1)WhaL ls an aurora?

Aurora is a luminous glow oI the upper atmosphere which is caused by energetic particles that
enter the atmosphere Irom above.
Cn LarLhţ Lhe energeLlc parLlcles LhaL make aurora come from Lhe geospace envlronmenLţ Lhe
magneLosphereŦ 1hese energeLlc parLlcles are mosLly elecLronsţ buL proLons also make auroraŦ 1he
elecLrons Lravel along magneLlc fleld llnesŦ 1he LarLhƌs magneLlc fleld looks llke LhaL of a dlpole magneL
where Lhe fleld llnes are comlng ouL and golng lnLo Lhe LarLh near Lhe polesŦ 1he auroral elecLrons are
Lhus gulded Lo Lhe hlgh laLlLude aLmosphereŦ As Lhey peneLraLe lnLo Lhe upper aLmosphereţ Lhe chance
of collldlng wlLh an aLom or molecule lncreases Lhe deeper Lhey goŦ Cnce a colllslon Lakes placeţ Lhe
aLom or molecule Lakes some of Lhe energy of Lhe energeLlc parLlcle and sLores lL as lnLernal energy
whlle Lhe elecLron goes on wlLh a reduced speedŦ 1he process of sLorlng energy ln a molecule or aLom ls
called ƍexclLlngƍ Lhe aLomŦ An exclLed aLom or molecule can reLurn Lo Lhe nonŴexclLed sLaLe (ground
sLaLe) by sendlng off a phoLonţ lŦeŦ by maklng llghLŦ








2)WhaL makes Lhe colour of an aurora?
When an excited atom or molecule returns to the ground state, it sends
out a photon with a speciIic energy. This energy depends on the type
oI atom and on the level oI excitement, and we perceive the energy oI
a photon as color. The upper atmosphere consists oI air just like the air
we breathe. At very high altitudes there is atomic oxygen in addition to
normal air, which is made up oI molecular nitrogen and molecular
oxygen. The energetic electrons in aurora are strong enough to
occasionally split the molecules oI the air into nitrogen and oxygen
atoms. The photons that come out oI aurora have thereIore the
signature colors oI nitrogen and oxygen molecules and atoms. Oxygen
atoms, Ior example, strongly emit photons in two typical colors: green
and red. The red is a brownish red that is at the limit oI what the human eye can see, and
although the red auroral emission is oIten very bright, we can barely see it.
Photographic Iilm has a diIIerent sensitivity to colors than the eye, thereIore you oIten see more
red aurora on photos than with the unaided eye. Since there is more atomic oxygen at high
altitudes, the red aurora tends to be on top oI the regular green aurora. The colors that we see are
a mixture oI all the auroral emissions. Just like the white sunlight is a mixture oI the colors oI the
rainbow, the aurora is a mixture oI colors. The overall impression is a greenish-whitish glow.
Very intense aurora gets a purple edge at the bottom. The purple is a mixture oI blue and red
emissions Irom nitrogen molecules.

The green emission Irom oxygen atoms has a peculiar thing about it: usually an excited atom or
molecule returns to the ground state right away, and the emission oI a photon is a matter oI
microseconds or less. The oxygen atom, however, takes its time. Only aIter about a 3/4 second
does the excited atom return to the ground state to emit the green photon. For the red photon it
takes almost 2 minutes! II the atom happens to collide with another air particle during this time,
it might just turn its excitation energy over to the collision partner, and thus never radiate the
photon. Collisions are more likely when the atmospheric gas is dense, so they happen more oIten
the lower down we go. This is why the red color oI oxygen only appears at the very top oI an
aurora, where collisions between air molecules and atoms are rare. Below about 100 km (60
miles) altitude even the green color doesn't get a chance. This happens when we see a purple
lower border: the green emission gets quenched by collisions, and all that is leIt is the blue/red
mixture oI the molecular nitrogen emission.







3) WhaL ls Lhe alLlLude of an aurora?
The aurora extends over a very large altitude range. The altitude where the emission comes Irom
depends on the energy oI the energetic electrons that make the aurora. The more energy the
bigger the punch, and the deeper the electron gets into the atmosphere. Very intense aurora Irom
high energy electrons can be as low as 80 km (50 miles). The top oI the visible aurora peters out
at about 2-300 km (120-200 miles), but sometimes high altitude aurora can be seen as high as
600 km (350 miles). This is about the altitude at which the space shuttle usually Ilies. The
bottom edge is typically at 100km (60 miles) altitude.

4) What causes the aurora?
Energetic charged particles Irom the magnetosphere. The immediate cause oI aurora are
precipitating energetic particles. These particles are electrons and protons that are energized in
the near geospace environment. This energization process draws its energy Irom the interaction
oI the Earth's magnetosphere with the solar wind. The magnetosphere is a volume oI space that
surrounds the Earth. We have this magnetosphere because oI Earth's internal magnetic Iield. This
Iield extends to space until it is balanced by the solar wind.



1he solar wlnd ls Lhe ouLermosL aLmosphere of our sunŦ 1he sun ls so hoL LhaL lL bolls off lLs ouLer layersţ
and Lhe resulL ls a consLanL ouLward expandlng very Lhln gasŦ 1hls solar wlnd conslsLs noL of aLoms and
molecules buL of proLons and elecLrons (Lhls ls called a plasma)Ŧ Lmbedded ln Lhls solar wlnd ls Lhe
magneLlc fleld of Lhe sunŦ 1he denslLy ls so low LhaL we may well call lL a vacuumŦ Powever Lenuous lL lsţ
when Lhls solar wlnd encounLers a planeLţ lL has Lo flow around lLŦ When Lhls planeL has a magneLlc fleldţ
Lhe solar wlnd sees Lhls magneLlc fleld as an obsLacleţ as proLons and elecLrons cannoL move freely
across a magneLlc fleldŦ 1hese charged parLlcles are consLralned Lo move almosL always only along Lhe
magneLlc fleldŦ Llkewlseţ when Lhey are forced Lo move ln a speclflc dlrecLlonţ a magneLlc fleld wlll move
wlLh Lhem or wlll be benL lnLo Lhe dlrecLlon of Lhe flowŦ WheLher Lhe magneLlc fleld forces Lhe plasma
moLlon or wheLher Lhe plasma moLlon bends Lhe magneLlc fleld depends on Lhe sLrengLh of Lhe fleld and
Lhe force of Lhe moLlonŦ When Lhe solar wlnd encounLers LarLhƌs magneLlc fleldţ lL wlll Lhus bend Lhe
fleld unless Lhe fleld geLs Loo sLrongŦ 1he sLrengLh of Lhe magneLlc fleld falls off wlLh dlsLance from
LarLhŦ 1he dlsLance aL whlch Lhe solar wlnd and Lhe magneLlc fleld of Lhe LarLh balance each oLher ls
abouL 10Ŵ12 LarLh 8adll (1 8L ls 6371 km)Ŧ lor comparlsonţ Lhe moon ls aL abouL 60 8Lţ geosLaLlonary
saLelllLes are aL abouL 6 8LŦ 1he lnslde of Lhls volume LhaL ls bounded by Lhe solar wlnd ls called Lhe
magneLosphereŦ
AL Lhe lnLerface of Lhe solar wlnd and Lhe magneLosphereţ energy can be Lransfered lnLo Lhe
magneLosphere by a number of processesŦ MosL effecLlve ls a process called reconnecLlonŦ When Lhe
magneLlc fleld ln Lhe solar wlnd and Lhe magneLlc fleld of Lhe magneLosphere are anLlŴparallelţ Lhe flelds
can melL LogeLherţ and Lhe solar wlnd can drag Lhe magneLospherlc fleld and plasma alongŦ 1hls ls very
efflclenL ln energlzlng magneLospherlc plasmaŦ LvenLuallyţ Lhe magneLosphere responds by dumplng
elecLrons and proLons lnLo Lhe hlgh laLlLude upper aLmosphere where Lhe energy of Lhe plasma can be
dlsslpaLedŦ 1hls Lhen resulLs ln auroraŦ

3)Why does aurora have Lhe shape of curLalns?
1he magneLlc fleld conflnes Lhe moLlon of auroral elecLronsŦ 1he elecLrons LhaL make Lhe aurora are
charged parLlclesţ and Lhey are noL free Lo move ln [usL any dlrecLlonŦ MagneLlc flelds lmpede moLlon of
charged parLlcles when Lhey Lry Lo cross Lhe magneLlc fleldŦ Charged parLlcles can move freely only
parallel Lo Lhe magneLlc fleld (elLher ln Lhe dlrecLlon of Lhe fleld or agalnsL lL)Ŧ When Lhe solar wlnd
encounLers Lhe ouLer reaches of LarLhƌs magneLlc fleldţ Lhe fleld geLs dlsLorLed by Lhe moLlon of Lhe
plasma (see Lhe prevlous quesLlon)Ŧ near Lhe LarLh Lhe magneLlc fleld ls Loo sLrong and Lhe moLlon of
Lhe elecLrons ls gulded by LarLhƌs magneLlc fleldŦ When an elecLron splrals along Lhe magneLlc fleld lnLo
Lhe aLmosphereţ lL sLays on or near Lhls fleld llne even when lL makes a colllslonŦ 1herefore Lhe aurora
looks llke rays or curLalnsŦ








6)Pow ofLen ls Lhere aurora?
There is always some aurora at some place on Earth.

Weak aurora, with a small, barely visible
auroral oval in this image from the POLAR JIS
instrument. The bright crescant shape light on
the left is from the sun illuminating the Earth.

Intense auroral substorm, with aurora over
the Great Lakes. Image from the POLAR JIS
instrument.

When Lhe solar wlnd ls calmţ Lhe aurora mlghL only be aL hlgh laLlLudes and mlghL be falnLţ buL Lhere ls
sLlll auroraŦ ln order Lo see auroraţ howeverţ Lhe sky musL be dark and clearŦ SunllghL and clouds are Lhe
blggesL obsLacle Lo auroral observaLlonsŦ lf you have a camera on a saLelllLe you can look down on Lhe
auroraţ and youƌll flnd an oval shaped rlng of brlghLness crownlng LarLh aL all LlmesŦ When Lhe solar
wlnd ls perLurbed from a recenL flare or oLher evenL on Lhe sunţ we mlghL geL very sLrong auroraŦ AfLer
Lhe solar wlnd has Lransferred a loL of energy lnLo Lhe magneLosphereţ a sudden release of Lhls bullLŴup
Lenslon can cause an exploslve auroral dlsplayŦ 1hese large evenLs are called subsLormsŦ A subsLorm
usually sLarLs wlLh a slow expanslon of Lhe auroral oval followed by a sudden brlghLenlng of a small spoLţ
called Lhe auroral breakupŦ 1hls spoL usually ls near LhaL place of Lhe auroral oval LhaL ls on Lhe opposlLe
slde of Lhe sunţ whlch means near Lhe place where mldnlghL lsŦ 1hls brlghLenlng rapldly grows unLll Lhe
enLlre auroral oval ls affecLedŦ An observer on Lhe ground where Lhls breakup occurs wlll see a sudden
brlghLenlng of Lhe aurora whlch may flll almosL Lhe enLlre sky wlLhln Lens of secondsŦ 1hls aurora wlll be
ln Lhe shape of rapldly movlng curLalnsŦ lf you are under Lhe auroral oval wesL of Lhls breakupţ you wlll
see a brlghL aurora movlng Loward you from Lhe easL LhaL mlghL cover almosL Lhe enLlre sky and move
from Lhe easLern Lo wesLern horlzon wlLhln mlnuLesŦ 1hls aurora wlll ofLen look llke a huge splral of
curLalnsţ wlLh many smaller curls wlLhln Lhe curLalnsŦ AfLer Lhese auroral curLalns subsldeţ Lhe sky mlghL
be fllled wlLh dlffuse paLches of aurora LhaL Lurn on and offŦ 1he whole subsLorm Lyplcally lasLs beLween
30 and 90 mlnuLesŦ uurlng perlods of hlgh solar acLlvlLyţ we mlghL have several subsLorms per nlghLŦ Cn
averageţ Lhere are abouL 1300 subsLorms per yearţ buL ofLen Lhere can be several days beLween
subsLormsŦ

7)Where ls Lhe besL place Lo see aurora? And whaL Llme ls besL?
The best places are high northern latitudes during the winter, Alaska, Canada, and Skandinavia.
To see aurora you need clear and dark sky. During very large auroral events, the aurora may be
seen throughout the US and Europe, but these events are rare. During an extreme event in 1958,
aurora was reported to be seen Irom Mexico City. During average activity levels, auroral
displays will be overhead at high northern or southern latitudes. Places like Fairbanks, Alaska,
Dawson City, Yukon, YellowkniIe, NWT, Gillam, Manitoba, the southern tip oI Greenland,
Reykjavik, Iceland, Tromso, Norway, and the northern coast oI Siberia have a good chance to
have the aurora overhead. In North Dakota, Michigan, Quebec, and central Scandinavia, you
might be able to see aurora on the northern horizon when activity picks up a little. On the
southern hemisphere the aurora has to be Iairly active beIore it can be seen Irom places other
than Antarctica. Hobart, Tasmania, and the southern tip oI New Zealand have about the same
chance oI seeing aurora as Vancouver, BC, South Dakota, Michigan, Scotland, or St Petersburg.
Fairly strong auroral activity is required Ior that. The best time to watch Ior aurora is around
midnight, but aurora occurs throughout the night. There are very Iew places on Earth where one
can see aurora during the day. Svalbard (Spitzbergen) is ideally located Ior this. For a 10 week
period around winter solstice it is dark enough during the day to see aurora, and the latitude is
such that near local noon the auroral oval is usually overhead. Since clear sky and darkness are
essential to see aurora, the best time is dictated by the weather, and by the sun rise and set times.
The moon is also very bright, and should be taken into account when deciding on a period to
travel Ior the purpose oI auroral observation. You might see aurora Irom dusk to dawn
throughout the night. The chances are higher Ior the 3 or 4 hours around midnight.

8) Do auroras occur on other planets? Ìf so, which other planets?

Almost all planets in the solar system have aurora oI some sort.

Saturn (from the HST)

Jupiter (from HST)

Io (from Galileo)
II a planet has an atmosphere and is bombarded by energetic particles, it will have an aurora.
Since all planets are embedded in the solar wind, all planets are subjected to the energetic
particle bombardment, and thus all planets that have a dense enough atmosphere will have some
sort oI aurora. Planets like Venus, which has no magnetic Iield, have very irregular aurora, while
planets like Earth, Jupiter, or Saturn, which have an intrinsic magnetic dipole Iield, have aurora
in the shape oI oval shaped crowns oI light on both hemispheres. When the magnetic Iield oI a
planet is not aligned with the rotational axis, we get a very distorted auroral oval which might be
near the equator, like on Uranus and Neptune. Some oI the larger moons oI the outer planets are
also big enough to have an atmosphere, and some have a magnetic Iield. They are usually
protected Irom the solar wind by the magnetosphere oI the planet that they orbit, but since that
magnetosphere also contains energetic particles, some oI these moons also have aurorae.


) Can you hear the aurora?
Maybe. This is a diIIicult question to answer. It is easy to say that the aurora makes no audible
sound. The upper atmosphere is too thin to carry sound waves, and the aurora is so Iar away that
it would take a sound wave 5 minutes to travel Irom an overhead aurora to the ground. But many
people claim that they hear something at the same time when there is aurora in the sky.But one
can not dismiss the many claims oI people hearing something, and this is oIten described as
whistling, hissing, bristling, or swooshing. What it is that gives people the sensation oI hearing
sound during auroral displays is an unanswered question.

) Are there auroral displays around the South Pole? How are they different?

Yes, there are, and they are just like the northern aurora.
On Earth, where the magnetic dipole Iield guides the energetic particles that
make the aurora, we get an oval-shaped ring oI aurora around the magnetic
poles. The particles don't care whether they are going south or north along the
magnetic Iield, so the aurora on the two hemispheres is the same. OI course,
when the northern hemisphere has winter and the darkness that's needed to
see the aurora, the south pole has bright daylight all day long. So it is only
during Iall and spring that a person in Antarctica could get on the phone to
call someone in Alaska to Iind out iI the aurora looks the same.
When you do take pictures oI the
aurora at these two places, the
large spirals that we sometimes
see in the aurora will oIten look
like mirror images oI each other.







) What is proton aurora?
A diIIuse auroral glow caused by precipitating energetic protons, usually too dark to be visible.
Most visible aurora comes Irom precipitating electrons. However, the magnetosphere also shoots
energetic protons toward the atmosphere. Both electrons and protons are charged particles, and
they are not Iree to move in just any direction (see question 6). The curtain shapes oI aurora
results Irom this restriction on the motion oI charged particles. When an electron spirals along
the magnetic Iield into the atmosphere, it stays on or near this Iield line even when it makes a
collision. ThereIore the aurora looks like rays or curtains. When a proton spirals into the
atmosphere along a Iield line it is just as restricted in its motion. In a collision, however, the
proton can catch an electron Irom the atom or molecule that it collides with, and it is then a
neutral hydrogen atom (i.e. a proton and an electron bound together). This hydrogen atom is Iree
to travel in any direction, independent oI the magnetic Iield. It may again turn into a proton in a
subsequent collision, and be bound to travel along the direction oI the magnetic Iield. This
process can repeat itselI several times beIore all the energy oI the initial proton is spent. The
eIIect oI this meandering path is that the proton aurora is spread out and gives a very diIIuse
glow rather than the conIined curtains oI electron aurora. Because it is so spread out, proton
aurora is usually not bright enough to be visible to the human eye. Sensitive instruments and
cameras, however, can see this aurora.

12) What is bIack aurora?
Gaps between diIIuse aurora.
Sometimes you can have diIIuse auroral
curtains and arcs that have small gaps. These
gaps are usually thinner than the arc thickness
next to the gap, and they look like a black
auroral curtain embedded in the bright auroral
glow around them. The black auroras can
have curls and other structure. The sense oI
direction oI these curls is opposite to that oI
regular auroral curtains. Most likely, the
electric Iields that are present in the upper
ionosphere or lower magnetosphere prevent
electrons Irom reaching the atmosphere, or
even turn precipitating electrons around.

) Can you predict when and where there will be aurora?
Yes, but with less conIidence than weather prediction.
The ultimate energy source Ior the aurora is the solar
wind. When the solar wind is calm, we tend to have very
little aurora, when the solar wind is very strong and
perturbed, we have a chance oI intense aurora. The sun
turns on its own axis once every 27 days, so an active
region that produced perturbations might again cause
aurora 27 days later. The solar wind takes a Iew (2-3)
days to get here on its way Irom the sun. Observing the
sun, and predicting perturbations in the solar wind Irom
events on the sun (such as Ilares or coronal mass
ejections) can thus give you about a 2-3 days advance
prediction. To see a movie oI the solar wind click on the
image (1.1 Mb mpeg). The accuracy oI the prediction
depends on how well we understand the solar wind.
About an hour beIore the solar wind reaches us, it passes by a satellite that sends its data back to
us. That would give us about 1-2 hours warning oI an upcoming aurora. The accuracy oI that
prediction depends on how well we understand the interaction oI the solar wind with the
magnetosphere, and the inner workings oI the magnetosphere. There are also satellites inside the
magnetosphere which can tell us how the magnetosphere responds to the solar wind. This will
only give a prediction a Iew minutes into the Iuture. All oI these predictions are Ior the global
aurora. It is very diIIicult to predict aurora Ior a given location.
Looking at the sun, and trying a 2-3 day prediction usually only tells us the probability and the
time when an event will occur within a Iew hours, and we may estimate the size oI the auroral
oval. That means we may be able to say that the aurora is likely to reach a certain latitude, and
that this event will start at a certain time.
Using satellite data Irom the solar wind Ior a 1-2 hour prediction, we may also see iI the
conditions Ior a substorm are right. In that case we may be able to predict the occurrence oI a
substorm and predict an estimate oI the intensity oI an aurora.
Watching the satellite observations Irom inside the magnetosphere, we can reIine the intensity
and timing oI an expected substorm. You can also watch the sky, and iI you see typical substorm
behavior, Ior example, a dim and diIIuse aurora that slowly moves south, you can predict an
auroral breakup a Iew minutes into the Iuture.

) Does the aurora have any effect on the environment?

Yes, but limited to the high altitude atmosphere.
Since the aurora takes place at about 90-100 km altitude, only the atmosphere at or above that
height is aIIected by aurora. Some ionization may occur a Iew tens oI kilometers Iurther down,
and can have eIIects on radio wave propagation. Ham radio operators may Iind that at some
Irequencies, radio waves will not propagate Iar. The major eIIect oI the aurora is, however, at the
altitude range oI 100-200 km. The precipitating particles that cause the light also cause
ionization and heating oI the ambient atmosphere. The ionization has the consequence that the
electric properties oI the atmosphere change, and currents can Ilow more easily. Aside Irom the
charged particles that cause the light oI the aurora, there are currents Ilowing between the
magnetosphere and the ionosphere inside and in the vicinity oI the aurora. These currents also
contribute to the heating oI the atmospheric gas at auroral altitudes. The heating Irom these
currents is usually much more than by the particle precipitation itselI. Once the gas in the aurora
is heated, it wants to rise, so that convection can be driven by the aurora.
The currents in aurora not only Ilow vertically. A current has to be a closed loop, so there are
currents Ilowing to and Irom the magnetosphere and horizontally in the vicinity oI aurora as
well. The currents in and around aurora are actually charged particles that move; positive charges
in one direction, negative in the other. These moving particles can collide with the neutral gas oI
the upper atmosphere and drag the gas along. This means that not only vertical convection will
be caused by the aurora, but also horizontal winds.
Although the change in temperature and wind inside and near the aurora can be very large, at
some altitudes the temperature can rise to its tenIold value, and the wind can blow at several
hundred meters per second (more than 1000 mph), none oI these disturbances reach down to
where the weather takes place. There is some speculation that long term changes in space
weather, i.e. long-term eIIects oI aurora and similar phenomena, may inIluence the long-term
variation oI the climate on Earth. This is the subject oI ongoing research.
Other phenomena associated with aurora are perturbations in the magnetic Iield oI the Earth.
When we have a strong substorm, the magnetic Iield under the aurora can be decreased by as
much as a Iew percent oI its value. That, by the way, is the reason that these strong auroral
events are called "substorms": Earth experiences occasional magnetic storms, which are global
changes in the magnetic Iield. The auroral substorm is a similar change in the magnetic Iield, but
only happens on a smaller scale limited to the polar regions, thus they are "sub"-storms.

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