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“ENERGY: A BENCH MARK FOR yuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyui DEVELOPMENT IN GUJARAT”
Submitted to Mr. P.V.Desai
By: Arul Aggarwal, Roll No: 6, AMA PGP-IBM (2010-12)
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ABOUT WIND ENERGY .INTRODUCTION .SOURCES OF ENERGY .APPLICATIONS .ABOUT SOLAR ENERGY .BENEFITS .CONTENTS .BRIEFING ABOUT THE PROJECT PREFACE .PREFACE .ABOUT BIO ENERGY .
The world energy consumption pattern is also increasing as shown in the Fig.9 124.2 210. In one sense.8 18.1 184. There is a need to know the options available and how to exploit them.9 242.1.0 19.4 483.1 705.1 2964.2 3. the disparity one feels from country to country arises from the extent of accessible energy for the citizens of each country.9 312.7 537.2 997.4 603.8 1506.2 9.1 3198.4 4.0 634.7 4.9 132.0 481. Unfortunately.3 1090.8 330. The energy consumption has been increasing and it will triple in a period of 50 years by 2025 as seen from Fig.1. the need to harness some of these sources efficiently and effectively and above all the environmental concerns these energy sources give rise to The standard of living of the people of any country is considered to be proportional to the energy consumption by the people of that country.5 3767. the world energy demands are mainly met by the fossil fuels today.8 10224.7 218.3 141. Energy consumption by fuel type (in million tones of oil equivalent) for the year 2004 Region North America South & central America Europe and Eurasia So called Middle east Africa Asia Pacific World Oil Gas Coal Nuclear energy Hydroelectricity Total 1122.4 2784.3 250.9 106.6 2778.4 118.8 152.9 624.4 287. The reasons for the choice of energy sources are many.1 102.7 957.4 221. The geographical non equi-distribution of this source and also the ability to acquire and also control the production and supply of this energy source have given rise to many issues and also the disparity in the standard of living.0 61.4 .
biomass and geothermal for resources and in the energy forms. There are many sources of energy. The main drivers of the alternate energy search are the population growth. electricity. And am going to talk about renewable sources of energy and that too in renewable source of energy major focus will be on Wind. Solar & Bio Energy. The renewable energy sources are not brought into main stream energy resources though occasionally we hear the use of low quality biomass as a source in some form or the other. technology. economy. hydrogen and fuel. The world population will increase from 6 billion to 11 billion in this century and the life expectancy has increased 2 times in the last two centuries and the energy requirement has increased 35 times in the same period. solar. These include hydro power. and agriculture. light. wind. heat. . There are a variety of energy resources and energy forms.
people used the wind to move their boats from place to place. Petroleum. to heat our homes. to move our cars. the wind blows. growth etc. people use more energy than ever from a variety of sources for a multitude of tasks and our lives are undoubtedly better for it. Later. and the rivers flow. Our homes are comfortable and full of useful and entertaining electrical devices. — - SOURCES OF ENERGY People have always used energy to do work for them. solar. for example. and cook their food. working thing. Renewable energy sources include biomass. We communicate instantaneously in many ways. healthier lives. so we can’t make more quickly. The ten major energy sources we use today are classified into two broad groups— nonrenewable and renewable. A hundred years ago. We travel the world. and uranium. sound. and to manufacture products from candy bars to MP3 players. heat. hydropower. It bakes a cake in the oven and keeps ice frozen in the freezer. We live longer.INTRODUCTION WHAT IS ENERGY? - Energy does things for us. heat their living spaces. motion. doing. We could run out of economically recoverable nonrenewable resources some day. geothermal. the sun shines. petroleum. natural gas. people began using falling water to make electricity. or at least see it on television and the internet. Energy helps our bodies grow and our minds think. propane. Nonrenewable energy sources include coal. It moves cars along the road and boats on the water. Energy is defined as the ability to produce change or do work. We use renewable energy sources mainly to make electricity. and moving. They are called renewable energy sources because their supplies are replenished in a short time. early humans burned wood to provide light. and wind. Thousands of years ago. They are used to generate electricity. was formed millions of years ago from the remains of ancient sea life. . Day after day. and that work can be divided into several main tasks we easily recognize: Energy produces light. It plays our favorite songs and lights our homes at night so that we can read good books. Energy is a changing. These energy sources are called nonrenewable because they cannot be replenished in a short period of time. Today.
. The cost of electricity from the sun. we will keep the money at home to help the economy. Continued research has made renewable energy more affordable today than 25 years ago. Moreover it will help in creating less pollution and less use of non renewable energy sources. America spent $109 billion to import oil in 2000.20 today. The cost of wind energy has declined from 40 cents per kilowatt-hour to less than 5 cents. And ethanol fuel costs have plummeted from $4 per gallon in the early 1980s to $1. through photovoltaics (literally meaning "light-electricity") has dropped from more than $1/kilowatt-hour in 1980 to nearly 20cents/kilowatt-hour today.BENEFITS Renewable energy resource development will result in new jobs for people and less oil we have to buy from foreign countries. If we fully develop self-renewing resources. According to the federal government.
RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES (APPLICATIONS): ABOUT BIO-ENERGY: .
left-over crops. urban wood waste. the animals . It is also a renewable resource because plants to make biomass can be grown over and over. It can even include used tires and livestock manure. So using biomass and replanting helps close the carbon dioxide cycle. the 60 million tons of biomass in California could make close to 2. In places where lots of animals are raised. Plants use and store carbon dioxide (CO2) when they grow. Of this total. So. wood chips (like in the picture to the right). However. recycled and then reused. This type of biomass is called landfill gas. If all of it was used. tree branches. That's enough energy to make electricity for about two million homes! Biomass can also be tapped right at the landfill with burning waster products. yard clippings. Using biomass can help reduce global warming compared to a fossil fuel-powered plant. This is biomass from lumber mill wastes. When manure decomposes. This gas can be burned right at the farm to make energy to run the farm. Some of it is just stuff lying around -. and bark and sawdust from lumber mills. forest and agricultural residues and other feed stocks.like cattle. compost material or fuels. A similar thing can be done at animal feed lots. CO2 stored in the plant is released when the plant material is burned or decays. California produces more than 60 million bone dry tons of biomass each year. Recycling biomass for fuel and other uses cuts down on the need for "landfills" to hold garbage. cows and even chickens . it also gives off methane gas similar to garbage. Composting material is decayed plant or food products mixed together in a compost pile and spread to help plants grow. the new plants can use the CO2 produced by the burned plants. Your trash contains some types of biomass that can be reused. Biomass is matter usually thought of as garbage. Pipelines are put into the landfills and the methane gas can be collected. if the crops are not replanted. When garbage decomposes. You'll remember in chapters 8 and 9 that natural gas is made up of methane. five million bone dry tons is now burned to make electricity. Your trash. then biomass can emit carbon dioxide that will contribute toward global warming. the use of biomass can be environmentally friendly because the biomass is reduced.dead trees. paper products that can't be recycled into other paper products. By replanting the crops. and other household waste are normally sent to the dump. it gives off methane gas. . This stuff nobody seems to want can be used to produce electricity.produce manure. heat. It is then used in power plants to make electricity.000 megawatts of electricity for California's growing population and economy.
So. people "worshipped" the sun. the sungod Shamash was a major deity and was equated with justice. The influence of the sun also appears in other religions – Zoroastrianism. oil and natural gas that we use today. Apollo and Helios. When we hang laundry outside to dry in the sun. Buddhism. the Incas of Peru. Solar energy can be used in any of the three below mentioned forms: Solar hot water Solar thermal electricity Solarcells of photo voltaic energy .000 years ago. In Mesopotamia. who was considered the first king of Egypt. and many Native American tribes. As far back as 5. Even nuclear energy comes from a star because the uranium atoms used in nuclear energy were created in the fury of a nova – a star exploding. Without it. In Greece there were two sun deities. Animals eat plants for food. Mithraism. We know today. fossil fuels is actually sunlight stored millions and millions of years ago. Hinduism. the sun-god. that the sun is simply our nearest star. the sun or other stars are responsible for ALL our energy. life would not exist on our planet. Roman religion. we are using the sun's heat to do work – drying our clothes Plants use the sun's light to make food. We use the sun's energy every day in many different ways. Ra. Indirectly.ABOUT SOLAR ENERGY: We have always used the energy of the sun as far back as humans have existed on this planet. the Druids of England. Moreover decaying plants hundreds of millions of years ago produced the coal. the Aztecs of Mexico.
wind speeds usually must be above 12 to 14 miles per hour. Other countries that use a lot of wind energy are Denmark and Germany. the wind is also used to make electricity. The kinetic energy of the wind can be changed into other forms of energy. Today. So. You can light ten 100 watt light bulbs with 1. In order for a wind turbine to work efficiently.000 watts (kilo means 1. a 300 kilowatt (300. A small turbine makes enough energy for a house. You can use a single smaller wind turbine to power a home or a school.000). Wind is also used to turn large grinding stones to grind wheat or corn. . just like a water wheel is turned by water power. either mechanical energy or electrical energy.000 light bulbs that use 100 watts! About 11 percent of the entire world's wind-generated electricity is found in California. A kilowatt is 1. In Holland. windmills have been used for centuries to pump water from low- lying areas.000 watts. Once electricity is made by the turbine.000 watts) wind turbine could light up 3. There the voltage is increase to send it long distances over high power lines. DUE TO ALL WHAT IS MENTIONED ABOVE ONE SHOULD FOCUS ON THE RENEWABLE SOURCE OF ENERGY LIKE WHAT GUJARAT IS DOING AND BRING ABOUT A CHANGE IN THE WORLD. the electricity from the entire wind farm is collected together and sent through a transformer. The turbines usually produce about 50 to 300 kilowatts of electricity each. Wind has to be this speed to turn the turbines fast enough to generate electricity.ABOUT WIND ENERGY: Wind can be used to do work.
I will be making people aware how it is going globally. I will be sharing with you the experiences of different countries. I will be talking about its importance and impact. 3. 4. THANK YOU . I will be talking about the issues. 7. Gujarat’s policies Gujarat’s development Benefits Impact made by Gujarat in India and globally. I will be talking about the need to be a part of this. 6.BRIEFING ABOUT THE PROJECT 1. Projects in Gujarat. 5. I will be talking about the policies framed in accordance for utilising these energies. 2. Issues and what is government doing. I will be making people aware about the benefits of renewable source of energy. Last but not the least I will be majorly talking or focusing about Gujarat.
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