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CEN / TC250 / SC3 / N1639E - rev2

Institute for Steel Structures Univ. Prof. Dr.-Ing. Markus Feldmann Mies-van-der-Rohe-Str. 1 D-52074 Aachen

Excerpt from the Background Document to EN 1993-1-1 Flexural buckling and lateral buckling on a common basis: Stability assessments according to Eurocode 3

Tel.: +49-(0)241-8025177 Fax: +49-(0)241-8022140

G. Sedlacek, J. Naumes

Aachen, 17.03.2009

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Table of content

Table of content
Executive summary 1 2 General Reference models for flexural buckling 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 3 Use of 2nd order theory with imperfections Reference model of Maquoi-Rondal European Standard flexural buckling curves Use of the European buckling curves for other boundary conditions Conclusions 1 3 5 5 5 9 12 16 17 17 20 21 22 27 27 33 43 43 43 45 46 46 47 49 49 53 54 55 56 page I

Consistent determination of the flexural buckling resistance of columns with nonuniform cross-sections and non-uniform compression loads on elastic supports 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 Approach for solution Options for assessment Determination of the relevant location xd (option 1) Modification of the buckling curve (option 2)

Consistent determination of the resistance to lateral-torsional buckling 4.1 4.2 Application of the reference model of Maquoi-Rondal Application of the European lateral torsional buckling curves for the general loading case for lateral torsional buckling

Conclusions for Recommendations for NDPs in EN 1993-1-1 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 Procedure in EN 1993-1-1, section 6.3.1 Procedure according to EN 1993-1-1, section 6.3.2.1 and section 6.3.2.2 Procedure according to EN 1993-1-1, section 6.3.2.3 Procedure according to EN 1993-1-1, section 6.3.2.4 Procedure according to EN 1993-1-1, section 6.3.4 Imperfection according to EN 1993-1-1, section 5.3.4 (3)

Consideration of out of plane loading 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 Transverse loads on the standard column in compression Out of plane bending and torsion for the basic situation for lateral torsional buckling General case of out of plane bending and torsion Proof of orthogonality for the series-development Comparison with test results

Excerpt from the Background Document to EN 1993-1-1 7 Guidance for applications 7.1 7.2 7.3 General Design aids Examples to compare the results of the general method using the European lateral buckling curve with results of the component method in Eurocode 3Part 1-1, section 6.3.2 Examples for sheet-piling Lateral torsional buckling of beams with fin-plate connections Verification of haunched beams Assessment of gantry-girders Channel sections 57 57 60

71 74 82 86 91 94 101 101 104 111 111 113 117 120 126 127 130 141

7.4 7.5 7.6 7.7 7.8 8

Analysis of imperfections and conclusions for tolerances for fabrication 8.1 8.2 General Approaches to determine geometrical imperfections for tolerances

Design principles for obtaining sufficient reliability by numerical assessments in EN 1990 Basis of structural design 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 9.5 9.6 9.7 Objective First order reliability method (FORM) Example for the application of FORM Assumption for semi-probabilistic design Determination of design values of resistances and action effect in semiprobabilistic design Examples for determining the design values of combined action effects Determination of M-values for steel structures

10

Literature

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Executive summary

Executive summary
(1) This document is an excerpt from the background document to EN 1993-1-1, that is being prepared for publication through the Joint Research Centre (JRC) of the Commission in Ispra for the maintenance, further harmonisation, further development and promotion of Eurocode 3. It has the status of an information and technical guidance under the responsibility of the authors G. Sedlacek and J. Naumes. This document is extensively discussed and commented between the authors and Ch. Mueller, F. Bijlaard and R. Maquoi in the meeting of 22 July 2008 at the RWTHAachen. Contributions of Prof. D. Ungermann, Prof. F. Bijlaard, Dr. A. Schmitt, Prof. C. Seeelberg and Prof. I. Bal to the examples and design aids in section 7 have been included. The document gives: 1. an explanation of the European flexural buckling curves and their background (Maquoi-Rondal) 2. an explanation of the European lateral torsional buckling curves and their background (Stangenberg-Naumes) consistent with the European flexural buckling curves 3. an explanation of the extension of the out-of-plane buckling verification to the beam-column with biaxial bending and torsion (Naumes) 4. the explanation of the workability of these verification methods by worked examples. (3) The document completes the design rules for the use of the general method in EN 1993-1-1 in the form of a Non-contradicting complementary information. G. Sedlacek, J. Naumes, F. Bijlaard, R. Maquoi, Ch. Mueller

(2)

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Excerpt from the Background Document to EN 1993-1-1

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General

General
(1) For the development of the design rules of Eurocode 3 the basic reliability requirements, laid down in EN 1990 Eurocode Basis of structural design [1], have been applied, that lead to the following principles: 1. The basis of resistance rules R are the results of large scale tests. The resistance rules are presented as formulae R(Xi) deducted from mechanical models used to describe the behavior of the test specimens dependant on relevant parameters Xi at the ultimate state. The resistance formulae have been calibrated to the test results. 2. This calibration has been carried out by a statistical evaluation of the test results Rexp with the resistance model Rcalc so that it gives characteristic values. Also partial factors Mi have been derived, that fulfill the reliability requirements of EN 1990. 3. The models for resistances are presented in terms of a hierarchy with a reference model Rref on the top, which is used as a basis for simplifications. Any simplified model Rsimpl is conservative in relation to the reference model Rref. 4. All reference models are consistent, i.e. they do not give conflicting results when compared with other reference models. (2) This also applies to the design models for flexural buckling and lateral torsional buckling, as presented in the following.

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Excerpt from the Background Document to EN 1993-1-1

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Reference models for flexural buckling

2 2.1

Reference models for flexural buckling Use of 2nd order theory with imperfections
The highest rank in the hierarchy for stability rules for bar-like structures and structural components has the use of 2nd order theory with imperfections. Imperfections are composed of structural imperfections (e.g. from residual stresses from fabrication) and of geometrical imperfections. First historical attempts to explain the results of column buckling test and lateral torsional buckling tests were based on a model with deterministic assumptions for residual stress pattern, geometrical imperfections and material properties for calculating buckling coefficients that permitted a smaller-equal-comparison with test results. A breakthrough were such calculations of Beer and Schulz, that assumed standardized residual stress distributions, a geometrical imperfection of /1000 and the minimum value of the yield strength for their finite-element calculations, to produce the European buckling coefficients, published by the ECCS. For the preparation of Eurocode 3 [2] these values have not been applicable because of the following reasons: 1. there was no justification by a reliability analysis with test results, 2. the numerical values produced for a set of slendernesses could not be described by a formula with a mechanical background without a certain scatter. (6) Therefore these European buckling coefficients were not used as a Eurocodereference model.

(1) (2) (3)

(4)

(5)

2.2
(1)

Reference model of Maquoi-Rondal


A new approach for a reference model in conformity with the Eurocode-requirements was prepared by Maquoi-Rondal [3]. These authors described the column-buckling tests with the model of a column simply supported at its ends with an equivalent geometrical imperfection in the form of a half-sinus wave, that included both structural and geometrical imperfections, see Figure 2.1.

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Excerpt from the Background Document to EN 1993-1-1

Figure 2.1: Simply supported column with initial imperfection ini

(2)

The amplitude of this equivalent geometrical imperfection was defined by


e0 = MR ( 0,2 ) NR

(2.1)

where -

MR gives the influence of the cross-sectional shape and the resistance NR


model, e.g. for I-Profiles and an elastic model

M R AFl h h N R 2 AFl 2
-

gives the influence of the slenderness, e.g. for I-Profiles

=
-

2 AFl f y l 2 EAFl h 2
2 2

l 4 h

fy E

0 is the imperfection factor, that covers all parameters not included in the simple model in Figure 2.1 (e.g. structural imperfections from residual stresses, model uncertainties, and in particular the reliability correction of the imperfection e0 on the basis of evaluations of column tests, according to EN 1990 Annex D, to obtain characteristic values with the resistance formula.

For certain I-Profiles the equivalent geometrical imperfection is e.g. with 0 = 0,34 and

fy = 235 N/mm for large slenderness values :

e0 1 4 0,34 l 2
(3)

fy E

= 0,108

1 1 = 30 280

As the correction factor 0 for the equivalent geometrical imperfection has been determined from a comparison of resistances Rexp determined from tests and resistances Rcal determined from calculations, the equivalent geometrical imperfection is

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Reference models for flexural buckling only defined in association with the resistance model used. Both, the resistance model and the choice of the equivalent geometrical imperfections for the column with uniform cross-section and uniform compression load constitute the reference model for stability checks with the highest rank in the hierarchy for flexural buckling. (4) Figure 2.2 shows the resistance model for the cross-sectional assessment which includes a linear interaction of the resistances for compression and for bending. If the action-effects from Figure 2.1 are inserted in this model, the formula for the European column buckling curves mula for column buckling

( ) are obtained, that yield to the assessment for-

N Ed =

Rk

N pl M

(2.2)

The old European buckling coefficients of Beer and Schulz have been replaced by the new European buckling curves calibrated to tests.

Figure 2.2: Derivation of -value

(5)

The comparison of the basic equation and the e0-assumption in Figure 2.2 makes clear that the fractures NR/MR and MR/NR compensate each other. This means, that the assumption for the equivalent geometrical imperfection (2.1) and the cross-sectional assessment in Figure 2.2 must use the same definition of the resistance MR (elastic or plastic).

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Excerpt from the Background Document to EN 1993-1-1 (6) To illustrate this requirement, Figure 2.3 shows the determination of a value of the European buckling curve via the intersection of the load-deformation curve and the resistance-deformation curve: 1. The curves for action effects are based on two equivalent geometrical imperfections a. for elastic resistance 1 b. for linear plastic resistance 2

( )

NEd / Npl

2 1

1 MR = Mel 3 MR = Mpl

[]
Figure 2.3: Load deformation curves acc. to Marquoi-Rondal-model using different cross sectional resistances

2. The intersection points of the load-deformation curves with the relevant resistance-deformation curves are on the same level , only the deformations are different. 3. FEM-calculations with a more accurate resistance model with geometrical and material non-linearities and suitably adjusted structural (residual stresses) and geometrical (measured) imperfections are given in Figure 2.4. The results confirm: 1. the levels of determined with the resistance models 1, 2 and 3 are very accurate, 2. the assumption of a linear elastic cross-sectional resistance is sufficient as large plastic deformations only form in the post-critical part of the load-deformation curves. 3. the residual stress patterns for rolled sections 4 and welded sections 5 give about the same -values, however the deformation capacity on the level of is different.

( )

( )

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Reference models for flexural buckling

NEd / Npl

1 MR = Mel 3 MR = Mpl / (1 - 0,5 a) ; acc. to [2] equ. 6.36 4 FEM 5 FEM rolled profile welded profile

[]

Figure 2.4:

comparison between load-deflection curves acc. to Marquoi-Rondal-model and FEM-calculations

2.3
(1)

European Standard flexural buckling curves


Figure 2.5 shows the European flexural buckling curves together with the imperfection factors 0, and Table 2.1 gives the allocation of these imperfection factors to various shapes of cross-section and ways of fabrication.
1,2

1,0

0,8

a0 a b c d

Knickspannungslinie a0 a b c d Imperfektionsbeiwert 0,13 0,21 0,34 0,49 0,76

Euler

[-]

0,6

0,4

0,2

0,0 0,0 0,5 1,0

_ [-]

1,5

2,0

2,5

3,0

Figure 2.5: European column buckling curves [2]

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Excerpt from the Background Document to EN 1993-1-1


Table 2.1: Selection of buckling curve for a cross sections [2]

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Reference models for flexural buckling (2) Figure 2.6 gives a visual impression of the test results and buckling curves, and Figure 2.7 shows the M-values necessary to obtain the design values of resistances.
1,2 KSL a0 KSL a 1,0 KSL b KSL c KSL d Euler 0,8 A5.1: IPE160, S235 A5.2: IPE160, S235 A5.3: IPE160, S235

[-]

0,6

A5.4: IPE160, S235 A5.5: IPE160, S235 A5.6: IPE160, S235 A5.7: IPE160, S235

0,4

A5.10: HEM340, S235 A5.11: HEM340, S235

0,2

0,0 0 0,5 1

_1,5 [-]

2,5

Figure 2.6:

Test results and column buckling curves for buckling about weak axis (buckling curve b) [4]

1,15 Versuchsauswertung 1,13

Normenvorschlag 1,10 1,08 1,08

1,05

1,00

1,00

0,95 0,0 0,2 0,4 0,6 0,8 1,0 1,2 1,4

1,6

1,8

2,0

2,2

2,4

2,6

2,8

3,0

Figure 2.7: Partial factor M1 [4]

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Excerpt from the Background Document to EN 1993-1-1

2.4
2.4.1 (1)

Use of the European buckling curves for other boundary conditions


General The use of the sinus-function as shape of imperfection for columns is restricted to the simply supported column with hinged ends, uniform cross-section and constant compression force as illustrated in Figure 2.1. For the column with uniform cross-section and constant compression force and other end conditions the imperfection depends on the buckling mode crit, that can be expressed by

(2)

crit = a1 sin ( x ) + a2 cos( x ) + a3 x + a4


where

(2.3)

2 =

N crit EI

(2.4)

a1, a2, a3, a4 = constants depending on the boundary conditions


(3) The differential equation can be written in the form
el + 2 el = q init N = Ed init EI EI

(2.5)

where

init ( x) = c 0
c0 = e0 2
(4)

crit ( x) crit ,max

(2.6) (2.7)

In conclusion the equivalent geometrical imperfection is

init ( x) =

e0 N crit crit ( x) EI crit , max

(2.8)

The loading from the imperfection is

q init ( x) = N Ed

e0 N crit crit ( x) EI crit , max

(2.9)

and the bending moment from the imperfection is

M II ( x) = EIel =

e0 N Ed crit ( x) N 1 Ed crit , max N crit

(2.10)

2.4.2 (1)

Examples For the simply supported column, see Figure 2.1, the values are:

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Reference models for flexural buckling

l x l
2

crit ( x) = a1 sin

x crit ( x) = a1 sin l
2 2

init ( x) = eo

l l

x x sin = eo sin l l
2

x qinit ( x) = eo N Ed sin l l N Ed x M II ( x) = e0 sin N Ed l 1 2 EI l 2


(2) For a column with clamped ends, see Figure 2.8 the values read:

2 l 2 crit ( x) = a1 1 cos x l

crit ( x) = a1

2 2 x cos l l
2 l 2 l
2 2

init ( x) = eo

2 x = eo 1 cos l
2

2 x 1 cos l

2 2 qinit ( x) = eo x N Ed cos l l N Ed 2 x cos M II ( x) = e0 N Ed l 1 2 EI (2 l )

Figure 2.8: Column with clamped ends under compression force NEd

(3)

For a column with a hinged end and a clamped end, see Figure 2.9 the values are

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Excerpt from the Background Document to EN 1993-1-1

where = 4,4937

crit ( x) = a1 1 cos

crit ( x) = a1

x x x + sin l l l

2 3 x x sin cos 2 l l l l

x x x 1 cos + sin l l l init ( x) = eo xd xd cos sin l l


with xd = xcrit,max 0,65 l the loading q and the bending moment MII reads

qinit ( x) = eo N Ed

x x sin l l l cos(0,65 ) sin (0,65 )


2

cos

= eo N Ed

4,3864 x x cos sin 2 l l l


x x sin l l cos(0,65 ) sin (0,65 )

M II ( x) = e0

EI ( l )

N Ed N Ed

cos

= e0

0,2172 N Ed x x cos sin N Ed l l 1 2 EI ( l )

The relevant location for the cross-sectional assessment xd is at the point of maximum curvature, which compared to the previous examples (Euler-Column I and IV) no longer corresponds to the point of maximum deflection. With xd = xcrit,max 0,65 l follows

M II ( xd ) = e0

N Ed 1,0 N Ed 1 2 EI ( l )

The bending moment at the point of maximum deflection xcrit,max 0,6 l results to

M II ( x crit ,max ) = M II ( xd ) 0,98

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Reference models for flexural buckling

Figure 2.9: Column with one hinged and one clamped end under compression force NEd

(4)

For a column on elastic foundation, see Figure 2.10 the differential equation reads:

el+ 2 el +

N Ed init q c el = init = EI EI EI

Figure 2.10: Elastic embedded column under compression force NEd

The shape of the eigenmode results from the assumption

crit = a1 sin

x l

where is the wave-length. This gives from the differential equation


2 4 EI N crit + c a1 sin x = 0 l l l

and

N crit

l = EI + c l

the minimum of which is obtained for


2 2 N crit l 2 = EI + c = 0 l l l

and hence

=4

EI c

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Excerpt from the Background Document to EN 1993-1-1 so that

N crit = EI

1 EI c

+c

EI = 2 EI c c

Therefore the values read:

N crit c = 2 EI EI EI x crit = a1 sin 4 c EI EI x crit = a1 sin 4 c c

2 =

imp = eo

c EI EI 2 c 2

EI EI c sin 4 x = eo x sin 4 c c EI EI c x sin 4 c EI EI x sin 4 c

q imp = eo N Ed 2 M II ( x) = e0 1 N Ed N Ed

2 EI c

2.5
(1)

Conclusions
The reference model for determining the flexural buckling resistance of columns with uniform cross-section and uniform compression load according to Figure 2.1 and Figure 2.2 is not only the reference model for any simplification, but also the reference model for other design situations because of the consistency requirement: 1. flexural buckling of columns with non-uniform distribution of cross-section and compression force and also with elastic support, 2. lateral-torsional buckling of columns and beams, 3. plate buckling of unstiffened and stiffened plate fields. This is because the reference model is included in these design situations for particular configurations of parameters.

(2)

In the following it is demonstrated, how flexural buckling of columns with non-uniform cross-sections and non-uniform compression forces and lateral torsion buckling of columns and beams with whatever given loads can be assessed in compliance with the reference model of the simple column: The application for plate buckling is not included in this report.

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Consistent determination of the flexural buckling resistance of columns with non-uniform CS

Consistent determination of the flexural buckling resistance of columns with non-uniform cross-sections and non-uniform compression loads on elastic supports Approach for solution
The differential equation for the column with non-uniform cross-section and nonuniform compression force on continuous elastic supports reads:

3.1
(1)

(EI ( x) ) + crit (N E ( x) ) + c( x) = 0
where

(3.1)

crit = factor to the compression load NE(x) to obtain the bifurcation-value.


(2) The solution is obtained by numerical methods and leads to the eigen-value crit and the first modal buckling deformation crit and its derivates crit and crit , that all satisfy the boundary conditions, see equation (3.2):

q = (EI ( x)crit ) + c( x) crit + crit (N E ( x) crit ) = 0 1444 24444 4 3 { 14243 4 4


innerer Widerstand

Rcrit
(3)

+ crit

Konstante uere Einwirkung

(3.2)

Ecrit

The imperfection reads according to EN 1993-1-1, 5.3.1 (11) equation (5.9) in a more generalized way:

init = e0

crit N E ( x) crit ( x) EI ( x) crit ( x) x = x


d

(3.3)

where x = xd is the reference point. The function (3.3) also satisfies the differential equation and the boundary conditions, see equation (3.4)
crit N E ( x) (EI ( x) crit ( x) ) + c( x) crit ( x) + crit (N E ( x) crit ( x) ) = 0 e0 EI ( x) crit ( x) x = x 1444 2444 3 4 4d
Konstante

(3.4)

In the specific case:

NE(x) = NE = const. EI(x) = EI = const. c(x) = 0

crit = sin

x
l

for hinged ends of the column

the values are:

crit =

EI 2 l2 N E

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Excerpt from the Background Document to EN 1993-1-1

x crit = sin
l l
and therefore at x = /2:

init = e0 [1] sin


(4) If the loading is:

x
l

E N E ( x) crit N E ( x)
the resistance RE in equation (3.2) reads
RE =

(3.5)

E crit

{(EI ( x) ) + c( x) } = {
crit crit E crit

crit

(N E ( x)crit )

(3.6)

(5)

Hence the bending moment along the length of the member due to the imperfection imp is according to 1st order theory:

M 0 ( x) =

E crit

N ( x) e0 crit E EI ( x) crit ( x) EI ( x) crit ( x) x = x d

(3.7)

This bending moment takes the following value at the point x = xd:

M 0 ( x) =

E e0 crit N E ( x) crit

(3.8)

= E N E ( xd ) e0
(6) If the x = xd is defined as the location relevant for the assessment of the member (because of the most onerous conditions), than the cross-sectional assessment, taking into account 2nd order effect, reads:

E N E ( x) e N ( x) 1 + E 0 E =1 N R ( x ) x = xd M R ( x ) x = xd 1 E 144 2444 14444 24444crit 4 3 4 4 3


in plane out of plane

(3.9)

(7)

With the simplifications:

ult , k ( xd ) =

N R ( x) N E ( x) x = x

(3.10)
d

it follows from (3.9):

N ( x) 1 E E + R e0 ult , k ( x) ult , k ( x) M R ( x) 1 E crit


(8) Using the symbols:

=1 x = xd

(3.11)

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Consistent determination of the flexural buckling resistance of columns with non-uniform CS

( xd ) =

ult , k ( x) x = xd

(3.12)

( xd ) =

ult , k crit x = x

(3.13)
d

M ( x) ( 0,2) e0 = R N R ( x) x = xd
equation (3.11) may be transferred to:

(3.14)

( xd ) + ( xd ) ( ( xd ) 0,2)

1 =1 1 ( xd ) 2 ( xd )

(3.15)

which is the same basic equation for European Standard buckling curves. (9)

( ) as given in Figure 2.2, that leads to the

Thus it has been proved, that the European Standard flexural buckling curves are also applicated to columns with non-uniform distributions of stiffness and compression force, with any elastic supports and any boundary conditions without any modification, if the cross-sectional data and the force NE(x) are taken at the relevant location x = xd. According to equation (3.3) also the relevant equivalent geometrical imperfections are referred to the characteristic moment [EI ( x) crit ( x)]x = x d at that relevant location.

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Excerpt from the Background Document to EN 1993-1-1

3.2
(1)

Options for assessment


The following rules apply for taking the relevant cross-section into account, see Figure 3.1: 1. If the cross-sectional properties and the compression forces are uniform and ult,k is constant, then the relevant location xd is where crit takes the maximum

value crit , max .


The imperfection reads:

imp = e0

crit N E crit ( x) EI crit , max

(3.16)

see EN 1993-1-1, equation (5.9). 2. If ult,k(x) varies along the member length due to variable cross-sections and/or variable compression forces NE (x), the value xd in general is located between - xult,k, where ult,k takes the minimum value

- x crit , where the curvature crit takes a maximum value.


(2) There are two options for a solution by design aids: 1. For standardized cases design aids give the location xd, so that the assessment can be carried out without a modification of the -formula, 2. for standardized cases particular locations xmin are given to determine ult,k, e.g to determine ult,k,min and the design aids give modifications of the mula, so that the right results are achieved. (3) Normally option 1 is the most simple approach; because of its relevance for lateraltorsional buckling verifications hereafter also the option 2 is explained.

( )

( ) for-

Figure 3.1: Determination of the relevant location xd

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Consistent determination of the flexural buckling resistance of columns with non-uniform CS

3.3
(1)

Determination of the relevant location xd (option 1)


The relevant location x = xd for applying the European flexural buckling curve according to formula (3.15), is, where the utilization rate (x), expressed by

( x) =

ult ,k ( x) ult ,k ( x)

( (xd ) 0,2 )

1 1

E crit

EI ( x) crit ( x) , EI ( xd ) crit ( xd )

attains the maximum value, see Figure 3.2.

E * (xd) - 0,2) ( ult,k(x) E ult,k(x) (x)

EI(x) it(x) 1 cr E EI(x ) (x ) d crit d 1cr it

xd
Figure 3.2: Determination of the relevant location xd, if (x) has an extremum

(2)

This leads to

( x) ! = 0 x
(3)

Figure 3.2 shows that considering the function of crit (x) would lead the true
values:

true (x) from true + true ( (xd ) 0,2) E ,true ( x) = ult , k ( x) true ( x)

1 true ( (xd ))

EI ( x) crit ( x) =1 EI ( xd ) crit ( xd )

whereas the use of the European buckling curve would lead to:

calc (x) from + ( 0,2)


E , calc ( x) = ult , k ( x) calc ( x)
see Figure 3.3

1 1 2

=1

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Excerpt from the Background Document to EN 1993-1-1

1.6 1.4 1.2 1.0

1.2 1.0 0.8

true

''fl 0.8
0.6 0.4 0.2 0.0 0 25 50 75 100 125

fl

0.6
0.4 0.2 0.0

calc

150

175 200 x [cm]

225

250

275

300

325

350

25

50

75

100 125 150 175 200 225 250 275 300 325 350 x [cm]

1.4 1.2 1.0

2.5 2.0

0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.0 0 25

calc
Ed

1.5 1.0 0.5 0.0

E,true E,calc

true

50

75

100

125

150

175 200 x [cm]

225

250

275

300

325

350

25

50

75

100

125

150

175 200 x [cm]

225

250

275

300

325

350

Figure 3.3: Functions of crit (x) , (x ) , E (x) and (x)

(4)

It is evident from Figure 3.3 that at the point x = xd, where E,true(x) has an extremum, both E,true(x) and E,calc(x) and true(x) and calc(x) are identical. In case E,true(x) has no extremum along the length of the member, then the crosssectional verification with = 1.0 applies, see Figure 3.4

(5)

E * (xd) - 0,2) ( ult,k(x) E ult,k(x)

EI(x) it(x) 1 cr E EI(x ) (x ) d crit d 1cr it

Figure 3.4: Determination of the relevant location xd, if E(x) has no extremum

(6)

The values xd may be determined as design aids for practical verification.

3.4
(1) (2)

Modification of the buckling curve (option 2)


A practical solution for the modification of buckling curves is, to use the values ult,k,min and crit, which are available from the modal analysis. In defining

E E = ult , k , min ult , k ult , k , min ult , k


mod
f

(3.17)

1 24 1 24 4 3 4 3

and

page 22 / 142

Consistent determination of the flexural buckling resistance of columns with non-uniform CS

ult , k ult , k , min ult , k = crit crit ult , k , min


mod
1 f

(3.18)

1 24 14 4 4 3 2 3

it follows:

mod f + mod f

mod 0,2 f 1

1
mod

2 mod

=1

(3.19)

(3)

The modified buckling curve therefore reads:

mod =

1 f

2 mod

(3.20)

and

= 0,5 1 +

(4)

mod 2 0,2 + mod f f

(3.21)

Figure 3.5 shows the unmodified buckling curve and the modified buckling curve. Either of them produce with different assumptions for ult,k the same solution:

ult , d = mod ult , k , min =


= ult , k
, mod

f ult , k

(3.22)

1.4

Euler
1.2

1.0

mod

1 f

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0.0 0.0 0.3 0.5 0.8 1.0 1.3 1.5 1.8 2.0 2.3 2.5 2.8 3.0

, mod
Figure 3.5: Modified buckling curve mod and unmodified buckling curve

page 23 / 142

Excerpt from the Background Document to EN 1993-1-1 (5) One can see in Figure 3.5, that the modified buckling curve mod is always above the unmodified buckling curve, so that a calculation with ult,k,min and the unmodified buckling curve is always safe-sided. This second-fence solution on the safe side is in most cases the easiest and most suitable way of verification. Figure 3.6 gives a worked example for the application of the column buckling curve based on formula (3.15) to a column with a non-uniform cross-section and a nonuniform distribution of the compression force, that has a length of 10,00 m. The eigenmode analysis based on the distributions of NE and of the cross-sectional values gives two important results for the further exact verification:

(6)

1. the distribution of the curvature crit , that indicates the location of the relevant
cross-section, where crit , max is attained: xd = 0,855 m
At this location the values for verification are

NE (x) = 341 kN NR (x) = 946 kN


This gives

ult , k =

946 = 2,774 341

2. the critical value crit = 1,6376 This gives

ult , k 2,774 = = 1,302 1,6376 crit

( = 0,34 ) = 0,426
The verification then reads

Ek = ult ,k = 0,426 2,774 = 1,182 > 1,0


(7) A simplified check, that works with ult , k , min and crit would take

ult , k , min =
at x = 0 m. Hence it follows

705 = 1,996 353

mod =

ult , k , min 1,996 = = 1,104 crit 1,6376

= 0,533
and

Ek = ult ,k ,min = 0,533 1,996 = 1,064 > 1,0

page 24 / 142

Consistent determination of the flexural buckling resistance of columns with non-uniform CS In case the modified buckling curve according to Figure 3.5 would be used:

f =

ult , k , min 1,996 = = 0,720 2,774 ult , k ult , k , min 1,996 = = 1,104 1,6376 crit

mod =

mod ( = 0,34; f = 0,720) = 0,592


Ek = mod ult ,k ,min = 0,592 1,996 = 1,182 > 1,0
(8) A Finite Element calculation with a geometrically and material non-linear analysis would take an effective geometrical imperfection proportional to crit with the maximum value at x = xd

imp = e0
It gives

cr N E ( x) = 13,672mm EI ( x) crit x= x
d

Ek = 1,206 > 1,0

Figure 3.6: Tapered column under non-uniform axial load

page 25 / 142

Excerpt from the Background Document to EN 1993-1-1 (9) Table 3.1 gives a survey on all results.
Table 3.1: Summary of calculation steps and results for tapered column example
Verification at x( '' crit,max ) x = xd NE (x) NR(x) ult,k crit f ( = 0.34) E,k
0.855 m 341 kN 946 kN 2.774 1.6376 1.302 0.426 1.182

Verification at x( ult,k,min )
0m 353 kN 705 kN 1.996 1.6376 1.104 0.533 1.064 0m 353 kN 705 kN 1.996 1.6376 1.104 0.72 0.592 1.182

Verification with FEM imp = f ( crit )


0.855 m 341 kN 946 kN 1.206

page 26 / 142

Consistent determination of the resistance to lateral-torsional buckling

4 4.1

Consistent determination of the resistance to lateral-torsional buckling Application of the reference model of Maquoi-Rondal
The basic model for lateral-torsional buckling that corresponds to the basic model for flexural buckling in Figure 2.1, is a beam with fork-conditions at its ends and a constant bending moment along the length, see Figure 4.1, [5] [6]. My Mz

(1)

l
My Mz
Figure 4.1: Basic model for lateral-torsional buckling of an I-girder

(2)

This case is governed by two coupled differential equations for the deflection and the twist that cause displacements perpendicular to the main loading plane, see Figure 4.2 . The adoption of sinus-functions for crit and crit leads to the eigen-value

(3)

M y ,crit =

2 EI z
l2

Iw GI t l 2 1+ , Iz EI w 2

(4.1)

In this formula one can identify the moment My,crit,Fl,o leading to lateral flexural buckling of the top flange in compression Nz,crit,Fl,o

M y ,crit , Fl ,o =

2 EI z
2l
2

Iw = N z ,crit , Fl ,o h Iz

(4.2)

if the St. Venant torsional stiffness is neglected and also the enhancement of this moment due to the torsional stiffness by the factor:

It = 1 +
(4)

GI t l 2 1 EI w 2

(4.3)

The eigen-mode crit and crit is characterized by:

crit = sin crit =

x
(4.4)

l Iw x It sin l Iz

which give the eigen-displacements of the top and bottom flanges:

page 27 / 142

Excerpt from the Background Document to EN 1993-1-1

crit ,Fl = crit


=
(5) Using:

Iw crit Iz

Iw x ( It 1) sin Iz l

(4.5)

crit ,max,Fl = l

Iw ( It + 1) Iz

(4.6)

the imperfections of the flanges according to equation (3.3) read:

2 EI Fl init , Fl = e0
l
2 2

Iw ( It 1) Iz Iw ( It + 1) Iz

EI Fl
l
2

sin

x
l
(4.7)

= e0
(6)

It 1 x sin l It + 1

Hence the imperfection for the top flange is:

init , Fl ,o = e0 sin

x
l

(4.8)

i.e. it is identical with the imperfection of the column in Figure 2.1. The imperfection for the bottom flange is

init , Fl ,u = e0

It 1 x sin It + 1 l

(4.9)

1) and i.e. a value that is zero where the St. Venant-torsional stiffness is zero (It that takes the same value as for the top flange, if the torsional stiffness is very large. (7) The imperfections related to the deformations of the cross-section read:

init = e0

1 Iw It Iz sin

sin

x
l
(4.10)

init = e0
(8)

It

x
l

It + 1

When inserting these imperfections into the coupled differential equations to obtain the elastic deformations resulting from them

EI z 0 el 0 M y , E el 0 M y , E init = M 0 EI M y , E GI t el w el y , E 0 init
one obtains:

(4.11)

page 28 / 142

Consistent determination of the resistance to lateral-torsional buckling

M y,E

el = e0

M crit x It sin M y , E It + 1 l 1 M crit


(4.12)

M y,E

el = e0

M crit x 1 sin M y , E It + 1 l Iw 1 M crit Iz

which gives the elastic curvature of the top flange:

M y ,E el , Fl ,o = el + Iw el = e0 Iz l
2

M crit x sin M y ,E l 1 M crit

(4.13)

(9)

Hence the bending moment in the top flange is:

M E , Fl ,o = EI Fl ,o el , Fl ,o =

EI Fl ,o 2 l 1 24 4 3
N crit , Fl , o 2

e0

M y ,E M crit

x 1 sin M y,E l
M crit

(4.14)

where EI Fl ,o

t b3 = E . 12

(10) One can obtain this bending moment easier than with equation (4.11) by applying the equations (3.6) and (3.7):

M E , Fl ,o =

M y,E M 1 crit 2 3
E crit

EI Fl ,o init , Fl

Moment nach Theorie 1. Ordnung

144 2444 4 3

1 M 1 24 4 crit 3
1 1

1 M y ,E

1444442444443 4 4
Moment nach Theorie 2. Ordnung

E crit

(4.15)

2 EI Fl ,o
l
2

e0

M y ,E M crit

1 x sin M y,E l M crit

(11) Figure 4.2 summarizes the derivation of the equations (4.14) and (4.15). The further derivations to get the equation for the assessment of the top flange in compression is performed in the same way as that for the column in Figure 2.1 and Figure 2.2, see Figure 4.3, by using the substitution:

N E , Fl N R , Fl

M y,E M y ,R

(4.16)

page 29 / 142

Excerpt from the Background Document to EN 1993-1-1

Figure 4.2: Lateral torsional buckling problem and initial imperfection [5]

Figure 4.3: Derivation of LT-value [5]

(12) The result is the European lateral-torsional buckling curve LT ( ) , that differs from the European flexural buckling curve by the imperfection factor , which is derived from by taking the influence of the torsional stiffness into account by the ratio of the
2 2 slenderness of the full beam LT to the slenderness of the mere top flange Fl [7]. 2 LT = 2 It Fl

(4.17)

(13) This modification effects a shift from the flexural buckling curve to the Euler-curve, see Figure 4.4, that is the stronger, the smaller the beam depth in relation to the

page 30 / 142

Consistent determination of the resistance to lateral-torsional buckling beam width and the greater the slenderness is (enhancement of It according to equation (4.3)). The use of the flexural buckling curve instead of the modified European lateral torsional buckling curve is however on the safe side.

1.2 1.1 1.0 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0 2.2 2.4 2.6 2.8 Momentenverteilung: Trgerprofil: HE 200 B 3.0 KSL a KSL b Biegedrillknicken fr einen Querscchnitt mit It = Biegedrillknicken fr ein Profil HEB 200

Figure 4.4: Comparison between lateral torsional buckling curve (for a beam HEB 200 under pure bending) and column buckling curves a and b

(14) Figure 4.5 shows a comparison of test results from [8] [9] with beams with a constant buckling moment My with the European lateral torsional buckling curve, and Table 4.1 shows the determination of the M-values according to EN 1990 Annex D.
re/rt 1.6
1.4
1.0

1.2

IPE 200

1.2 1.0
A

0.8

0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.0 0.0

B C D E F G H I J Z

A B D F G H I J Z
0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6

0.6

0.4

0.2

0.0 0.0 0.3 0.5 0.8 1.0 1.3 1.5 1.8 2.0 2.3 2.5 2.8 3.0

1.2

1.2

IPE 80
1.0

H 200 x 100 x 5,5 x 8*


1.0

0.8

0.8

0.6

0.6

0.4

0.4

0.2

0.2

0.0 0.0 0.3 0.5 0.8 1.0 1.3 1.5 1.8 2.0 2.3 2.5 2.8 3.0

0.0 0.0 0.3 0.5 0.8 1.0 1.3 1.5 1.8 2.0 2.3 2.5 2.8 3.0

Figure 4.5: Lateral torsional buckling of rolled beams; test-results and lateral torsional buckling curves with corresponding *-values;

page 31 / 142

Excerpt from the Background Document to EN 1993-1-1


Table 4.1: Statistical evaluation for lateral torsional buckling of rolled beams
Eingangsdaten
rt = 0,08 (Geometrie und Streckgrenze) fy = 0,07 (Streckgrenze)

EC3 Background Document 5.03P - Appendix I (N = 142)


Standardnormalverteilung
2.0 Quantile der Standardnormalverteilung 1.5 1.0 0.5 0.0 -0.5 -1.0 -1.5 -2.0 re/rt 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 Quantile der log-Normalverteilung 2.0 1.5 1.0 0.5 0.0 -0.1 -0.5 -1.0 -1.5 -2.0 ln re/rt 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4

log-Normalverteilung

b = 1.160 = 0.071 M = 1.223 (Modell) k = 0.897

s = 0.083 R = 0.107
* M =

b = 1.165 (gesamt) 1.096 = 0.076 M = 1.167 (Modell) k = 0.898

s = 0.089 R = 0.111 M* = (gesamt) 1.047

page 32 / 142

Consistent determination of the resistance to lateral-torsional buckling

4.2

Application of the European lateral torsional buckling curves for the general loading case for lateral torsional buckling
Definition of the general loading case The general loading case for lateral torsional buckling is defined by the following: 1. Loading in the main plane of the beam-column: The loading Ed in the main plane of the beam-column comprises any combination of longitudinal and transverse forces applied to the structural member or the full structure. The effect of this loading is taken into account by the normal force NEd(x) in the compression flange relevant for the lateral torsional buckling assessment. The force NEd(x) is non uniform along the member length and has been determined taking 2nd order effects in the main plane into account. The strength exploitation of the compression flange is defined by:

4.2.1 (1)

E N Ed ( x)
Rk , Fl ( x)

E N Ed ( x) ult ,k ( x) N Ed ( x)

E ult ,k ( x)

(4.18)

2. Loading transverse to the main plane (out of plane): The loading out of main plane is effected by the equivalent geometrical imperfections init(x) and init(x). The load-effect in the compression flange relevant for the assessment of the full beam-column is the flange-moment (see equation (4.15)):

M Fl ( x) =

E 1 EI Fl ,o init , Fl ,o crit 1 E crit

(4.19)

The value crit is the eigen-value determined by numerical means, e.g. FEM, leading to

Rcrit ( x) = crit N E ( x)

(4.20)

and init , Fl ,o is the curvature of the imperfection of the compression flange de termined with the eigen-modes crit and crit , also calculated with numerical
means. These eigen-modes crit and crit satisfy the coupled differential equations at any point x and also the boundary conditions, which may be different to the situation in Figure 4.1; e.g. they may be independent from each other or coupled as in the case of point support. Therefore the eigen-functions crit and crit may have fully different shapes and not be proportional as given in Figure 4.2. (2) In the following the general assessment formula for beam-columns subject to lateral torsional buckling are derived in two steps: 1. neglecting the St. Venant torsional stiffness, 2. taking the St. Venant torsional stiffness into account.

page 33 / 142

Excerpt from the Background Document to EN 1993-1-1 4.2.2 (1) Basic equation with neglection of the torsional stiffness The differential equations for the case of general longitudinal and transverse heading in the main plane for lateral torsional buckling without the consideration of the St. Venant-torsional stiffness reads:

EI z 0 //// 0 / / = 0 EI //// crit E , , , w 0 144 2444 4 3 144 2444 4 3

[(

)]

(4.21)

Rk

crit

Ed

= 0

and the solutions obtained numerically are:


crit / // crit , crit , crit , ... / // crit , crit , crit , ...

(4.22)

(2)

The eigen-mode of the compression flange is:


crit ,Fl = crit + z M crit

(4.23)

and the related eigen-deformation reads:


crit , Fl =

crit + z M crit // crit // + z M crit

(4.24)

x = xd

(3)

From (4.2.4) the curvature-imperfection of the flange can be deducted:


// init , Fl = e0

crit N E , Fl ( x)

// // EI Fl ,o crit + z M crit

// // crit ( x) + z M crit ( x) x = xd

(4.25)

(4)

This gives the bending moment in the flange

M E , Fl =

crit N E , Fl ( x) E EI Fl ,o e0 // // EI Fl ,o crit + z M crit crit

] ]

// // crit ( x) + z M crit ( x) x = xd

]
(4.26)

= E e0 N E , Fl ( x)
(5) In using:

// // crit ( x) + z M crit ( x) // crit ( x ) + // z M crit ( x) x = xd

e0 =

M R , Fl N R , Fl

LT

0,2

(4.27)

the flange moment reads:

M E , Fl = E

M R , Fl N R , Fl

LT

N E , Fl ( x) [ crit + z M crit ] 1 0,2 ( crit + z M crit ) x = xd 1 E

(4.28)

crit

page 34 / 142

Consistent determination of the resistance to lateral-torsional buckling (6) This flange-moment is inserted into the interaction formula for resistance of the flange:

N E ,Fl N R , Fl

M E ,Fl M R , Fl

=1

(4.29)

which gives:

N E , Fl N R , Fl
(7)

+E

M R , Fl N R , Fl

LT

0,2

N E , Fl M R , Fl

crit + z M crit 1 =1 [ crit + z M crit ]x= xd 1 E crit

(4.30)

Using equation (4.18) gives:

E ult ,k ,Fl

( x) + z M crit ( x) E 1 LT 0,2 crit =1 E [ crit + z M crit ] ult ,k x = x 1 d crit

(4.31)

i.e. if the design point x on the axis of the beam is identical with the reference point x = xd for the imperfection, then with

E ult ,k , Fl , xd

(4.32)

the final equation is:

+ 0,2

1 =1 1 2

(4.33)

Equation (4.33) demonstrates, that the standard European flexural buckling curves are applicable for solving the problem. 4.2.3 (1) Basic equation with consideration of the torsional stiffness When taking account of the St. Venant-torsional stiffness the differential equations read:

0 EI z 0 crit [E ( , , , )] = 0 EI w GI t 0 4444 24444 3 1 4 4 144 44 2 3 Rk crit Ed = 0

(4.34)

which give other numerical solutions than equation (4.21):

crit crit , crit , crit , ... crit , crit , crit , ...


(2)

(4.35)

The further derivation follows in principle the derivation in section 4.2.2, however the imperfection for the flange reads:

page 35 / 142

Excerpt from the Background Document to EN 1993-1-1


crit N E , Fl ( x) [ crit + z M crit ] EI Fl [ crit + z M crit ]

init , Fl = e0

(4.36)

where crit is the eigenvalue obtained from equation (4.21) without considering the

St. Venant torsional stiffness, see equation (4.25). (3) Hence the flange-moment is different to the one in equation (4.26):

M E , Fl =

crit N E , Fl ( x) E e0 crit crit + z M crit

[ crit + z M crit ]
x = xd

(4.37)

that reads finally:


M E , Fl = E M R , Fl N R , Fl

LT

0,2

crit crit

E , Fl [ + z M crit ] E crit + z M crit x = x crit 1 d crit

( x)

(4.38)

(4)

Hence the assessment formula for the design point x = xd reads [7], [10]:

+ (

LT

0,2 )

crit

12crit 4 4 3

1 =1 2 1 LT

(4.39)

This equation is identical with the equation for the European lateral torsional buckling curve in Figure 4.3 and gives for the specific case in Figure 4.1 the equation (4.17). (5) By this derivation the general applicability of the standard European flexural buckling curves and of the Standard European lateral torsional buckling curves is proved. Modification of the lateral torsional buckling curves to agreed simplified assumptions Where the real design point x = xd is not known a priori, an assumption for a substitutive design point can be made, e.g. x = xmin, where ult,k,min is obtained. [11] The lateral torsional buckling curve then reads following equation (3.20) and (3.21) valid for flexural buckling

4.2.4 (1) (2)

mod =

1 f

+ 2

2 mod

(4.40)

and

= 0,5 1 +

mod 2 0,2 + mod f f

(4.41)

page 36 / 142

Consistent determination of the resistance to lateral-torsional buckling 4.2.5 (1) Worked example [5] A support frame of the Schwebebahn in Wuppertal according to Figure 4.6 is taken as an example. The supports at the feet of the columns may be modeled as forks, and the beam is laterally supported by excentric point supports. The loading is asymmetrical and effects non uniform distributions of the axial forces and bending moments in the main plane. The cross-section also varies along the length. With FEM, see Figure 4.7 the numerical values are

(2)

(3)

ult,k,min = 1,69 crit = 3,41


For the verification flexural buckling curve c has been used as safe-sided approach. All relevant calculation steps are given in Figure 4.6.
2150 kN
450 /60
45 0/ 50

Absttzung gegen Verformungen aus der Ebene

Ergebnisse der FEM-Berechnung:

450/60

950
s
R ie g e l

3000

450 /40

298 kN

=26

crit = 3,41 ult ,k , min = 1,69


Ermittlung des Abminderungsbeiwertes:

45

0 0/6

450/40

950

mod =

ult , k , min 1,69 = = 0,704 crit 3,41

s=18

s=18 Innerer Flansch: 450/60 Alle Steifen: 450/18

6901 450/40

=1 LT = 0,49 LT = 0,722
Nachweis:

400 3000 2264 3136 3000

LT ult ,k ,min M 1
0,722 1,69 = 1,22 > 1,10

Figure 4.6: Example for the lateral torsional buckling verification acc. to the general method
2150 kN

298 kN

Figure 4.7: First eigenmode of the support frame from FEM-analysis (

crit = 3,41)

page 37 / 142

Excerpt from the Background Document to EN 1993-1-1 4.2.6 Application to non-symmetric cross-sections

4.2.6.1 Derivation of the assessment formula (1) Non-symmetrical cross-sections are such sections as e.g. channels according to Figure 4.8 for which the limit state conditions for out of plane buckling depend on the direction of the deformation.
Pz
D E D
+ + -

+ + + +

z
Figure 4.8:

(2)

The elastic assessment for the design point D on the cross-section, related to stresses for deformations to the left hand side in Figure 4.8 reads:

Eip
fy

Eop
fy

=1

(4.42)

where the following applies:

Eip Eop
fy
(3)

fy

E ult ,k y D crit + D crit 1 =1 = E ( LT 0,2 ) crit ult ,k crit 1 E [ y D crit + D crit ]x = x d crit
=

(4.43)

In conclusion the assessment formula (4.43) for the design point x = xd along the member length is the same as for symmetrical cross-sections given in equation (4.39). The assumption of a deformation to the right hand side in Figure 4.8 would lead to the following equation for the point E on the cross-section:

(4)

Eop
fy

E (LT 0,2) crit 1 y E crit + E crit = 1 ult ,k crit 1 E [ y E crit + E crit ]x= x d crit

(4.44)

ergo the same equation as equation (4.39), however with the difference, that for the design points D and E different reference values of imperfection apply. These differences of reference values may require different imperfection factors , so that a preference direction for out of plane instability may occur.

page 38 / 142

Consistent determination of the resistance to lateral-torsional buckling (5) Hence the lateral torsional buckling for unsymmetrical cross-sections may with regard to the dependence on the direction of deformation be similar to the flexural buckling of symmetrical cross-sections, e.g. as for I-profiles. For such Iprofiles flexural buckling in the main plane requires according to section 2.2 (2) of this report an imperfection ( = 0,34)

e0 1 4 = 0,34 l 2

fy E

= 0,108

1 1 = 30 280

and in the out of main plane direction with:

b 2 AFl f y MR b 4 NR 2 AFl f y 4

( plastic )
l 12 b

b (elastic ) 6

2 AFl f y EAFl b 6
2 2

fy E

an imperfection (= 0,49)

e0 1 12 = 0,49 l 4
or

fy E

= 0,135

1 1 = ( plastic ) 30 220

e0 1 12 = 0,49 l 6
4.2.6.2 Justification by tests (1)

fy E

= 0,090

1 1 = (elastic ) 30 333

Channels are in general loaded such by transverse loads that the load plane does not go through the shear centre M, but is in the plane of the web, so that initial eccentricities and hence additional loading by torsion has to be considered, see Figure 4.9 a). To prove the applicability of the European lateral torsional buckling curve for channels without additional out-of-plane action effects an initial loading situation as given in Figure 4.9 b) is necessary for the test results, which is rather academic and can only be provided by particular test conditions in the laboratory. a) b)

(2)

Figure 4.9: Loading conditions for channels

page 39 / 142

Excerpt from the Background Document to EN 1993-1-1 (3) (4) Tests that satisfy the conditions of Figure 4.9 b) are listed in Table 4.2. A first comparison between calculative and test results on channel sections loaded through their shear centre are given in Table 4.3. The given tests have been performed on very compact beams with a relative slenderness of 0.2 . To prove the applicability of the European lateral torsional buckling curve, further tests (e.g. [12], [13]) on channel section loaded through its shear centre will be investigated and published in the next revised version of this report. (5) The assessment of beams made of channels that are loaded with transverse loads and torsion caused by eccentricities of these loads and also with longitudinal compression forces is demonstrated in section 7.8.
Table 4.2: Tests on channels with load application in shear centre; configurations and results Nr. Test Steel Test set-up Load application Fexp [kN]

407.9

RWTH Aachen [9] UPE 200

S355 fy = 410 N/mm L = 898.5 mm =50 mm

215.6

114.2

page 40 / 142

Consistent determination of the resistance to lateral-torsional buckling


Table 4.3: Calculative results and comparison with tests Test 1 2 3 4 Ek*) 0.985 0.711 0.996 nE = nR ult,k 1.000 3.025 7.066 crit 36.5 110.3 156.8 *crit 36.3 109.7 154.4 0.487 0.487 0.483 1.000 1.000 0.994
1

ult ,k

Mz 0.000 0.663 0.852

nE = nR 1.000 0.994 0.995

re/rt 1.015 1.406 1.004

1.000 0.331 0.142

*) load amplifier Ek = FEd / Fexp = (re / rt)-1 which leads to an utilization level of 100%

page 41 / 142

Excerpt from the Background Document to EN 1993-1-1

page 42 / 142

Conclusions for Recommendations for NDPs in EN 1993-1-1

5 5.1

Conclusions for Recommendations for NDPs in EN 1993-1-1 Procedure in EN 1993-1-1, section 6.3.1
The procedure in EN 1993-1-1, section 6.3.1 is the procedure with standardized European flexural buckling curves according to chapter 2 of this report. The note to clause (3) refers to the application of the European standardized flexural buckling curves and lateral torsional buckling curves, that are specified in EN 1993-11, section 6.3.4. An explicit assessment of a non uniform member with the application of 2nd order theory according to 5.3.4 (2), as mentioned in the note, is not necessary, as this application is already included in the flexural buckling curves and lateral torsional buckling curves. These buckling curves do contain the assumptions for imperfections as given in section 5.3.2 (11) equation (5.9), (5.10) and (5.11) and therefore can also be used for non-uniform members.

(1) (2)

5.2
(1) (2)

Procedure according to EN 1993-1-1, section 6.3.2.1 and section 6.3.2.2


The procedure in EN 1993-1-1, section 6.3.2.1 and section 6.3.2.2 is the procedure with standardized European lateral torsional buckling curves. The note to clause (2) The National Annex may determine the imperfection factors LT opens the door for modification of the LT-values according to chapter 4 of this report. According to chapter 4 of this report, the values in EN 1993-1-1, table 6.3 and table 6.4 are for most cases on the safe side. An improvement by the modification
LT = LT crit crit

(3)

is possible by the National Annex. (4) The choice of the design point x = xd for different moment shapes may be taken from Table 5.1 of this report. As an alternative the given factor f can be used to modify the lateral torsional buckling curve.

page 43 / 142

Excerpt from the Background Document to EN 1993-1-1

Table 5.1: Bemessungsstelle xd in Abhngigkeit von der Momentenverteilung undmod

Momentenverteilung
A B

xd l

=1

0,5

1,0 0,78 + 0,04 + 0,08 2 + 0,1 3 1,0 1,0

1 1

0,1 2 + 0,18 + 0,22

0,5 0,5
A B

mod mod

xd = 0 LT ,mod = 1 l x > d = 0,5 l 0,5

0,5

1,0

mod
a b

mod
B

xd = 0 LT ,mod = 1 l x > d = l

mod mod > mod mod > mod


a b

mod >

xd l xd l xd l xd l xd l xd l

= 0 LT ,mod = 1 = 0,61 = 0 LT ,mod = 1 = 0,5 = 0 LT ,mod = 1 =

0,562

0,833

3 2 2 1

Hinweis: Fr alle Lagerungen A und B gilt: , = gehalten und , = frei Verwendete Krzel: = a l ; = b l ; l = a + b ; = 0 f + 0 f + f (1 0,2 0 ) 1
2 ( f 1) 2 ( f 1) f 1
2

page 44 / 142

Conclusions for Recommendations for NDPs in EN 1993-1-1

5.3
(1)

Procedure according to EN 1993-1-1, section 6.3.2.3


The procedure in EN 1993-1-1, section 6.3.2.3 may be adapted to the procedure with standardized European lateral torsional buckling curves in one of the following ways: 1. The following choices are made: -

LT , 0 = 0,2 according to equation (6.57) = 1,0 according to equation (6.57)


Table 6.4 instead of Table 6.5

f = 1,0 according to equation (6.58)

LT at design point x = xd according to Table 5.1 of this report.

2. The function for the lateral torsional buckling curve in (6.57) and (6.58) is modified in the following way: -

LT ,mod =

ult ,k ,min crit

LT ,mod = LT =

LT
f

however LT ,mod 1,0

LT +

2 LT

2 LT

(2)

= 0,5 1 + LT

2 LT ,mod LT ,0 + LT

1 f

LT ,0 = 0,2
Table 6.5 and Table 6.6 are cancelled.

The second way is justified by the following: 1. The modified lateral torsional buckling curve in EN 1993-1-1, section 6.3.2.3 has not been derived from the standardized European flexural buckling curve based on a mechanical model. 2. The amplitudes of the imperfections used for the FEM-calculations were not consistent with the amplitudes determined for flexural buckling from tests, which would be relevant in the case

GI t l 2 0. EI w 2

3. The procedure has not been verified by a reliability analysis according to Annex D of EN 1990. (3) Some comparisons between the results of the procedure in EN 1993-1-1, section 6.3.2.3 together with the recommendations for numerical values given therein

page 45 / 142

Excerpt from the Background Document to EN 1993-1-1 ( LT,mod) and the results of the standardized European lateral torsional buckling curves ( LT) according to the recommendation in section 5.3 (1) 2 of this report, as well as the results of the flexural buckling curve ( LT) in DIN EN 1993-1-1 are given in Figure 5.1.

1.2 1.1 1.0 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0 2.2 2.4 2.6 2.8 3.0

.LT.mod .LT .LT*

1.2 1.1 1.0 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2

.LT.mod .LT .LT*

Momentenverteilung:

Momentenverteilung:

Trgerprofil: IPE 200

0.1 0.0 0.0

Trgerprofil: HE 400 B
0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0 2.2 2.4 2.6 2.8 3.0

1.2 1.1 1.0 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0 2.2 2.4 2.6 2.8 3.0

1.2 1.1 1.0 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5

.LT.mod .LT .LT*

.LT.mod .LT .LT*

Momentenverteilung:

0.4 0.3 0.2

Momentenverteilung:

Trgerprofil: IPE 200

0.1 0.0 0.0

Trgerprofil: HE 400 B
0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0 2.2 2.4 2.6 2.8 3.0

Figure 5.1: Vergleich der diskutierten Biegedrillknickkurven fr ausgewhlte Beispiele

5.4
(1)

Procedure according to EN 1993-1-1, section 6.3.2.4


The approximative procedure in EN 1993-1-1, section 6.3.2.4 (1) B should be checked in view of the hierarchy of rules in relation to the standardized European flexural and lateral-torsional buckling curves within the limits of this approximation.

5.5
(1)

Procedure according to EN 1993-1-1, section 6.3.4


The procedure in EN 1993-1-1, section 6.3.4, is the procedure with standardized European flexural and lateral torsional buckling curves, which is dealt with in this report. Using the results presented in this report clause (4) could be modified as follows: (4) The reduction factor op may be determined from either of the following methods: a) From the flexural buckling curve according to 6.3.1. Then the value op should be calculated for the slenderness op . b) From the lateral-torsional buckling curve according to 6.3.2. Then the value op may be determined with the reduced imperfection factor

(2)

page 46 / 142

Conclusions for Recommendations for NDPs in EN 1993-1-1


crit crit

where crit is the critical amplification factor with considering the torsional
stiffness and crit is the critical amplification factor without considering the

torsional stiffness. (3) The equation (6.66) may be deleted, because the interaction between flexural buckling and lateral torsional buckling is included in the procedure for determining LT (through ), so that no further interaction is necessary.

5.6
(1)

Imperfection according to EN 1993-1-1, section 5.3.4 (3)


Section 5.3.4 (3) of EN 1993-1-1 deals with the amplitude of the equivalent geometrical imperfection for lateral torsional buckling, for which according to section 5.3.2 (11) the eigen-mode shall be used. The note to this clause opens the door for national choices. The wording of clause (3) is: For a second order analysis taking into account of lateral torsional buckling of a member in bending the imperfections may be adopted as keo,d, where eo,d is the equivalent initial bow imperfection of the weak axis of the profile considered. In general an additional torsional imperfection need not to be allowed for. This wording aimed at a substitution of the imperfection defined by the eigen-mode with combined displacement and twist by a more simple assumption of an equivalent imperfection defined by a displacement only. To this end a single equivalent value of keo,d for defining init of the full profile should be chosen instead of different amplitudes for the top and bottom flanges. To determine the value k is not simple, because comparative studies should be carried out with the standardized European lateral torsional buckling curve to find out what numerical value k should be taken. The value k = 0,5 given in the recommendation has been suggested by ECCS-TC8 that has taken this value form DIN 18800Part 2 as a first hint (knowing that it is evidently too small). It would be better to define a safe-sided equivalent imperfection as a mix of displacement and twist (e.g. from GIt = 0) instead of looking for k.

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

page 47 / 142

Excerpt from the Background Document to EN 1993-1-1

page 48 / 142

Consideration of out of plane loading

6 6.1

Consideration of out of plane loading Transverse loads on the standard column in compression
For the assessment of columns for flexural buckling with additional transverse loads Roik has developed a procedure, to come to a simple assessment formula for taking the supplementary effect into account. A prerequisite for the accuracy of the procedure of Roik [14] is, that the shape of the
I in-plane bending moment M y according to 1st order theory is equal to the shape of

(1)

(2)

the eigen-mode crit , so that the following formula applies:


I M y ( x) = M 0

crit ( x) crit ,max

(6.1)

An example for the simple column with hinged ends is:


x I M y = M 0 sin l

(6.2)

(3)

This leads to the assessment formula:

N E N E ( 0,2) M 0 1 + + =1 NE 2 M R NE 2 NR NR 1 1 NR NR
(4)

(6.3)

In order to transfer this formula into the form of the assessment formula for columns in compression:

NE

NR

(6.4)

the term ( 0,2 ) is replaced by a function of from the basic equation for :

+ ( 0,2 )
This gives:

1 1 2

=1

(6.5)

( 0,2) =

(1 ) (1 2 )

(6.6)

so that the formula (6.3) adopts the form:


NE NR M0 N NE NE 2 2 1 E 2 + N (1 ) 1 + M = 1 N NR R R R

(6.7)

page 49 / 142

Excerpt from the Background Document to EN 1993-1-1 (5) By rearranging the various terms in formula (6.7) one receives:

N M N N NE + 0 = n = 1 E 1 E 2 + E 1 + 2 2 N NR M R NR NR R

)
1. Stufe 2. Stufe 3. Stufe

(6.8)

= 1

NE NE 2 2 1 N NR R 1444 444 1 24 2 3 4 3 144444 44444 2 3


0 ,1 0 , 25 0, 4

(6.9)

144444 2444444 4 3
0,9

so that an accurate solution (1st step) and two steps of simplification (2nd step and 3rd step) can be obtained. The maximum simplification leads to

M NE + 0 n = 0,9 NR M R
(6)

(6.10)

In order to consider also other moment shapes M 0 than those according to equation (6.1), the equation (6.10) is extended:

M (1 q ) NE + 0 n NR MR
(7)

(6.11)

To determine q a development of Mz, py and in series based on of the various eigenmodes crit,m is performed:
I M y ( x) = pm crit ,m ( x) m external load p ( x) = pm crit ,m ( x) z m ( x) = m crit ,m ( x) displacement m

(6.12)

From the differential equation:

EI y crit + N crit = p z (x)


which gives the equation:

(6.13)

(EI
m m

crit ,m + N crit ,m =

) p
m

crit ,m

(6.14)

the solution for m is obtained:

m = pm
(8)

crit ,m EI y crit ,m + N E crit ,m

(6.15)

Using the orthogonality-equations (see 1.3)

page 50 / 142

Consideration of out of plane loading

crit , j

crit ,i dx = 0

fr i j

(6.16)

and

crit , j

crit ,i dx = 0

fr i j

(6.17)

it follows:

pm =

M
l l

I y ( x)

crit ( x) dx
(6.18)

crit ( x) crit ( x) dx

e.g. for the simple column with hinged ends with:

crit ,i = sin
crit ,i =

m x l
2

m x m sin l l
4

(6.19)

m x m crit ,i = sin l l
and for a bending moment M 0 constant along the length of the column;

2l mx M0 dx m l = pm = 2 l mx m 2 dx sin 2 l l 2 4l = M 0 3 3 (m = 1, 3, 5, ...) m M 0 sin

(6.20)

(9)

II The bending moment M y according to 2nd order theory results from:


II M y = EI y = EI y

crit ,m

= = =

EI
m

p m crit ,m crit ,m EI y crit ,m + N E crit ,m

p
m

EI z crit ,m crit ,m EI y crit ,m + N E crit ,m 1 1 EI y NE crit ,m crit ,m crit ,m crit ,m

(6.21)

p
m

p
m

1 NE 1 N crit ,m

page 51 / 142

Excerpt from the Background Document to EN 1993-1-1 (10) With this bending moment the following equation instead of equation (6.3) is obtained:

N E N E ( 0,2 ) + + NE 2 NR NR 1 NR

M
m

pm
R

1 NE 1 N crit ,m

crit ,m ( xd ) = 1

(6.22)

(11) Equation (6.22) can by using the series-development


I My =

p
m

crit ,m ( xd )

(6.23)

be brought into the form:

p m crit ,m ( xd ) pm crit ,m ( xd ) N E N E ( 0,2 ) M m + + =1 NE 2 M R NR NR MR NE i 1 M R 1 NR N crit ,m 14444444 244444444 4 3


I y

pm crit , m MR

1444444444 444444444 2 3
NE I My pmcrit , m N crit , m 1+ I NE MR My 1 N crit , m

NE N crit , m NE 1 N crit , m

1444444444 444444444 2 3
NE I My pmcrit , m N crit , m 1 N E 2 1+ 1 I NE M R 1 N E 2 N R My 1 NR N crit , m

(6.24)

to accelerate the convergence. (12) By using the first element of the series only

M m = pm crit , m ( xd )
one gets a conservative solution:

N E N crit NE M m N E N E ( 0,2) M 1 + + =1 1 N 1 + M I N E N E 2 NE 2 M R NR NR crit y 1 1 1 N crit NR NR 1444444 444444 2 3


I y

NE NE + 1 N crit N crit

1444444 444444 2 3
1

NE M m N crit MI y 1 N E N crit

1444444 444444 2 3
1
NE M m 1 I N crit M y

NE M m NE + I N crit M y N crit

(6.25)

page 52 / 142

Consideration of out of plane loading (13) From (6.25) and using equation (6.11) one obtains

q=

M NE 2 1 m I NR My

(6.26)

(14) For the example in (6.2) follows


q= NE 2 (1 1) = 0 NR

(6.27)

and for the example in (6.20)

q=

4 NE 2 N 1 = 0,27 E 2 NR NR

(6.28)

(15) When using equation (6.11) it is presumed, that the maximum values of the effects of the out of plane imperfections and the out of plane bending are approximate at the same spot x = xd. This presumption applies in case of equation (6.3) and also in case of equation (6.11) if the maxima for in plane stressing coincide with the maxima of out of plane stressing. Therefore the results are either safe sided or the actual design point x = xd should be determined.

6.2
(1) (2)

Out of plane bending and torsion for the basic situation for lateral torsional buckling
For the assessment of the standard beam with the standardized European lateral torsional buckling curves the method of Roik is also applicable. [15] For the standard beam it is assumed in the first step, that the shapes of the out of
I plane bending moments M zI and warping bi-moments M w follow the shape of the

eigen-mode for lateral torsional buckling:

M zI = M z ,m
I Tw = Tw, m

crit crit ,max

(6.29)

crit , max

crit

(6.30)

For the example of the simple beam with hinged ends and constant bending moment My this means

M zI = M z ,m sin
I Tw = Tw, m sin

x
l

(6.31) (6.32)

x
l 1 x sin M E,y l M crit

(3)

According to the equation (6.8) and (6.9) the action effects using 2nd order theory are:

M zII = M z ,m 1

(6.33)

page 53 / 142

Excerpt from the Background Document to EN 1993-1-1

II Tw = Tw, m

1
(4)

x 1 sin M E, y l
M crit

(6.34)

The bending moments in the top flange are

edge
fy

II M II, top M zII b Tw b fl = + zM = 6 2 f y b2 t f y Iz 2 f y Iw

(6.35)

=
(5)

M zII M R, z

II Tw

TR , w

II fl , top

M R , fl , top

Therefore the assessment formula reads

N E , fl N R , fl
(6)

N E , fl ( 0,2 ) M Ifl 1 + + =1 M M E, y N R , fl M R , fl 1 E , y 1 M crit M crit

(6.36)

Because of the analogy to equation (6.3) the conclusions in equations (6.8) and (6.9) can be transferred, so that the assessment reads

M E,y

M R, y

I M E , fl , z

M R , fl , z

n = 1

M E,y M E,y 2 2 1 M R, y M R, y 1444 24444 123 4 3 0 , 25 0, 4 144444 44444 2 3 0 ,1 1444444 24444444 4 3


0 , 9

(6.37)

(7)

If the bending moments in the top flange do not follow the eigen-modes crit and crit
II correction factors may be applied to M E , Fl , y , so that equation (6.37) is transferred us-

ing equation (6.26) into:

M E, y

M R, y

I M E , fl , z

M R , fl , z

(1 q )+ T T
My

I E , fl , w R , fl , w

(1 q ) n
Tw

(6.38)

where the following applies:

qM ,z =

M E,y M R, y M E, y M R, y

M 2 1 z ,Im Mz T 2 1 w,Im Tw

(6.39)

qT , w =

(6.40)

6.3
(1)

General case of out of plane bending and torsion


In the general case, see section 4.2.3, the assessment equation reads:

page 54 / 142

Consideration of out of plane loading

ult , k

M E , fl , z M R , fl , z

(1 q ) + T T
Mz

E , fl , w R , fl , w

(1 q ) n
Tw

(6.41)

= 1

1 1 2 2 ult ,k k 2 1444 44ult ,3 1 24 4 4 3 0 , 4 0 , 25 144444 44444 2 3 144444 20,1 44444 4 4 3


1
0 , 9

qM z =

ult ,k
1

M z ,m 2 1 M zI T 2 1 w,Im Tw

(6.42)

qTw =

ult , k

(6.43)

6.4
(1)

Proof of orthogonality for the series-development


The differential equation:

EI z + N = 0
is satisfied by:

(6.44)

crit ,i + i2 crit ,i = 0 2 crit , j + j crit , j = 0


(2) It follows:

(6.45)


(3)

crit , j crit ,i

crit , j + 2 crit ,i crit , j = 0 j

crit ,i + i2 crit , j crit ,i = 0

(6.46)

By substraction and partial integration it follows

(142 4 ) (14243) + (1 23) ( 42 4 ) = 0 4 43 4 4 4 4 14 4 3


crit , j crit ,i
R

crit ,i

crit , j
R

2 i

2 j

crit ,i

crit , j

(6.47)

crit , j crit ,i

crit ,i crit , j

14444 244444 4 3
=0

+ crit , j crit ,i

crit ,i crit , j

0 fr i j

14fr i 44 4 j 3 2
crit , j crit ,i R crit , j crit ,i
=0 fr i j

=0

+ crit , j crit ,i 14 244 4 3

(4)

This proves the orthogonality necessary for the serial development.

page 55 / 142

Excerpt from the Background Document to EN 1993-1-1

6.5
(1)

Comparison with test results


The reliability of the formulae (6.41), (6.42) and (6.43) for the verification of beamcolumns with compression, biaxial bending and torsion has been determined according to the procedure given in EN 1990 Annex. Figure 6.1 gives a comparison of test results from [9] with calculative results [15].

(2)

* * Table 6.1 gives the M -values related to the results which are between M = 1,0 and * M = 1,1 as required.

re/rt

2.0 1.8 1.6 1.4 1.2 1.0 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0 2.2 2.4 2.6 2.8 3.0 Lindner - IPE 200 Lindner - HEB 200 Kindmann - Vers. II Kindmann - Vers. III

Figure 6.1: Comparison between test results from [9] and calculative results

Table 6.1: Determination of the M-value according to EN 1990 Annex D


Eingangsdaten
rt = 0,08 (Geometrie und Streckgrenze) fy = 0,07 (Streckgrenze)

Research Project Fosta P 554 (N = 32)


Standardnormalverteilung
2.0 Quantile der Standardnormalverteilung

log-Normalverteilung
2.0 Quantile der log-Normalverteilung 1.5 1.0 0.5 0.0 -0.2 -0.5 -1.0 -1.5 -2.0 ln re/rt 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8

1.5 1.0 0.5 0.0 0.8 -0.5 -1.0 -1.5 -2.0 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8

re/rt

b = 1.298 = 0.112 M = 1.333 (Modell) k = 0.846

s = 0.146 R = 0.138 (gesamt) M* = 1.127

b = 1.307 = 0.122 M = 1.225 (Modell) k = 0.850

s = 0.159 R = 0.146 (gesamt) M* = 1.041

page 56 / 142

Guidance for applicationsGuidance for applications

7 7.1

Guidance for applications General


In the following design aids and worked examples for specific applications are given, that illustrate the workability of the general method for flexural buckling, lateral torsional buckling and combination of both, more generally described as out-ofplane-buckling of members that are in-plane loaded in their strong plane. A distinction between flexural buckling and lateral torsional buckling is no more necessary as the European lateral torsional buckling curve defined by

(1)

(2)

LT ( ) =

= 0.5 1 + ( 0.2) + 2
crit = crit

+ 2 2

implicitly includes flexural buckling and all combinations of flexural and lateraltorsional buckling from both in-plane compression forces, eccentricities of these compression forces and any transverse loading and also can be extended to cover out-ofplane loading as well. (3) (4) The flow chart for the assessment of combined flexural and lateral torsional buckling is given in Table 7.1 and Table 7.2.
In order to identify crit without effects of St. Venant-torsional stiffness and crit with

effects of St. Venant torsional stiffness computer calculations can use assumptions as given in Figure 7.1.

Free distorsional deformation

Distortional deformation restrained

Figure 7.1: Assumptions to obtain crit and crit

Note: A computer program which is freely available is: LTBeam [16]

page 57 / 142

Excerpt from the Background Document to EN 1993-1-1


Table 7.1: Flow chart for the lateral torsional buckling verification

Input Distribution of in-plane load effects (NEd, My,Ed) including 2nd order analysis Distribution of cross- sectional data Boundary conditions for out-of-plane deflections

Analysis

ult , k ( x)
crit , crit, location of max crit

, = crit crit

Relevant location and assessment

xd is known

xd is not known xd = x( ult,k,min)

ult ,k ( xd )

( xd ) =

ult ,k ( x d ) crit

( x d ) = * , ( xd )

E = ( xd ) ult ,k ( xd )

Ed =

( x d ) ult ,k ( x d ) 1 M

page 58 / 142

Guidance for applicationsGuidance for applications


Table 7.2: Flow chart for the lateral torsional buckling verification with out of plane loading

z ( x) =

M z , Ed ( x) M z , Rd ( x)
Tw, Ed ( x) Tw, Rd ( x)

(1 q z )
(1 qw )

Ed ( x) =

( x) ult ,k ( x) 1 M

w ( x) =

nE =

Ed ( xd )
1 1

+ y ( xd ) + w ( xd )

n R = 1

Ed ( x d )

Ed ( x d )

2 ( xd ) 2 ( xd )

n E ( xd ) n R ( xd )

page 59 / 142

Excerpt from the Background Document to EN 1993-1-1

7.2
7.2.1 (1)

Design aids
Hand formulae for the determination of Mcr For particular cases, e.g. those with in-plane transverse loads and in-plane moments
only and without any compression forces, the values crit and crit can be obtained

by hand calculation from formulas, as given in Tables 7.3, 7.4, 7.5 and 7.6. 7.2.1.1 Basis (1) The elastic critical moment for lateral-torsional buckling of a beam of uniform symmetrical cross-section with equal flanges, under standard conditions of restraint at each end and subject to uniform moment in plane going through the shear centre is given by:

M cr =
where:

2 EI z
L
2

L2 GI t I w EI z GI t + = L 2 EI z I z

1+

2 EI w
L2 GI t

(7.1)

G= It Iw Iz L

E 2 (1 + )
is the torsion constant is the warping constant is the second moment of area about the minor axis is the length of the beam between points that have lateral restraint is the Poisson ratio

(2) -

The standard conditions of restraint at each end are: restrained against lateral movement, free to rotate on plan (kz = 1); restrained against rotation about the longitudinal axis, free to warp (kw = 1); restrained against movement in plane of loading, free to rotate in this plane (ky = 1).

7.2.1.2 General formula for beams with uniform cross-sections symmetrical about the minor or major axis (1) In the case of a beam of uniform cross-section which is symmetrical about the minor axis, for bending about the major axis the elastic critical moment for lateral-torsional buckling is given by the general formula:

M cr = cr

EI z GI t
L

(7.2)

where relative non-dimensional critical moment cr is

page 60 / 142

Guidance for applicationsGuidance for applications

cr =

C1 2 1 + wt + (C 2 g C3 j ) 2 (C 2 g C3 j ) , kz

(7.3)

non-dimensional torsion parameter is

wt =

kw L

EI w GI t

(7.4)

relative non-dimensional coordinate of the point of load application related to shear center

g =

zg
kz L

EI z GI t

(7.5)

relative non-dimensional cross-section mono-symmetry parameter

j =
where:

EI z k z L GI t

z j

(7.6)

C1, C2 and C3 are factors depending mainly on the loading and end restraint conditions (See Tables 7.3 and 7.4) kz and kw are buckling length factors z g = z a zs
z j = zs 0,5 ( y 2 + z 2 ) z dA Iy A
(7.7)

(7.8)

za
zs zg

is the coordinate of the point of load application related to centroid (see Figure 7.2) is the coordinate of the shear center related to centroid is the coordinate of the point of load application related to shear centre.

NOTE 1: See section 7.2.1.2 (7) and (8) for sign conventions and section 7.2.1.4 (2) for approximations for z j . NOTE 2: z j = 0 ( y j = 0 ) for cross sections with y-axis (z-axis) being axis of symmetry. NOTE 3: The following approximation for zj can be used:
c z j = 0,45 f hs 1 + 2h f

(7.9)

where: c hf

is the depth of a lip is the distance between centerlines of the flanges. I fc I ft f = I fc + I ft

(7.10)

page 61 / 142

Excerpt from the Background Document to EN 1993-1-1


Ifc Ift hs is the second moment of area of the compression flange about the minor axis of the section is the second moment of area of the tension flange about the minor axis of the section is the distance between the shear centre of the upper flange and shear centre of the bottom flange (Su and Sb in Figure 7.2).

For I-sections with unequal flanges without lips and as an approximation also with lips:
I w = 1 2 I z (hs 2 ) f

(7.11)

(2)

The buckling length factors kz (for lateral bending boundary conditions) and kw (for torsion boundary condition) vary from 0,5 for both beam ends fixed to 1,0 for both ends simply supported, with 0,7 for one end fixed (left or right) and one end simply supported (right or left). The factor kz refers to end rotation on plan. It is analogous to the ratio Lcr/L for a compression member. The factor kw refers to end warping. Unless special provision for warping fixity of both beam ends (kw = 0,5) is made, kw should be taken as 1,0.

(3) (4)

(C) Compression side, (T) tension side, S shear centre, G gravity centre Su, Sb is shear centre of upper and bottom flange

Figure 7.2: Notation and sign convention for beams under gravity loads (Fz) or for cantilevers under uplift loads (- Fz) (5) Values of C1, C2 and C3 are given in Tables 7.3 and 7.4 for various load cases, as indicated by the shape of the bending moment diagram over the length L between lateral restraints. Values are given in Table 7.3 corresponding to various values of kz and in Table 7.4 also corresponding to various values of kw . For cases with kz = 1,0 the value of C1 for any ratio of end moment loading as indicated in Table 7.3, is given approximately by:

(6)

C1 =
(7)

0.310 + 0.428 + 0.262 2

(7.12)

The sign convention for determining z and zj, see Figure 7.2, is:

page 62 / 142

Guidance for applicationsGuidance for applications coordinate z is positive for the compression flange. When determining zj from equation (7.8), positive coordinate z goes upwards for beams under gravity loads or for cantilevers under uplift loads, and goes downwards for beams under uplift loads or cantilevers under gravity loads sign of zj is the same as the sign of cross-section mono-symmetry factor f from equation (7.10). Take the cross section located at the M-side in the case of moment loading, Table 7.3, and the cross-section located in the middle of the beam span in the case of transverse loading, Table 7.4.

(8)

The sign convention for determining zg is: for gravity loads zg is positive for loads applied above the shear centre in the general case zg is positive for loads acting towards the shear centre from their point of application.

page 63 / 142

Excerpt from the Background Document to EN 1993-1-1


Table 7.3: Values of factors C1 and C3 corresponding to various end moment ratios , values of buckling length factor kz and cross-section parameters f and wt. End moment loading of the simply supported beam with buckling length factors ky = 1 for major axis bending and kw = 1 for torsion

page 64 / 142

Guidance for applicationsGuidance for applications


Table 7.4: Values of factors C1, C2 and C3 corresponding to various transverse loading cases, values of buckling length factors ky, kz, kw cross-section mono-symmetry factor f and torsion parameter wt.

page 65 / 142

Excerpt from the Background Document to EN 1993-1-1 7.2.1.3 Beams with uniform cross-sections symmetrical about major axis, centrally symmetric and doubly symmetric cross-sections (1) For beams with uniform cross-sections symmetrical about major axis, centrally symmetric and doubly symmetric cross-sections loaded perpendicular to the major axis in the plane going through the shear centre, Table 7.3, zj = 0, thus

cr =
(2)

C1 2 1 + wt + (C 2 g ) 2 C 2 g kz

(7.13)

For end-moment loading C2 = 0 and for transverse loads applied at the shear centre zg = 0. For these cases:

cr =
(3)

C1 2 1 + wt kz

(7.14)

If also wt = 0 :

cr = C1 k z

(7.15)

Figure 7.3: Beams with uniform cross-sections symmetrical about major axis, centrally symmetric and doubly symmetric cross-sections

(4)

For beams supported on both ends ( k y = 1 , k z = 1 , 0,5 k w 1 ) or for beam segments laterally restrained on both ends, which are under any loading (e.g. different end moments combined with any transverse loading), the following value of factor C1 may be used in the above two formulas given in section 7.2.1.3 (2) and (3) to obtain approximate value of critical moment:

C1 =
where

1,7 M max
2 M 0, 25 2 2 + M 0,5 + M 0,75

2,5

(7.16)

M max
M 0, 25 , M 0,75 M 0,5

is maximum design bending moment, are design bending moments at the quarter points and is design bending moment at the midpoint of the beam or beam segment with length equal to the distance between adjacent crosssections which are laterally restrained.

(5)

Factor C1 defined by equation (7.16) may be used also in equation (7.13), but only in combination with relevant value of factor C2 valid for given loading and boundary conditions. This means that for the six cases in Table 7.4 with boundary condition

page 66 / 142

Guidance for applicationsGuidance for applications

k y = 1, k z = 1, 0,5 k w 1 , as defined above, the value C2 = 0,5 may be used together


with equation (7.16) in equation (7.13) as an approximation. (6) In the case of continuous beam the following approximate method may be used. The effect of lateral continuity between adjacent segments are ignored and each segment is treated as being simply supported laterally. Thus the elastic buckling of each segment is analysed for its in-plane moment distribution (equation (7.16) for C1 may be used) and for an buckling length equal to the segment length L. The lowest of critical moments computed for each segment is taken as the elastic critical load set of the continuous beam. This method produces a lower bound estimate.

7.2.1.4 Cantilevers with uniform cross-sections symmetrical about the minor axis (1) In the case of a cantilever of uniform cross-section, which is symmetrical about the minor axis, for bending about the major axis the elastic critical moment for lateraltorsional buckling is given by the equation (7.2), where the values of relative nondimensional critical moment cr are given in Tables 7.5 and 7.6. In Tables 7.5 and 7.6 non-linear interpolation should be used. The sign convention for determining zj and zg is given in section 7.2.1.2 (7) and (8).

(2)

page 67 / 142

Excerpt from the Background Document to EN 1993-1-1


Table 7.5: Relative non-dimensional critical moment cr for cantilever (k y = k z = k w = 2 ) loaded by concentrated end load F

2 a) For z j = 0 , z g = 0 and wt0 8 : cr = 1,27 + 1,14 wt0 + 0,017 wt0 .

b) For z j = 0 , 4 g 4 and wt 4 , cr may be calculated also from equation (7.13) and


(7.14), where the following approximate values of the factors C1, C2 should be used for the cantilever under tip load F:
2 3 C1 = 2,56 + 4,675 wt 2,62 wt + 0,5 wt , if wt 2

C1 = 5,55

if wt > 2 if g 0 if g < 0

2 3 4 C2 = 1,255 + 1,566 wt 0,931 wt + 0,245 wt 0,024 wt , 2 2 C2 = 0,192 + 0,585 wt 0,054 wt (0,032 + 0,102 wt 0,013 wt ) g ,

page 68 / 142

Guidance for applicationsGuidance for applications


Table 7.6: Relative non-dimensional critical moment cr for cantilever (k y = k z = k w = 2 ) loaded by uniformly distributed load q

2 a) For z j = 0 , z g = 0 and wt 0 8 : cr = 2,04 + 2,68 wt 0 + 0,021 wt 0 .

b) For z j = 0 , 4 g 4 and t 4 , cr may be calculated also from equation (7.13) and


(7.14), where the following approximate values of the factors C1, C2 should be used for the cantilever under uniform load q:
2 3 C1 = 4,11 + 11,2 wt 5,65 wt + 0,975 wt ,

if wt 2 if wt > 2 if g 0 if g < 0

C1 = 12

2 3 4 C2 = 1,661 + 1,068 wt 0,609 wt + 0,153 wt 0,014 wt , 2 2 C2 = 0,535 + 0,426 wt 0,029 wt (0,061 + 0,074 wt 0,0085 wt ) g ,

page 69 / 142

Excerpt from the Background Document to EN 1993-1-1 7.2.2 Location of assessment xd Momentenverteilung
A B

xd l
ky =1 0,5

=1

1,0 0,78 + 0,04 + 0,08 2 + 0,1 3 1,0 1,0

1 1

0,1 2 + 0,18 + 0,22

0,5 0,5
A B

k y = 0,5

mod mod

xd = 0 LT , mod = 1 l x > d = 0,5 l 0,5

0,5

1,0

mod
a b

mod
B

xd = 0 LT , mod = 1 l x > d = l

k y = 0,7

mod mod > mod mod > mod


a b

mod >

xd l xd l xd l xd l xd l xd l

= 0 LT , mod = 1 = 0,61 = 0 LT , mod = 1 = 0,5 = 0 LT , mod = 1 =

0,562

0,833

3 2 1 2

Hinweis: Fr alle Lagerungen A und B gilt: k z , k w = 1 Verwendete Krzel: = a l ; = b l ; l = a + b ; = 0 f + 0 f + f (1 0,2 0 ) 1


2 ( f 1) 2 ( f 1) f 1
2

page 70 / 142

Guidance for applicationsGuidance for applications

7.3

Examples to compare the results of the general method using the European lateral buckling curve with results of the component method in Eurocode 3-Part 1-1, section 6.3.3
The use of the component method in Eurocode 3-Part 1-1, section 6.3.3 is illustrated in Figure 7.4.
Pz,Ed My,Ed NEd Mz,Ed Mz,Ed My,Ed NEd

(1)

Py,Ed

compression only

inplane transverse loads and inplane moments only


NEd My,Ed Pz,Ed My,Ed

out of plane transverse loads and out of plane moments only


Mz,Ed Py,Ed Mz,Ed

NEd

flexural buckling

lateral torsional buckling

out of plane bending

N Ed 1 y N Rd

M y , Ed + M y , Ed

LT M y , Rd
Interaction

M z , Ed + M z , Ed M z , Rd

M y , Ed + M y , Ed M z , Ed + M z , Ed N Ed + k yy + k zy 1 y N Rd LT M y , Rd M z , Rd

M y , Ed + M y , Ed M z , Ed + M z , Ed N Ed + k zy + k zz 1 z N Rd LT M y , Rd M z , Rd
Figure 7.4: Procedure for the component method

(2) (3)

For the functions kyy, kyz, kzy and kzz there are two alternatives given in Annex A and B of Eurocode 3-Part 1-1. [2] To compare the results of the general method with the results of the component method 5 worked examples as published in [17], are chosen, for which the various steps of calculations are given in Table 7.7. Where the location of the design point xd / is not a priori evident, the procedure according to step 4 in Table 7.1 can be used to calculate (xi) at various spots xi, from which xd is the spot where the maximum value of (xi), see distribution of (x) in Table 7.7, is achieved. Where the maximum value of (x) is at an end of a member, see examples no. 1 and 2 in Table 7.7, lateral torsional buckling is not relevant for the design, but a crosssectional verification at the supports is necessary (with ult,k only).

(4)

(5)

page 71 / 142

Excerpt from the Background Document to EN 1993-1-1


Table 7.7: Worked examples (from ECCS-Publication No. 119 [17])

page 72 / 142

Guidance for applicationsGuidance for applications (6) (7) In the calculations the reference value of the imperfection factor is always the value associated with the flexural buckling curve for the weak axes. Table 7.8 gives a comparison of the results of the general method (that can be considered as reliable) with the results of the component method in Eurocode 3 Part 1-1 section 6.3.2, as published in [17]. This publication also gives results for the use of the two alternatives for interaction formulas as specified in Eurocode 3Part 1-1, Annex A and B. The choices of the reference flexural buckling curve in this publication are not always identical with the choice of for weak axis buckling.
Utilization grades 1/Ed and 1/Ed,M from the general method with European lateral torsional buckling curves and from the specific method with flexural buckling curves modified with and f and with Annex A and B of EC3 Part 1-1
Beispiel Nr. Allgemeines Verfahren mit Europischer Biegedrillknickkurve 1,603 0,988 1,111 0,981 0,950 Spezielles Verfahren mit der mit und f modifizierten BDK-Kurve Anlage A 0,950 1,131 1,131 1,045 Anlage B 0,836 1,112 0,903 0,946

Table 7.8:

1 2 3 4 5

(8)

The comparison in Table 7.8 reveals that the results of the component method, though not being fully consistent with the principles in Eurocode 3 give rather acceptable results. Criticism on the component method may be placed in view of their limited field of application (only particular end conditions and no torsion action), complexity and lack of transparency, disproportionality of design effort in relation to the win of safety and economy.

page 73 / 142

Excerpt from the Background Document to EN 1993-1-1

7.4
7.4.1 (1)

Examples for sheet-piling


Design situation The design situation for a sheet piling is given in Figure 7.5, which indicates the dimensions, load application and the distribution of load effects for two alternatives of piles, see Figure 7.6: Alternative A has HZ-piles as single profiles. Alternative B has HZ-piles as double profiles

Figure 7.5: Design situation for a sheet piling with two alternatives (A = single pile, B = double pile)

Figure 7.6: Dimension of pile A and pile B

(2)

The loading conditions and the 1st order action effects from earth pressure are given in Table 7.10.

page 74 / 142

Guidance for applicationsGuidance for applications 7.4.2 (1) (2) (3) (4) Assessments for resistance and stability For in-plane loading a beam-column check is performed using sK = L = 20.0 m as a safe-sided assumption (free buckling length). The verification is made using formulae (6.8) and (6.9), see Table 7.10. For out of plane buckling of the piles the restraints due to the sheet piling and the passive earth pressure of the soil may be taken into account. The assumptions made for lateral torsional buckling modes are given in Figure 7.7.
mode 1
shear shear

soil

co mp res sio n

co mp res sio n

shear

shear

mode 2

soil compression

Figure 7.7: Lateral torsional buckling modes

(5) (6)

From the two modes 1 and 2 in Figure 7.7 mode 1 is selected because of the greater deformations due to shear in the sheet piling and in the soil. For restraints that the HZ-piles will receive in the lateral torsional buckling mode 1 the following assumptions are made: 1. The transmission of bending moments through the locks of the sheet piling is neglected. 2. The sheet piling acts as a shear wall between the HZ-piles without contributing by its stiffness to direct transverse stresses, 3. Passive earth pressure acting to the webs and flanges in the soil is taken into account by a bedding stiffness resulting from the shear deformations in the soil.

(7)

As a consequence the HZ-pile is modelled as given in Figure 7.8. a. boundary condition at the ends of the pile b. elastic restraints for displacements, twist and lock-shear displacements

page 75 / 142

Excerpt from the Background Document to EN 1993-1-1

MEd

II

clamped end for flexural and torsional out-of-plane deformation

c c
main axis bending restraint to displacement and twist c and c due to passive earth pressure

point support
Figure 7.8: Modeling of the HZ-pile

(8)

For the bedding stiffness from the soil in terms of a spring stiffness k [kN/m] depending on the magnitude of displacement the principle of active and passive earth pressure given in Figure 7.9 may be taken into account.

Figure 7.9: Active and passive earth-pressure depending on the pile-displacements

(9)

The values k may be taken from Figure 7.10 as related to the magnitude of the passive earth pressure.

Figure 7.10: Example for spring-stiffness of soil [Van Tol/Brassinga]

page 76 / 142

Guidance for applicationsGuidance for applications (10) An example for a particular soil with

d
cd tan d

= 19 kN/m = 30 =0 = tan (2/3 d)

k is given as follows: k1 k2 k3 = 20.000 kN/m = 10.000 kN/m = 5.000 kN/m

(11) The equivalent spring stiffnesses c and c may be taken from Figure 7.11.

R = c = k h [kN / m m]
h c

c = k h

RM = c = k

h3 [kNm / m] 12 h3 12

h 2

c = k

Figure 7.11: Determination of stiffness for springs in the verification model

(12) The assumptions for determining crit for the example k1 = 20 000 kN/m are as follows: II the in-plane bending moment M Ed is determined from the bending moment I M Ed according to first order analysis by
II M Ed = M 1 Ed

1 N 1 Ed N crit

II the in-plane bending moment M Ed that together with NEd causes lateral tor-

sional buckling is the effect of active earth pressure that through arching in the soil mainly acts on the tension flange of the HZ-pile. (13) The calculations have been carried out with the FEM-program Marc/Mentat. Table 7.9 gives the relevant buckling modes and values crit and *crit, that lead to the lateral torsional buckling curves as given in Figure 7.12. In general the first eigen-

page 77 / 142

Excerpt from the Background Document to EN 1993-1-1 mode is relevant. To demonstrate the effects of the assumption of the boundary conditions at the end of the pile also the second eigenmode has been calculated. (14) Details of the assessment for in-plane compression and bending and out-of-plane lateral torsional buckling are given in Table 7.10 with the relevant European lateral torsional buckling curve given in Figure 7.12. (15) The results ult,k in Table 7.10 demonstrate that for a bedding stiffness of 20000 kN/m for the soil the design concepts are safe.

(16) A more refined analysis taking the relevant spot, where ult,k(x) and crit (x) results in
a maximum, would even give a greater safety. (17) Table 7.11 shows the distributions of ult,k and E that indicate the position x = xd at the points of minimum of E.
*LT 1.4 1st Eigenmode
1.2

Euler

2nd Eigenmode

1.0

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0.0 0.0 0.3 0.5 0.8 1.0 1.3 1.5 1.8 2.0 2.3 2.5 2.8 3.0

Figure 7.12: Relevant lateral torsional buckling curve for out of plane buckling of piles.

page 78 / 142

Guidance for applicationsGuidance for applications


Table 7.9: Determination of lateral torsional buckling modes Situation A: Lateral torsional buckling modes for k = 20 000 kN/m 1st global Eigenmode

with torsional stiffness

crit = 3.54

without torsional stiffness

crit = 1.432

2nd global Eigenmode

with torsional stiffness

crit = 4.839

without torsional stiffness

crit = 2.580

page 79 / 142

Excerpt from the Background Document to EN 1993-1-1

Table 7.10: Cross-sectional data, loading and verifications

Situation A
HZ-975B-14/AZ13/S355 GP Crosssection fy = 355 N/mm B = 1.87 m Iy = 717 400 cm Iz = 80 110 cm Actions
4

Situation B
HZ-775D-26/AZ13/S355 GP fy = 355 N/mm B = 2.35 m Wy = 13 730 cm A = 397.3 cm Iy = 963 740 cm4 Iz = 677 850 cm
4

Wy = 22 615 cm A = 798.3 cm

NEd = 2020 kN / pile My,Ed = 3598 kNm / pile Npl,k = 35.5 397.3 = 14 103 kN / pile My,Ed = 4874 kNm / pile Flexural buckling about strong axis
sk = 20.0m
N crit =

NEd = 7614 kN / pile My,Ed = 4521 kNm / pile Npl,k = 35.5 798.3 = 28 340 kN / pile My,Ed = 8028 kNm / pile Flexural buckling about strong axis
sk = 20.0m

Resistances

2 21000 717400
2000
2

= 37172 kN

N crit =

2 21000 963740
2000 2

= 49936 kN

Verification for in-plane loading


(z-z-direction)

14103 = 0.616 37172

28340 = 0.753 49936

= 0.884 (curve a; = 0.21)


2020 3598 + 1 0.162 0.738 0.884 2 0.616 2 0.884 14103 4874 4 3 144 44 2 3 1 2 3 1444444 24444444 4 4
0.162 0.738 0.965

= 0.821 (curve a; = 0.21)


7614 4521 + 1 0.328 0.672 0.82 2 0.75 2 0.82 28340 8028 4 3 14 244 4 3 1 2 3 144444 2444444 4 4
0.328 0.563 0.917

0.9 0.965

0.891 0.917

ult ,k =

0.965 = 1.07 0.900

ult ,k =

0.917 = 1.03 0.891

Lateral torsional buckling (k = 20000 kN/m) 1st global Eigenmode Verification for out offplane loading
(y-y-direction)

Lateral torsional buckling (k = 0 kN/m) 1st global Eigenmode 2nd global Eigenmode

2nd global Eigenmode

ult,k = 1.07 crit = 3.54

ult,k = 1.07 crit = 4.839

ult,k = 1.03 crit = 10.76

ult,k = 1.03 crit = 26.69

= 0.550
crit =

= 0.470
crit =

= 0.309
crit =

= 0.196
crit =

1.432

2.580

3.854

8.791

= 0.34

= 0.34 = 0.942

= 0.34 = 0.986

= 0.34 = 1.0

= 0.1375
= 0.937

= 0.181 ult,k = 1.008

= 0.122 ult,k = 1.016

= 0.112 ult,k = 1.030

ult,k = 1.003

page 80 / 142

Guidance for applicationsGuidance for applications

Table 7.11: Situation A: Additional information on the location x = xd (relevant design point) Lateral torsional buckling
6 5 4

1st global Eigenmode

3 2 1 0
1.2 0.8 0.4 0 0.4 0.8 1.2 0

ult,k E

ult,k = 1.07 crit = 3.54


Verification for out off-plane loading (y-y-direction) = 0.550 = 0.34 = 0.937

calc
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20

crit = 1.432 = 0.1375

,, crit

10

12

14

16

18

20

6 5 4

2nd global Eigenmode

ult,k E

3 2 1 0
1.2 0.8 0.4 0 0.4 0.8 1.2 0 2

ult,k = 1.07 crit = 4.839


= 0.470 = 0.34 = 0.942

calc
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20

crit = 2.580 = 0.181

,, crit

10

12

14

16

18

20

page 81 / 142

Excerpt from the Background Document to EN 1993-1-1

7.5
7.5.1 (1)

Lateral torsional buckling of beams with fin-plate connections


Objective Subject of this section is to demonstrate the use of the European lateral torsional curves for the lateral torsional buckling assessment of coped beams by re-calculating tests, that have been carried out by F. Bijlaard and H. Bouras and TU Delft [18]. The tests were 3-point bending tests according to Figure 7.13 with a conservative load applied to the top flange

(2)

F 2040 mm application of conservative load IPE 120 S235

fork condition realized by cardan support

application of conservative load

fork condition realized by cardan support

Fin plate connection detail

activator

Span 2040 mm

Figure 7.13: 3-point bending tests for lateral torsional buckling

page 82 / 142

Guidance for applicationsGuidance for applications (3) The test program and the results may be taken from Table 7.12.
Table 7.12: Test program [18] connection to end plate copes /s fin plates hF/t Fmax.exp [kN]

90 / 5

29.3

no

90 / 8

34.4

90 / 12

32.2

75 / 5 no 75 / 8 75 / 12 75 / 5 160/30 75 / 8 75 / 12 50 / 5 160/30 50 / 8 50 / 12

27.3 34.6 30.8 25.4 28.2 22.6 25.8 27.9

7.5.2 (1)

Calculative results The calculations are based on the following assumptions: 1. For in-plane loading the load-assumption is that no support reactions other than in-plane occur, see Figure 7.14. Hence the load F in the main axes of the beam causes a torsion T = F e by the eccentricity e. 2. For out-of-plane loading two loads are considered: the effects of equivalent imperfections the effects from eccentric loading T = F e, so that the formulas (6.41) with (6.42) and (6.43) apply.

page 83 / 142

Excerpt from the Background Document to EN 1993-1-1

Figure 7.14: Assumption for calculating crit

(2)

Table 7.13 gives calculative values of the maximum loads Fz,calc. for the test conditions and a comparison with the test data re/rt = Fz,exp/Fz,calc.
Table 7.13: Results of calculation and comparison with test-results
Type a) 90/5 a) 90/8 a) 90/12 b) 75/5 b) 75/8 b) 75/12 c) 75/5 c) 75/8 c) 75/12 d) 50/5 d) 50/8 d) 50/12 ey
[mm]

Fz.exp
[kN]

Fcrit
[kN]

F*crit
[kN]

Fz.Ed
[kN]

re/rt
[-]

4.7 6.2 8.2 4.7 6.2 8.2 4.7 6.2 8.2 4.7 6.2 8.2

29.3 34.4 32.2 27.3 34.6 30.8 25.4 28.2 22.6 25.6 27.9

30.08 31.70 33.24 29.22 30.92 31.88 21.31 23.13 24.20 20.09 23.79 26.05

13.21 13.92 14.60 12.84 13.59 14.01 9.36 10.16 10.63 8.83 10.45 11.44

24.00 24.50 24.75 23.50 24.10 24.05 18.20 19.27 19.65 17.75 19.72 20.80

1.221 1.403 1.302 1.162 1.436 1.280 1.318 1.435 1.273 1.298 1.341

page 84 / 142

Guidance for applicationsGuidance for applications (3) The test evaluation to obtain M-values according to EN 1990 Annex D is given in Table 7.14.
Table 7.14: Determination of M-values for lateral torsional buckling of beams with finplate connections
beam with fin-plates 2.0

re/rt

1.0

0.0
a) 90/5 a) 90/8 a) 90/12 b) 75/5 b) 75/8 b) 75/12 c) 75/5 c) 75/8 c) 75/12 d) 50/5 d) 50/8 d) 50/12

uncoped
Input values
rt = 0,08 (geometrie and yield strength) fy = 0,07 (yield strength)

coped

Tests on coped beams with fin-plates (TUDelft) (N = 11)


standard deviation
2.0 Quantile der Standardnormalverteilung 1.5 1.0 0.5 0.0 0.75 -0.5 -1.0 -1.5 -2.0 re/rt

log-standard deviation
2.0 Quantile der log-Normalverteilung 1.5 1.0 0.5 0.0 -0.5 -1.0 -1.5 -2.0 ln re/rt 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5

1.00

1.25

1.50

1.75

b = 1.315 = 0.079 M = 1.267 (model) k = 0.805

s = 0.104 R = 0.112 (total) M* = 1.020

b = 1.317 = 0.080 M = 1.185 (model) k = 0.804

s = 0.105 R = 0.113 (total) M* = 0.953

(4)

The results in Table 7.14 reveal that M = 1,00 could be used for this set of tests (The conservatism of the calculative values is mainly caused by the fact, that the actual imperfections of the test beams were smaller than assumed in the European lateral torsional buckling curve used).

page 85 / 142

Excerpt from the Background Document to EN 1993-1-1

7.6
7.6.1 (1) (2)

Verification of haunched beams


Objective This section deals with the calculative determination of tests results obtained by D. Ungermann and I. Strohmann with haunched beams at TU Dortmund [19]. The objective of the re-calculation of this test-results is to demonstrate the reliability of the European lateral torsional buckling curve by a test evaluation according to EN 1990-Annex D. Test set up and testing procedure The purpose of the test set up was to examine lateral torsional buckling effects for the beam of portal frames with the span length L with haunches at the knee-points. Fig. 7.5-1 gives a survey on the loading conditions and the restraint-conditions of the beam, for which the following parameters were varied:

7.6.2 (1) (2)

kV = kL =
f0 =

max h min h length of haunch total length


MF MS

Figure 7.15: Geometrical conditions and loading for the tests

page 86 / 142

Guidance for applicationsGuidance for applications (3) The variations of parameters provided to check the assessment procedure are given in Table 7.15
Table 7.15: Variation of parameters

(4)

The cross sections at the ends of the haunches which were made by plates and welded to rolled beams are given in Table 7.16.
Table 7.16: Cross-sections at the ends of the haunches for test beams VT1 to VT3 and VT4 to VT6

VT_1 VT_3

VT_4 VT_6

(5)

The full set of tests with various geometrical parameters may be taken from Table 7.17
Table 7.17: Full set of tests and parameters

page 87 / 142

Excerpt from the Background Document to EN 1993-1-1 (6) The test set up for providing various end moments Ms and midspan moments MF by forces P applied with various cantilever lengths LLet is given in Figure 7.16.

Figure 7.16: Test set-up, load application P and boundary conditions

(7)

Figure 7.17 shows details of the application of loads at midspan with springs to provide an elastic torsional restraint c at midspan.

page 88 / 142

Guidance for applicationsGuidance for applications

Figure 7.17: Load application with provisions for c at mid span

7.6.3

Test results The test results for the maximum loads P in Figure 7.16 limited by elastic lateral torsional buckling are given in Table 7.18. These values have been obtained for

c = 1000 kNcm/rad.
Table 7.18: Tests results

7.6.4 (1)

Calculative results The calculations were performed using the European lateral torsional buckling curves with the determination of Pcrit by a FEM-program. The yield strength of the material as tested was fy = 400 N/mm. Table 7.19 gives the results of the calculations and the ratios between the experimental and calculative results.

(2)

page 89 / 142

Excerpt from the Background Document to EN 1993-1-1


Table 7.19: Calculative results and comparison with test results
Type VT1A VT2A VT3A VT4A VT5A VT6A VT1B VT2B VT3B VT4B VT5B VT6B Pexp
[kN]

Pcrit
[kN]

P*crit
[kN]

PEd
[kN]

re/rt
[-]

40.97 49.00 50.67 34.40 37.30 41.87 34.73 38.87 44.43 30.23 35.17 33.97

49.23 59.52 60.99 39.99 39.20 38.35 42.08 53.10 53.61 33.51 32.78 32.09

30.22 36.54 37.44 24.55 24.07 23.54 25.83 32.60 32.91 20.57 20.12 19.70

33.49 39.88 40.56 27.86 27.73 27.56 29.29 35.44 35.76 23.91 23.76 23.51

1.223 1.229 1.249 1.235 1.345 1.519 1.186 1.097 1.242 1.264 1.480 1.445

(3)

The test evaluation according to EN 1990 Annex D is presented in Table 7.20. As usual the M-values obtained are in the same magnitude M 1,00 as for other stability phenomena.
Table 7.20: Test evaluation according to EN 1990 Annex D and M-values
2.0 re/rt

1.0

0.0 VT1A VT2A VT3A VT4A VT5A VT6A VT1B VT2B VT3B VT4B VT5B VT6B
Input values
rt = 0,08 (geometrie and yield strength) fy = 0,07 (yield strength)

Tests on haunched girders (TU Dortmund)


standard deviation
2.0 Quantile der Standardnormalverteilung 1.5 1.0 0.5 0.0 0.75 -0.5 -1.0 -1.5 -2.0 re/rt

(N = 12)
log-standard deviation

2.0 Quantile der log-Normalverteilung 1.5 1.0 0.5 0.0 -0.5 -1.0 -1.5 -2.0 ln re/rt 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5

1.00

1.25

1.50

1.75

b = 1.262 = 0.080 M = 1.268 (model) k = 0.840

s = 0.101 R = 0.113 (total) M* = 1.065

b = 1.269 = 0.086 M = 1.194 (model) k = 0.842

s = 0.110 R = 0.118 (total) M* = 1.006

page 90 / 142

Guidance for applicationsGuidance for applications

7.7
7.7.1 (1) (2) (3)

Assessment of gantry-girders
Structural system and loading The structural system of the gantry girder may be taken from Figure 7.18. It is a two span continuous girder with a span length of 6 m. The steel profile is HEB 300 S235, with a rail 5 cm x 3 cm welded to the profile with fillet welds aw = 5 mm. The rail is not taken into account in the resistance of the girder. Transverse stiffeners welded to the flanges and the web of the profile are at the supports and the connections to the brackets of the frames of the industrial hall provide fork-conditions. The loading results from a bridge crane with the maximum wheel loads

(4)

R = 75 kN H = 22.2 kN
The wheel distance is c = 3.6 m. (5) The dynamic factor is = 1.20, so that the vertical wheel loads are

F1 = F2 = F = 1 R = 1.2 75 = 90 kN
(6) The self-weight of the gantry girder is

g = 1.35 kN/m

Figure 7.18 Structural system and loading

7.7.2

Action effects

7.7.2.1 Maximum sagging moments (1) The load position and the design loads for the maximum sagging moment may be taken from Figure 7.19

page 91 / 142

Excerpt from the Background Document to EN 1993-1-1

F1,Ed = 121.5 kN HEd = 30 kN a TEd = 5.4 kNm

F2,Ed = 121.5 kN gEd = 1.82 kN/m c

l1 = 2.1 m

c = 3.6 m l = 6.0 m

l2 l = 6.0 m

Figure 7.19: Load position for maximum sagging moment

(2)

The design values of action effects from the relevant load combination are given in Figure 7.20

Mz,Ed = 37.3 kNm

My,Ed = 157.7 kNm

Tw,d = 3.86 kNm

Figure 7.20: Action effects for maximum sagging moments

(3)

The plastic resistances of the girder are

My,Rk = 459.8 kNm Mz,Rk = 209 kNm Tw,Rk = 31.4 kNm2


(4) Hence the in-plane assessment follows from

ult , k = crit =

M y , Rk M y , Ed

459.8 = 2.916 157.7 = 1191 = 7.552 157.7

M y , crit , LT M y , Ed

* crit = 4.216

ult , k = 0.621 crit

page 92 / 142

Guidance for applicationsGuidance for applications


* crit 4.216 = 0.34 = 0.190 crit 7.552

* =

= 0.891 Ed =
(5)

ult , k 0.891 2.916 = = 2.362 M 1.1

Taking into account out-of-plane loading (bending and torsion) leads to

qM z =

crit
1

M 1 1 z ,Im 7.552 (1 0.81) = 0.025 Mz T 1 1 w,Im 7.552 (1 0.648) = 0.047 Tw

qTw =

crit

z,d = w, d =
n E =

M y , Ed M y , Rd

1 qM z =

37.3 (1 0.025) = 0.170 209

Tw, Ed 3.86 1 qTw = (1 0.047 ) = 0.117 Tw, Rd 31.4

Ed

+ z ,d + w,d =

1 + 0.170 + 0.117 = 0,710 2.362

nR = 1
and hence:

ult , k

1 1 ult , k

2 2 = 0.913 0,90

nE < nR

0.710 < 0.913

A conservative assumption with qMw = 0, qMz = 0 and nR = 0.9 would lead to:

Ed

+ yd + w d =

1 37.3 3.86 + + = 0,725 0.9 2.362 209 31.4

7.7.2.2 Maximum hogging moment (1) The load position and the design loads for the maximum hogging moment may be taken from Figure 7.21.
F1,Ed = 121.5 kN HEd = 30 kN a 4.2 m TEd = 5.4 kNm b 1.8 m 1.8 m 4.2 m F2,Ed = 121.5 kN c

Figure 7.21: Load position for maximum hogging moment

page 93 / 142

Excerpt from the Background Document to EN 1993-1-1 (2) The design values of action effects from the relevant load combination are given in Figure 7.22.
My,Ed = -138.8 kNm

Mz,Ed = -17.35 kNm

Tw,d = 3.74 kNm

Figure 7.22: Action effects for maximum hogging moments

(3)

Obviously the load case maximum hogging moment is not relevant for the lateral torsional buckling verification.

7.8
7.8.1 (1)

Channel sections
Objective Tests with beams made of channel sections are evaluated using the European lateral torsional buckling curve for lateral torsional buckling with transverse bending, torsion and in combination with compression forces, to verify the reliability of the assessment method. The test data are given in Figure 7.21 and Figure 7.22.

(2)

page 94 / 142

Guidance for applicationsGuidance for applications


Table 7.21: Tests TU-Berlin [9]; configurations and results

Test

Profile

Steel

Load application

Fexp [kN]

43.0

51.2

57.4

UPE200

S355 fy = 400 N/mm

31.8

34.5

30.4

page 95 / 142

Excerpt from the Background Document to EN 1993-1-1


Table 7.22: Tests Ruhr-Universitt Bochum [9];configurations and results

Test

Profile

Steel

Test set-up

Load application

Fexp [kN]

Nexp [kN]

45.91

74.88

36.76

59.03

9 S355 UPE200 fy = 418 N/mm

L=4m = 95 mm

29.48

278.37

10

24.16

227.93

11

22.80

37.01

12

L=6m = 95 mm

21.01

33.86

page 96 / 142

Guidance for applicationsGuidance for applications


Still Table 7.22: Tests Ruhr-Universitt Bochum [9];configurations and results

Test

Profile

Steel

Test set-up

Load application

Fexp [kN]

Nexp [kN]

S355 13 fy = 418 N/mm UPE200 S355 14 fy = 364 N/mm L=6m = 95 mm 15.95 74.45 17.93 80.83

Within this test series the axial forces N have been applied through cap and ball bearings, which were fixed on 20 mm thick steel plates at both ends of the beam-column, which impeded a free warping of the cross section. This effect has been taken into account for the re-calculations.

7.8.2 (1)

Calculative results The calculations were performed using the European lateral torsional buckling curves with = 0.49. The critical values crit for the M-N-interaction have been determined using the software LTBeamN [20]. The yield strengths which have been used for the calculations, were determined from material samples of the test specimens and are given in Table 7.21 and Table 7.22. The different calculations have been performed: 1. using the elastic warping-resistance Tel,w,Rk of the channel section 2. using the plastic warping resistance Tpl,w,Rk of the channel section. Results and calculative steps of each assessment are summarized in Table 7.23 and Table 7.24. Figure 7.23 shows the determined re/rt-values for both assessment methods.

(2)

(3)

* Table 7.25 and Table 7.26 give the M -values related to the results which are be* * tween M = 1,0 and M = 1,1 as required.

page 97 / 142

Excerpt from the Background Document to EN 1993-1-1


Table 7.23: Calculative results for Tw,Rk = Tel,w,Rk and comparison with tests

Test 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

Ek *) 0.620 0.736 0.732 0.757 0.741 0.671 0.635 0.624 0.572 0.617 0.711 0.693 0.716 0.706

ult,k 4.718 3.339 2.994 3.655 3.444 4.315 3.155 4.009 5.451 6.162 3.785 4.212 4.778 4.741

crit 2.361 1.671 1.498 1.384 1.304 1.634 1.679 2.138 1.379 1.560 1.260 1.403 1.226 1.373

*crit 0.809 0.573 0.513 0.308 0.290 0.364 1.011 1.285 1.186 1.341 0.550 0.612 0.646 0.732

0.168 0.168 0.168 0.109 0.109 0.109 0.295 0.295 0.421 0.421 0.214 0.214 0.258 0.261

0.425 0.425 0.425 0.347 0.347 0.347 0.406 0.407 0.204 0.204 0.289 0.289 0.223 0.248

ult ,k

Mw 0.411 0.220 0.153 0.159 0.120 0.262 0.167 0.314 0.087 0.179 0.065 0.141 0.050 0.123

nE = nR 0.910 0.925 0.939 0.947 0.956 0.929 0.947 0.926 0.985 0.973 0.981 0.963 0.989 0.973

re/rt 1.613 1.359 1.366 1.320 1.349 1.490 1.575 1.602 1.749 1.620 1.407 1.443 1.397 1.416

0.499 0.704 0.786 0.788 0.836 0.667 0.780 0.613 0.899 0.795 0.915 0.822 0.939 0.850

*) load amplifier Ek = FEd / Fexp = (re / rt)-1 which leads to an utilization level of 100%

nE = nR

Table 7.24: Calculative results for Tw,Rk = Tpl,w,Rk and comparison with tests

Test 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14
)

Ek *) 0.968 0.934 0.865 0.897 0.842 0.890 0.756 0.871 0.618 0.728 0.758 0.799 0.749 0.795

ult,k 3.020 2.631 2.533 3.085 3.030 3.253 2.650 2.875 5.046 5.227 3.550 3.651 4.564 4.210

crit 1.512 1.317 1.268 1.168 1.148 1.232 1.410 1.533 1.276 1.323 1.182 1.217 1.171 1.219

*crit 0.518 0.451 0.434 0.260 0.255 0.274 0.849 0.922 1.098 1.137 0.516 0.531 0.617 0.650
-1

0.168 0.168 0.168 0.109 0.109 0.109 0.295 0.295 0.421 0.421 0.214 0.214 0.258 0.261

0.425 0.425 0.425 0.347 0.347 0.347 0.406 0.407 0.204 0.204 0.289 0.289 0.223 0.248

ult ,k

Mw 0.159 0.072 0.047 0.047 0.035 0.083 0.051 0.107 0.025 0.054 0.018 0.040 0.014 0.034

nE = nR 0.938 0.966 0.976 0.980 0.985 0.968 0.979 0.961 0.995 0.990 0.994 0.988 0.997 0.991

re/rt 1.033 1.071 1.156 1.114 1.187 1.123 1.323 1.149 1.619 1.374 1.320 1.251 1.335 1.258

0.779 0.894 0.929 0.933 0.950 0.885 0.929 0.854 0.971 0.937 0.976 0.948 0.983 0.957

* load amplifier Ek = FEd / Fexp = (re / rt) which leads to an utilization level of 100%

nE = nR

page 98 / 142

Guidance for applicationsGuidance for applications


re/rt 2.0
1.8 1.6 1.4 1.2 1.0 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.0 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 UPE 200 - RWTH Aachen UPE 200 - TU Berlin UPE 200 - RuhrUni Bochum

re/rt 2.0

Tel,w,Rk

1.8 1.6 1.4 1.2 1.0 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.0 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2.0 2.1 2.2

Tpl,w,Rk

UPE 200 - TU Berlin UPE 200 - RuhrUni Bochum 2.3 2.4

Figure 7.23: Comparison between test results [9] and calculative results for Tw,Rk = Tel,w,Rk (left hand side) and Tw,Rk = Tpl,w,Rk (right hand side)

Table 7.25: Determination of the *M-value according to EN 1990 Annex D (Tw,Rk = Tel,w.Rk)
Eingangsdaten
rt = 0,08 (Geometrie und Streckgrenze) fy = 0,07 (Streckgrenze)

Research Project Fosta P 554 - UPE200 (T el,w,Rk) (N = 14)


Standardnormalverteilung
2.0 Quantile der Standardnormalverteilung

log-Normalverteilung
2.0 Quantile der log-Normalverteilung 1.5 1.0 0.5 0.0 -0.5 -1.0 -1.5 -2.0 ln re/rt 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7

1.5 1.0 0.5 0.0 1.2 -0.5 -1.0 -1.5 -2.0 re/rt 1.4 1.6 1.8

b = 1.479 = 0.107 M = 1.353 (Modell) k = 0.744

s = 0.158 R = 0.133
*

b = 1.482 (gesamt) = 0.104 M = 1.218 (Modell) k = 0.739

s = 0.154 R = 0.131 (gesamt)


* M = 0.900

M = 1.006

Table 7.26: Determination of the *M-value according to EN 1990 Annex D (Tw,R = Mpl,w,R)
Eingangsdaten
rt = 0,08 (Geometrie und Streckgrenze) fy = 0,07 (Streckgrenze)

Research Project Fosta P 554 - UPE200 (T pl,w,Rk) (N = 14)


Standardnormalverteilung
2.0 Quantile der Standardnormalverteilung

log-Normalverteilung
2.0 Quantile der log-Normalverteilung 1.5 1.0 0.5 0.0 0.000 -0.5 -1.0 -1.5 -2.0 ln re/rt 0.125 0.250 0.375 0.500

1.5 1.0 0.5 0.0 1.0 -0.5 -1.0 -1.5 -2.0 re/rt 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4

b = 1.193 = 0.090 M = 1.296 (Modell) k = 0.900

s = 0.107 R = 0.120
*

b = 1.201 (gesamt) = 0.097 M = 1.208 (Modell) k = 0.903

s = 0.116 R = 0.126 (gesamt)


* M = 1.090

M = 1.167

page 99 / 142

Excerpt from the Background Document to EN 1993-1-1

page 100 / 142

Literature

10 Literature
[1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] EN 1990 Eurocode: Basis of structural design, CEN, Brussels EN 1993-1-1: Eurocode 3 Part 1-1 Design of steel structures General rules and rules for buildings, CEN, Brussels Maquoi, R., R. Rondal, J.: Analytische Formulierung der neuen Europischen Knickspannungskurven, Acier, Stahl, Steel 1/1978 Mller, Chr.: Zum Nachweis ebener Tragwerke aus Stahl gegen seitliches Ausweichen, Diss. RWTH Aachen 2003, Schriftenreihe Stahlbau, Heft 47, Shaker Verlag Sedlacek, G., Mller, Chr.: The European Standard family and its basis. Journal of Constructural Steel Research 62/2006), 1047-1056 Stangenberg, H.: Zum Bauteilnachweis offener stabilittsgefhrdeter Stahlbauprofile unter Einbeziehung seitlicher Beanspruchungen und Torsion, Diss. RWTH Aachen 2007, Schriftenreihe Stahlbau, Heft 61, Shaker Verlag Sedlacek, G., Mller, Chr., Stangenberg, H.: Lateral torsional buckling according to Eurocode 3, Ren Maquoi 65th birthday anniversary, 2007 Sedlacek, G., Ungermann, D., Kuck, J., Maquoi, R., Janss, J.: Eurocode 3 Part 1,Background Documentation Chapter 5 Document 5.03 (partim): Evaluation of test results on beams with cross sectional classes 1-3 in order to obtain strength functions and suitable model factors Eurocode 3 - Editorial Group (1984) Sedlacek, G., Stangenberg, H., Lindner, J., Glitsch, T., Kindmann, R., Wolf, C.: Untersuchungen zum Einfluss der Torsionseffekte auf die plastische Querschnittstragfhigkeit und Bauteiltragfhigkeit von Stahlprofilen, Forschungsvorhaben P554; Forschungsvereinigung Stahlanwendung e.V., 2004 Stangenberg, H., Sedlacek, G., Mller, Ch.: Die neuen Biegedrillknicknachweise nach Eurocode 3 Festschrift 60 Jahre Prof. Kindmann 2007 Braham, M., Maquoi, R.: Merchant-Rankines concept brought again in honour for web-tapered-I-section steel members, Festschrift Joachim Lindner, 1998 Poutr la, D. B., Snijder, H. H., Hoenderkamp, J. C. D.: Lateral torsional buckling of channel shaped sections, Experimental research report, University of Technology Eindhoven, April 1999 Poutr la, D.B.: Strength and stability of channel sections used as beam, M.Sc.-thesis, University of Technology Eindhoven, December 1999 Roik, K., Kindmann, R.: Das Ersatzstabverfahren Eine Nachweisform fr den einfeldrigen Stab bei planmig einachsiger Biegung mit Druckstab, Der Stahlbau 12/1981, S. 353-358

[7] [8]

[9]

[10] [11] [12]

[13] [14]

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Excerpt from the Background Document to EN 1993-1-1

[15] [16] [17] [18] [19]

Naumes, J.: Biegeknicken und Biegedrillknicken von Stben und Stabsystemen auf einheitlicher Grundlage, Diss. RWTH Aachen 2009 in Vorbereitung LTBeam: Freeware program for the determination of Mcr-values developed by CTICM; free download under: http://www.cticm.eu/spip.php?lang=en Rules for Member Stability in EN 1993-1-1: Background documentation and design guidelines, ECCS Publication Nr. 119 Bouras, H.: Lateral-torsional buckling of coped beams with fin-plates as end support connection, MSc thesis, TUDelft, Netherlands, July 2008 Ungermann, D., Strohmann, I.: Zur Stabilitt von biegebeanspruchten I-Trgern mit und ohne Voute - Entwicklung von Bemessungshilfen fr den Ersatzstabnachweis. FOSTA-Project P690, Lehrstuhl fr Stahlbau der TU Dortmund in cooperation with PSP Aachen; expected date of publication end of 2008 LTBeamN: Freeware software for the determination of cr-values of beam-columns with M-N-Interaction; under investigation by CTICM; free download under http://www.cticm.eu expected for mid of 2010 EN 1090-2: Execution of steel structures and aluminium structures - Part 2: Technical requirements for the execution of steel structures; Carjot, Louis-Guy: Straightness of hot rolled beams presentation, ArcelorMittal Esch-sur-Alzette, Luxembourg, May 29, 2008 EN 10034: Poutrelles I et H en acier de construction; tolrances de formes et de dimensions, 1993 EN 10024: Hot-rolled taper flange I sections - Tolerances on shape and dimensions, 1995 Merzenich, G.; Sedlacek, G.: Hintergrundbericht zum Eurocode 1 Teil 3.2: Verkehrslasten auf Straenbrcken; Forschung Straenbau und Straenverkehrstechnik, Heft 711, 1995 Brozetti, J., Marek, P., Sedlacek, G.: Probabilistic Assessment of Structures - 15.1 Study on load combination rules,p. 377-387, ISBN 80-86246-19-1

[20]

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