires only one piece of machinery that mixes all the powders and granules on a bed of air. Fluidized Bed Granulation: It is a multiple step process performed in the same vessel to pre-heat. filler. disintegration agents. Step 2: The wet granulate is prepared by adding the liquid binder/adhesive.8% is usually considered satisfactory . Types of Granulation: Direct Compression: This method is used when a group of ingredients can be blended and placed in a tablet press to make a tablet without any of the ingredients having to be changed. are weighed and mixed. % friability = 100 × ((W0-Wf))/W0 Where Wo= original weight of the tablets.the active ingredient. and Wf= final weight of the tablets after the collection is put through the friabilator. Wet Granulation: Step 1: Weighing and Blending . granulate and dry the powders. It‘s the process of particle size enlargement. Tablet Disintegration Process: Tablet → Drug dissolution → Drug in solution in GI fluid → Absorption → Drug in Blood Tablet Processing Problems: Capping (complete separation) Lamination (separate into 2 or 3 layers) Picking or Striking (break when they are in sealed or turned up) Mottling (uneven color) Weight Variation Granule Size and Size Distribution Before Compression Poor Flow of Granules Poor Mixing Hardness Variation Double Impression Punch Variation Allowed weight variations for TABLET Average Tablet weight in mg Maximum % of difference allowed 130 / Less 10 130 – 324 7.Manufacturing of Tablets: Granulation: Granulation is the process of collecting particles together by creating bonds between them. but sometimes many actives are not compatible with water.

Tablet Coating: Although sugar-coating was popular in the past. absorption in the GIT. with plasticizers and pigments included. Principles of Tablet Coating: Coatings are necessary for tablets that have an unpleasant taste. drugs with an objectionable odor or drugs that are sensitive to oxygen or atmospheric moisture may require coating Sustained Release Dosage Form Another form of coating is enteric coated tablets which are coated with a material which will dissolve in the intestine but remain intact in the stomach. with the least tendency for hang up above the stomach Lend themselves to contain special release profile example: enteric or delayed release products Better suited to large scale production The best combined property of chemical. Orange Peel. mechanical and microbiologic stability Tablet DISADVANTAGES: Some drugs resist compression in to dense compacts Drugs with poor wetting. Peeling Sugar Coating Defects: Chipping. slow dissolution properties. Blooming. the easiest and cheapest to package and ship Product identification is the simplest and cheapest when employing embossed or monogrammed punch face Provide the greatest case of swallowing. offer the greatest dosage precision and the least content variability Their cost is lowest of all oral dosage forms They are the lightest and most compact In general. Mottling. May difficult to formulate as a tablet Bitter testing drugs. Polymeric acid compounds have been used for this purpose with some success. Twinning. Splitting. Types of products: Erosion tablets Waxy matrix Matrix erodes or drug leaches from matrix . Bridging. Non-drying. Sweating. Cracking. and a smoother finish makes large tablets easier to swallow. Uneven color. Tablet coatings are also useful to extend the shelf-life of components that are sensitive to moisture or oxidation. ―Enclosing drugs in diffusion-controlled membranes‖ is an important basic principle of controlled time release. Pitting. Picking. Tablet Coating Defects: Film Coating Defects: Wrinkling or Blistering. Blooming. Modern tablet coatings are polymer and polysaccharide based. and Marbling Tablet Excipients Properties: They should be inert and physically and chemically compatible with the active substance and the other excipients being used in the formulation They should be physiologically inert They should not have an unacceptable microbiological burden They should not have a deleterious effect on the bioavailability They should have regulatory acceptability in all countries where the product is to be marked Tablet ADVANTAGES: They are a unit dosage forms. Cracking.

68 1 0.37 3 0. flakes. Reduce variations in plasma or blood levels for more consistent result. sustained release can mean less frequent dosing and thus better compliance. it is subject to bacterial decomposition It is soluble in hot water It is insoluble in cold water. enteric materials etc.40 00 0.13 Types of Capsule: Hard Gelatin Capsule: Hard-shelled capsules are normally used for dry.21 5 0. Problems: A sustained release product may contain a larger dose. plasticizers and water. shreds.30 4 0.e. white connective tissue. sugars. acids. Gelatin: Gelatin is a heterogeneous product obtained by the partial hydrolysis of collagen derived from the skin. i. frozen pork and bones of animals. Benefits: For short half-life drugs. colors. hide portion.Coated pellets Different pellets (colors) have different release properties Coated ion exchange Osmotic pump Insoluble coat with small hole. The shell of hard gelatin capsules basically consists of gelatin. the dose for two or three ‗normal‘ dosing intervals. volatile and fixed oils Capsules Sizes & Body Fill Volume: Capsule Size Body Volume (mL) 000 1. Properties of Gelatin: Gelatin occurs in sheets. powdered ingredients. Parts of Hard Gelatin Capsule → (1) Body (2) Cap Properties of Hard Gelatin Capsule: . Modern day shells may. consist of preservatives. opacifying agents. flavors. in addition. Hard Gelatin and Soft Gelatin capsules are made from gelatin and from plant-based gelling substances and modified forms of starch and cellulose.95 0 0.50 2 0. A failure of the controlled release mechanism may result in release of a large toxic dose. Osmotic pressure pushes the drug out at a controlled rate. More expensive technology Results: Reduced side effects Capsule One or more medicinal & inert substances are enclosed within a small shell or container which is prepared by gelatin. or as a coarse or fine powder It is faintly yellow or amber and process slight characteristic odor and taste When dry it is stable in air but when moist. most immiscible solution.

Tablets Thermo softening mixtures.8 : 1 Classification: Orally administered soft gels Chewable soft gels Suck able soft gels Twist off soft gels Melt able soft gels Soft Capsule Shell Components: . The Hard Gelatin Capsule shell usually contains plasticizers. Hard gelatin capsules usually contain 30 – 600 mg.g.Usually cylindrical in shape. Thixotropic mixtures. Pastes Non-aqueous liquids Preparations of Filled Hard Gelatin Capsule: Developed and preparing the formulation and selecting the size capsule Filling the capsule shells Capsule sealing [optional] Cleaning and polishing the filled capsules Soft Gelatin Capsule: Soft-shelled capsules primarily used for oils and for active ingredients that are dissolved or suspended in oil. Pellets. e. Cylindrical. High bloom gelatins are used. not flexible. Types of materials for filling into hard gelatin capsule Dry solid Semisolids Liquids Powder. Ration of dry gelatin and dry glycerin is 1:0.4. the shell formation and then the filling process completed. Only solid medicaments are filled into the shell. Granules. Properties of Soft Gelatin Capsule: Shape: Spherical. preservatives.3 parts of water to each parts of dry gelatin The Gelatin Wall: Usually contain water.1 – 30 mL Structure – Only the body Gelatin Strength: Low bloom gelatin used Dry glycerin : Dry gelatin = 0. Consist of liquid or semisolid matrix inside one piece of outer gelatin shell. Hard gelatin capsule contains less moisture [13 – 16%]. Oval. and sugar. At first. semi-solid and liquid Boundary wall: Soft and Flexible Moisture content in gelatin: 0. water. It requires two steps of formulation. plasticizers and preservatives Capsule Shell: The soft gel capsule shell may be transparent or opaque and cam be colored and flavored if desired Coating: The soft gel can be coated with enteric resistant or delayed release material Formulation process: One continuous process. Tube Filled medicaments: May be solid. color. Fillings formulation in same time Volatile drug substance: Suitable for filling – Capacity – may contain 0.7 – 1. Their boundary wall is firm and rigid. flavor. Volatile oil substance is not suitable for filling.

through the formation of thin coating of coating materials around the substance being encapsulated.Gelatin Coloring agent Opacifier Plasticizer Preservatives Core materials: Vehicles Drug Suspending agent Surfactant Preservative or antioxidant Soft Gelatin Capsule ADVANTAGES: Improved drug absorption Increased bioavailability Patient compliance and consumer preference Safety potent and Cytotoxic drugs Oils and Low melting point drugs Dose uniformity for low dose drugs Product stability Quality Control Tests for Capsules: Disintegration test Weight test Contents uniformity test Certain visual test Micro-encapsulation: Micro-encapsulation is a process by which small particles of solids. Purposes: Controlling the release characteristics or availability of coated materials Providing environmental protection Altering colloidal and surface properties Converting liquids to solid Types of Methods: Air suspension Coacervation phase separation Multiorifice centrifugal Pan coating Solvent evaporation Spray drying and Congealing Pharmaceutical Application: For masking the test of bitter drugs To facilitate selective sorption To prepare sustained action dosage forms For separating the incompatible ingredients To prevent volatilization of volatile substances . ranging from several tenths of 1µ 5000µ in size. liquids or even gases may be encapsulated into microscopic size.

The insoluble basic drug. They can be dispersions of oil in water or water in oil. topical application or parenteral administration of drugs. This is used for the preparation of prolonged released dosage forms to avoid frequent administration of the drug. One liquid (the dispersed phase) is dispersed in the other (the continuous phase). heating until it is dissolved and subsequently adding boiling distilled water until the weight of the whole is 1. or insoluble salt or compound of a drug. Types of Phase in Emulsion: Disperse/Liquid Phase: Presents as fine droplets. Some eye drops or ear drops are also prepared in suspension form for drugs which are sparingly soluble. Aerosol suspension of finely divided. but the droplets size is very much smaller. The specific gravity of the syrup should be 1. They are intended for oral administration. or using the insoluble form to prolong the time of action of the drug. 5-140 nm than in coarse emulsions. They form spontaneously when the components are mixed in the appropriate ratios.To protect drugs from moisture and oxidation In stabilization by conversion of dosage form Biological Application: To reduce gastric irritation Sustained normalization of diabetic condition In perm selectivity of enzyme substrate and reaction products Syrup (Liquid) The syrup employed as a base for medicinal purposes consists of a concentrated or saturated solution of refined sugar in distilled water. such as corticosteroid preparations. or micronized drugs. to retard absorption of the drug. in aqueous or oily vehicles. Continuous Phase: Where droplets are suspended. transparent systems that are thermodynamically stable.33 Medicated syrups are prepared by adding medicaments to. Emulsions An emulsion is a mixture of two or more immiscible liquids. the simple syrup. Types of Emulsion: o/w (oil in water) w/o (water in oil) w/o/w (water in oil in water) Stability of Emulsion: Cracking or Breaking The addition of a chemical that is incompatible with the emulsifying agent Bacterial growth Temperature change Freezing . or dissolving them in. is also another class of pharmaceutical preparations intended for inhalation.5 kg. Pharmaceutical Suspension Pharmaceutical suspensions are solid dispersion of insoluble or sparingly-soluble drugs. The "simple syrup" of the British Pharmacopoeia is prepared by adding 1 kg of refined sugar to 500 mL of boiling distilled water. Micro-emulsions: Micro-emulsions are homogenous. is frequently used rather than using the soluble salt.

Types of Emulsifying Agents: Surface active agent Finely divided solids Hydrophilic colloids Semisolids Pharmaceutical semisolid preparations are topical products intended for application on the skin or accessible mucous membranes to provide localized and sometimes systemic effects at the site of application.g. . Pastes: Pastes are basically ointments into which a high percentage of insoluble solids have been added. Soft semisolid preparation often anhydrous & containing medicaments dissolved suspended or emulsified in the base. and Polyethylene Glycol. It deposits a thin oily layer on the skin which inhibits water evaporation. Their consistency and rheologic properties are based on whether the emulsion is o/w or w/o and on the nature of the solid in the internal phase. one of which is a continuous (external) phase and the other a dispersed (internal) phase. It is rapidly penetrates into the skin and makes it soft. Mineral oil. and kaolin are incorporated in high concentrations into a preferably lipophilic greasy vehicle to form a paste-like mass. titanium dioxide. Vanishing Cream: Vanishing cream is an o/w emulsion. semisolid dosage forms are complex formulations having complex structural elements.Flocculation and Coalescence Phase inversion Emulsifying Agents or Emulsifier: An emulsifier is a substance which stabilizes an emulsion. Cold Cream: Cold cream is a w/o emulsion. Types of Ointment Bases: They are 4 types: Oleaginous bases Absorption bases Water-removable bases Water-soluble bases Creams: Creams are semisolid emulsion systems with an opaque appearance. The design of a semisolid preparation is based on its ability to adhere to the surface of application for a reasonable duration before they are washed or worn off. The physical properties of the dosage form depend on various factors. Semisolid emulsions consisting lipophilic phase & an aqueous phase. Used in winter season. Classification of Semisolid: Ointments Creams Pastes Gels Ointments: Ointments are semisolid preparations intended for external application to the skin or mucous membranes. It is well polished preparation with pearl like appearance. E. The active ingredient is often dissolved in one or both phases. starch. Used in summer season. and the product rheology. They are often composed of two phases (oil and water). the interfacial tension between the phases. the partition coefficient of the active ingredient between the phases. frequently a surfactant. In general. Petrolatum. It is softer than Cold cream and disappears or vanishes immediately after application. Powders such as zinc oxide. including the size of the dispersed particles. thus creating a three-phase system. Ointments may be medicated or not.

and eucalyptol suppositories.) and Dental Sprays. Suppositories Solid. including vaginal infections such as candidacies. Inhaler: An inhaler or puffer is a medical device used for delivering medication into the body via the lungs. general medical administration purposes: the substance crosses the rectal mucosa into the bloodstream. i. torpedo shaped formulations which melt or disintegrate & dissolved after insertion so that the medication is released into the rectum. It is commonly used to treat Asthma. It is mainly used in the treatment of Asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. it should not undergo any physical or chemical change on storage It should be completely nontoxic and nonirritant to the mucous membrane of the body cavity It should release the incorporate medicaments It should be compatible with large number of drugs It should easily attain the shape of the mold and should not stick to the sides of the mould Pharmaceutical Aerosols Pharmaceutical Aerosols include pressurized Metered Dose Inhalers (MDIs). Sublinguals. uniformly mediated. opiates. etc. diclofenac. Nebulizers. examples include paracetamol (acetaminophen). and other Respiratory Diseases. mix and dissolve in the rectal fluids at body temperature It should retain its shape when being handled It should be stable on storage. treatment of hemorrhoids by delivering a moisturizer or vasoconstrictor. Metered Dose Inhaler: MDI is a device that helps deliver a specific amount of medication to the lungs.e. delivery of many other systemically-acting medications such as promethazine or aspirin. anesthetics. Skin Sprays (coolants. Evaluation of Suppositories: Uniformity of weight test Melting range test Breaking test Disintegration or Dissolution test Types of Suppository Bases: Oily bases Water soluble bases Emulsifying bases Properties of Suppository Bases: It should be good in appearance It should melt or disintegrate. i. Rectal Suppositories: Commonly used for laxative purposes with chemicals such as glycerin or bisacodyl. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. Dry Powder Inhalers (DPIs). They are used to deliver both Systemically-acting and Locally-acting medications.e.Gels: Gels are semisolid systems in which a liquid phase is constrained within a threedimensional polymeric matrix in which a high degree of physical cross-linking has been introduced. Types of Suppositories: Vaginal Suppositories: Commonly used to treat gynecological ailments. usually by supplying a short burst of aerosolized medicine that is inhaled by the patient. Basic MDI formulation components: .

higher temperatures and longer periods of exposure are required. Most pharmaceutical products are adversely affected by heat and cannot be heated safely to the temperature required for dry heat sterilization [about 1500 – 1600C] Filtration Sterilization: This process depends on the physical removal of microorganisms by adsorption on the filter medium or by a sieving mechanism. Compared with other routes of administration.50C] for 30 minutes 15 lb pressure [1210C] for 20 minutes 20 lb pressure [126. means destructive of all living organisms and their spores or their complete removal from the preparation. viruses. Dry Powder Inhalers: DPIs are devices that deliver medications to the lungs to treat respiratory diseases (asthma. Five general methods are used to sterilize pharmaceutical products: Steam Sterilization: Steam sterilization is conducted in an autoclave and employs steam under pressure. The medication is commonly held either in a capsule for manual loading or a proprietary form from inside the inhaler. is used for heat sensitive solutions. spore forms. Sterilization (Microbiology) Sterilization refers to any process that effectively kills or eliminates transmissible agents (such as fungi. holding their breath for 5-10 seconds. or biological culture medium. continuous administration is called an intravenous drip. The term sterilization. asthma. the intravenous route is one of the fastest ways to deliver fluids and medications throughout the body. emphysema. the operator puts the mouthpiece of the inhaler into their mouth and takes a deep inhalation. Once loaded or actuated.50C] for 15 minutes Dry Heat Sterilization: Dry heat sterilization is usually carried out in ovens designed for this purpose. but application of such techniques is limited because of the highly specialized equipment required and the effects of irradiation on product and their containers. etc. It is commonly used in treating cystic fibrosis. and others). Gas Sterilization: Some heat sensitive and moisture sensitive materials can be sterilized much better by exposure to ethylene oxide or propylene oxide gas than by other means. article of food or medication. Nebulizer: A device used to administer medication to people in the form of a mist inhaled into the lungs. bronchitis. bacteria. Injection: An injection is an infusion method of putting liquid into the body. equipment. Because dry heat is less effective in killing microorganisms than is moist heat. as applied to pharmaceutical preparations. Therapies administered intravenously are often called Specialty Pharmaceuticals. It is usually the method of choice if the product can withstand. but is most commonly used to refer to IV therapy. diabetes mellitus. Sterile Products Intravenous Therapy: IV therapy is the giving of liquid substances directly into a vein.Drug active Surfactant Co-solvent Propellant MDI consists of 2 major components: the Canister and an Actuator. The ovens may be heated either by gas or electricity and are generally thermostatically controlled. 10 lb pressure [115. COPD. and other respiratory diseases. usually with a . Ionization Radiation Sterilization: Techniques are available for sterilization of some types of pharmaceuticals by gamma rays and by cathode rays. The word ―intravenous‖ simply means ―within a vein‖. It can be intermittent or continuous.) from surface.

pilocarpine). Saline: In medicine.g. the layer of skin directly below the dermis and epidermis. Screw vials. A vial can have a tubular shape or a bottle-like shape with a neck. beta receptor blockers. Elixirs are often made from vodka or grappa. injection of fluids or access by surgical instruments. Subcutaneous injection: A subcutaneous injection is administered as a bolus into the sub-cutis. molecular biology and biochemistry experiments. Crimp vials. clear or amber. and nasal irrigation. it is a larger. Lip vials. In most uses a catheter is a thin. Vial: A vial is a relatively small glass vessel or bottle. Elixir (Medical Powder) A pharmaceutical preparation containing an active ingredient (such as morphine) that is dissolved in a solution that contains some percentage (usually 40-60%) of ethyl alcohol and is designed to be taken orally. NSAIDs or topical anesthetics. of a pharmacological agent which releases its active compound in a consistent way over a long period of time. duct or vessel. Salines are also used in cell biology. Ampoule: An ampoule is a small glass sealed vial which is used to contain or preserve a fluid. . An injection follows a parenteral route of administration. solid tube.g. powders or in other forms like capsules. Saline solutions are available in various formulations for different purposes. parasympathomimetics (e. rinsing contact lenses. flexible tube ("soft" catheter). especially used to store medication as liquids. Intramuscular injection: In an intramuscular injection.hollow needle and a syringe which is pierced through the skin to a sufficient depth for the material to be forced into the body. Eye drops sometimes do not have medications in them and are only lubricating and tearreplacing solutions and they can also contain anti-redness and similar chemicals. tropicamide or atropine). The glass can be colorless or colored.g. prostaglandins. It is used for intravenous infusion. There are different types of closure systems. The process of inserting a catheter is catheterization. Catheter: In medicine a catheter is a tube that can be inserted into a body cavity. Depot injection: A depot injection is an injection. the medication is delivered directly into a muscle. usually subcutaneous or intramuscular. saline is a general term referring to a sterile solution of NaCl in water. There are several methods of injection or infusion: Intradermal infusion Subcutaneous injection Intramuscular injection Intravenous injection Intraosseous injection Intraperitoneal injection Intravenous infusion: An intravenous infusion is a liquid administered directly into the bloodstream via a vein. ("Hard" catheter) Eye Drops: Eye drops are saline-containing drops used as a vector to administer medication in the eye. Modern ampoules are most commonly used to contain pharmaceutical hypodermic solutions or high purity chemicals that must be protected from air. Catheters thereby allow drainage. dexamethasone). and sympathomimetics. antihistamines. Depending on the condition being treated. e. parasympatholytics (e. in some uses. they may contain steroids (e.g. mydriatics.

Deionization is a physical process which uses specially manufactured ion exchange resins which bind to and filter out the mineral salts from water. Distilled water & Deionized water is the most common forms of purified water. Deionization does not significantly remove hydroxide or hydronium ions. leaving most solid contaminants behind. viruses or bacteria. with suspensions and ointments also finding some application. This point of maximum concentration. the saturation point. also known as Food supplement or Nutritional supplement is a preparation intended to supply nutrients. Ca. To standardize a solution of acid we need to simply titrate it against a solution of alkali of known concentration. deionization produces high purity water. Otic Preparation Otic preparations are sometimes referred to as ear or aural preparations. Saturated Solution: Solution that contain maximum amount of solutes at a particular temp. pressure & homogeneity which is destroyed due to further addition of solute. depends on the temperature of the liquid as well as the chemical nature of the substances involved. Deionized Water: Also known as de-mineralized water that has had its mineral ions removed. which are missing or are not consumed in sufficient quantity in a person's diet. Standard solutions are normally used in titrations to determine the concentration of a substance in solution. Unsaturated Solution: [Just opposite definition of Saturated Solution] Supersaturated Solution: A solution of a substance can dissolve no more of that substance and additional amounts of it will appear as a precipitate. Ear preparations are usually placed in the ear canal by drops in small amounts for removal of excessive cerumen [earwax] or for treatment of ear infections. Because the majority of water impurities are dissolved salts. Fatty Acids or Amino Acids. Distillation produces very pure water but does not guarantee the absence of bacteria in drinking water. such as Vitamins. Concentration: (Mass or Volume of Solute/Mass or Volume of Solution) × 100% Concentration of Solution = (mass of solute in gm)/(volume of solution in dm3) Percent Yield: % yield = (actual yield)/(theoretical yield) × 100 Percent Purity: % purity = (mass of pure substance in sample)/(mass of sample) × 100 = (mass of . Minerals. Water & Solutions Purified Water: Physically processed of water to remove impurities. inflammation. Distillation involves boiling the water and then condensing the steam into a clean container. uncharged organic molecules. Other processes of water purification are: Reverse osmosis Carbon filtration Micro-porous filtration Ultra filtration Ultraviolet oxidation Electro dialysis Distilled Water: Water which is purified by distillation process & has electrical conductivity not more than 10 µS/cm & total dissolved solids of less than 10 mg/L. Standard solutions are also commonly used to determine the concentration of an analyte species. Cu and Anions such as Cl & Br. or pain. such as Cations from Na. Fe. Solution: A homogenous mixture of two or more substances on molecular levels. Solutions are most frequently used in ear. Standard Solution: A solution of known concentration.Dietary Supplement A dietary supplement.

Amorphous: Atoms or molecules randomly placed as in a liquid. Floe will be dilute to Concentrate part. Factors affecting SOLUBILITY: Temperature pH Co-solvent Solubilization Complexation Particle size control Chemical modification of the drug Aqueous Solution: Solution where water is used as solvent or vehicle.023×1023 mol−1. Dissolution Rate: The speed at which a drug substance dissolves in a medium is called dissolution rate. SI units: mol/m3. N= number of molecules present in the volume =V. n= amount of the solute.salt obtained)/(initial mass of impure salt) × 100 Drug‘s Solubility: A drug substance administered by any route must possess some aqueous solubility for systemic absorption and therapeutic response. The Number of Moles of Solute per kg (1000gm) of Solvent. Molarity (Molar Concentration) Molality Normality Amount of Solute per unit Volume of Solution. Atoms/ molecules randomly placed as in a liquid. Co-Solvency: The process of increasing the solubility of poorly water soluble electrolytes & non-polar molecules by the addition of a water miscible solvent. NA= Avogadro constant= 6. C= (n/V)= (N/NAV)= (C/NA) Here. Solvent ::: Dilute Solution → Concentrate Solution Organic Compound Composition of Organic Compound C : Always present . Complexation: The process of increase poorly soluble drug by the interaction with a soluble material to form a soluble intermolecular complex. Osmosis: Flow of solvent through a semi-permeable membrane. concentration =C. Benefits of Aqueous Solution: Available Easy to store Tastelessness Non-toxic A wide range of materials dissolve in water Physiologically compatible to the body Lack of pharmacological activity Free from irritating qualities It can be handled and used with minimum care Non-Aqueous Solution: Solution where water is not used as solvent or vehicle.

Producer Bronsted – Lowary Concept H+ Donor H+ Acceptor Lewis Concept e. It is defined as the cologarithm of the activity of dissolved hydrogen ions (H+).Pair Donor pH: pH is a measure of the acidity or basicity of a solution. and . whose concentration is not known.Pair Acceptor e. Hydrogen ion activity coefficients cannot be measured experimentally. A buffer solution is composed of – Weak acid and its salt Weak base and its salt Titration: Titration is a common laboratory method of Quantitative Chemical Analysis that is used to determine the Unknown Concentration of a Known Reactant. pH.[1] pH . A reagent. of Known Concentration (a Standard Solution) and volume is used to react with a solution of the Analyte or Titrand. it is also known as Volumetric Analysis. Halogens & S : Less commonly present P : Rarely present Purification of Organic Compounds: Crystallization Sublimation Distillation Fractional distillation Distillation under reduced pressure Steam distillation Extraction with solvents Chromatography Acid. it is possible to determine the exact amount that has been consumed when the endpoint is reached. Using a Calibrated Burette to add the titrant. Buffer Solution: Compounds or mixture of compounds if they present in a solution can resist change in pH upon addition of small quantities of acids/bases. as determined by an indicator. called the Titrant or Titrator. Base.Partition Theory: The inter relationship among this following parameters is called pH-Partition Theory. it is relative to a set of standard solutions whose pH is established by international agreement. Because volume measurements play a key role in titration.H : Nearly always present O : Generally present N. Dissociation constant of the drug Lipid solubility of the drug pH of the absorption site They are the 3 important parameters dictates the absorption characteristics of drug from solution. Indicator. The endpoint is the point at which the titration is complete. Rate of Reactions Acid & Base Concepts CONCEPT ACID BASE Arrhenius Concept H+ Producer OH. Titration. the endpoint of a titration is the point at which the pH of the reactant is just about equal to 7. In the classic strong acid-strong base titration. so they are based on theoretical calculations. The pH scale is not an absolute scale.

d[A] / . with the common range of 10°C (50°F) to 28°C (82. HPLC) is a form of column chromatography used frequently in biochemistry and analytical chemistry to separate.g. and k is the reaction rate coefficient with units of concentration/time. Increasing the concentration of the reacting species will not speed up the rate of the reaction. its reaction rate is – r = k[A]2 or r = k[A][B] t1/2 = 1 / k[A]0 E. For scientific calculations. For a second order reaction. Rate = ∆ C/ ∆ t = (C2 – C1) / (t2 – t1) The rate will be negative (-) for reactants The rate will be positive (+) for products Factors affecting the speed or rate of a biological reaction: Concentration Temperature Presence of macro/micro-nutrients Physical state of reactants Zero Order Reaction: A Zero-order reaction has a rate which is independent of the concentration of the reactant(s). Other reactants can be present. and a detector that shows the retention times of the molecules. Indicator: An organic dye that signals the end-point by a visual change in color. t1/2 = ln (2) / k E.g. or two first-order reactants.dt = k[A]. room temperature is taken to . HPLC utilizes a column that holds chromatographic packing material (stationary phase). but each will be zero-order.: 2NO2 (g) → 2NO (g) + O2 (g) Pharmaceutical Formulation Technology HPLC: High-performance liquid chromatography (or High pressure liquid chromatography. a pump that moves the mobile phase(s) through the column. where k is the first order rate constant. t1/2 = [A]0 / 2k E. the molecules being analyzed. Rate of Reactions Reaction Rates: Change in concentration of a reactant or product with time. which has units of 1/time.4 °F). and the solvent(s) used. where r is the reaction rate.often when the solution permanently changes color due to an indicator.g. The rate law for an elementary reaction that is first order with respect to a reactant A is r = . and quantify compounds. The rate law for a zero-order reaction is r = . Retention time varies depending on the interactions between the stationary phase.dt = k.: 2NH3 (g) → 3H2 (g) + N2 (g) First Order Reaction: A first-order reaction depends on the concentration of only one reactant (a unimolecular reaction). Room Temperature (Ambient temp): Indicated by general human comfort.d[A] / .: H2O2 (l) → H2O (l) + 1/2O2 (g) Second Order Reaction: A second-order reaction depends on the concentrations of one secondorder reactant. identify.

be 20 to 23.5°C or 293 to 296K. Thermal Conductivity (K): The property of a material that indicates its ability to conduct heat. Pharmaceutical Quality Assurance and Manufacturing Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) Current Good Manufacturing Practice [cGMP] regulations are established by the Food and Drug Administration [FDA] to ensure that minimum standards are met for drug product quality in the United States. Good Manufacturing Practice or GMP (also referred to as 'cGMP' or 'current Good Manufacturing Practice') is a term that is recognized worldwide for the control and management of manufacturing and quality control testing of foods, pharmaceutical products, and medical devices. Summary of GMP principles: The international Society of Pharmaceutical Engineers (ISPE) has succinctly summarized the under lying principles of GMP with a set of ten rules: Compile detailed written procedures Follow these procedures Document (record) the work Validate the systems and processes Design and build proper facilities and equipment Maintain the facilities and equipment Must be competent Maintain cleanliness Control of quality Audit regularly for compliance Tropical Outline of cGMP Regulations: General Provisions Scope Definitions Organization and Personnel Responsibilities of quality control unit Personnel qualifications Personnel responsibilities Consultants Buildings and Facilities Design and Construction Features Lighting Ventilation, Air filtration, Air heating and Cooling Plumbing Sewage and Refuse Washing and Toilet facilities Sanitation

Maintenance Equipment Equipment design, size, and location Equipment construction Equipment cleaning and maintenance Automatic, mechanical, and electronic equipment Filters Control of Components and Drug Product Containers and Closures General requirements Receipt and storage of untested components, drug product containers, and closures Testing and approved or rejection of components, drug product containers, and closures Use of approved components, drug product containers, and closures Retesting of approved components, drug product containers, and closures Drug product containers and closures Production and Process Controls Written procedures; derivations Charge-in of components Calculation of yield Equipment identification Sampling and testing of in-process materials and drug products Time limitations on production Control of microbiological contamination Reprocessing Packaging and Labeling Control Materials examination and usage criteria Labeling issuance Packaging and labeling operations Tamper-resistant packaging requirements for over-the-counter human drug products Drug product inspection Expiration dating Holding and Distribution Warehouse procedures Distribution procedures Laboratory Controls General requirements Testing and release for distribution Stability testing Special testing requirement Reverse samples Laboratory animals Penicillin contaminations Records and Reports General requirements Equipment cleaning and use log Component, drug product container, closure, and labeling records Master production and control records

Batch production and control records Production record review Laboratory records Distribution records Complaint files Returned and Salvaged Drug Products Returned drug product Drug product salvaging cGMP for Finished Pharmaceuticals: The regulation in 21 CFR, Part 211 contains the minimum GMP requirement for the preparation of finished pharmaceutical product: Active ingredient / Active pharmaceutical ingredient: Any component that is intended to furnish pharmacological activity or other direct effect in the diagnosis, cure, mitigation, treatment or prevention of disease or to affect the structure or function of the body of man or other animal. Batch: A specific quantity of a drug of uniform specified quality produced according to a single manufacturing order during the same cycle of manufacture. Batch wise control: The use of validated in-process sampling and testing methods in such a way that results prove the process has done what it purports to do for the specific batch concerned. Certification: Documented testimony by qualified authorities that a system qualification, calibration, validation, or revalidation has been performed appropriately and that the results are acceptable. Compliance: Determination through inspection of the extent to which a manufacturer of a drug product, including those that may not be present in the finished product. Component: Any ingredient used in the manufacture of a drug product, including those that may not be present in the finished product. Drug product: A finished form that contains an active drug and inactive ingredients. The term may also include a form that does not contain an active ingredient, such as placebo. Inactive ingredient: Any component other than the active ingredients in a drug product. Lot: A batch or any portion of a batch having uniform specified quality and a distinctive identifying lot number. Lot number, control number, or batch number: Any distinctive combination of letters, numbers, or symbols from which the complete history of the manufacture, processing, packaging, holding, and distribution of a batch or lot of a drug product may be determined. Master record: Record containing the formulations, specifications, manufacturing procedures,

or set aside for the holding of acceptance testing and qualification for use. Quality audit: A documented activity performed in accordance with established procedures on a planned and periodic basis to verify compliance with the procedures to ensure quality.quality assurance requirements. and labeling of a finished product. Representative sample: A sample that accurately portrays the whole. such as acceptable quality level and unacceptable quality level. Process validation: Documented evidence that a process [e. Quarantine: An area that is marked. A P P E N D I X [DEFINATIONS] Acceptance Criteria: The product specification and acceptance or rejection criteria.g. . Quality assurance: Provision to all concerned the evidence needed to establish confidence that the activities relating to quality are being performed adequately. requiring immediate follow-up and corrective action if exceeded. Quality control unit: An organizational element designed by a firm to be responsible for the duties relating to quality control. Validation protocol: A prospective experimental plan to produce documented evidence that the system has been validated. equipment. controls] does what it purports to do. Reprocessing: The activity where by the finished product or any of its components is recycled through all or part of the manufacturing process. compares it with standards and acts on the difference. Strength: The concentration of the drug substance per unit dose or volume. Validation: Documented evidence that a system [e. Action Limit: The established criteria. Verified: Signed by a second individual or recorded by automated equipment. with an associated sampling plan.g. processing or packaging of particular drug product. through which industry measures actual quantity performance. sterilization] does what it purports to do. designed. software. Action Yield: The quality that is actually produced at any appropriate phase of manufacturing. Quality control: The regulatory process. that are necessary for making a decision to accept or reject a lot or batch.

Bulk Product: Any product that has completed all processing stages up to. recording. or the values represented by a material measure. The batch documentation of a batch of the finished product must be signed by an authorized person from the production department and the batch test results by an authorized person from the QC department for batch release. constructed. generation. equipment or process. Batch Records: All documents associated with the manufacture of a batch of bulk product or finished product. serviced and used with the intension of preventing microbial contamination of the product. Aseptic Processing Area: A controlled environment consisting of several zones. Clean Area: An area with defined environmental control of particulate and microbial contamination constructed and used in such a way as to reduce the introduction. Changing Room: A room or suite of rooms designed for the changing of clothes and from which a clean or aseptic area is entered. giving early warning of potential drift from normal conditions which are not necessarily grounds for definitive corrective action but which require follow-up investigation. under specific condition. Cleaning Validation: Documented evidence that has an approved cleaning procedure will provide equipment or area which is suitable for processing medicinal products. Calibration: The rest of operations that established. Authorized Person: Person who is responsible for the release batches of finished product for sale. designed. equipments and personnel are regulated to control microbial and particulate contamination to acceptance levels. and the corresponding known values of a reference standard. Bio-Burden: The total number of viable microorganism on or in health care product prior to sterilization.Alert Limit: The established criteria. the relationship between values indicated by an instrument or system for measuring. systems. Aseptic Filling: The part of aseptic processing whereby the product is sterilized separately then filled and packaged using sterilized containers and closures in critical processing zones. Aseptic Area: A room or suite of rooms or special area. and controlling. in which the air supply. Change Control: A formal system by which qualified representatives of appropriate disciplines review proposed or actual changes that might affect the validated status of facilities. but not including final packaging. and retention of contaminants within the area. .

storage.30 m/s for vertical flow and 0. with a normal fill volume of more than 100 ml. and wall permeability. Manufacture: All operations of purchase of materials and products. alkylation. D-Value: Sterilization exposure under a defined set of conditions that result in one logarithmic [to the base 10] or 90% reduction in the population of particular microorganisms. Laminar Air Flow: Air flowing in a single direction. protein denaturation. Critical Area: An area with defined environment control of particulate and microbial contamination. intermediate product or finished product with another starting material or product during production. generation and retention of contaminants within the area. through a clean room or clean room area with uniform velocity along parallel flow lines. .45 m/s for horizontal flows. Intermediate Product: Partly processed material that must undergo further manufacturing steps before it becomes a bulk product. Integrity Test: Test to determine the functional performance of a filter system. Disinfection: A process that kills or destroys most disease producing microorganisms but rarely kills all spores. Finished Product: A product that has undergone all stages of production. The control of environment or equipment may also be regarded as a part of in process control.Chemical Disinfectant: A chemical or chemical solution capable of destroying microorganism through dehydration. release. Cross Contamination: Contamination of a starting material. construction and used in such a way as to reduce the introduction. if not appropriately controlled. production. Large Volume Parenterals: A sterile single dose injectable product intended for administration through the skin or suitable parenteral route. Critical Surfaces: Surfaces which come into contact with sterilized product or containers that may lead to contamination of product contact surfaces. De-Contamination: The process of removing organism and rendering the object safe for handling. including packaging in its final container and labeling. oxidation. Laminar air flow system should provide a homogenous air speed of 0. shipment of finished products and related controls. quality control. Critical Process: A process that may cause variation in the quantity of a pharmaceutical product. In Process Control: Checks performed during production in order to monitor and necessary to adjust the process to ensure that the product conforms to its specifications.

Al-Strip Pack. COC or EVOH). high barrier thermoformable films (PCTFE. employed in the packaging of a pharmaceutical product. including the in process control. Quality Drug + Quality Packaging → Quality Product Aim of Packaging: Protection Identification Presentation Components of Packaging: Container Closure Carton / Outer Box Drug Packaging: Pharmaceutical blister films. excluding any other packaging used for transportation or shipment. Al-Al Pack. PVDC. including filling and labeling. primary container. Packing: All operations. sterile filling would not normally be regarded as part of packaging. labeling and self life. Amber Paint Bottle.Manufacturing Process: The transformation of starting materials into finished products through a single operation or a sequence of operation involving installations. Al-PVDC Pack. personnel. documentation and environment. but not the finally packaged. Master formula: A document or set of documents specifying the starting materials with their quantities and the packaging materials. that a bulk product has to undergo in order to becomes a finished product. including printed material. together with a description of the procedures and precautions required to produce a specified quantity of a finished product as well as the processing instructions. Packaging Material: Any material. and includes details of packaging. Marketing Authorization: A legal document issued by the competent drug regulatory authority that establishes the detailed composition and formulation of the product and the pharmacopoeias or other recognized specifications of its ingredients and of the final product itself. the bulk product being the filled. Drug Packaging Hazards Mechanical Hazards Shock or Impact damage Compression Vibration Abrasion Puncture or Piercing Environmental Hazard Moisture Temperature Pressure Light Atmospheric Gases Solid airborne contamination Biological Hazard Microbiological .

caring out and recording the results of tests on equipment to demonstrate that it will perform as intended. Specifications serve as a basis for quality evaluation. validation. the precautions to be taken and measures to be applied directly or indirectly related to the manufacture of the medicinal product. Returned Product: Finished product sent back to manufacture. Starting Material / Raw Material: The substances which are use in the process of pharmaceutical . Positive Pressure: Atmospheric pressure which is higher than the immediate surrounding area usually measures in inches of water or Pascal. sampling and inspection etc. Certain SOPs may be used to supplement product specific MPCR and BPCRs. Procedures: Description of the operation to be carries out. Qualification of Equipments: The act of planning. presented in its finished dosage form or as a starting material for use in such a dosage form. Standard Operating Procedure: An authorized written procedure giving instruction for performing operations not necessarily specific to a given product or material but of a more general nature [e. Specification: A document describing in detail the requirements with which the product or material used or obtained during manufacture have to confirm. Measuring instruments and systems must be calibrated. which is subject to control by pharmaceutical legislation in both the exporting and importing state.g. cleaning of premises and environmental control. operation. maintenance and cleaning. various light sources Phase-Volume ratio variation Mechanical stress Pharmaceutical Product: Any medicine intended for human use or veterinary product administration to food producing animals. Revalidation: A repeat of process validation to provide an assurance that changes in the process / equipment introduced in accordance with change control procedures do not adversely affect process characteristics and product quality. Recovery: The introduction of all or part of previous batches of the required quality into another batch at a defined stage of manufacture. equipment.Other form of infestation Pilferage & Adulteration risks Chemical Hazard Chemical interactions Product Regulations: Stability Test of Drugs: Freezing & Thawing Elevated temperature Pressure Added chemical agents.].

not the same as sterile. Sterile Product: A product which is in a state free of viable microorganisms. weight/weight. and it‘s expressed in degrees Celsius. drug substance. Z – Value: The temperature change required causing an one-log [change] decrease in the D – value. long tablet intended for administration to animals. GLOSSARY OF PHARMACEUTICAL TERMS A Active ingredient: The ingredient or ingredients of a pharmaceutical product responsible for its pharmacological activity [also medicament. Aseptic Processing: Manufacturing dosage forms without terminal sterilization. Actual Yield: The quantity that is actually produced at any appropriate phase of manufacture. active pharmaceutical ingredient]. processing. Aerosol: A dosage form that is packaged under pressure and contains therapeutically active ingredients that are released upon activation of an appropriate valve system. processing or packaging of a particular drug product. Ampul: A final container that is all glass in which the open end. Validation Protocol/Plan: A document describing the activities to be performed in a validation. after filling with product. ampule] Aseptic: Lacking disease-producing microorganisms. C Capsule: A solid dosage form in which the drug is enclosed within a hard or soft soluble container or shell. Strength: The concentration of the drug substance [e. is sealed by heat [also ampoule. or unit dose/volume basis] or the potency. then aseptically filled into the final package and aseptically called.product production. .g. weight/volume. including the acceptance criteria for the approval of a manufacturing process or apart thereof for routine use. The dosage form is sterile-filtered. the therapeutic activity of a drug product as indicated by appropriate laboratory tests or by adequately developed and controlled clinical data. based upon the quantity of components to be used in the absence of any loss or error in actual production. Yield: Theoretical Yield: The quantity that would be produced at any appropriate phase of manufacture. B Bead: A solid dosage form in the shape of a small sphere. Bolus: A large. that is. Percentage of Theoretical Yield: The ratio of actual yield to the theoretical yield. or packaging of a particular drug product. stated as a percentage. The dosage form generally contains multiple beads [also pellet]. Sterility: The complete absence of microorganisms.

D Drops. Collodion: A liquid preparation composed of pyroxylin dissolved in a solvent mixture of alcohol and ether and applied externally. Extract: A concentrated preparation of vegetable or animal drug obtained by removal of the active constituents with suitable menstrual. normally in solution or suspension or in the form of a paste. . intended for veterinary use only. Foam: An emulsion packaged in a pressurized aerosol container that has a fluffy. semisolid consistency when dispensed. by means of a suitable device. sweetened hydroalcoholic liquid containing dissolved active ingredients intended for oral use. Inhalation: A solution or suspension of one or more drug substances administered by the nasal or oral respiratory route for local or systemic effect. Emulsion: A two-phase system in which one liquid is dispersed throughout another liquid in the form of small droplets. Extended Release: A capsule that is formulated in such a manner as to make the contained medication available over an extended period following ingestion. is filled into a one-piece shell. Excipient: An inactive ingredient of a dosage form. Intramammary: A suspension of a drug in a suitable oil vehicle. each milliliter contains the therapeutic constituents of 1 g of the standard drug. Granules: A preparation of dry aggregates of powder particles that may contain one or more active ingredients with or without other ingredients. Concentrate for Dip: A preparation containing one or more active ingredients usually in the form of a paste or solution.Capsule. preservative. I Implant: A small sterile solid mass consisting of a highly purified drug with or without excipients made by compression or molding and put in place by injection or incision. Creams: A semisolid dosage form containing one or more drug substances dissolved or dispersed in a suitable base. emulsion. emulsion. such as drops. or both and so made that unless otherwise specified in an individual monograph. Capsule. Delayed Release: A coated capsule or more commonly encapsulated granules that may be coated to resist releasing the drug in the stomach because the drug will irritate gastric mucosa or gastric fluid will inactivate the drug. G Gel: A semisolid system consisting of either a suspension of small inorganic particles or large organic molecules interpenetrated by a liquid. Elixir: A clear. Capsule. Oral: A solution. it is used to prepare a diluted suspension. Soft Shell: A solid dosage form in which one or more active ingredients. pleasantly flavored. Infusion. or solution of the active ingredients for the prevention and treatment of ectoparasitic infestations of animals. E Effervescent: A dosage form containing ingredients that rapidly release CO2 when in contact with water. or suspension that is administered in small volumes. by evaporation of all or nearly all of the solvent and by adjustment of the residual mass or powder to the prescribed standards. F Fluidextract: A liquid preparation of vegetable drug containing alcohol as a solvent.

then removing and drying the resulting solid mass. targeted release. Pulsatile Release: A release pattern of the active ingredient from the dosage form that is modified to release aliquots of the total drug at two or more time intervals. Ophthalmic Solution: A sterile solution. extended release. P Paste: A semisolid dosage form that contains one or more drug substances intended for topical application. Ophthalmic Strip: A sterile single-use container or sterile impregnated paper strip containing the drug to be applied to the eye. Molded Tablet: A tablet that has been formed by dampening the ingredients and pressing them into a mold. Ophthalmic Preparation: Drug in dosage form intended to be applied to the eye. Lyophilization: Removal of water or other solvent from a frozen solution by sublimation caused by combination of temperature and pressure differentials. Mouthwash: An aqueous solution used to rinse the oral cavity. Orally Disintegrating: A solid oral dosage form that disintegrates rapidly in the mouth to facilitate release of the active ingredient. It generally contains a high concentration of solids and has a stiff consistency. Lozenge: A solid preparation that is intended to dissolve or disintegrate slowly in the mouth. O Ointment: A semisolid preparation intended for external application to the skin or mucous membrane. Lotion: A fluid suspension or emulsion applied to the surface of the skin. M Modified Release: A release pattern of the active ingredient from the dosage form that deliberately changed from that of the conventional form includes accelerated release. R . essentially free from foreign particles.Injection: A preparation intended for parenteral administration or for constituting or diluting a parenteral article prior to administration. and so on. L Liniment: An alcoholic or oleaginous solution or emulsion applied by rubbing on the skin for treating pain and stiffness of underlying musculature. Otic Suspension: A liquid preparation containing micronized particles intended for instillation in the outer ear. delayed release. pulsatile release. Pellet: see bead [Also a solid granule or regular shape prepared by compaction or by granulation] Pill: A solid spherical dosage form. Premix: A mixture of two or more drug substances with a suitable vehicle. Plaster: A solid or semisolid mass supplied on a backing material and intended to provide prolonged contact with the skin. suitably prepared and packaged for instillation into the eye. Ophthalmic Suspension: A sterile liquid preparation containing solid particles dispersed in a liquid vehicle intended for application to the eye. Powder: An intimate mixture of dry. Ophthalmic Ointment: A sterile ointment intended for application to the eye. Irrigation: A sterile solution intended to bathe or flush open wounds or body cavities. Otic Solution: A solution intended for instillation in the outer ear. finely divided drug or chemicals that may be intended for internal [oral] or external [topical] use. usually prepared by wet massing technique.

Tablet. high-voltage electric pulses to create aqueous pores in the lipid bilayer of skin and thereby facilitate drug diffusion. Suppository Tablet or Insert: A vaginal suppository prepared by compression of powdered materials into a suitable shape. Targeted Release: Release of the active ingredient from a dosage form modified to preferentially deliver most of the drug to a specific region. may be oral. and ophthalmic. organ. topical. System. Electroporation: A transdermal delivery system enhanced by the application of short. Transdermal Delivery System. from which the drug diffuses through a membrane at a constant rate. Tablet. Transdermal Delivery System.Rinse: A solution used to cleanse by flushing. vaginal. emulsion. Solution: A liquid preparation that contains one or more dissolved [molecularly dispersed] chemical substances in a suitable solvent or mixture of miscible solvents. Transdermal Delivery System. Transdermal: A self-contained. or suspension used to clean the hair and scalp. Sterile: Completely lacking living [viable] microbial life. or tissue. System. Soap: The alkali salts of one or more fatty acid. Syrup: A solution containing a high concentration of sucrose or other sugars. producing a pleasant-tasting residue that is easily swallowed and does not leave a bitter or unpleasant aftertaste. Tincture: An alcoholic or hydroalcoholic solution prepared for vegetable materials or from chemical substances. Suspension: A liquid preparation that consists of solid particles dispersed throughout a liquid phase in which the particles are not soluble. Suppositories: A solid body adapted for introduction into the rectal. High Velocity Powder Particles: A transdermal delivery system using supersonic shock waves of helium gas to enhance drug diffusion through the skin. such as a year. Delayed Release: A tablet with a coating that is intended to postpone release of the medication until the tablet has passed through the stomach. cylindrical dosage form of rigid consistency. T Tablet: A solid dosage form containing medicinal substances with or without diluents. discrete dosage form that is designed to deliver drugs through the intact skin to the systemic circulation. System. may be oral. otic. topical. Spirit: An alcoholic or hydroalcoholic solution of volatile substances prepared usually by simple solution or by admixture of the ingredients. Intrauterine: A system that is intended for release of drug over a long period. otic. Sterility: An acceptably high level of probability that a product processed in an aseptic system does not contain viable microorganisms. ophthalmic. Iontophoresis: A transdermal delivery system enhanced by the . Tablet. Chewable: A tablet formulated so that it may be chewed. Extended Release: A tablet that is formulated so as to make the contained medication available over an extended period following ingestion. Stick: A slender. or urethral orifice. Terminal Sterilization: A process used to produce sterility in a final product contained in its final packaging system. System: a dosage form developed to allow for uniform release or targeting of drugs to the body. Ocular: A dosage form intended for placement in the lower conjunctival fornix. S Shampoo: A solution. can also be prepared by encapsulation in soft gelatin.

Transdermal Matrix Patch: A transdermal matrix system using a polymeric matrix containing drug intended for systemic delivery through the skin. Aromatic: A clear. More specifically it is the study of the interactions that occur between a Living Organism and Exogenous Chemicals that alter normal biochemical function. Phonophoresis: A transdermal delivery system enhanced by the application of low-frequency ultrasound to facilitate drug diffusion through the skin.use of applied electric current to facilitate drug diffusion through the skin. biochemical. Transdermal Membrane Patch: A transdermal system containing a drug reservoir entrapped between backing and adhesive layers and a drug diffusion-controlling membrane. and economic features of natural drugs and their constituents. V Validation: Scientific study to prove that a process is doing what it is supposed to do and is under control. saturated aqueous solution of one or more volatile oils or other aromatic or volatile substances. the reservoir is usually a semisolid dispersion or solution of the drug. W Water. . Transdermal Delivery System. U Urethral: A dosage form intended for insertion into the urethra to provide a local effect of the active ingredient. generally the skin is the rate-controlling membrane for drug diffusion. Posted by Hasif Sinha at 10:48 1 comments PHARMACOLOGY Pharmacology is the study of Drug Action. • Pharmacology = Drug Action = Living Organism + Exogenous Chemicals = Alter Normal Biochemical Function Divisions of Pharmacology: • Clinical pharmacology • Neuro and Psychopharmacology • Pharmacogenetics • Pharmacogenomics • Pharmacoepidemiology • Toxicology • Posology • Pharmacognosy Branches of Clinical Pharmacology: • Pharmacodynamics • Pharmacokinetics • Rational Prescribing • Adverse Drug Effects • Toxicology • Drug interactions • Drug development Pharmacognosy Pharmacognosy is an applied science that deals with the biologic.

though in principle it concerns itself with all manner of compounds ingested or otherwise delivered externally to an organism. fats. and Preservation Classification of drugs: In Pharmacognosy. In practice. Pharmacologically Active Constituents: Pharmacologically active constituents are responsible for the therapeutic activity of the drug. and balsams. Pharmacokinetics & Pharmacodynamics Pharmacokinetics Pharmacokinetics (in Greek: ―pharmacon‖ meaning ―drug‖ and ―kinetikos‖ meaning ―putting in motion‖) is a branch of pharmacology dedicated to the determination of the fate of substances administered externally to a living organism. resins. starches. hormones. The mixtures include fixed oil. alkaloids. In rare cases. some drugs irreversibly accumulate in a tissue in the body. volatile oils. 2) Absorption is the process of a substance entering the body. The single chemicals are exemplified by sugars. Pharmacokinetics explores what the body does to the drug. oleoresins. They may be either single chemical substances or mixtures of principles. . glycosides. Their morphology ii. etc. metabolites. Their therapeutic applications iv. The taxonomy of the plants and animals from which they are obtained iii. this discipline is applied mainly to drug substances. 5) Excretion is the elimination of the substances from the body. the separation of which is neither practical nor advantageous. enzymes. 4) Metabolism is the irreversible transformation of parent compounds into daughter metabolites. steroids. Pharmaceutically Active Constituents: Pharmaceutically active constituents may be cause precipitation or other chemical changes in a medicinal preparation. ii.Preparation of drugs for the commercial market: • Collection • Harvesting • Drying • Garbling • Packaging. Pharmacodynamics Pharmacodynamics is the study of the physiological effects of drugs on the body or on microorganisms or parasites within or on the body and the mechanisms of drug action and the relationship between drug concentration and effect. R = Receptor (Attachment Site). Their chemical constituents Active Chemical Constituents for Drug: i. waxes. toxins. hormones. proteins. ADME: Pharmacokinetics is divided into several areas 1) Liberation is the process of release of drug from the formulation. such as nutrients. plant acids. drugs may be classified according to: i. and vitamins. Storage. One dominant example is drug-receptor interactions as modeled by L + R ↔ L-R Where L = Ligand (Drug). 3) Distribution is the dispersion or dissemination of substances throughout the fluids and tissues of the body.

They play a unique and important role in cellular communications and signal transduction. which reside and operate typically within a cell's plasma membrane. Agonist & Antagonist Receptor: A receptor is a protein molecule. but blocks or dampens agonistmediated responses. plants. In pharmacology. or a toxin. Cholinergic Agonists: Drugs that bind to and activate Cholinergic Receptors. nonpolar solvents. antagonists have affinity but no efficacy for their cognate receptors. choanoflagellates. to which a mobile signaling molecule may attach. Receptor. or sometimes denaturing agents. including yeast. Binding and Activation: Ligand binding is an equilibrium process. Adrenergic Agonists: Drugs that bind to and activate Adrenergic Receptors. in general. but also in the membranes of some sub cellular compartments and organelles. Ligands bind to receptors and dissociate from them according to the law of mass action. Receptor Antagonist: A receptor antagonist is a type of receptor ligand or drug that does not provoke a biological response itself upon binding to a receptor. They may be a peptide (neurotransmitter). and animals. the receptor goes into a conformational change which ordinarily initiates a cellular response. a pharmaceutical drug. Antagonist: Drug binds with Same Site used by Endogenous Ligand & acts Competitively to Diminish or Block the Signal produce by Endogenous Ligand. Immune Receptor: An immune receptor is a receptor. Such proteins can be separated from the biological membranes only using detergents. Adrenergic antagonists block the actions of the endogenous adrenergic transmitter Epinephrine and Norepinephrine. and binding will disrupt the interaction and inhibit the function of an agonist or inverse agonist at receptors.Pharmacodynamics explores what a drug does to the body. A receptor is cholinergic if it uses acetylcholine as its neurotransmitter. a hormone. comprise a large protein family of transmembrane receptors that sense molecules outside the cell and activate inside signal transduction pathways and. [Ligand] + [Receptor] = [Ligand-Receptor Complex] Transmembrane Receptor: Transmembrane receptors are integral membrane proteins. G – Protein Coupled Receptors: G protein-coupled receptors. T . Cholinergic Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate Cholinergic Receptors. Agonist: Drug or Ligand Binds with Same Site as the Endogenous Ligand & produce Same Signal. When such binding occurs. embedded in either the plasma membrane or cytoplasm of a cell. responsible for recognizing antigens bound to major histocompatibility complex molecules. Integral Membrane Protein: An Integral Membrane Protein is a protein molecule that is permanently attached to the biological membrane.Cell receptor: The T cell receptor is a molecule found on the surface of T . which binds to a substance and causes a response in the immune system.Lymphocytes (or T cells) that is. Peripheral membrane protein: Peripheral membrane proteins are proteins that adhere only . Adrenergic Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate adrenergic receptors. thereby blocking the actions of acetylcholine or cholinergic agonists. Ligand: A molecule which binds to a receptor is called ligand. G protein-coupled receptors are found only in eukaryotes. usually on a cell membrane. ultimately. cellular responses.

Sodium-Potassium Pumps: In the cells active transport is responsible for high concentrations of potassium ions but low concentrations of sodium ions.temporarily to the biological membrane with which they are associated. In contrast to integral membrane proteins. As part of an immune response to foreign pathogens.] ← ← ← 2 K+ Autacoids: Autacoids are biological factors which act like local hormones. These RNA molecules have come to be known as ribozymes. With respect to vascular smooth muscle. These molecules attach to integral membrane proteins. Histamine: Histamine is a Biogenic Amine involved in Local Immune Responses as well as regulating physiological function in the gut and acting as a neurotransmitter. or penetrate the peripheral regions of the lipid bilayer. and are not blood borne. called the products. Autacoids are primarily characterized by the effect they have upon smooth muscle. and the enzyme converts them into different molecules. It is now known that the carrier is an ATPase and that it pumps three sodium ions out of the cell for every two potassium ions pumped in. Enzymes: Enzymes are biomolecules that catalyze (i. Active Transport Process Inside of the Cell Outside of the Cell [Low Conc.e. have a brief duration. or fraction. of all the proteins extracted during a protein purification procedure. In enzymatic reactions. there are both vasoconstrictor and vasodilator autacoids. peripheral membrane proteins tend to collect in the water-soluble component. Almost all processes in a . the molecules at the beginning of the process are called substrates.] 3 Na+→ → → Na-K Pump → ← [High Conc. act near the site of synthesis. certain RNA molecules can be effective biocatalysts too. Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase: Na+/K+-ATPase (Na+/K+ pump) is an enzyme located in the plasma membrane. Some notable autacoids are: • Eicosanoids • Angiotensin • Neurotensin • NO (nitric oxide) • Kinins • Histamine • Serotonin • Endothelins Hormone: A chemical substance secreted by a cell or a group of cells into the blood for transport to a distance target. However. where it exerts its effect at very low concentration. Nearly all known enzymes are proteins. It is found in the human cell and is found in all metazoa (animals). increase the rates of chemical reactions). Histamine increases the permeability of the capillaries to white blood cells and other proteins. This is responsible for sodium-potassium pump which moves these two ions in opposite directions across the plasma membrane. histamine is produced by basophils and by mast cells found in nearby connective tissues.

In mammals. and detection of foreign material by antibodies • Coagulation. which by itself is straw-yellow in color.7 to 6.000-500. Isomerases vi. Lyases v. The blood plasma volume totals of 2.7. WBC (Leucocytes): • 4. including the transport of hormones and the signaling of tissue damage • Regulation of body pH • Regulation of core body temperature • Hydraulic functions Blood Cells: 1. Hydrolases iv. . The major classes of ENZYME: i. urea. and the tissues of some invertebrates.45 (Basic in nature) Functions of Blood: • Supply of oxygen to tissues (bound to hemoglobin.000-11. which is one part of the body's self-repair mechanism • Messenger functions.000 thrombocytes • Responsible for blood clotting (coagulation) • They change fibrinogen into fibrin. hemoglobin makes up about 97% of the red blood cells dry content. and around 35% of the total content (including water). including circulation of white blood cells. This fibrin creates a mesh onto which red blood cells collect and clot. Oxidoreductases ii.biological cell need enzymes to occur at significant rates. 4.2 to 5.35 . amino acids.0 liters in an average human. and fatty acids • Removal of waste such as carbon dioxide.4 million (female) • Discard nuclei during development 2. which is carried in red cells) • Supply of nutrients such as glucose. which then stops more blood from leaving the body and also helps to prevent bacteria from entering the body Blood Plasma: About 55% of whole blood is blood plasma. Thrombocytes Platelets: • 200. RBC (Erythrocyte): • 4. Hemoglobin: Hemoglobin is the Iron Containing Oxygen Transport Metalloprotein in the RBC of vertebrates.1 million (male). Ligases BLOOD Blood is a specialized bodily fluid that delivers necessary substances to the body's cells — such as Nutrients and Oxygen — and transports waste products away from those same cells. Hemoglobin transports oxygen from the lungs or gills to the rest of the body where it releases the oxygen for cell use.000 leukocytes • Help the body against disease 3. and lactic acid • Immunological functions. Blood‘s pH: 7.7 – 3. a fluid that is the blood's liquid medium. Transferases iii.

Physically. blood coagulation. governed by small chemical sites on the antigen molecule called the antigenic determinants Chemically. Immunogenicity. Rh factor Possible genotypes Rh+ Rh+/Rh+ Rh+/RhRh. when introduced into the tissue of humans or other vertebrates. and platelet plug formation. IgG and IgM. bacteria and viruses. Cellular metabolism generates numerous waste compounds. A weight of more than 10. The associated anti-A antibodies and anti-B antibodies are usually IgM antibodies. and several different kinds of antibodies. Antibodies are produced by a kind of white blood cell called a β-cell. which is required to elimination from the bloodstream. which are usually produced in the first years of life by sensitization to environmental substances such as food. Hemostasis: Stoppage of bleeding.000 Daltons is required. however. blood vessel spasm. Ammonia. Creatine.Rh-/RhMother Father Child Rh. mainly rich in nitrogen. IgE. Rh factor: The Rh factor genetic information is also inherited from our parents. the capacity to induce antibody formation ii. an antigens is a substance that. causes the formation of antibodies.05 . some high-molecular-weight polysaccharides are antigenic. but it is inherited independently of the ABO blood type alleles.20 Composition of Urine: • Water: 96% • Urea: 2% • Organic constituents: Uric acid.RhAntibody: Antibodies (immunoglobulins. antigens are usually proteins. which are grouped into different isotypes based on which heavy chain they possess. Specificity.ABO Blood Group System: The ABO blood group system is the most important blood type system in human blood transfusion. URINE Urine is a liquid waste product of the body secreted by the kidneys by a process of filtration from blood called urination and excreted through the urethra.Rh. There are several different types of antibody heavy chains.8. There are 2 biologic properties: i. . Antigen: Biologically. and are used by the immune system to identify and neutralize foreign objects. Ig) are gamma globulin proteins that are found in blood or other bodily fluids of vertebrates. In placental mammals there are five antibody isotypes known as IgA. such as bacteria and viruses. IgD.Rh+ Rh+ Rh. antigens must possess a high molecular weight. There are 2 different alleles for the Rh factor known as Rh+ and Rh-. • Urine pH= 4.

and then pumped out through the aorta to the rest of the body • valve regulate the flow of blood between the chambers Arteries: • carry blood away from the heart and to the major organs of the body Veins: • carry blood back to the heart away from the major organs of the body Capillaries: • small blood vessels where gas exchange occurs Blood: • the cells that flow through the circulatory system • red blood cells contain hemoglobin. Digestive system: processing food with mouth. Lymphatic system 8.• Inorganic constituents: Na. Integumentary system: skin. transferring and processing information with brain and nerves 10. Cl. Sulphate. esophagus. Reproductive system: the sex organs 11. returned to the heart. 3. The Digestive System Purpose: to convert food particles into simpler macromolecules that can be absorbed into the bloodstream and used by the body . K. Oxalate.arteries and veins 2. hair and nails 7. Endocrine system: communicating within the body using hormones 4. Respiratory system: the organs used for breathing. Phosphate. Skeletal system: structural support and protection through bones 1. HUMAN BODY SYSTEM The major systems of the human body are: 1. Immune system: defending against disease-causing agents 6. an iron-rich protein that carries O2 • white blood cells function in the immune system • platelets help in blood clotting Spleen: • helps to filter out toxins in the blood 2. The Circulatory System or Cardiovascular system: the blood circulation with heart. The Excretory System or Urinary system: eliminating wastes from the body 5. the lungs 12. Muscular system: moving the body with muscles 9. Nervous system: collecting. where it gets oxygenated. The Circulatory System or Cardiovascular system Purpose: to deliver oxygenated blood to the various cells and organ systems in your body so they can undergo cellular respiration Major Organs and Their Functions: Heart: • the major muscle of the circulatory system • pumps blood through its four chambers (two Ventricles and two Atria) • pumps deoxygenated blood into the lungs. stomach and intestines.

Metabolism: Oxidation. it is called chyme Pancreas: • produces the hormone insulin that regulates Blood Sugar Levels • also help neutralize stomach acid Liver: • produces bile. on the intestine Large Intestine: • Removes water from the chyme and gets the waste ready for excretion Mouth → Pharynx → Esophagus → Stomach → Small Intestine → Large Intestine 3. metabolism and reproduction through the production and secretion of hormones Major Organs: • Hypothalamus • Pituitary gland • Thyroid • Parathyroid • Adrenal Glands • Pancreas .G) • Nerve Ending (Nor-adrenaline) Major Organs and their Functions: Mouth: • to chew and grind up food • saliva also begins the chemical breakdown Esophagus: • pipe connecting mouth to stomach Stomach: • secretes an extraordinarily strong acid (pH = 2) that leads to breakdown of food • once the food is broken down in the stomach and mixed with digestive juices. which breaks down fats in foods Gallbladder: • pouch-like organ that stores bile for future use Small Intestine: • after digestion is complete. the chyme enters the small intestine where it is absorbed into the bloodstream • the chyme is propelled along by folded surfaces called villi. The Endocrine System Purpose: to control growth. Major Site → • Liver (Phenobarbital) ii. development.D) • Plasma (Procaine) • Intestine (Penicillin . Reduction. Hydrolysis i. Minor Site → • Kidney (Histamine) • Lungs (Alcohol) • Skin (Vitamin .

Integumentary System Major Organs: • Skin • Hair • Nails • the subcutaneous tissue below the skin • assorted glands Functions: • Protection: Skin gives an anatomical barrier between the internal and external environment in bodily defense. excess water and other waste products. and tissue injury. The Immune System Purpose: to remove infectious diseases and other pathogens from the human body Major Organs and Their Functions: Skin: • the skin is the body‘s first line of defense White Blood Cells: • recognize disease agents (antigens) and create antibodies to tag and remove these antigens • phagocytes are the white blood cell type that actually eats and destroys these antigens Lymph Nodes: • help restore fluid lost by the blood and return it to the circulatory system 6. 4. The Excretory System or Urinary system Purpose: to rid the body of wastes. cold.• Testes • Ovaries Function: The endocrine system mainly uses blood vessels as information channels. including excess water and salts Major Organs and Their Functions: Kidneys: • the main organs of the excretory system • waste-laden blood enters the kidney and the kidney filters out urea. touch. see somatosensory system and touch. which eventually travel out of the kidney as urine • eventually they travel through the ureter to the urinary bladder Rectum: • solid (food) waste travels out of the body through the rectum Skin: • sweat glands remove excess water and salts from the body Lungs: • expel the waste gas CO2 Kidneys → Skin → Lungs → Bladder → Large Intestine → Rectum  5. pressure. Langerhans cells in the skin are part of the immune system • Sensation: Skin contains a variety of nerve endings that react to heat. vibration. • Heat regulation: The skin contains a blood supply far greater than its requirements which .

hearing. Autonomic nervous system: ANS acts as a control system functioning largely below the level of consciousness. It also includes the lymphoid tissue through which the lymph travels. promotes calming of the nerves return to regular function. also helps to circulate blood through the human body • muscle cells are fibrous • muscle contractions can be voluntary or involuntary Major Muscles in the Human Body: • Bi-ceps • Tri-ceps • Deltoids • Glutes • Hamstrings Function: The main function of the muscular system is to help the body to move by contracting and relaxing muscles. where all processes are relayed through • consists of cerebrum (controls though and senses) and cerebellum (controls motor functions) Spinal Cord: . and perspiration.allows precise control of energy loss by radiation. urination. and controls visceral functions.. and with reception of external stimuli. skin and sense organs. which helps keep the body in touch with its surroundings (e. convection and conduction. The lymphatic system can be broadly divided into the conducting system and the lymphoid tissue. The Nervous System Purpose: to coordinate the body‘s response to changes in its internal and external environment Somatic nervous system: SNS is associated with the voluntary control of body movements through the action of skeletal muscles. thymus. and in the lymphoid follicles associated with the digestive system such as the tonsils. particularly the lymph nodes. and enhances digestion. bone marrow and the lymphoid tissue associated with the digestive system. The somatic nervous system consists of efferent nerves responsible for sending brain signals for muscle contraction. The system includes all the neurons connected with skeletal muscles. 8. Types of ANS: • Sympathetic nervous system: Promotes a "fight or flight" response. respiration rate. digestion. which includes the spleen. diameter of the pupils. 7. and inhibits digestion. 9. and sight). The Muscular System Purpose: works with the skeletal and nervous system to produce movement. Lymphoid tissue is found in many organs. The system also includes all the structures dedicated to the circulation and production of lymphocytes.g. salivation. touch. • Parasympathetic nervous system: Promotes a "rest and digest" response. corresponds with arousal and energy generation. Major Organs and Their Functions: Brain: • control center of the body. The ANS affects heart rate. Lymphatic system The lymphatic system in vertebrates is a network of conduits that carry a clear fluid called lymph. and sexual arousal.

are situated chiefly in the tongue. and sour. They are able to detect 4 basic tastes: salty. 3. The smell receptors interact with the molecules of these vapors and transmit the sensations to the brain. sweet. 10. and protect sperm • Seminal vesicles • Prostate gland • Bulbourethral glands Secondary Sexual Characteristics – Male: Produced by Testosterone • Deeper voice • Axillary and pubic hair • Chest and facial hair • Lengthen bones • Increased size of testes for sperm production Female Reproductive System: Ovum Formation: . which transmits vibrations to the inner ear through a series of small bones. Hearing: The Ear is the organ of hearing. The smells themselves consist of vapors of various substances. The cavity of the nose is lined with mucous membranes that have smell receptors connected to the olfactory nerve. bitter. It has a complex structure consisting of a transparent lens that focuses light on the retina. called Taste Buds. Human Reproductive System Male Reproductive System: Sperm Formation: • MEIOSIS • Form in testes • Temperature important • Scrotum • Leave testes via epididymus to the vas deferens Semen: • Fluids help to transport. Smell: The Nose is the organ responsible for the sense of smell. Nerve endings in the Skin and other parts of the body transmit sensations to the brain.• sends instructions from the brain to the rest of the body and vice versa • any organism with a major nerve cord is classified as a chordate Nerves: • conduct impulses to muscle cells throughout the body Human has 5 Sense Organs: 5 Sense Organs Eye Ear Taste Buds Nose Skin Sight Hearing Taste Smell Touch 1. 2. feed. The outer ear protrudes away from the head and is shaped like a cup to direct sounds toward the tympanic membrane. 5. but they are also located in the roof of the mouth and near the pharynx. Touch: The sense of touch is distributed throughout the body. 4. Taste: The receptors for taste. Sight: The Eye is the organ of vision.

and Progesterone hormone levels • Axillary and pubic hair • Widen pelvis • Enlarge mammary tissue • Begin menstrual cycles Fertilization: • Occurs in upper 1/3 of Fallopian tube • Once one sperm enters. Cervix dilates to 10 cm • Birth: Uterus pushes baby through vaginal canal • Placenta delivered after 11. Estrogen. The Respiratory System Purpose: to provide the body with a fresh supply of oxygen for cellular respiration and remove the waste product carbon dioxide Major Organs and Their Functions: Nose: • internal entry and exit point for air Pharynx: • serves as a passage way for both air and food at the back of the throat Larynx: . stretching • Eyes open – Week 32 • Lungs mature • Rotates to head-down position Birth: • Labor: Uterine contractions begin. egg membrane changes • Fertilized Egg = Zygote Implantation: • Implanted into thick walls of uterus • Chorion membranes dig into uterus to form placenta • Embryo supported via umbilical cord • Once pregnant. rolling. progesterone levels stay high in mom 1st Trimester: • Heart develops first • Neural tube develops • All body systems appear by Week 8 – Now a Fetus 2nd Trimester: • Mostly growth • Looks more like a baby • Some preemies survive at this stage 3rd Trimester: • More growth • Kicking. FSH.• MEIOSIS • Ova are formed before birth • 1 ovum per month is matured and released from ovaries Secondary Sexual Characteristics – Female: Induced by increased LH.

Proteins iii. and function. The Skeletal System Purpose: to provide structure and support to the human body. we speak Trachea: • the ―wind pipe‖.• our ―voice box‖. and require the mineral calcium for strength. as air passes over our vocal chords. or what connects our pharynx to our lungs • a piece of skin. They are called ―macro‖ because we need these nutrients in large quantities compared to the micronutrients (vitamins and minerals). covers the trachea when we swallow. Bones are where new blood cells are generated (in the marrow). Macronutrients i. Carbohydrates ii. Micronutrients . called the Epiglottis. Major Bones of the Human Body: • femur (thigh bone) • humerus (upper arm) • radius and ulna (lower arm) • cranium (skull) • sternum (breastbone) • clavicle (shoulder blade) • fibula and tibia (calf) • vertebrae (back) • scalpula (shoulder) • pelvic bone • coccyx (tail bone) • phalanges (fingers/toes) Function: The skeleton has six main functions: • Support • Attachment • Movement • Protection • Blood cell production • Storage NUTRIENTS Macronutrients are essential nutrients—carbohydrates. which are needed in smaller quantities. proteins. Fats B. Macronutrients provide us with calories as follows: • Carbohydrate: 4 calories per gram • Protein: 4 calories per gram • Fat: 9 calories per gram Classification: A. preventing food from entering 12. and fats—that the body needs for energy and proper growth. metabolism.

minerals. maintenance. and essential fatty acids) and fiber. Additionally. galactose. which is needed by every cell in our body. They also provide valuable nutrients (vitamins. Trace Minerals. FATS: ―Fat‖ has become a negative word as it is associated with obesity. and. in fruits and vegetables. and Electrolytes C. and repair of many body systems and processes.g. Vitamins ii. to a lesser extent. Chemically. fertilization. such as the storage and transport of energy (e. yet we do need a certain amount of fat in our diets and on our bodies.g. and development. PROTEINS: Large molecules composed of one or more chains of amino acids in a specific order determined by the base sequence of nucleotides in the DNA coding for the protein. Food Sources: Protein is found in animal products. and minerals to target cells throughout the body • Source of energy—the liver can use protein to make glucose when there is not enough carbohydrate available. the monounsaturated fats (olive.i. poultry. carbohydrates and their derivatives play major roles in the working process of the immune system. and Antibodies. Function: Protein is a necessary component for building. The good fats are the unsaturated fats. and the outer layer of skin. • Simple carbohydrates include naturally occurring sugars in milk and fruit. and fructose. and peanut oil) and polyunsaturated fats. vitamins. rice. teeth.: starch. pathogenesis. namely. E. The basic carbohydrate units are called monosaccharides. glycogen) and structural components (e. carbohydrates are simple organic compounds that are aldehydes or ketones with many hydroxyl groups added. such as glucose. legumes. Minerals. and refined sugars (granulated sugar).g. usually one on each carbon atom that is not part of the aldehyde or ketone functional group. which is important for intestinal health. Hormones. • Complex carbohydrates include starches and indigestible dietary fibre. The point to keep in mind is that there are good fats and bad fats. . white blood cells. The polyunsaturated fats provide us with essential fatty acids (EFAs). Fiber (Dietary fiber) D. Saturated fats are found in animal products such as meat. Water CARBOHYDRATES: Carbohydrates are the body‘s main source of fuel—glucose. canola.: Enzymes.: cellulose in plants and chitin). beans. such as insulin and thyroid hormone • Production of enzymes that control chemical reactions in the body • Proper immune function—production of antibodies. including: • Production of collagen and keratin. such as when you skip a meal or follow a low-carb diet. and other • immune factors • Transportation of oxygen. Function: Carbohydrate fills numerous roles in living things. • hair. blood clotting. Starches are found in bread. which are the structural components of bones. nuts. they help maintain the structure of blood vessels • Manufacture of hormones. pasta. and some vegetables. Carbohydrate‘s general formula is (C – H 2 O) n Food Sources: There are two classes of carbohydrates—simple and complex.

and maintenance of healthy tissues. hemp. • EPA and DHA: Found in fatty fish.Complex • Vitamin C MINERALS. and eyes • Energy (fat is the most concentrated source of energy) • Absorbing fat-soluble vitamins (vitamins A. butter. AND ELECTROLYTES: Minerals are elements that originate in the earth. as it causes inflammation. such as salmon. The vitamins are either water-soluble or fat-soluble. Too much of this fat is not good. i. magnesium. Water soluble: • Vitamin B. Food Sources: Here is a breakdown of the EFAs and their sources: • LA: Found in vegetable oils such as safflower. obesity. even with high-dose supplements. corn. D. and olive oil. K. • ALA: Found in fl axseed and hemp oil and. herring. cheese. There are also some minerals present in drinking water. We get adequate AA through diet. sex organs. TRACE MINERALS. as well as in tropical oils (such as palm. The Bvitamins and vitamin C dissolve in water and are easily eliminated from the body. palm kernel. and prostate. and evening primrose oils. Minerals are categorized according to our daily requirements. adrenal glands. function. are rare with these vitamins. and blackcurrant seeds. blackcurrant. D. high cholesterol. sardines. Both plant and animal foods provide minerals. sunflower. • AA: Found in meat and eggs. in nuts. Calcium. and lard. mackerel. and coconut oil) and foods made from these oils. Animals get minerals from the plants they eat. E. colon. Fat-soluble vitamins (A. evening primrose. and cancers of the breast. and phosphorus are considered major minerals since we require a . and fat oxidation • Production of hormones and chemical messengers VITAMINS: There are 13 essential vitamins that our bodies need for proper growth. Adverse reactions.milk. cod. • GLA: Found in borage. wheat germ. and E) are not readily excreted from the body and have the potential to accumulate in the tissues and cause adverse effects at high doses. and carotenoids) • Maintaining cell membrane integrity • Regulation of cell processes such as gene activation and expression. but this varies with geographic location. canola. nervous system. inner ear. The body cannot make minerals so they must be obtained through the diet and/or supplements. enzyme function. as does the mineral content of plants. Function: • Growth and development of brain. Fat soluble: • Vitamin A • Vitamin D • Vitamin E • Vitamin K ii. and tuna. Plants obtain minerals from the soil they are grown in. and then we get these minerals indirectly by eating the animal products. to a lesser extent. green leafy vegetables. These fats are high in cholesterol and linked to heart disease.

Angina: Angina pectoris is a characteristic sudden. dietary fiber consists of Non-Starch Polysaccharides such as Cellulose and many other plant components such as Dextrins. DIETARY FIBRE: Dietary fiber is the indigestible portion of plant foods that pushes food through the digestive system. Hypertension: Hypertension results from increased peripheral vascular smooth muscle tone. jaw. Soluble fiber also absorbs water to become a gelatinous substance that passes through the body. Its cardinal symptoms are dyspnea. Blood is mostly water. and zinc. iron. Insulin. iodine. manganese. colon cancer. Pectins. The consumption of insoluble fiber reduces our risk of developing constipation. Eating fiber has many benefits for our health. The consumption of soluble fiber has been shown to protect us from developing heart disease by reducing our cholesterol levels. and hemorrhoids. Water also transports oxygen to our cells. pressing chest pain radiating to the neck. severe. Waxes. progressive disorder in which the heart is unable to pump sufficient blood to meet the needs of the body.substantial amount of these for health and wellness. The minerals potassium and sodium are known as electrolytes. Our body needs water to regulate body temperature and to provide the means for nutrients to travel to all our organs. and brain all contain a lot of water. Beta-Glucans and Oligosaccharides. and fluid retention. and our muscles. fluoride. leading to ischemia. are chromium. removes waste. Arrhythmias: The arrhythmias are conceptually simple dysfunctions cause abnormalities in impulse formation and conduction in the myocardium. which are required in smaller amounts. lungs. It is caused by coronary blood flow that is insufficient to meet the O2 demands of the myocardium. molybdenum. Normal Blood Pressure [Generally acceptable level] AGE PRESSURE 20 years 140/90 mm of Hg 50 years 160/95 mm of Hg 75 years 170/105 mm of Hg Degree of Hypertension Category Diastolic BP mm Hg Systolic BP mm Hg Normal <85 <130 High Normal 85-89 130-139 . Chemically. But it does change as it passes through the digestive tract. absorbing water and easing defecation. which leads to increased arteriolar resistance and reduced capacitance of the venous system. colitis. Soluble fiber cannot be digested. and protects our joints and organs. being transformed by bacteria there. and arms. selenium. fatigue. Dietary fiber can be soluble or insoluble. Insoluble fiber passes through the body largely unchanged. Lignin. WATER: Our body is estimated to be about (60–70) % water. Chitins. PATHOLOGY / DISEASE Major Heart Disease Heart Failure: HF is a complex. back. making them capable of conducting electricity. substances that dissociate into ions (charged particles) in solution. copper. The trace minerals.

Side Effects: Unwanted but often unavailable pharmacodynamic effects that occurs at therapeutic doses. or they produce a new effect that neither produces on its own.4 [Very severe] =120 =210 AIDS AIDS is a collection of symptoms and infections resulting from the specific damage to the immune system caused by HIV. Clinical Toxicology. Unpredictable Reaction Drug-Drug Interection: A drug interaction is a situation in which a substance affects the activity of a drug. the effects are increased or decreased. Predictable Reaction ii. and must be removed from the DNA or protein to avoid unwanted inflammatory responses prior to in vivo applications such as gene therapy. It is a structural component in the bacteria which is released mainly when bacteria are lysed. Killing of CD4+ T cells by CD8 Cytotoxic lymphocytes Hyperlipidemias: The incidence of Coronary Heart Disease is correlated with High Levels of Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) .3 [Severe] 110-119 180-209 Stage. as well as drugs & herbs (drug-herb interactions).Cholesterol & Triacylglycerols and with Low Levels of High Density Lipoprotein (HDL) .e. Toxic Effect: The result of excessive pharmacological action of drug due to over dosage / prolonged used. However.HypertensIon Stage. Increased rate of apoptosis 3. Pathophysiology of AIDS: 1. Mechanistic Toxicology. Adverse Effect: Any noxious change which is suspected to be due to a drug occurs at doses normally used in man. Scope of Toxicology: Descriptive Toxicology. LD50: The term LD50 refers to the dose of a toxic substance that kills 50% of a test population. Regulatory Toxicology. Re-enforcements: Ability of the drug to produce effects that make the user wishes to take it . Direct viral killing of T – Cells 2.Cholesterol. Metabolism of toxins & Elimination of toxins. Types of Adverse Effect: 2 Types: i. i. interaction between drugs come to mind (drug-drug interaction).2 [Moderate] 100-109 160-179 Stage. Endotoxins are frequent contaminants in plasmid DNA prepared from bacteria or proteins expressed from bacteria. Endotoxins: Endotoxins are toxins associated with certain bacteria. Poison: Any substance which has a harmful effect on a living system. Distribution of toxins. TOXICOLOGY Toxicology: A relatively young biological science that involves a complex interrelationship among the – Dose of toxins. interactions may also exist between drugs & foods (drug-food interactions). Typically. Forensic Toxicology. Absorption of toxins.1 [Mild] 90-99 140-159 Stage.

Muti. Herbalism: Herbalism is a traditional medicinal or folk medicine practice based on the use of plants and plant extracts. spiritual therapies. Homeopathy is a form of alternative medicine that treats patients with heavily diluted preparations that are thought to cause effects similar to the symptoms presented. Acupuncture. Alternative Medicine: Used in the modern Western world. meaning 'science'. Homeopathy: Homeopathy is a holistic form of complementary medicine. Homeopathic remedies are prepared by serial dilution with shaking by forceful striking ("succussing") after each step under the assumption that this increases the effect of the treatment. Ayurvedic. Medical Herbalism. and Diet-Based Therapies. It works on the principle that the mind and body are so strongly linked that physical conditions cannot be successfully treated without an understanding of the person‘s constitution and character. meaning 'life' and Veda. Traditional Chinese Medicine. Islamic and Traditional Chinese Medicine. Siddha. Ifá.again. shells and certain animal parts. Commonly cited examples include Naturopathy. Complementary & Alternative Medicines Traditional medicine: Traditional medicine (indigenous or folk medicine) developed over centuries within various societies before the era of modern medicine. Chiropractic. Homeopathy. applied singularly or in combination to treat. Unani. Urinary: A drug that lower the pH of the renal filtrate and urine. this process is referred to as "potentization". Herbology. Practices known as traditional medicines include Herbal. as well as minerals. diagnose and prevent illnesses or maintain well-being‖. first expounded by German physician Samuel Hahnemann in 1796. Biofeedback. The Sushruta Samhita and the Charaka Samhita were influential works on traditional medicine during this era. the word Ayurveda comprises the words Ayus. Yoga. [Polycarbophil. Homeopathic remedies generally contain few or no pharmacologically active ingredients. Herbalism. Acupuncture. Herbalism is also known as Botanical Medicine. Ancient Iranian. aiming to treat the whole person rather than just the physical symptoms. [Ammonium Chloride] Acidifier. gastrointestinal absorbent] Acidifier. Dilution often continues until none of the original substance remains. [Sodium Dihydrogen . such as dental plaque. Herbal Medicine. Meditation. DEFINITIONS OF SELECTED DRUG CATEGORIES A Abradant: An agent that removes an external layer. animal and mineral based medicines. and for such remedies to have pharmacological effect would violate fundamental principles of science. and Phytotherapy. WHO defines traditional medicine as: ―the health practices. and practiced in other parts of the world as a form of alternative medicine. Ayurveda ('science of life') is a system of traditional medicine native to India. Ayurveda. manual techniques and exercises. Hypnosis. The scope of herbal medicine is sometimes extended to include fungal and bee products. knowledge and beliefs incorporating plant. in addition to a range of other practices. approaches. [Pumice] Absorbent: A drug that takes up other chemicals into its substance. use to reduce the free availability of toxic chemicals. Systemic: A drug that lowers internal body pH. useful in restoring normal pH in patients with systemic alkalosis. Unani. Ayurveda: In Sanskrit.

to induce vasodilation. [Disulfiram] Alkalinizer. nonopioid analgesic] Androgen: A hormone that stimulates and maintains male reproductive function and sex characteristics. used to treat hypertension. [Testosterone] Anesthetic. [Ether.Phosphate] Adrenergic: A drug that activates organs innervated by the sympathetic nervous system.g. opioid analgesic. [Captopril] Anorexic: A drug that suppresses appetite. [Phentolamine] Anabolic Steroid: An androgen analogue with relatively greater anabolic activity. Topical: A local anesthetic that is effective upon application to mucous membranes. Beta adrenergic receptor antagonist] . Propranolol. a mineralcorticoid. [Sodium Bicarbonate] Alkylating Agent: An anti-neoplastic drug that attacks malignant cells by reacting covalently with their DNA. inhalation anesthetics. a glucocorticoid. intravenous anesthetics] Anesthetic. [Naloxone. used to treat catabolic disorders. opioid receptor agonist. Opioid receptor antagonist. Aspirin. Isoproterenol. [Desoxycorticosterone Acetate] Adrenocorticotropic Hormone: A hormone that stimulates the adrenal cortex to produce glucocorticoids. [Morphine. [Aluminum Hydroxyl Gel] Antagonist: A drug that reacts asymptomatically with physiological receptors and prevents their endogenous activation. [Morphine Sulfate. [Epinephrine] Adrenocorticosteroid. used to reduce the free availability of toxic chemicals. General: A drug that eliminates pain perception by inducing unconsciousness. [Prednisolone] Adrenocorticosteroid. e. e. gastrointestinal adsorbent] Agonist: A drug that reacts with and activates physiological receptors and induces the associated biologic response. useful restoring normal pH in patients with systemic acidosis. Anti-inflammatory: An adrenal cortex hormone that regulates organic metabolism and inhibits inflammatory response. Systemic: A drug that raises internal body pH. to induce vasoconstriction. [Kaolin. usually by elevating mood. [Procaine] Anesthetic. [Phentermine] Antacid: A drug that neutralizes excess gastric acid.g. Beta adrenergic receptor agonist] Alcohol-Abuse Deterrent: A drug that alters physiology so that unpleasant symptoms follow ingestion of ethanol-containing products. [Methandrostenolone] Analeptic: A central nervous system stimulant sometimes used to stimulate respiration during severe central nervous system depression. [Doxapram] Analgesic: A drug that suppresses pain perception without inducing unconsciousness. Salt-regulating: An adrenal cortex hormone that regulates Na / K balance in the body. a sympathomimetic drug. Local: A drug that eliminates pain perception in a limited body area by local action on sensory nervous. [Corticotropin] Adsorbent: A drug that binds other chemicals onto its surface. [Tetracaine] Angiotensin Converting Enzyme [ACE] Inhibitors: A drug that inhibits biotransformation of Angiotensin – 1 into vasoconstricting Angiotensin – 2. [Norepinephrine] Alpha Receptor Antagonist: A drug that reacts asymptomatically with sympathetic nervous system alpha receptors and prevents their endogenous activities. Thiopental Sodium. [Chlorambucil] Alpha Receptor Agonist: A drug that activates sympathetic nervous system alpha receptors.

[Colestipol] Anti-cholinergic: A drug that inhibits response to parasympathetic nerves impulses and cholinergic drugs. Propranolol. supplies vitamin K to oppose vitamin K – antagonist anti-coagulants] Anti-coagulant. anti-epileptic prophylactic. or a drug that arrests convulsions by inducing general central nervous system depression. [Phenytoin. [Penicillin. or in combination with other treatments such as surgery or radiation therapy. [Pralidoxime] Anti-coagulant Antagonist: A drug that opposes over dosage of anti-coagulant drugs. cancerous growths. beta adrenergic antagonist] Anti-amebic: A drug that kills or inhibits protozoan parasites such as Entamoeba histolytica. [Nitroglycerin] Anti-arrhythmic: A coronary depressant useful in suppressing rhythm irregularities of the heart. [Procainamide] Anti-arthritic: A drug that reduces the joint inflammation of arthritis. [Metronidazole. Indomethacin.Anthelmintics: A drug that eradicates intestinal worm infestation. [Insulin Injection. supplies insulin. systemic antibacterial. Chloroquine. [Warfarin] Anti-coagulant. [Desmopressin] Anti-dote. used to treat neurogenic diabetes insipidus. Anti-anemic: A drug use to treat anemia. topical antibacterial] Anti-biotic: A drug originally of microbial origin used to kill or inhibit bacterial and other infections. Cancer chemotherapy strives to cause a lethal cytotoxic event in the cancer cell that can arrest a tumor‘s progression. [Atropine] Anti-cholinesterase Antidote: A drug that reactivates cholinesterase enzyme after its inactivation by organophosphate poisons. [Phentolamine. causative agent of amebiasis. [Prenisolone. [Activated Charcoal] . [Tretinoin] Anti-adrenergic: A drug that inhibits response to sympathetic nerve impulses and adrenergic drugs. Anti-cholesterol Agent: A drug that lowers plasma cholesterol level. a sympatholytic drug. Drug therapy may be used alone. [Penicillin G. [Thiabendazole] Anti-acne Agent: A drug that combats the lesions of acne vulgaris. used to treat diarrhea. useful in treating diabetes mellitus. Glucocorticoid. extraintestinal anti-amebic] Anti-androgen: A drug that inhibits response to an androgen hormone. intestinal anti-amebic. stimulates insulin secretion] Anti-diarrheal: A drug that inhibits intestinal peristalsis. alpha adrenergic antagonist. for Storage of Whole Blood: A non-toxic agent added to collected blood to prevent clotting. Diazepam. urinary antibacterial. [Anti-coagulant Citrate Dextrose Solution] Anti-convulsant: An anti-epileptic drug administered prophylactically to prevent seizures. Systemic: A drug administered to slow clotting of circulating blood. General Purpose: A drug that reduces the effects of ingested poisons [or drug overdoses] by absorbing toxic material. useful in treating mental depression. Tetracycline] Anti-cancer Drugs: Anti-cancer or anti-neoplastic drugs are used to treat malignancies. Anti-anginal: A coronary vasodilator useful in preventing or treating attacks of angina pectoris. thus reducing urine volume. a parasympatholytic drug. Tolbutamide. NSAID] Anti-bacterial: A drug that kills or inhibits pathogenic bacteria. [Amitriptyline] Anti-diabetic: A drug that supplies insulin or stimulates secretion of insulin. Bacitracin. [Phytonadione. central nervous system depressant anti-convulsant] Anti-depressant: A centrally acting drug that induces mood elevation. Nitrofurantoin. [Diphenoxylate] Anti-diuretic: A drug that promotes renal water reabsorption.

used to treat glaucoma. Systemic: A drug that kills or inhibits pathogenic fungi. [Parathyroid injection] Anti-hypoglycemic: A drug that elevates plasma glucose level. [Griseofulvin] Anti-fungal. {Prednisolone. [Allopurinol for chronic gout. non-steroid] Anti-insomnia Drugs: Anti-insomnia drugs are medications that help people who have difficulty falling asleep. awakening early. [Acyclovir] Anti-histaminic: A drug that antagonizes histamine action at H1 histamine receptors. useful in treating hypoglycemia. and gold poisoning] Anti-eczematic: A topical drug that aids in control of chronic exudative skin lesions. [Anti-hemophilic factor] Anti-herpes Agent: A drug that inhibits replication of Herpes simplex virus. [Methazolamide reduces fluid formation.Anti-dote Specific: A drug that reduces the effects of a systemic poison [or drug overdoses] by a mechanism that relates to the particular poison. [Tolnaftate] Anti-glaucoma Agent: A drug that lowers intraocular fluid pressure. used to suppress ovarian malfunction. Adrenocorticosteroid. [Prochlorperazine] Anti-eneuretic: A drug that aids in control of bed-wetting [enuresis]. [Danazol] Anti-gout Agent: A drug that reduces tissue deposits of uric acid in chronic gout or suppresses the intense inflammatory reaction of acute gout. Ibuprofen. [Simethicone] Anti-fungal. useful in treating hypocalcaemia. [Diethylcarbamazine] Anti-flatuent: A drug that reduces gastrointestinal gas. or who have disturbed sleep patterns resulting in insufficient sleep. especially the elevated diastolic pressure of hypertension. specific antidote for arsenic. Indomethacin for acute gout] Anti-hemophilic: A drug that replaces blood clotting factors absent in the hereditary disease hemophilia. [Hydroxystilbamidine isethionate] Anti-leprotic: A drug that kills or inhibits Mycobacterium leprae. [Chloropheniramine] Anti-hyperlipidemic: A drug that lowers plasma cholesterol and lipid levels. [Dimercaprol. used to treat genital herpes. Anti-leishmanial: A drug that kills or inhibits pathogenic protozoa of the genus Leishmania. [Dapsone] . [Tamoxifen] Anti-fibrinolytic: A drug that promotes homeostasis by inhibiting clot dissolution [fibrinolysis]. [Povidone iodine liquid soap] Anti-inflammatory: A drug that inhibits physiologic response to cell damage [inflammation]. Topical: A drug applied externally to kill or inhibit pathogenic fungi. Isofluorophate promotes fluid drainage] Anti-gonadotropin: A drug that inhibits anterior pituitary secretion of gonadotropins. [Coal Tar] Anti-emetic: A drug that suppress nausea and vomiting. mercury. [Guanethidine] Anti-hypocalcemic: A drug that elevates plasma Ca level. [Glucagon] Anti-infective. [Imipramine] Anti-epileptic: A drug that prevents epileptic seizures upon prophylactic administration. useful in suppressing the histamine-induced symptoms of allergy. staying asleep. Topical [or Local]: A drug that kills or inhibits pathogenic microorganisms and is suitable for sterilizing skin and wounds. causative agent of leprosy. [Aminocaproic Acid] Anti-filarial: A drug that kills or inhibits pathogenic filarial worms. [Clofibrate] Anti-hypertensive: A drug that lowers arterial blood pressure. [Ethosuximide] Anti-estrogen: A drug that inhibits action of estrogenic hormones.

as well as destroying viruses.pruritic] Anti-psoriatic: A drug that suppresses the lesions and symptoms of psoriasis. [Lindane for scabies. [Acetaminophen] Anti-rachitic: A drug with vitamin D activity. topical anti-psoriatic] Anti-psychotic: A drug that suppresses symptoms of psychoses of various diagnostic types. vomiting. etc. Main classes of Antimicrobial Drugs: • Anti-biotics • Anti-virals • Anti-fungals • Anti-parasitics Anti-migraine Agent: A drug that reduces incidence or severity of migraine vascular headaches. [Chlorambucil. Antimicrobial drugs either kill microbes (microbicidal) or prevent the growth of microbes (microbistatic). causative agents of malaria. an anti-diarrheal drug. Thiabendazole for intestinal worms. anti-neoplastic antimetabolite] Anti-microbial: An antimicrobial is a substance that kills or inhibits the growth of microorganisms such as bacteria. systemic anti-pruritic. Metronidazole for amebic dysentery] Anti-parkinsonism / Anti-dyskinetic: A drug that suppresses the neurologic disturbances and symptoms of parkinsonism. [Trimeprazine. Lowering an elevated body temperature and relieving pain without impairing consciousness. [Aspirin] Anti-protozoal: A drug that kills or inhibits pathogenic protozoa. [Methylsergide] Anti-motion Sickness Agent: A drug that suppresses motion-induced nausea. [Cholecalciferol] Anti-rheumatic: An anti-inflammatory drug used to treat arthritis and rheumatoid disorders. Anthralin. or protozoans. alkylating agent] Anti-parasitic: A drug that eradicates parasitic arthropods. [Indomethacin] . [Lithium Carbonate] Anti-metabolite: A drug that attacks malignant cells or pathogenic cells by serving as a nonfunctional substitute for an essential metabolite. and vertigo. useful in treating vitamin D deficiency and rickets. [Dimenhydrinate] Anti-muscarinic: An anti-cholinergic drug that inhibits symptoms mediated by acetylcholine receptors of visceral organs [muscarinic receptors]. protozoa. [Atropine] Anti-nauseant: A drug suppresses nausea and vomiting. [Ondansetron] Anti-neoplastic: A drug that attacks malignant [neoplastic] cells in the body. [Fluorouracil. topical anti. O/R. [Metronidazole] Anti-pruritic: A drug that reduces itching [pruritus]. used to prevent heart attack. systemic anti. Menthol. an anti-emetic. fungi. [Levodopa] Anti-peristaltic: A drug that inhibits intestinal motility. [Diphenoxylate] Anti-platelet Agent: A drug that inhibits aggregation of blood platelets. helminthes. [Chloroquine] Anti-manic: A drug that suppresses the excitement phase [mania] of bipolar disorder. [Methotrexate.psoriatic.Anti-malarial: A drug that kills or inhibits protozoa of the genus Plasmodium. [Haloperidol] Anti-pyretic: A drug that restores normal body temperature in the presence of fever.

Uterus. [Penicillin] Anti-trichomonal: A drug that kills or inhibits pathogenic protozoa of the genus Trichomonas. Ophthalmic: A mild astringent suitable for use in the eye. [Oxaminiquine] Anti-scorbutic: A drug with vitamin C activity. beta-adrenergic antagonists. to oppose sympathetic stimulation of the heart. to induce bronchodilation. useful in treating vitamin C deficiency and scurvy. [Aluminum Acetate Solution] Astringent. Vascular . • β1 .Adrenergic Receptors are located mainly in the Lungs. and hypertension. cardio-protection after myocardial infarction (heart attack). or beta antagonists. [Atropine] Anti-thyroid Agent: A drug that reduces thyroid hormone action. [Metronidazole] Anti-tubercular: A drug that kills or inhibits Mycobacterium tuberculosis. [Isoproterenol] Beta Receptor Antagonist: A drug that reacts asymptomatically with sympathetic nervous system beta receptors and prevents their endogenous activation. Ophthalmic Anti-viral] Anti-viral. sepsis. or putrefaction. [Vitamin A] Anxiolytic: A drug suppresses symptoms of anxiety. e. [Phenobarbital] Belladonna Alkaloid: A plant principle derived from Atropa belladonna and related species. [Atropine] Benzodiazepine: A sedative-anxiolytic-muscle relaxant drug that contains the benzodiazepine moiety in its chemical structure. causative agent of syphilis. usually by inhibiting hormone synthesis. • β2 . Prophylactic: A drug useful in preventing [rather than treating] viral infections. [Selenium Sulfide] Anti-septics: Anti-septics are anti-microbial substances that are applied to living tissue/skin to reduce the possibility of infection. [Zinc Sulfate] B Barbiturate: A sedative-hypnotic drug that contains the barbituric acid moiety in its chemical structure. [Diazepam] Astringent: A drug used topically to toughen and shrink tissues. useful in treating vitamin A deficiency and xerophthalmia. causative agent of tuberculosis. [Dextromethorpan] Anti-viral: A drug that kills or inhibits viral infections. prophylactic for influenza] Anti-xerophthalmic: A drug with vitamin A activity.g. [Chlorampenicol] Anti-schistosomal: A drug that kills or inhibits pathogenic flukes of the genus Schistosoma.Anti-rickettsial: A drug that kills or inhibits pathogenic microorganisms of the genus Rickettsia. GIT. [Diazepam] Beta Receptor Agonist: A drug that activates sympathetic nervous system beta receptors. [Idoxuridine. with anti-cholinergic action. Beta blockers may also be referred to as beta-adrenergic blocking agents.Adrenergic Receptors are located mainly in the Heart and in the Kidneys. [Ascorbic Acid] Anti-seborrheic: A drug that aids in the control of seborrheic dermatitis [dandruff]. [Methimazole] Anti-treponemal: A drug that kills or inhibits Treponema pallidum.g. Anti-spasmodic: A drug that inhibits motility of visceral smooth muscles. [Amantadine.Receptor blockers: Beta blockers are a class of drugs used for the management of cardiac arrhythmias. [Propranolol] β . e. [Isoniazid] Anti-tussive: A drug that suppresses coughing. Liver.

Adrenergic Receptors are located in Fat Cells. Systemic. useful in treating poisoning. Hypnotic. Currently available oral contraceptives are for use by females.Smooth Muscle. Pilocarpine. [Danthron] Caustic: A topical drugs that destroys tissue on contact. usually considered stronger in action than a laxative. [Sedative. systemic cholinergic. with cardiotonic action. Oral: An orally administered drug that prevents conception. [Auranofin] Coagulant: see Hemostatic. chelating agent for lead] Cholelitholytic: A drug that promotes dissolution of gallstones. [Digoxin] Catecholamine Synthesis Inhibitor: A drug that inhibits biosynthesis of catecholamine neurotransmitters such as Norepinephrine. useful in removing skin lesions. [Verapamil] Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors: A drug that inhibits the enzyme carbonic anhydrase. [Neostigmine. the therapeutic effects of which are diuresis and reduces formation of intra-ocular fluid. useful in treating congestive heart failure. smooth muscle relaxant bronchodilator] C Calcium Channel Blocker: An anti-anginal drug that acts by impairing function of transmembrane calcium channels of vascular smooth muscle cells. [Isoproterenol. Anti-arrhythmic: A drug that depresses myocardial function. ophthalmic cholinergic] Chrysotherapeutic: A drug containing gold. a parasympathomimetic drug. [Ursodoxycholic acid] Choleretic: A drug that increases bile secretion by the liver. [Etidronate] Bronchodilator: A drug that expands bronchiolar airways. adrenergic bronchodilator. Contraceptive. [Procainamide] Cardiac Glycoside: A plant principle derived from Digitalis purpurea and related species. [Edetate Calcium Disodium. [Metyrosine] Cathartic: A dug that promotes defection. and Skeletal Muscle. Bone Metabolism Regulator: A drug that slows calcium turnover in bone. [Toughened Silver Nitrate] Centrally Acting Drug: A drug that produces its therapeutic effect by action on the central nervous system. Anticonvulsant. Oxytriphylline. etc] Cephalosporin: An anti-microbial drug that contains the cephalosporin moiety in its chemical structure. [Acetazolamide] Cardiac Depressant. [Cyclopentolate] D . [Cefotaxime] Chelating Agent: A complexing agent that binds metal ions into stable ring structures. usually designated by type of therapeutic action. • β3 . [Norethindrone Acetate and Ethinyl Estradiol Tablets] Contraceptive. Topical: A spermicidal agent used topically in the vagina to prevent conception. useful in treating asthma. useful in treating cardiac arrhythmias. used to treat rheumatoid arthritis. [Digoxin] Cardiotonic: A drug that increases myocardial contractile force. [Nonoxynol – 9] Cycloplegic: An anti-cholinergic drug used topically in the eye to induce paralysis of accommodation [cycloplegia] and dilation of the pupil. [Dehydrocholic acid] Cholinergic: A drug that activates organs innervated by the parasympathetic nervous system. used to treat Paget‘s disease.

[Oxytocin Nasal Spray] Glucocorticoid: An adrenocortical hormone that regulates organic metabolism and inhibits inflammatory response. Ergotamine] Estrogen: A hormone that stimulants and maintains female reproductive organs and sex characteristics and functions in the uterine cycle.g. Hydrochlorothiazide. e. uterine contractant. [Hexachlorophene Liquid Soap. [Stannous Fluoride] Dentin Desensitizer: A drug applied to the teeth to reduce the sensitivity of exposed sub-enamel dentin. thiazide diuretic. [Zinc Chloride] Depigmenting Agent: A drug that inhibits melanin production in the skin. lowers their viscosity. [Ethinyl Estradinol] Expectorant: A drug that increases respiratory tract secretions. [Furosemide. Triamterene. usually water-based. [Cold Cream] Ergot Alkaloid: A plant principle derived from the fungus Claviceps purpurea grown on rye or other grains. gastric secretion indicator. especially an oil or fat. used to induce general depigmentation in certain splotchy depigmented conditions [e. Vitiligo].g. loop diuretic. [Formaldehyde Solution] Diuretic: A drug that promotes renal excretion of electrolytes and water. {Peptavlon. Nasal: An adrenergic drug used orally or topically to induce vasoconstriction in nasal passages. used to coat and soothe damaged or inflamed skin or mucous membranes. Bovine] G Galactokinetic: A drug used to initiate lactation after childbirth. [Fibrinolysin and Desoxyribonuclease. usually by supplementing a gastrointestinal enzyme. [Ipecac Syrup] Emollient: A topical drug. Dental Caries Prophylactic: A drug applied to the teeth to reduce the incidence of cavities. [Ergonovine. [Docusate] Fertility Agent: A drug that promotes ovulation in women of low fertility or spermatogenesis in men of low fertility. [Clomiphene] Fibrinolytic proteolytic: An enzyme drug used topically to hydrolyze exudates of infected and inflammatory lesions. useful in treating generalized edema. [Pancreatin] Disinfectant: An agent that destroys microorganisms on contact and suitable for sterilizing inanimate objects. Fluorescein Sodium. [Hydroquinone] Detergent: An emulsifying agent used as a cleanser. [Bromocryptine] E Emetic: A drug that induces vomiting. to inhibit anterior pituitary secretion of prolactin. and promotes removal. [Potassium Iodide] F Fecal Softener: A drug that promotes defecation by softening the feces. antiinfective detergent] Diagnostic Aid: A drug used to determine the functional state of a body organ or to determine the presence of disease. potassium-sparing diuretic] Dopamine Receptor Agonist: A drug that activates dopamine receptors.Decongestant. useful in expelling ingested but unabsorbed poisons. [Phenylephrine] Demulcent: A bland viscous liquid. [Betamethasone] Gonadotropin: A drug that supplies the gonad-stimulating actions of follicle-stimulating . corneal trauma indicators] Digestive Aid: A drug that promotes digestion. used to soften the skin and make it more pliable.

Estradiol. Local: A drug that reacts weakly and non-specifically with biological tissue. used in children to treat growth failure due to growth hormone lack. [Azathioprine] Inotropic Agent: A drug that increases the contractile strength of heart muscle. [Hyaluronidase] Hyperglycemic: A drug that elevates blood glucose level. [Ferrous Sulfate] Hemorheologic Agent: A drug that improves the flow properties of blood by reducing viscosity. Passive: A drug containing anti-bodies against a pathogenic microorganism. [Insulin. [Cimetidine] Hormone: A drug that duplicates action of a physiologic cell regulator [hormone]. [Immunizing agent. used to provide permanent but delayed protection against infection. [Phenytoin] Hydrolytic. Human: A drug that duplicates endogenous growth hormone. useful in treating vitamindeficiency anemia. Active: An anti-gen that induces anti-body production against a pathogenic microorganism. Immune Globulin] Immunosuppressant: A drug that inhibits immune response to foreign materials. Local: A drug applied to a bleeding surface to promote clotting or to serve as a clot matrix. clot matrix] Haemostatic. Human Chorionic Gonadotropin has LH-like activity] Growth Hormone. used to provide immediate but temporary protection against infection. [Somatrem] H Heavy Metal Antagonist: A drug used as an anti-dote to poisoning with toxic metals such as arsenic and mercury. [Tetanus Toxoid] Immunizing Agent. [Tetanus Immune Globulin. clot promoter. a cardiotonic. Passive] Immunizing Agent. used to confer passive immunity to infectious disease. Injectable: An enzyme drug that promotes the diffusion of other injected drugs through connective tissues. used . [Menotropins contains FSH and LH. [Flurazepam] Hypotensive: see Anti-hypertensive. [Aminocaproic Acid] Histamine H1 Receptor Antagonist: A drug used to combat the histamine-induced symptoms of allergy. I Immunoglobulin: Anti-body protein derived from blood serum. Dopamine] Ion Exchange Resin: A drug that in the gastrointestinal tract takes up ions present in a toxic amount with equivalent release of nontoxic ions. Systemic: A drug that stops bleeding by inhibiting systemic fibrinolysis. Oxidizer Cellulose. [Sodium Polystyrene Sulfonate takes up potassium ions with release of sodium ions] Irritant. [Dimercaprol] Hematopoietic: A vitamin that stimulates formation of blood cells. used to promote fertility. used to suppress rejection of tissue grafts. [Digitoxin. [Cyanocobalamin] Hematinic: A drug that promotes hemoglobin formation by supplying iron. anti-histamine [Chlorpheniramine] Histamine H2 Receptor Antagonist: A drug that inhibits histamine-mediated gastric acid secretion. Thyroxine] Hydantoin: An anti-epileptic drug that contains the hydantoin moiety in its chemical structure. used to treat peptic and duodenal ulcers. [Glucagon] Hypnotic: A central nervous system depressant used to induce sleep. [Thrombin.hormone [FSH] and luteinizing hormone [LH]. [Pentoxyfylline] Hemostatic.

topically to induce a mild inflammation response. liquids and injectable formulations. [Acetylcysteine] Multi-vitamin: A multivitamin is a preparation intended to supplement a human diet with vitamins. used to terminate the action of narcotic drugs. saline laxative] Leprostatic: see Anti-leprotic. pastilles. [Camphor] K Keratolytic: A topical drug that toughens and protects skin. Loop diuretics inhibit the Na-K-Cl co-transporter in the thick ascending limb. Smooth: A drug that inhibits contraction of visceral smooth muscles. [Desoxycorticosterone Acetate] Miotic: A cholinergic drug used topically in the eye to induce constriction of the pupil [miosis]. [Phenylephrine] N Narcotic: A drug that induces action by reacting with opioid receptors of the CNS. Muscle Relaxant. [Aminophylline] Mydriatic: An adrenergic drug used topically in the eye to induce dilation of the pupil [mydriasis]. [Dantrolene. [Methylcellulose. [Compound Benzoin Tincture] L Laxative: A drug that promotes defecation. inactivates T-lymphocytes. Such preparations are available in the form of tablets. . Opioid Antagonist: see Narcotic Antagonist. Succinylcholine] Muscle Relaxant. O Opioid: see Narcotic. [Dimercaprol. mercury. CD-3. This transporter normally reabsorbs about 25% of the sodium load. complexing agent for arsenic. Skeletal: A drug that inhibits contraction of voluntary muscles. dietary minerals and other nutritional elements. Sodium Phosphates Oral Solution. bulk laxative. powders. capsules. useful in treating metal poisoning. lubricant laxative. or a drug legally classified as a narcotic with regard to prescribing regulations. that reject tissue grafts] Mucolytic: A drug that hydrolyzes mucoproteins. [Muromonab. Metal Complexing Agent: A drug that binds metal ions. [Naloxone] Neuromuscular Blocking Agent: A drug that paralyzes skeletal muscles by preventing transmission of neural impulses to them. anti-inflammatory drug that inhibits prostaglandin synthesis. Multivitamin supplements are commonly provided in combination with minerals. and gold] Mineralocorticoid: An adrenocortical hormone that regulates sodium/potassium balance in the body. Mineral oil. Loop Diuretic: A diuretic with renal site of action in the thick ascending loop of Henle. [Pilocarpine] Monoclonal Anti-body: A highly specific immunoglobulin produced by cell culture cloning. usually considered milder in action than a cathartic. [Indomethacin] NSAID: see Non-Steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drug. [Succinylcholine] Non-Steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drug: An analgesic. Narcotic Antagonist: A drug that reacts with opioid receptors asymptomatically. useful in reducing the viscosity of pulmonary mucus. [Furosemide] M MAO Inhibitor: see Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitor.

[Vasopressin injection] Potassium-sparing Diuretics: A diuretic that does not make systemic potassium reduction as a side effect. [Norethindrone] Proton Pump Inhibitors: PPIs are a group of drugs whose main action is a pronounced and longlasting reduction of gastric acid production. [Neostigmine] Pediculicide: An insecticide suitable for eradicating louse infestations [pediculosis]. [Zinc Gelatin. maintains ductus arteriosis patency in newborn infants pending corrective surgery for congenital heart defects] Prostaglandin Synthesis Inhibitor: A drug that inhibits prostaglandin synthesis and prostaglandinintended symptoms such as inflammation. . anti-depressant] Photo-sensitizer: A drug that increases cutaneous response to ultraviolet light. useful in treating diabetes insipidus. [Trioxsalen. [Probenecid] Phenothiazine: An anti-psychotic or anti-depressant drug that contains the Phenothiazine nucleus in its chemical structure. anti-psychotic. Anti-diuretic: A hormone that promotes renal reabsorption of water. an anti-cholinergic drug. Prostaglandin: A drug from the classes of cell-regulating hormones cyclized from arachidonic acid. topical pigmenting agent] Posterior Pituitary Hormone. [Atropine] Parasympathomimetic: A drug that activates organs innervated by the parasympathetic nervous system. a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug. PPIs act by irreversibly blocking the H+/K+ ATPase of the gastric parietal cell. Imipramine. used with ultraviolet light to treat certain skin diseases [e. [Lindane] Penicillin Adjuvant: A drug that extends systemic duration of penicillin by inhibiting its renal excretion. [Oxytocin] Osmotic diuretic: An osmotic diuretic is a type of diuretic that inhibit reabsorption of water and sodium. potentiator for Succinylcholine] Progestin: A progesterone-like hormone that stimulates the secretory phase of the uterine cycle. ophthalmic protectant] Proteolytic. [Alprostadil. Methylcellulose.Oxytoxic: A drug that stimulates uterine motility. [Chloropromazine. a cholinergic drug. Injectable: An enzyme drug for injection into herniated lumber intervertebral discs to reduce interdiscal pressure. P Parasympatholytic: A drug that inhibits response to parasympathetic nerve impulse and to parasympathomimetic drugs. skin protectant. [Hexafluorenium.g. [Triamterene] Potentiator: An adjunctive drug that enhances the action of a primary drug. [Mescaline] Psychotherapeutic: A drug used to treat abnormal metal or emotional processes. They are more effective than H2 antagonists and reduce gastric acid secretion by up to 99%. Osmotic diuretics works by increasing blood flow to the kidney. Methoxsalen. [Chymopapain] Prothrombogenic: A drug with vitamin K activity. useful in treating the hypoprothrombinemia of vitamin K deficiency or overdosage with a vitamin K antagonist. used in obstetrics to initiate labor or to control postpartum hemorrhage. This washes out the cortical medullary gradient in the kidney. oral pigmenting agent. [Phytonadione] Psychedelic: A drug [especially a street drug] that induces vivid sensory phenomena and hallucinations. [Ibuprofen] Protectant: A topical drug that provides a physical barrier to the environment. the total response being greater than the sum of the individual actions. [Methoxsalen] Pigmenting Agent: A drug that promotes melanin synthesis in the skin. psoriasis].

Ethamivan. alpha sympatholytic. Haloperidol] R Rauwolfia Alkaloid: A plant principle derived from Rauwolfia serpentina and related species. Radiopharmaceutical: A drug containing a radioactive isotope. Electrolyte Removing: see Ion Exchange Resin. [Phenobarbital] Specific: A drug specially adapted in its indicated use. [Lindane] Sclerosing Agent: An irritant drug suitable for injection into varicose veins to induce their fibrosis and obliteration. reflex respiratory stimulant. [Hydrochlorothiazide] Thrombolytic: An enzyme drug administered parenterally to solubilize blood clots. an anti-adrenergic drug. [Levothyroxine] Topically Acting Drug: A drug applied to the body surface for local therapeutic action. central respiratory stimulant] Sum Screening Agent: A skin protectant that absorbs light energy at wavelengths that cause sunburn. used for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. an adrenergic drug. [Phentolamine. Rubefacient: A topical drug that induces mild skin irritation with erythema. [Rubbing Alcohol] S Salt Substitute: A sodium-free substance. [Flurothyl] Stimulant. alternative to sodium chloride. [Urokinase] Thyroid Hormone: A hormone that maintains metabolic function and normal metabolic rate of tissues. or by selective CNS stimulation. with anti-hypertensive and anti-psychotic actions. T Thiazide Diuretic: A diuretic that contains the benzothiadiazide [thiazide] moiety in its chemical structure. either by peripheral initiation of respiratory reflexes. [Para-Amino-Benzoic Acid] Sulfonylurea: An oral anti-diabetic drug that contains the sulfonylurea moiety in its chemical structure. [Tolazamide] Suppressant: A drug that inhibits the progress of a disease but does not cure it. [Potassium Chloride] Scabicide: An insecticide suitable for eradication of the itch mite Sarcoptes scabiei [scabies]. usually because of a functional relationship between drug metabolism and disease patho-physiology. including the site of the therapeutic action. Respiratory: A drug that selectively stimulates respiration.[Chlorpromazine. Propranolol. from which the drug diffuses into all tissues. [Epinephrine] Synergistic Effect: Sometimes a combination of two drugs is given because this can be significantly more effective than either compound alone. Central: A drug that increases the functional state of the CNS. beta sympatholytic] Sympathomimetic: A drug that activates organs innervated by the sympathetic nervous system. Sympatholytic: A drug that inhibits response to sympathetic nerve impulses and to sympathomimetic drugs. used as a toughening agent. used for flavoring foods. [Morrhuate Sodium Injection] Sedative: A central nervous system depressant used to induce mild relaxation. [Iodinated Albumen with 125I or 131I] Resin. Stimulant. [Reserpine] Radiographic Agent: see X-Ray Contrast Medium. [CO2. Systemically Acting Drug: A drug administered so as to reach systemic circulation. sometimes used in convulsion therapy of mental disorders. .

[Trifluroperazine. [Minoxidil] Vasopressor: An adrenergic drug administered to constrict arterioles and elevate arterial blood pressure. [Caffeine] X – Ray Contrast Medium: A drug opaque to x-rays that assists visualization of an internal organ during radiographic examination. [Probenecid] Uterine Contraction: An obstetric drug used after placenta delivery to induce sustained uterine contraction to reduce bleeding. Vasodilator. with CNS stimulant. Iopanoic Acid] Posted by Hasif Sinha at 10:47 0 comments Older Posts Home Subscribe to: Posts (Atom) About Me Hasif Sinha . Coronary: A drug that expands blood vessels in the heart and improves coronary blood flow. [Norepinephrine] Vinca Alkaloid: A plant principle derived from Vinca rosea and related species. Minor: An old term for an anxiolytic drug. [Ritodrine] V Vaccine: An anti-gen containing drug used to induce active immunity against an infectious disease. usually to elevate blood pressure. [Hepatitis B vaccine. smooth muscle relaxant. Tricyclic Anti-depressant: An anti-depressant that contains the Tricyclic Phenothiazine nucleus in its chemical structure. useful in treating angina pectoris. [Vincristine] Vitamin: An organic chemical essential in small amounts for normal metabolism.psychotic] Tranquilizer. [Barium Sulfate. anti. useful in treating chronic gout. Peripheral: A drug expands peripheral blood vessels and improves blood flow to the extremities of the body. an anti-anginal drug. and diuretic actions. X Xanthine Alkaloid: A plant principle chemically related to xanthine. [Nitroglycerin] Vasodilator. [Imipramine] Tuberculostatic: see Anti-tubercular. Rabies Vaccine] Vasoconstriction: A drug that narrows arterioles. used in preterm labor to prolong gestation. [Methylergonovine] Uterine Contraction Inhibitor: A drug that inhibits uterine muscle contraction. U Uricosuric: A drug that promotes renal excretion of uric acid. See Vasopressor. used therapeutically to supplement the vitamin content of foods. [Tetanus Toxoid] Tranquilizer: A drug [such as anti-psychotic] used to suppress an acutely disturbed emotional state. with antineoplastic action.Toxoid: A modified anti-gen from an infectious organism used as a vaccine.

...View my complete profile Followers Blog Archive  ▼ 2009 (5) o ▼ September (5)  MD.  P H A R M A C O L O G Y Pharmacology is the study. HASIF SINHA  P H A R M A C Y Pharmacy: Pharmacy derived its na....  A B B R E V I A T I O N S • ACPH: Air Changes per.. Medicine ..  P H A R M A C E U T I C S Pharmaceutics: An unde.

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