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1he D|v|s|b|||ty ku|es

1hese rules leL you LesL lf one number ls dlvlslble by anoLher wlLhouL havlng Lo do

Loo much calculaLlon!

A number |s

d|v|s|b|e by

If Lxamp|e

2

1he lasL dlglL ls even (02468)

128 ls

129 ls noL

3

1he sum of Lhe dlglLs ls dlvlslble by 3

381 (3+8+112 and 123 4) es

217 (2+1+710 and 103 3

1

/3) No

4

1he lasL 2 dlglLs are dlvlslble by 4

1312 ls (1243)

7019 ls noL

3

1he lasL dlglL ls 0 or 3

17S ls

809 ls noL

6

1he number ls dlvlslble by boLh 2 f 3

114 (lL ls even and 1+1+46 and 63

2) es

308 (lL ls even buL 3+0+811 and 113

3

2

/3) No

7

lf you double Lhe lasL dlglL and subLracL lL from Lhe

resL of Lhe number and Lhe answer ls

O or

O d|v|s|b|e by 7

(noLe you can apply Lhls rule Lo LhaL answer agaln lf

you wanL)

672 (uouble 2 ls 4 67463 and

6379) es

903 (uouble 3 ls 10 901080 and

80711

3

/7) No

8

1he lasL Lhree dlglLs are dlvlslble by 8

109816 (8168102) es

21632 (302837

3

/4) No

9

1he sum of Lhe dlglLs ls dlvlslble by 9

(noLe you can apply Lhls rule Lo LhaL answer agaln lf

you wanL)

1629 (1+6+2+918 and agaln

1+89)es

2013 (2+0+1+36) No

10

1he number ends ln 0

22 ls

221 ls noL

11

lf you sum every second dlglL and Lhen subLracL all

oLher dlglLs and Lhe answer ls

O or

O d|v|s|b|e by 11

1364 ((3+4) (1+6) ) es

3729 ((7+9) (3+2) 11) es

2S176 ((3+7) (2+1+6) 3) No

12 1he number ls dlvlslble by boLh 3 f 4

648 (6+4+818 and 1836 also

48412) es

916 (9+1+616 163 3

1

/3) No

Divisibility rules for numbers 120

The rules given below transform a given number into a generally smaller number, while preserving

divisibility by the divisor of interest. Therefore, unless otherwise noted, the resulting number should be

evaluated for divisibility by the same divisor. n some cases the process can be iterated until the

divisibility is obvious; for others (such as examining the last 3 digits) the result must be examined by other

means.

For divisors with multiple rules, the rules are generally ordered first for those appropriate for numbers with

many digits, then those useful for numbers with fewer digits.

Note: To test divisibility by any number that can be expressed as 2

3

or 5

3

, in which 3 is a positive integer,

just examine the last 3 digits.

D|v|sor D|v|s|b|||ty cond|t|on Lxamp|es

1 AuLomaLlc Any lnLeger ls dlvlslble by 1

2 1he lasL dlglL ls even (0 2 4 6 or 8)

12

1294 4 ls even

3

Sum Lhe dlglLs

134

403 4 + 0 + 3 9 and 636 6 + 3 + 6 13 whlch boLh

are clearly dlvlslble by 3

16499203834376 1+6+4+9+9+2+0+3+8+3+4+3+7+6

sums Lo 69 6 + 9 13 1 + 3 6 whlch ls clearly

dlvlslble by 3

SubLracL Lhe quanLlLy of Lhe dlglLs 2 3 and 8 ln

Lhe number from Lhe quanLlLy of Lhe dlglLs 1 4

and 7 ln Lhe number

uslng Lhe example above 16499203834376 has four of

Lhe dlglLs 1 4 and 7 four of Lhe dlglLs 2 3 and 8 Slnce 4

4 0 ls a mulLlple of 3 Lhe number 16499203834376

ls dlvlslble by 3

4

Lxamlne Lhe lasL Lwo dlglLs

12

40832 32 ls dlvlslble by 4

lf Lhe Lens dlglL ls even and Lhe ones dlglL ls 0

4 or 8

lf Lhe Lens dlglL ls odd and Lhe ones dlglL ls 2

or 6

40832 3 ls odd and Lhe lasL dlglL ls 2

1wlce Lhe Lens dlglL plus Lhe ones dlglL 40832 2 3 + 2 8 whlch ls dlvlslble by 4

S 1he lasL dlglL ls 0 or 3

12

493 Lhe lasL dlglL ls 3

6 lL ls dlvlslble by 2 and by 3

3

1438 1 + 4 + 3 + 8 18 so lL ls dlvlslble by 3 and Lhe lasL

dlglL ls even hence Lhe number ls dlvlslble by 6

7

lorm Lhe alLernaLlng sum of blocks of Lhree

from rlghL Lo lefL

64

1369831 831 - 369 + 1 483 7 69

SubLracL 2 Llmes Lhe lasL dlglL from Lhe resL

(Works because 21 ls dlvlslble by 7)

483 48 - (3 2) 42 7 6

Cr add 3 Llmes Lhe lasL dlglL Lo Lhe resL

(Works because 49 ls dlvlslble by 7)

483 48 + (3 3) 63 7 9

Cr add 3 Llmes Lhe flrsL dlglL Lo Lhe nexL (1hls

works because 10f + - 7f 3f + - lasL

number has Lhe same remalnder)

483 43 + 8 20 remalnder 6 63 + 3 21

MulLlply each dlglL (from rlghL Lo lefL) by Lhe

dlglL ln Lhe correspondlng poslLlon ln Lhls

paLLern (from lefL Lo rlghL) 1 3 2 1 3 2

(repeaLlng for dlglLs beyond Lhe hundred

Lhousands place) 1hen sum Lhe resulLs

483393 (4 (2)) + (8 (3)) + (3 (1)) + (3 2) + (9 3) +

(3 1) 7

8

lf Lhe hundreds dlglL ls even examlne Lhe

number formed by Lhe lasL Lwo dlglLs

624 24

lf Lhe hundreds dlglL ls odd examlne Lhe

number obLalned by Lhe lasL Lwo dlglLs plus 4

332 32 + 4 36

Add Lhe lasL dlglL Lo Lwlce Lhe resL 36 (3 2) + 6 16

Lxamlne Lhe lasL Lhree dlglLs

12

34132 Lxamlne dlvlslblllLy of [usL 132 19 8

Add four Llmes Lhe hundreds dlglL Lo Lwlce Lhe

Lens dlglL Lo Lhe ones dlglL

34132 4 1 + 3 2 + 2 16

9 Sum Lhe dlglLs

134

2880 2 + 8 + 8 + 0 18 1 + 8 9

1 1he lasL dlglL ls 0

2

130 Lhe lasL dlglL ls 0

11

lorm Lhe alLernaLlng sum of Lhe dlglLs

14

918082 9 - 1 + 8 - 0 + 8 - 2 22

Add Lhe dlglLs ln blocks of Lwo from rlghL Lo

lefL

1

627 6 + 27 33

SubLracL Lhe lasL dlglL from Lhe resL 627 62 - 7 33

lf Lhe number of dlglLs ls even add Lhe flrsL

and subLracL Lhe lasL dlglL from Lhe resL

918082 Lhe number of dlglLs ls even (6) 1808 + 9 - 2

1813 81 + 1 - 3 77 7 11

lf Lhe number of dlglLs ls odd subLracL Lhe flrsL

and lasL dlglL from Lhe resL

14179 Lhe number of dlglLs ls odd (3) 417 - 1 - 9 407

37 11

12

lL ls dlvlslble by 3 and by 4

3

324 lL ls dlvlslble by 3 and by 4

SubLracL Lhe lasL dlglL from Lwlce Lhe resL 324 32 2 - 4 60

13

lorm Lhe alLernaLlng sum of blocks of Lhree

from rlghL Lo lefL

6

2911272 -2 + 911 - 272 637

Add 4 Llmes Lhe lasL dlglL Lo Lhe resL 637 63 + 7 4 91 9 + 1 4 13

MulLlply each dlglL (from rlghL Lo lefL) by Lhe

dlglL ln Lhe correspondlng poslLlon ln Lhls

30747912 (2 (3)) + (1 (4)) + (9 (1)) + (7 3) + (4

paLLern (from lefL Lo rlghL) 3 4 1 3 4 1

(repeaLlng for dlglLs beyond Lhe hundred

Lhousands place) 1hen sum Lhe resulLs

7

4) + (7 1) + (0 (3)) + (3 (4)) 13

14

lL ls dlvlslble by 2 and by 7

3

224 lL ls dlvlslble by 2 and by 7

Add Lhe lasL Lwo dlglLs Lo Lwlce Lhe resL 1he

answer musL be dlvlslble by 14

364 3 2 + 64 70

1S lL ls dlvlslble by 3 and by 3

3

390 lL ls dlvlslble by 3 and by 3

16

lf Lhe Lhousands dlglL ls even examlne Lhe

number formed by Lhe lasL Lhree dlglLs

234176 176

lf Lhe Lhousands dlglL ls odd examlne Lhe

number formed by Lhe lasL Lhree dlglLs plus 8

3408 408 + 8 416

Add Lhe lasL Lwo dlglLs Lo four Llmes Lhe resL

176 1 4 + 76 80

1168: 11 4 68 112.

Lxamlne Lhe lasL four dlglLs

12

137648 7648 428 16

17 SubLracL 3 Llmes Lhe lasL dlglL from Lhe resL 221 22 - 1 3 17

18 lL ls dlvlslble by 2 and by 9

3

342 lL ls dlvlslble by 2 and by 9

19 Add Lwlce Lhe lasL dlglL Lo Lhe resL 437 43 + 7 2 37

2

lL ls dlvlslble by 10 and Lhe Lens dlglL ls even 360 ls dlvlslble by 10 and 6 ls even

lf Lhe number formed by Lhe lasL Lwo dlglLs ls

dlvlslble by 20

480 80 ls dlvlslble by 20

$tep-by-step examples

DivisibiIity by 2

First, take any even number (for this example it will be 376) and note the last digit in the number,

discarding the other digits. Then take that digit (6) while ignoring the rest of the number and determine if it

is divisible by 2. f it is divisible by 2, then the original number is divisible by 2.

ExampIe

1. 376 (The original number)

2. 37 6 (Take the last digit)

3. 6 2 = 3 (Check to see if the last digit is divisible by 2)

4. 376 2 = 188 (f the last digit is divisible by 2, then the whole number is divisible by 2)

DivisibiIity by 3

First, take any number (for this example it will be 492) and add together each digit in the number (4 + 9 +

2 = 15). Then take that sum (15) and determine if it is divisible by 3. The original number is divisible by 3 if

and only if the final number is divisible by 3.

f a number is a multiplication of 3 consecutive numbers then that number is always divisible by 3. This is

useful for when the number takes the form of (3 (3 ~ 1) (3 + 1))

Ex.

1. 492 (The original number)

2. 4 + 9 + 2 = 15 (Add each individual digit together)

3. 15 is divisible by 3 at which point we can stop. Alternatively we can continue using the same

method if the number is still too large:

4. 1 + 5 = 6 (Add each individual digit together)

5. 6 3 = 2 (Check to see if the number received is divisible by 3)

6. 492 3 = 164 (f the number obtained by using the rule is divisible by 3, then the whole number is

divisible by 3)

Ex.

1. 336 (The original number)

2. 6 7 8 = 336

3. 336 3 = 112

DivisibiIity by 4

The basic rule for divisibility by 4 is that if the number formed by the last two digits in a number is divisible

by 4, the original number is divisible by 4; this is because 100 is divisible by 4 and so adding hundreds,

thousands, etc. is simply adding another number that is divisible by 4. f any number ends in a two digit

number that you know is divisible by 4 (e.g. 24, 04, 08, etc.), then the whole number will be divisible by 4

regardless of what is before the last two digits.

Alternatively, one can simply divide the number by 2, and then check the result to find if it is divisible by 2.

f it is, the original number is divisible by 4. n addition, the result of this test is the same as the original

number divided by 4.

Ex.

GeneraI ruIe

1. 2092 (The original number)

2. 20 92 (Take the last two digits of the number, discarding any other digits)

3. 92 4 = 23 (Check to see if the number is divisible by 4)

4. 2092 4 = 523 (f the number that is obtained is divisible by 4, then the original number is

divisible by 4)

AIternative exampIe

1. 1720 (The original number)

2. 1720 2 = 860 (Divide the original number by 2)

3. 860 2 = 430 (Check to see if the result is divisible by 2)

4. 1720 4 = 430 (f the result is divisible by 2, then the original number is divisible by 4)

DivisibiIity by 5

Divisibility by 5 is easily determined by checking the last digit in the number (475), and seeing if it is either

0 or 5. f the last number is either 0 or 5, the entire number is divisible by 5.

f the last digit in the number is 0, then the result will be the remaining digits multiplied by 2. For example,

the number 40 ends in a zero (0), so take the remaining digits (4) and multiply that by two (4 2 = 8). The

result is the same as the result of 40 divided by 5(40/5 = 8).

f the last digit in the number is 5, then the result will be the remaining digits multiplied by two (2), plus

one (1). For example, the number 125 ends in a 5, so take the remaining digits (12), multiply them by two

(12 2 = 24), then add one (24 + 1 = 25). The result is the same as the result of 125 divided by 5

(125/5=25).

Ex.

If the Iast digit is 0

1. 110 (The original number)

2. 11 0 (Take the last digit of the number, and check if it is 0 or 5)

3. 11 0 (f it is 0, take the remaining digits, discarding the last)

4. 11 2 = 22 (Multiply the result by 2)

5. 110 5 = 22 (The result is the same as the original number divided by 5)

If the Iast digit is 5

1. 85 (The original number)

2. 8 5 (Take the last digit of the number, and check if it is 0 or 5)

3. 8 5 (f it is 5, take the remaining digits, discarding the last)

4. 8 2 = 16 (Multiply the result by 2)

5. 16 + 1 = 17 (Add 1 to the result)

6. 85 5 = 17 (The result is the same as the original number divided by 5)

DivisibiIity by 6

Divisibility by 6 is determined by checking the original number to see if it is both an even number (divisible

by 2) and divisible by 3. This is the best test to use.

Alternatively, one can check for divisibility by six by taking the number (246), dropping the last digit in the

number (24 6, adding together the remaining number (24 becomes 2 + 4 = 6), multiplying that by four (6

4 = 24), and adding the last digit of the original number to that (24 + 6 = 30). f this number is divisible by

six, the original number is divisible by 6.

f the number is divisible by six, take the original number (246) and divide it by two (246 2 = 123). Then,

take that result and divide it by three (123 3 = 41). This result is the same as the original number divided

by six (246 6 = 41).

Ex.

GeneraI ruIe

1. 324 (The original number)

2. 324 3 = 108 (Check to see if the original number is divisible by 3)

3. 324 2 = 162 OR 108 2 = 54 (Check to see if either the original number or the result of the

previous equation is divisible by 2)

4. 324 6 = 54 (f either of the tests in the last step are true, then the original number is divisible by

6. Also, the result of the second test returns the same result as the original number divided by 6)

inding a remainder of a number when divided by 6

6 ~ (1, ~2, ~2, ~2, ~2, and ~2 goes on for the rest) No period.

Minimum magnitude sequence

(1, 4, 4, 4, 4, and 4 goes on for the rest)

Positive sequence

Multiply the right most digit by the left most digit in the sequence and multiply the second right most digit

by the second left most digit in the sequence and so on. Next, compute the sum of all the values and take

the remainder on division by 6.

Example: What is the remainder when 1036125837 is divided by 6?

Multiplication of the rightmost digit = 1 7 = 7

Multiplication of the second rightmost digit = 3 ~2 = ~6

Third rightmost digit = ~16

Fourth rightmost digit = ~10

Fifth rightmost digit = ~4

$ixth rightmost digit = ~2

$eventh rightmost digit = ~12

Eighth rightmost digit = ~6

Ninth rightmost digit = 0

Tenth rightmost digit = ~2

$um = ~51

~51 modulo 6 = 3

Remainder = 3

DivisibiIity by 7

Divisibility by 7 can be tested by a recursive method. A number of the form 10 + is divisible by 7 if and

only if ~ 2 is divisible by 7. n other words, subtract twice the last digit from the number formed by the

remaining digits. Continue to do this until a small number (below 20 in absolute value) is obtained. The

original number is divisible by 7 if and only if the number obtained using this procedure is divisible by 7.

For example, the number 371: 37 ~ (21) = 37 ~ 2 = 35; 3 ~ (2 5) = 3 ~ 10 = ~7; thus, since ~7 is

divisible by 7, 371 is divisible by 7.

Another method is multiplication by 3. A number of the form 10 + has the same remainder when

divided by 7 as 3 + . $o get the leftmost digit of the original number, multiply by 3, add the next digit,

get the remainder by 7, and continue from the beginning: multiply by 3, add the next digit, etc. For

example, the number 371: 33 + 7 = 16 remainder 2, and 23 + 1 = 7. This method can be used to find

the remainder of division by 7.

A more complicated algorithm for testing divisibility by 7 uses the fact that 10

0

= 1, 10

1

= 3, 10

2

= 2,

10

3

= 6, 10

4

= 4, 10

5

= 5, 10

6

= 1, ... (mod 7). Take each digit of the number (371) in reverse order (173),

multiplying them successively by the digits , 3, 2, 6, 4, 5, repeating with this sequence of multipliers as

long as necessary (1, 3, 2, 6, 4, 5, 1, 3, 2, 6, 4, 5, ...), and adding the products

(1 + 73 + 32 = 1 + 21 + 6 = 28). The original number is divisible by 7 if and only if the number

obtained using this procedure is divisible by 7 (hence 371 is divisible by 7 since 28 is).

This method can be simplified by removing the need to multiply. All it would take with this simplification is

to memorise the sequence above (132645...), and to add and subtract, but always working with one-digit

numbers.

The simplification goes as follows:

Take for instance the number 37

Change all occurrences of a 7, 8 or 9 into 0, or 2 respectively. n this example, we get: 30. This

second step may be skipped, except for the left most digit, but following it may facilitate calculations

later on.

Now convert the first digit (3) into the following digit in the sequence 326453... n our example, 3

becomes 2.

Add the result in the previous step (2) to the second digit of the number, and substitute the result for

both digits, leaving all remaining digits unmodified: 2 + 0 = 2. $o 1 becomes .

Repeat the procedure until you have a recognisable multiple of 7, or to make sure, a number

between 0 and 6. $o, starting from 21 (which is anyway a recognisable multiple of 7) take the first

digit (2) and convert it into the following in the sequence above: 2 becomes 6. Then add this to the

second digit: 6 + 1 = 7.

f at any point the first digit is an 8 or a 9, these should become 1, or 2 respectively. But if it is a 7 it

should become 0, only if no other digits follow. Otherwise, it should simply be dropped. This is

because that 7 would have become 0, and numbers with at least two digits before the decimal dot do

not begin with 0, which is useless. According to this, our 7 becomes 0.

f through this procedure you obtain a 0 or any recognisable multiple of 7, then the original number is a

multiple of 7. f you obtain any number from to 6, that will indicate how much you should subtract from

the original number to get a multiple of 7. n other words, you will find the remainder of dividing the

number by 7. For example take the number 86:

First, change the 8 into a 1: 6.

Now, change 1 into the following digit in the sequence (3), add it to the second digit, and write the

result instead of both: 3 + 1 = . $o 6 becomes now 6.

Repeat the procedure, since the number is greater than 7. Now, 4 becomes 5, which must be added

to 6. That is .

Repeat the procedure one more time: 1 becomes 3, which is added to the second digit (1): 3 + 1 = 4.

Now we have a number lower than 7, and this number (4) is the remainder of dividing 186/7. $o

186 minus 4, which is 182, must be a multiple of 7.

Note: The reason why this works is that if we have: a+b=c and b is a multiple of any given number n,

then a and c will necessarily produce the same remainder when divided by n. n other words, in 2 + 7 = 9,

7 is divisible by 7. $o 2 and 9 must have the same reminder when divided by 7. The remainder is 2.

Therefore, if a number 3 is a multiple of 7 (i.e.: the remainder of 3/7 is 0), then adding (or subtracting)

multiples of 7 cannot possibly change that property.

What this procedure does, as explained above for most divisibility rules, is simply subtract little by little

multiples of 7 from the original number until reaching a number that is small enough for us to remember if

it is a multiple of 7 or not. f 1 becomes a 3 in the following decimal position, that is just the same as

converting 1010

3

into a 310

3

. And that is actually the same as subtracting 710

3

(clearly a multiple of 7)

from 1010

3

.

$imilarly, when you turn a 3 into a 2 in the following decimal position, you are turning 3010

3

into 210

3

,

which is the same as subtracting 3010

3

~2810

n

, and this is again subtracting a multiple of 7. The same

reason applies for all the remaining conversions:

2010

3

~ 610

3

=410

3

6010

3

~ 410

3

=5610

3

4010

3

~ 510

3

=3510

3

5010

3

~ 110

3

=4910

3

irst method exampIe

1050 105 ~ 0=105 10 ~ 10 = 0. AN$WER: 1050 is divisible by 7.

Second method exampIe

1050 0501 (reverse) 0 + 53 + 02 + 16 = 0 + 15 + 0 + 6 = 21 (multiply and add). AN$WER:

1050 is divisible by 7.

Vedic method of divisibiIity by oscuIation

Divisibility by seven can be tested by multiplication by the Ekhdika. Convert the divisor seven to the

nines family by multiplying by seven. 77=49. Add one, drop the units digit and, take the 5, theEkhdika,

as the multiplier. $tart on the right. Multiply by 5, add the product to the next digit to the left. $et down that

result on a line below that digit. Repeat that method of multiplying the units digit by five and adding that

product to the number of tens. Add the result to the next digit to the left. Write down that result below the

digit. Continue to the end. f the end result is zero or a multiple of seven, then yes, the number is divisible

by seven. Otherwise, it is not. This follows the Vedic ideal, one-line notation.

[9]

Vedic method exampIe:

Is 438,722,025 divisible by seven. Multiplier = 5.

4 3 8 7 2 2 0 2 5

42 37 46 37 6 40 37 27

YES

!ohIman-Mass method of divisibiIity by 7

The PohlmanMass method provides a quick solution that can determine if most integers are divisible by

seven in three steps or less. This method could be useful in a mathematics competition such as

MATHCOUNT$, where time is a factor to determine the solution without a calculator in the $print Round.

$tep A: f the integer is 1,000 or less, subtract twice the last digit from the number formed by the

remaining digits. f the result is a multiple of seven, then so is the original number (and vice versa). For

example:

2 - - (22) = - 4 = 7 YES

98 - 9 - (82) = 9 - 6 = -7 YES

634 - 63 - (42) = 63 - 8 = 55 NJ

Because 1,001 is divisible by seven, an interesting pattern develops for repeating sets of 1, 2, or 3 digits

that form 6-digit numbers (leading zeros are allowed) in that all such numbers are divisible by seven. For

example:

00 00 = ,00 / 7 = 43

00 00 = 0,00 / 7 = ,430

0 0 = ,0 / 7 = ,573

00 00 = 00,00 / 7 = 4,300

0 0 = 0,0 / 7 = 4,443

0 0 = 0,0 / 7 = 5,730

0 0 0 = 0,0 / 7 = ,443

0 0 0 = 0,00 / 7 = 4,430

, / 7 = 5,873

222,222 / 7 = 3,746

999,999 / 7 = 42,857

576,576 / 7 = 82,368

For all of the above examples, subtracting the first thee digits from the last three results in a multiple of

seven. Notice that leading zeros are permitted to form a 6-digit pattern.

This phenomenon forms the basis for $teps B and C.

$tep B: f the integer is between 1,001 and one million, find a repeating pattern of 1, 2, or 3 digits that

forms a 6-digit number that is close to the integer (leading zeros are allowed and can help you visualize

the pattern). f the positive difference is less than 1,000, apply $tep A. This can be done by subtracting

the first three digits from the last three digits. For example:

34,355 - 34,34 = 4 - - (42) = - 8 = -7 YES

67,326 - 067,067 = 259 - 25 - (92) = 25 - 8 = 7 YES

The fact that 999,999 is a multiple of 7 can be used for determining divisibility of integers larger than one

million by reducing the integer to a 6-digit number that can be determined using $tep B. This can be done

easily by adding the digits left of the first six to the last six and follow with $tep A.

$tep C: f the integer is larger than one million, subtract the nearest multiple of 999,999 and then apply

$tep B. For even larger numbers, use larger sets such as 12-digits (999,999,999,999) and so on. Then,

break the integer into a smaller number that can be solved using $tep B. For example:

inding remainder of a number when divided by 7

7 ~ (1, 3, 2, ~1, ~3, ~2, cycle repeats for the next six digits) Period: 6 digits. Recurring numbers: 1, 3, 2,

~1, ~3, ~2

Minimum magnitude sequence

(1, 3, 2, 6, 4, 5, cycle repeats for the next six digits) Period: 6 digits. Recurring numbers: 1, 3, 2, 6, 4, 5

Positive sequence

Multiply the right most digit by the left most digit in the sequence and multiply the second right most digit

by the second left most digit in the sequence and so on and so for. Next, compute the sum of all the

values and take the modulus of 7.

Example: What is the remainder when 1036125837 is divided by 7?

Multiplication of the rightmost digit = 1 7 = 7

Multiplication of the second rightmost digit = 3 3 = 9

Third rightmost digit = 8 2 = 16

Fourth rightmost digit = 5 ~1 = ~5

Fifth rightmost digit = 2 ~3 = ~6

$ixth rightmost digit = 1 ~2 = ~2

$eventh rightmost digit = 6 1 = 6

Eighth rightmost digit = 3 3 = 9

Ninth rightmost digit = 0

Tenth rightmost digit = 1 ~1 = ~1

$um = 33

33 modulus 7 = 5

Remainder = 5

Digit pair method of divisibiIity by 7

This method uses , 3, 2 pattern on the digit pairs. That is, the divisibility of any number by seven can be

tested by first separating the number into digit pairs, and then applying the algorithm on three digit pairs

(six digits). When the number is smaller than six digits, then fill zero's to the right side until there are six

digits. When the number is larger than six digits, then repeat the cycle on the next six digit group and then

add the results. Repeat the algorithm until the result is a small number. The original number is divisible by

seven if and only if the number obtained using this algorithm is divisible by seven. This method is

especially suitable for large numbers.

Eample

The number to be tested is 157514. First we separate the number into three digit pairs: 15, 75 and 14.

Then we apply the algorithm: 15 3 75 + 2 14 = 182

Because the resulting 182 is less than six digits, we add zero's to the right side until it is six digits.

Then we apply our algorithm again: 18 3 20 + 2 0 = ~42

The result ~42 is divisible by seven, thus the original number 157514 is divisible by seven!

Eample 2

The number to be tested is 15751537186.

( 15 3 75 + 2 15) + ( 37 3 18 + 2 60) = ~180 + 103 = ~77

The result ~77 is divisible by seven, thus the original number 15751537186 is divisible by seven!

DivisibiIity by 3

Remainder Test 13 (1, ~3, ~4, ~1, 3, 4, cycle goes on.) f you are not comfortable with negative numbers,

then use this sequence. (1, 10, 9, 12, 3, 4)

Multiply the right most digit of the number with the left most number in the sequence shown above and

the second right most digit to the second left most digit of the number in the sequence. The cycle goes

on.

Example: What is the remainder when 321 is divided by 13?

Using the first sequence,

Ans: 1 + 2 ~3 + 3 ~4 = 9

Remainder = ~17 mod 13 = 9

Example: What is the remainder when 1234567 is divided by 13?

Using the second sequence,

Answer: 7 1 + 6 10 + 5 9 + 4 12 + 3 3 + 2 4 + 1 = 178 mod 13 = 9

Remainder = 9

Beyond 20

Divisibility properties can be determined in two ways, depending on the type of the divisor.

omposite divisors

A number is divisible by a given divisor if it is divisible by the highest power of each of its prime factors.

For example, to determine divisibility by 24, check divisibility by 8 and by 3.

[5]

Note that checking 4 and 6,

or 2 and 12, would not be sufficient. A table of prime factors may be useful.

A composite divisor may also have a rule formed using the same procedure as for a prime divisor, given

below, with the caveat that the manipulations involved may not introduce any factor which is present in

the divisor. For instance, one can not make a rule for 14 that involves multiplying the equation by 7. This

is not an issue for prime divisors because they have no smaller factors.

!rime divisors

The goal is to find an inverse to 10 modulo the prime (not 2 or 5) and use that as a multiplier to make the

divisibility of the original number by that prime depend on the divisibility of the new (usually smaller)

number by the same prime. Using 17 as an example, since 10 (~5) = ~50 = 1 mod 17, we get the rule

for using ~ 5 in the table above. n fact, this rule for prime divisors besides 2 and 5 isreall a rule for

divisibility by any integer relatively prime to 10 (including 21 and 27; see tables below). This is why the

last divisibility condition in the tables above and below for any number relatively prime to 10 has the same

kind of form (add or subtract some multiple of the last digit from the rest of the number).

otabIe exampIes

The following table provides rules for a few more notable divisors:

D|v|sor D|v|s|b|||ty cond|t|on Lxamp|es

21 SubLracL Lwlce Lhe lasL dlglL from Lhe resL

168 16 - (82) 0 168 ls dlvlslble

1030 103 - (02) 103 10 - (32)

0 1030 ls dlvlslble

23 Add 7 Llmes Lhe lasL dlglL Lo Lhe resL

2S 1he number formed by Lhe lasL Lwo dlglLs ls dlvlslble by 23

2

134230 30 ls dlvlslble by 23

27

Sum Lhe dlglLs ln blocks of Lhree from rlghL Lo lefL lf Lhe resulL ls

dlvlslble by 27 Lhen Lhe number ls dlvlslble by 27

2644272 2 + 644 + 272 918

2734

SubLracL 8 Llmes Lhe lasL dlglL from Lhe resL 621 62 - (18) 34

29 Add Lhree Llmes Lhe lasL dlglL Lo Lhe resL 261 13 3 3 + 26 29

31 SubLracL Lhree Llmes Lhe lasL dlglL from Lhe resL 837 83 - 37 62

32

1he number formed by Lhe lasL flve dlglLs ls dlvlslble by 32

12

23133320 33320111032

lf Lhe Len Lhousands dlglL ls even examlne Lhe number formed by

Lhe lasL four dlglLs

41312 1312

lf Lhe Len Lhousands dlglL ls odd examlne Lhe number formed by

Lhe lasL four dlglLs plus 16

234176 4176+16 4192

Add Lhe lasL Lwo dlglLs Lo 4 Llmes Lhe resL 1312 (134) + 12 64

33

Add 10 Llmes Lhe lasL dlglL Lo Lhe resL lL has Lo be dlvlslble by 3 and

11

627 62 + 7 10 132

13 + 2 10 33

Add Lhe dlglLs ln blocks of Lwo from rlghL Lo lefL 2143 21 + 43 66

3S number musL be dlvlslble by 7 endlng ln 0 or 3

37

1ake Lhe dlglLs ln blocks of Lhree from rlghL Lo lefL and add each

block [usL as for 27

2631272 2 + 631 + 272 923 923

3723

SubLracL 11 Llmes Lhe lasL dlglL from Lhe resL 923 92 - (311) 37

39 Add 4 Llmes Lhe lasL dlglL Lo Lhe resL 331 1 4 4 4 + 33 39

41 SubLracL 4 Llmes Lhe lasL dlglL from Lhe resL 738 73 - 8 4 41

43 Add 13 Llmes Lhe lasL dlglL Lo Lhe resL

36249 3624 + 9 13 3741

374 + 1 13 387

38 + 7 13 129

12 + 9 13 129 43 3

4S 1he number musL be dlvlslble by 9 endlng ln 0 or 3

3

493 4 + 9 + 3 18 1 + 8 9

(493 ls dlvlslble by boLh 3 and 9)

47 SubLracL 14 Llmes Lhe lasL dlglL from Lhe resL

1642979 164297 - 9 14 164171

16417 - 14 16403

1640 - 3 14 1398

139 - 8 14 47

49 Add 3 Llmes Lhe lasL dlglL Lo Lhe resL

1127 112+(73)147

147 14 + (73) 49

S 1he lasL Lwo dlglLs are 00 or 30 134230 30

S1 SubLracL 3 Llmes Lhe lasL dlglL Lo Lhe resL

SS number musL be dlvlslble by 11 endlng ln 0 or 3

3

933 93 - 3 88 or 9 + 33 44

S9 Add 6 Llmes Lhe lasL dlglL Lo Lhe resL 293 36 30 30 + 29 39

61 SubLracL 6 Llmes Lhe lasL dlglL from Lhe resL

64

1he number formed by Lhe lasL slx dlglLs musL be dlvlslble by

64

12

6S number musL be dlvlslble by 13 endlng ln 0 or 3

3

66 number musL be dlvlslble by 6 and 11

3

69 Add 7 Llmes Lhe lasL dlglL Lo Lhe resL 343 37 33 33 + 34 69

71 SubLracL 7 Llmes Lhe lasL dlglL from Lhe resL

7S number musL be dlvlslble by 3 endlng ln 00 23 30 or 73

3

823 ends ln 23 and ls dlvlslble by 3

77 lorm Lhe alLernaLlng sum of blocks of Lhree from rlghL Lo lefL 76923 923 76 847

79 Add 8 Llmes Lhe lasL dlglL Lo Lhe resL 711 18 8 8 + 71 79

81 SubLracL 8 Llmes Lhe lasL dlglL from Lhe resL

89 Add 9 Llmes Lhe lasL dlglL Lo Lhe resL 801 19 9 80 + 9 89

91

SubLracL 9 Llmes Lhe lasL dlglL from Lhe resL

lorm Lhe alLernaLlng sum of blocks of Lhree from rlghL Lo lefL 3274997 3 274 + 997 728

99 Add Lhe dlglLs ln blocks of Lwo from rlghL Lo lefL 144837 14 + 48 + 37 99

11 lorm Lhe alLernaLlng sum of blocks of Lwo from rlghL Lo lefL 40299 4 2 + 99 101

111 Add Lhe dlglLs ln blocks of Lhree from rlghL Lo lefL

12S

1he number formed by Lhe lasL Lhree dlglLs musL be dlvlslble by

123

2

128

1he number formed by Lhe lasL seven dlglLs musL be dlvlslble by

128

12

143 lorm Lhe alLernaLlng sum of blocks of Lhree from rlghL Lo lefL 1774487 1 774 + 487 286

2S6

1he number formed by Lhe lasL elghL dlglLs musL be dlvlslble by

236

12

333 Add Lhe dlglLs ln blocks of Lhree from rlghL Lo lefL

S12

1he number formed by Lhe lasL nlne dlglLs musL be dlvlslble by

312

12

989 Add Lhe lasL Lhree dlglLs Lo eleven Llmes Lhe resL 21738 21 11 231 738 + 231 989

999 Add Lhe dlglLs ln blocks of Lhree from rlghL Lo lefL

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