Facts of Photovoltaics (PV) – A Promising Alternative Energy Resource

Dr. Nowshad Amin Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) National University of Malaysia (UKM)

Biography
Born in Chittagong. Secondary to College from Chittagong Collegiate School (‘82-’83) & Comilla Cadet College (SSC’87, HSC’89) Japanese Ministry of Education (Monbusho) Scholarship (Oct1990). Japanese Language Course to BS, MS & PhD (Tokyo Institute of Technology) in Japan (Oct 1990-March 2001) Job at Motorola Japan (Apr. 2001 – Nov 2004) Post Doctoral Fellowship at University of South Florida (2002-2003), US. Assistant Professor at Multimedia University in Malaysia (Nov 2004-Oct 2006) Assistant Professor at National University of Malaysia (UKM) & Senior Associate Research Fellow at Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) from Nov 2006 to date.

Contents Introduction Renewable Energy Resources PV Details Application of PV Some Facts: Japan and World Concluding Remarks

INTRODUCTION

ENERGY USE FOSSIL FUEL AGE

RENEWABLE ENERGY HYBRID FUEL AGE

PAST

Present times

FUTURE

INTRODUCTION Energy Demand and Production (Fluid Fossil Fuel)

Renewable Energy

2008 2015

INTRODUCTION World fossil fuel reserves

INTRODUCTION Environmental damage due to fossil fuels (1998)

Total Annual Loss: $4.35 trillion

Recent Trend of Energy

Renewable Energy Sources

Wind Energy

Solar Photovoltaic Energy

Solar Thermal Energy

Focus on Solar Photovoltaic Energy

SOLAR CELLS

sunlight

solar cell

electricity

heat

ENERGY RESOURCES
Wave and DIRECT SOLARTidal Energy Photovoltaic – Direct Geothermal

Solar Radiation

ENERGY Conversion of Sunlight Photovoltaic Indirect into Electricity
Stored Thermal Solar Energy Solar Energy

Direct Solar Energy

Nuclear Energy

AVAILABLE ENERGY: LATITUDE & CLIMATE

FUNDAMENTALS 07

SOLAR CELLS

ENERGY SOLAR THERMAL SYSTEMS RESOURCES
Solar Drying, Solar Hot Water Wave and Heating Systems, Solar Space DIRECT SOLARTidal Solar Heating and Cooling, Solar Energy Geothermal ENERGY Radiation Detoxification, Solar Desalination, Solar Refrigeration, Solar Heat Indirect Photovoltaic Pumping Pump, Solar
Direct Solar Energy Stored Thermal Solar Energy Solar Energy

Nuclear Energy

SOLAR THERMAL USAGE

Digging Deep Inside PV INTRODUCTION FUNDAMENTALS OF PV PV SYSTEMS BUILDING INTEGRATED PHOTOVOLTAIC (BIPV) DESIGN AND INSTALLATION ISSUES EXAMPLE-SIZING OF PV SYSTEMS

FEATURES OF PV

renewable / sustainable direct conversion
quiet reliable

modular
mW ~ multiMW

Solar PV Energy
Advantages Majority manufactured from silicon - most abundant element in the earth’s crust (28% by weight) Environmentally friendly Decentralized installation Long life (30 years) Low maintenance Noise-free Clean Light weight Overlap with IC technology Limitations Intermittent power Low-energy density High start-up cost

Solar Cell Fundamentals
1. 2. 3.

4.

What is a Solar Cell? Solar Spectrum Silicon a) What is a Semiconductor? b) How is Silicon Extracted? Solar Cells a) The Photovoltaic Effect b) A Typical Solar Cell Design c) Electrical Model of a Solar Cell d) Limiting Losses in a Silicon Solar Cell e) Performance of a Solar Cell f) Basic Power Output of a Solar Cell

What is a Solar Cell?

A solar cell is a semiconductor device designed to convert sunlight into electricity. The conversion of light into electricity in a solar cell is called the photovoltaic (PV) effect. Photovoltaics stands for photo, meaning “light”, and voltaic, meaning “electricity”.

Solar Spectrum
The solar spectrum at Earth’s surface in ~ 0.3-2.5-µm range; the visible part in ~ 0.4 to 0. 8-µm range, The peak sunlight intensity (AM 1.5) is ~1000 W/m2 or ~ 100 mW/cm2

Sunlight Utilization In Semiconductors
Convert all sunlight into electricity Design materials to achieve maximum energy conversion Most suitable materials are single and multiple layer semiconductors Silicon is most desirable due to low cost and optimal match with solar spectrum

Introduction

Solar cells convert the incident solar radiation energy into electrical energy. Sunlight is composed of photons, or "packets" of energy. When photons strike a solar cell, they may be reflected or absorbed, or they may pass right through. When a photon is absorbed, the energy of the photon is transferred to an electron in an atom of the cell (which is actually a semiconductor). With its new found energy, the electron is able to escape from its normal position associated with that atom to become part of the current in an electrical circuit. By leaving this position, the electron causes a hole to form.

The effect of the electric field in a PV cell

How do solar cells work?

p-n Junction
Xd

p-type

n-type

anode

cathode

p≈ Na -xp 0 + xn

p≈Nd

Va

Ideal solar cell material

Bandgap between 1.1 and 1.7eV. Direct band structure Consisting of readily available, non toxic materials. Easy, reproducible deposition technique, suitable for large area production. Good photovoltaics conversion efficiency. Long term stability.

PV EFFECT: BASIC PROCESS AND LOSSES
light absorption transport of charge carriers charge separation & collection
power [W/(m2.nm)]

recombination

Egap

generation
1.6 1.2 0.8 0.4 0.0 400 800 1200 1600 2000 wavelength [nm] 2400 solar spectrum convertible by c-Si cell

power generation (energy dissipation) final recombination

OPERATING PRINCIPLE SOLAR CELL

_

anti-reflection coating front contact n-type semiconductor

hole(+)

generation

electron (-)

p-type semiconductor

recombination

back contact +

CURRENT – VOLTAGE CHARACTERISTIC OF A SOLAR CELL
current→

dark

Vmax voltage → Imax
open circuit voltage

illuminated short circuit current

Pmax

Solar Cells Parameters

Ι = Io[e

qv Akt

− 1] − IL

Io is the reverse saturation current A is diode quality factor IL is the light generated current t is depth of the semiconductor material from the surface of incident light

Solar Cell Parameters (cont.) Short circuit current densities Isc=-IL

J

sc

=

I

sc

A

A is area of the solar cells Isc is the short circuit current

Solar cells Parameters (cont.)

Open circuit voltage, Voc

V oc

⎡ kT ⎤ ⎛ I sc ⎞ = A⎢ ⎥ ln ⎜ I o + 1 ⎟ ⎠ ⎣ q ⎦ ⎝
V m Im FF = V oc I sc

Fill Factor, FF

Solar cell parameters

Efficiency, ŋ

FF × Voc × Isc η= × 100% Pin

As the total radiated power incident on the cell Pin is 100, the efficiency reduces

η = VocJscFF

PV Voltage, Current and Power

Imp × Vmp FF = Isc × Voc

P max = Imp × Vmp

ImpVmp IscVocFF = η= Ps Ps

EFFICIENCY AND YIELD

maximum electric power

efficiency

=

at Standard Test incident illumination power Conditions (STC)
electric energy

energy yield

=

incident solar energy

under practical conditions

STC: 25 oC, air mass (AM) 1.5, 1000 W/m2, ⊥

EFFICIENCY IDEAL AND PRACTICAL CELLS
ideal cells
loss factor - spectral mismatch - recombination remedy - multicolour (tandem) cells - concentration

η≤30%

η≤85%

practical cells and modules: add
- excess recombination - shadowing & reflection - transmission - resistance - non-optimal band gap(s) example: multicrystalline silicon cell (15%)

Study Details: CdTe Thin Film Solar Cell
hν
Corning 1737 ITO (2500Å ) CdS

Ag

MOCVD法 (600Å )

CdTe
Carbon
Ag

CSS 法 (4~ 7μ m ) 印刷法 (20μ m )

膜質改善 CdCl2 処 理 p 型化 (Cu-Doping)


Schematic View of the CdS/CdTe Solar Cell Schematic View of the CdS/CdTe Solar Cell

Objectives of this Study
Cd Te A bso r ptio n Co efficien t: 2x10 4 cm -1 hν Cd T e Th ickn ess Red uctio n to 1µm
φ2 - φ1
Rec ombi nat ion S tate s Bac k Contac t

Over 90% o f In cid en t Sp ectru m Ab sor b ed in 1 µ m-Cd T e layer

Co r nin g 1737

CB EF VB

TCO
Cd S Ag

Cd S

Cd T e

Cd Te
ZnTe
Ag Heter o S tru ctu re at Back S ur face V acu u m Level

In sertio n of T extur ed TC O

Light TCO
Diffraction Diffraction
2 .4 1eV

E lectr o n F lo w
1. 44e V 2. 26e V

Light Absorption Layer

Cd S

Cd T e

Zn T e

Achievements of the Study Achievements of the Study
CdTe 光吸収係数は 2x104 cm-1 、 入射光の 90%を 1µm で吸収 1.2 µm-CdTe 太陽電池の場合、変換効率は 11.5%。 Textured SnO 2 の導入により、 0.6-µm CdTe 太陽電池の場合、変換効率は 11.2%。 1 µmまで薄膜化

Conversion Efficiency [%]

16
Matsushita (16%) U. S. F (15.8%) T. I. T. (14.7%)

NREL (15.8%)

Present Position

14 12
ITO

T. I. T. (15.3%)

10 8 0.0

Textured TCO ITO

T.I.T. Others 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 CdTe Thickness [µm] 6.0 7.0 8.0

1.0

What is a Semiconductor?
Semiconductors absorb sunlight to create electrical current A semiconductor has an electrical conductivity in between that of a metal and an insulator. Most common semiconductors for PV cells include: Silicon (Si) Gallium Arsenide (GaAs), Copper Indium Diselenide (CuInSe), Cadmium Telluride (CdTe). Silicon is also the material of choice in the integrated circuit manufacturing

How is Silicon Extracted?
Raw silicon is first extracted from common sand. A series of chemical steps refine it until the purity level reaches 99.9999999 %. Thus, for every ten billion atoms, only one non-silicon atom can be permitted. Crystalline silicon is used in most solar cells. To create a crystal, two methods are used: Czochralski (CZ) process, Float-zone (FZ) process. CZ dominates the market.

The Czochralski Process
A seed of single crystal silicon contacts the top of a molten mass (1421ºC) of purified silicon. The seed crystal is slowly raised (less than 10 cm per hour) and rotated. As the crystal rises imperceptibly from the melt, silicon freezes on its surface, extending the size of the single crystal.

Silicon ingots are "grown" from the purified molten silicon. Slices of the ingot - ranging from 100mm to 300mm (4 to 12 inches) in diameter with a thickness about 1/30th of an inch thick (approximately that of a credit card ) are cut from this crystal. The slices are called "wafers."

The Photovoltaic Effect
Described simply, the PV effect is as follows: Light which enters a PV cell imparts covalent enough energy to some electrons to free them from the silicon atoms. bond The missing electron in the bond is called a hole. In other words, incident light has created a free electron and a hole.
+ Si atom

free electron ecreated hole (missing electron)

Photon The generation of electrons and holes by light is the central process in the PV effect, but it does not itself produce a current.

A built-in-potential barrier in the cell acts on these electrons to produce a voltage, which can be used to derive a current through a circuit.

A Typical Solar Cell Design
Solar cells comprise 2 major regions: A P-region conducting positive charges (holes), And an N-region conducting negative charges (electrons). A typical solar cell has several layers: A conducting grid on the top surface, An antireflection coating to reduce reflections of the incident light on the cell, A semiconductor with the P and N regions And a back metal contact electrode.

Electrical Model of a Solar Cell

A PV device can be modeled as an ideal diode in parallel with a light-induced current generator, ISC.
ID

Rsh: shunt resistance, mainly due to crystal imperfections. Rs: series resistance, arises from the bulk conductivities of the layers and from the contacts.

Limiting Losses in a Silicon Solar Cell

Sunlight has not enough energy to separate electrons

Optical Losses
Sunlight:100mW/cm2 Cell Output: 16.6mW/cm2
Excess energy has heat losses

Why a solar cell is not 100% efficient?

Collection efficiency

Thermalization Metallic Losses

Material Losses → Solar efficiency

Performance of a Solar Cell
The performance of a solar cell is function of: Sunlight and climate conditions, Angle of incidence, Wavelength of the light, Polarization, Surface area of the solar cell.

Basic Power Output of a Cell
Voltage of the electric current: 0.5 Volts. This results from the voltage across the P/N barrier layer of the solar cell. Current of a solar cell: proportional to the amount of radiation incident on the solar cells and the number of electron-hole pair created ~ 30-40 mA/cm2. Efficiency (ratio of electric power produced by a cell at any instant to the power of the sunlight striking the cell): ranges up to 28% (lab) but typical is ~ 15% (manufacturing).

Solar Cell System Configurations
1.

PV Modules and Arrays

2.

PV Solar Electric Systems

Solar Cell System Configurations
One solar cell produces only 0.5 V and 30mA/cm2, which isn't enough power for most applications. To increase power output, cells are electrically connected together. Solar cells are connected in series to increase the voltage. Solar cells are connected in parallel to increase the current.

PV Modules and Arrays
Solar cells connected in series increases voltage. The positive lead from one cell is joined to the negative lead of the next cell and so on. Solar cells connected in parallel increases current. A common lead joined all the positive terminals and another lead joined all the negative terminals.

Vtotal = V1 + V2 + V3 + … Itotal = I1 = I2 = I3 = …

Vtotal = V1 = V2 = V3 = … Itotal = I1 + I2 + I3 + ...

PV Modules and Arrays
A group of solar cells put together is called a photovoltaic module. Solar cells are combined to form a module to obtain the voltage and current (and therefore power) desired. For example, to form a 12-volt module, 24 solar cells have to be connected in series. A photovoltaic array is a group of photovoltaic modules put together to generate electricity. A PV array may consist of one module to thousands of modules. The output of the array may vary from a few watts to tens of Megawatts depending on the number and output of the modules.

Typical Solar Module
Cells are interconnected and packaged in a weatherproof module. The cells are encapsulated in a material like silicone or ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA) and covered by a tempered glass sheet.

The module is sealed into a metal frame (typically Al) complete with mounting holes so that the module can be attached to rack or building assemblies.

PV Modules and Arrays

PV modules are very versatile. They can be mounted in a variety of sizes and applications. For example: On the roof or awning of a building, Building-integrated PV such as PV shingles, which replace conventional roofing shingles (a), Water pumping (b), Communications (c), Large-scale utility power (d), And roadside emergency phones (e).

PV Solar Electric Systems
Photovoltaics converts light energy directly into an electric current that can either be used immediately or stored for later use, such as in a battery. A solar cell produces direct current (DC), but most of the appliances at home require alternating current (AC). A device called an inverter converts a solar cell’s DC into AC. DC: current always flows in the same direction. AC: the direction of the current alternates.

PV Solar Electric Systems
The solar electricity can also be integrated into an electric utility's grid system. During the day, you can complement the power grid with photovoltaic energy. Benefits: Reduced power bills Increased value of the residence Positive environmental contribution

Solar Cell Manufacturing

Solar Module Manufacturing

Types of Solar Cells

Types of Solar Cells in Market Share

World PV Research Growth

Multijunction Solar Cell Spectrum of sunlight split and distributed over a variety of semiconductor materials by a prism. Each semiconductor material was selected in which would best match each portion of the spectrum

PV Cell to Module

Configuration of Solar PV System

PV TECHNOLOGIES
• commercial - wafer-type crystalline silicon (c-Si; mono & multi) - thin-film amorphous silicon (a-Si; incl. silicon-germanium and microcrystalline silicon) • pre-commercial / pilot production - thin-film cadmium telluride (CdTe) - thin-film copper-indium/gallium-diselenide (CIGS) • laboratory - sensitized oxides (a.o. dye cells) - organic cells (o.a. polymer cells)

PV TECHNOLOGIES example sensitized*) oxide cell (not to scale)
glass/plastic transparant conducting oxide + (counter electrode) electrolyte nanocrystalline, porous TiO2 transparant conducting oxide (photoelectrode) dye TiO2

*) with dye, polymer or inorganic absorbers

PV TECHNOLOGIES & EFFICIENCES
30 25 efficiency (%) 20 15 10 5 0 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 wafer-based c-Si cells thin-film CIGS cells thin-film CdTe cells thin-film a-Si cells (stable) wafer-based c-Si modules thin-filmGIGS modules thin-film a-Si modules (stable)

year

PV TECHNOLOGIES & EFFICIENCES
CATEGORY GROUP MATERIAL TYPE RECORD EFFICIENCY LAB CELLS (%) 25 20 16 14 (tandem) 25 (single) 30 (tandem) 33 (conc.) 16 19 3 5 11 ? TYPICAL MODULE EFFICIENCY (%) 13-16 12-14 (8-10) 5-9 (stable) 20-22 (space) 6-9 8-11 ---------

inorganic IV semiconductors

(Cz + FZ) sc-Si mc-Si + Si sheets

wafer wafer

III-V

(poly)crystalline wafer+film Si films a-(Si,Ge):H thin film and µc-Si GaAs family, InP, wafer+film GaSb, a.o. CdTe, CdS, a.o. thin film

II-VI ternary organic semiconductors

Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S)2 thin film polymer molecular thin film thin film thin film thin film

sensitized oxides

organic

dye/TiO2 a.o.

inorganic CIS/TiO2 a.o. other hybrid various

THIN-FILM SOLAR CELL: EXAMPLE a-Si

THIN-FILM SOLAR CELLS: INTERCONNECTION IN A MODULE

monolithic interconnection in an a-Si module

SERIES CONNECTION IN A MODULE: EFFECT OF PARTIAL SHADOWING

Demosite

MODULE BUILD-UP: ENCAPSULATION OF SOLAR CELLS

MODULES BASED ON WAFER TECHNOLOGY: CELL DENSITY

COMMERCIAL PV MODULES: TYPE, SIZE, COLOUR AND FRAMING

COMMERCIAL PV MODULES: FRAMELESS MODULES (LAMINATES)

COMMERCIAL PV MODULES: PARTLY TRANSPARENT MODULES

INSULATED (PV) GLASS

PRECOMMERCIAL PV MODULES: TRANSLUCENT MODULES

window element with aSi cells

COMMERCIAL PV MODULES: FLEXIBLE MODULES
roofing element with flexible a-Si module

MODULES BASED ON WAFER TECHNOLOGY: SPECIALS
BP SOLAR

coloured PV cells note: (15-30% reduced output)

CUSTOM-MADE PV-MODULES

PV glass brick

triangular module

CUSTOM-MADE PV-MODULES

“solar path”

CUSTOM-MADE PV-MODULES

solar chess

BIFACIAL PV MODULES

MODULES BASED ON WAFER TECHNOLOGY: NEW DEVELOPMENTS
conventional

PUM

Pin-Up Module (PUM): all interconnections at the back of the cells

THIN-FILM MODULES: NEW DEVELOPMENTS

dye-sensitised solar cells (laboratory/pre-pilot phase)

price label

PV MODULES & SYSTEMS: RATING
• module and system rating in watt-peak (Wp) • e.g. a 50 Wp module generates 50 watt of electrical power at Standard Test Conditions (STC) • in addition, or alternatively, the power under realistic conditions may be given (which is usually somewhat lower) • in some cases also the actual energy production under practical conditions (over a certain period of time) will be given or guaranteed
note: Standard Test Conditions are 25oC, 1 sun = 1000 W/m2, AM 1.5, normal incidence)

EFFECT OF OPERATING CONDITIONS
• temperature - module efficiency decreases with temperature: typically 0.2-0.5%/K (relative), depending on module technology • light intensity - module efficiency decreases with light intensity: generally weak dependence from 1 to 0.1/0.2 sun, below 0.1/0.2 sun strongly dependent on module technology and type
note: nameplate rating generally at Standard Test Conditions (STC; 25oC, 1 sun = 1000 W/m2, AM 1.5, normal incidence)

PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEMS – Standalone System

PV Panel Lamps

Charger Battery Storage

TV Radio

PV SYSTEMS stand-alone systems
consumer products telecom leisure water pumping lighting & signalling rural electrification etc.

PV SYSTEMS

energy yield dependent on:
- solar insolation (location) - system power rating (in watt-peak, Wp) - “system efficiency” (performance ratio):
module efficiency under practical conditions inverter, regulator, battery (if applicable) & cable losses, etc. system availablitity

STAND-ALONE PV SYSTEMS
charge regulator
- protect battery from over- and underloading - prevent reverse current from battery to module when dark

battery
- simple lead-acid (“car battery”) to advanced solar battery or NiCd, etc. - provide short- (day), mid- (week-month) or long-term (season) storage - operate for long period (>4 years) if properly maintained - requires replacement within module lifetime

STAND-ALONE PV SYSTEMS: EXAMPLE SOLAR HOME SYSTEM
typical energy yield 50 Wp solar home system: (assume 2000 kWh.yr insolation)
- net module production: 70 kWh/year = 200 Wh/day - including storage losses = 150 Wh/day

energy services provided:
- 3 x 8 W TL lamp x 3 hrs = 72 Wh/day - 1 x 40 W B/W TV set x 2 hrs = 80 Wh/day - TOTAL = 152 Wh/day

STAND-ALONE PV SYSTEMS

Brazil

STAND-ALONE PV SYSTEMS

PV water pumping in India

STAND-ALONE PV SYSTEMS

lndia

PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEMS – Grid connected
DC/AC PV Panel Lamps Utility Grid

TV

Load

GRID-CONNECTED PV SYSTEMS
Japan

ground-based integrated • roof-top & façade • sound barriers • etc.

(typical yield: 750-1500 kWhe/kWp·year, depending on location)

GRID-CONNECTED PV SYSTEMS

key components in a grid-connected PV system

GRID-CONNECTED PV SYSTEMS

CIGS rooftop PV system (NL)

GRID-CONNECTED PV SYSTEMS

2.3 MWp PV at the “Floriade” in NL (horticultural exhibition)

GRID-CONNECTED PV SYSTEMS

A residential area in the Netherlands

GRID-CONNECTED PV SYSTEMS
inverter
- efficient DC/AC conversion (typical average efficiency ≥90%) - maximum power point tracking (MPPT) - high-quality output (low harmonic distortion, etc.) - safe and robust operation (no island operation, protection against indirect lightning strikes, etc.) - long lifetime

GRID-CONNECTED PV SYSTEMS

building integrated PV at ECN

COOLING THERMAL EFFECT ON EFFICIENCY

ECN

COOLING THERMAL EFFECT ON PV
Mind local shading and possible hot spots!

COOLING - THERMAL EFFECT ON SURROUNDING MATERIALS
The temperature difference between PV and ambient up to 40°C (in summer up to 70°C) insulated PV at the rear side - higher temperatures air gap at the rear side preferable too high temperature: roofing material can melt (bituminous materials!) tear, leaking or breaking of the PV laminate can appear expansion space usually available

POWER & HEAT PRINCIPLES OF PV-THERMAL

combined generation of heat and electricity

POWER & HEAT AIR and FLUID FLOW TRANSFER

FLAT ROOFS: INTEGRATION OPTIONS
support structure on the roof PV parasol

shed or saw-tooth roof
M.ART

SLOPED ROOFS: INTEGRATION OPTIONS
mounted over tiles (standoff) or integrated

fully covered roof

PV as roof tiles PV- ventilated (air gap at the rear)
M.ART

FAÇADES: INTEGRATION OPTIONS

fully or partly façade integrated

PV / glass conservatory

balcony breast wall

AWNINGS: INTEGRATION OPTIONS

independent of building envelope
fixed or movable incorporated in building envelope as a curtain wall

canopy

SUN PORCH, VERANDA, ATRIUM INTEGRATION OPTIONS
in flat or sloped roof limited roof load

special case: membrane or network construction

FLAT ROOFS mounting options
Support structure on the roof Gravity mounted or fixed mounted Optimal orientation & tilt Limited covered area due to mutual shading

FLAT ROOFS support structure
metal support structure alternatives: concrete, plastics

GROUND-BASED PV ARRAYS • similar concept as for roofs • metal support structure on concrete foundations • good accessibility • possibility of sun tracking • high land consumption • theft problem

FLAT & SLOPED ROOFS: PV PARASOL
PV covered roof construction as a parasol reduces heat load with or without water-retaining function

SLOPED ROOFS mounting options
STAND-OFF support structure suitable for retrofits cooled from the rear easily mounted and replaced INTEGRATED good integration possible no mutual shading mind water tightness and ventilation

FAÇADES mounting options
•might be cost-effective (replaces traditional cladding material) •risk for damage on the ground floor •not the optimal tilt •aesthetically challenging

COMBINED FUNCTIONS SHADING DEVICES
ideal for PV modules integration suitable both for new and existing buildings excellent combination of passive cooling, daylighting control and energy production

OTHER OBJECTS
sound barriers bus stops roofs of railway platforms or bus stations along the railways information boards, etc.

COMBINED FUNCTIONS PV-THERMAL
Hybrid collectors with medium: AIR or WATER

•cooling PV improves efficiency •heat can be used −in summer (hot water) −in winter (space heating) •attractive in case the available roof surface is limited

COMBINED FUNCTIONS NATURAL LIGHTING
SKY LIGHTS
PV at the South side light from the North ideal for workshops TRANSPARENT or TRANSLUCENT PV • opaque solar cells laminated in
double glass • space between cells 1-3 cm • diffuse or tempered light • interesting shadow patterns

ORIENTATION & TILT location, building & planning constraints orientation & tilt
influences the yield considerably southern orientation preferable (northern hemisphere) count with the right orientation while planning a residential area mind possible mutual shading
M.ART

ORIENTATION & TILT sun tracking
Sun tracking system
•movable along one axis (horizontal) •movable along two axes •sun tracking sensor •lamellas with integrated PV modules •integrated in a façade •cost-benefit ratio questionable

DESIGN PARAMETERS 02

RESIDENTIAL & COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS

PV INDUSTRY

1976

1978

1980

1982

1984

1986

1988

1990

1992

1994

1996

1998

year

source: P.D. Maycock / NCPV Hotline

BUILDING INTEGRATION 18, 22, 24

2000

400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0

module production (MWp)

average market growth 1981-2001: 24% 1996-2001: 38%

other Europe Japan USA total

PV INDUSTRY
The Top Ten Solar Cell Producers in 2001
(Source: PHOTON International)

Sharp BP Solar Kyocera Siemens & Shell Solar AstroPower RWE Solar Isofoton Sanyo Mitsubishi Photowatt
0,0 10,0 14,0 13,5 16,0 18,7 26,0 22,7 48,3 54,4 54,0

74,0

20,0

30,0

40,0

50,0

60,0

70,0

80,0

MW

BUILDING INTEGRATION 22

PV SYSTEMS: PRICE REDUCTION
price reduction of PV systems requires: • economy-of-volume • improved & new technology price level in 2007: (turn-key grid-connected rooftop systems): • 4~5 US$/Wp long-term perspective: • turn-key system price <1 US$/Wp

ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES

energy pay-back time systems (grid-connected systems)
now 4-8 years (EU) future (<10 years) 1-2 years

materials consumption
avoid hazardous or scarce materials some alternatives required (for Ag, e.g.) recycling to be developed further

SOCIAL ISSUES

rural access:
- 2 billion people without access to electricity grid - PV provides electricity (energy services) in any affordable amount - need for financing options - need for infrastructure (after sales, etc.) - PV may be used as tool in development programmes - PV is only sustainable energy technology for general use

BUILDING INTEGRATION 25

SOCIAL ISSUES

job creation:
- high value jobs - quantified by European PV Industry Association EPIA and Greenpeace - possibilities for substantial added value in developing countries

BUILDING INTEGRATION 25

PV ADDED VALUE

PV is more than just a kWhgenerator:
- is also building element - provides green power - enables self-sufficiency in power generation - can be used everywhere (all countries, all locations) - can be designed in any size - etc.

EXAMPLE - SIZING OF STANDALONE SYSTEM Step 1 – Determine the Load Available Sunlight, PV Array Size and Battery Bank Size Step 2 – Calculate PV System Costs

EXAMPLE - SIZING OF STANDALONE SYSTEM

EXAMPLE - SIZING OF STANDALONE SYSTEM

EXAMPLE - SIZING OF STANDALONE SYSTEM

Recent Trend of Energy Industry

World Shipment of Solar Cells
Japan 3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 YEAR U.S.A. EU Others

SHIPMENT(MW)

World Shipment of Solar Cells (by Manufacturers)
Isofoton (Spain) SunPower (Philippines) Schott Solar (Germany) MOTEC (Taiwan) Mitsubishi Electric( Japan) Sanyo (Japan) Suntech (China) Kyocera (Japan) Q-Cell (Germany) Annual Production (MW/Year) Sharp (Japan) 0 100 200 300 400 500

World Shipment of Solar Cells
single c-Si 3000 2500 Production(MW) 2000 1500 1000 500 0 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Year cast Si Si ribbon Si thin film CIS CdTe

Production of Si thin-film solar cells: 98MW for 2006

World Shipment of Thin-Film Solar Cells
S i T h in F ilm 180 P R O D U C T IO N (M W / Y E A R ) 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 2001 2002 2003 YEA R 2004 2005 2006 C u (In G a )S e 2 C dT e

CdTe: 68MW

CIS: 4.9MW

Si: 98MW

Cumulative PV System
Japan 1600 Cumulative PV System (MW) 1400 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 97 98 99 0 1 2 YEAR 3 4 5 6 7 Germany USA

Applications

ECO HOUSE (UKM)

Mankind will need additional 20TW by the mid-21st century. Only Photovoltaics will meet this challenging target.

Thoughts to share Let’s create public concern with various PV activities in Bangladesh. No Luxury before ensuring Power for All. Our PV-Chain could assist Energy Demand of Bangladesh from now on.

Cont….. Let’s think about our coming generation with Solar…..
Solar Energy Research Institute National University Malaysia Website: www.eng.ukm.my
Email: nowshad@eng.ukm.my

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