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The Codeof Practiceon Wind Effects in Hong Kong 2004,preparedunderthe direction of the Ad hoc Committeeon Review of the Code of Practiceon Wind Effects, supersedes Code the of Practice Wind EffectsHong Kong -1983. on This Code introduces several new concepts that are in keeping with developmentsin understandingof the responseof structuresto wind action and new wind speed records measured Hong Kong. in The main changes this codedevolvefrom the recognitionof the time varying natureof wind in action. Accordingly, an assessment resonantdynamic response introducedwith guidance of is given on the assessment meanandturbulentwind characteristics. of For the assessment resonantdynamic response,a signpost is provided to show whether of resonantdynamic effect should be consideredor not. In the casethat it is, then severalnew elementsof assessment included in this code to make the estimationof dynamicresponse are more precise. Theseincludeestimates turbulenceintensity,damping,naturalfrequencyand of other descriptorsof wind energy parameters.Where the resonantdynamic responseis not significant,the assessment wind effectswill be broadlysimilar to the Codeof Practiceon of Wind effectsHong Kong -1983. The two terrain categories usedin the former codewere replacedwith a single generalterrain and new guidanceon the effect of topogaphy on local wind field is given in this code. New guidanceon wind tunnel testing derived from multi-national research findings and other nationalwind codesis alsoincludedin this code.


Thepreparation this codeowesa grcat of dealto thetime andeffort givenby Dr. K.M. Lam, Professor Alan Jeary, J. MacArthur,Ir. K.L. Lo, Ir. K.S. Wong,Ir. P.K. Li, Ir. C.C.Wong, Ir. h. Y.C. Tsui andthe Chairman the Ad-hoc Committee reviewthe Codeof Practice of to on Wind Effects,h. K.M. Cheung. A draft of the codehasbeencirculated general practicing for comment selected to engineers, buildingprofessionals Government and Departments. comments views expressed All and have beentakeninto consideration the preparation the codenow published. in of Thank is also due to the Hong Kong Observatoryfor providing the cloud imageryon the cover pagewhich was originally caphred with the Geostationary MeteorologicalSatellite (GMS-5)of JapanMeteorological Agency.

@ The Government the Hong Kong SpecialAdministrativeRegion of

First published: December2OO4

Prepared by:

Buildings Department, l2/F-l&E PioneerCentre. 750 NathanRoad, Mongkolq Kowloon, Hong Kong.

This publication can be pllrchased by writing to: Publications Sales Section, E ,E Garden Road,Central, Hong Kong. Fax:(852)25237195 0r: O Calling the Publications Sales Section oflnfollllatiOn Services Department(ISD)at (852)25371910 V i s i t i n g t h e o n l i n e F I I C S A R G o v e m m e n t B o o kb o o r e ta tr c ttct s d V e , c o m st ks o h p: tif e D o w n l o a d i n g t h e o r d e r f o r m f r o m t h e l S D w e bw i t e .a s dotv ,mn d s u b m i t t i n g t h e s w w i t ht pk a t l / order online or by fax to(852)25237195 Place order with ISD by e\ mail at B \d

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2 2 3 4 4



7 9 10 14 17 19

C. D. E. F.


SCOPE This Code of Practicegives generalmethodsfor calculating the wind loads to be designof buildingsor partsof buildings. The Codedoesnot usedin the structural apply to buildings of an unusualshapeor buildings situatedat locationswhere complicatedlocal topographyadverselyaffects the wind conditions. Experimental may be usedin whereavailable, to wind tunneldatawith reference local conditions, provisionsfor wind tunneltesting placeof the valuesgiven in this Code. Necessary aregivenin AppendixA. 2 from the hourly given in this Codehavebeendetermined The designwind pressures having a retum period of 50 meanwind velocitiesand peak gust wind velocities to on years. Designwind pressures buildingswherea longerperiodof exposure the from wind velocitieshaving a retum period shall be determined wind is required the greater than 50 years.AppendixB provides multiplicationfactorfor designwind than50 years. pressure ofretum periodgreater 4.3 in No buildingsexcep thosementioned Clause and Clause7.4 shallbe designed from wind velocitieshavinga returnperiodof determined designwind pressures with lessthan50 years.



DEFINITIONS of For thepu{poses this Code,the following definitionsapply: "Building" means 2 buildingsasdefinedin section ofthe BuildingsOrdinance. "Breadth" means horizontaldimension the buildingnormalto the directionof of the the wind. uDepth" means horizontaldimension the buildingparallelto the direction of of the the wind. "Frontalprojected projectionof the buildingon the area" means areaof the shadow a planenormalto the directionof thewind. "Height" meansthe height of the building above the site-groundlevel in the immediatevicinity of the building up to the top of the building. Masts and on otherappendages top of the buildingshouldnot be included.

CALCULATION OF WII\D LOADS The design wind force on a building or parts of a building shall be calculatedin accordance with sections4, 5 and 6 unlessthe building has significantresonant dynamicresponse. 3.2 A building with significantresonantdynamic response requiresa more detailed analysis thanthoseexhibiting an essentially statictype of behaviour. For the purposeof this Code,a building is considered be one with significant to resonant dynamicresponse it haseitherof the following properties, if unlessit could be justified that the fundamentalnatural frequencyof the building is greaterthan I llz:(a) (b) The heightexceeds timesthe leasthorizontaldimension. five Theheightofthebuildingisgreaterthan 100m.


For the purposeof this clause,the least horizontal dimensionshall be taken as the smallest dimension the rectangular of envelope enclosing main verticalstructural the elements the building. of 3.4 Thealong-windforceson a buildingwith significant resonant dynamicresponse shall be assessed accordance section in with 7.

4. 4.1

DESIGN WIND PRESSTJRES Exceptas providedin Clause4.3, the designwind pressure at heightz shall be q, takenasthe valuegivenin Table l. Where topography is considered significant the design wind pressure shall be multiplied by a topographyfactor assessed accordance in with Appendix C. Temporary buildingsor buildingswhich will remain in positionfor a period of not more than one yearmay be designed with wind pressures not lessthan 70 per cent of givenin Tablel. of thepressures No allowanceshall be madefor the generalor specificshieldingof other structures or naturalfeafures.




Table 1 : Design wind pressure Heightabove site-ground level m 5 101 20m 301n 501n 75m 0 nl 0 150 rn 200m 2501ttll 30m 40 500m Note : q, Designwind pressure (KPJ 1.82 2.01 2.23 2.37 2.57 2.73 2.86 3.05 3.20 3.31 3.41 3.58 3.72

For intermediate valuesof height,linearinterpolation permitted. is

FORCES ON BUILDINGS The total wind force F on a bullding shall be taken to bc the suIImation of the prcssurcs acting on the cffcctive pttjected areas of thc bullding ttd shall bc detemined by the following equation t
ct ZtqA,.
^ s l


Where C, is the force coefficient for the building, determined in accordancewith Appendix D;


is the designwind pressure heightz, determined accordance at in with section and 4: is the effective projected area of that part of the building corresponding qr. to



The effectiveprojectedareaof an enclosed building shall be the frontal projected atea. The effectiveprojectedarea of an open framework structuresuch as sign framesand latticetowersshall be the aggregate projected areaof all members a on planenormalto the directionof the wind.


Every building shallbe designed the effectsof wind pressures for actingalongeach of the critical directions.

6. 6.1

FORCES ON BTIII,DING ELEMENTS The total wind forceFoactingin a directionnormalto the individual elements such as walls, roofs, claddingpanelsor members open frameworksfuctures shall be of determined the following equation: by Fo : where Co cpgr4n Q)

is the total pressutcoefficient for individual elements,determined in accordance with Appendix E; is the design wind pressurecorrespondingto the height z of the element,determinedin accordance with section4; and is the surface areaof the element.



Exceptfor membersof openframework structures, designwind pressure, shall the q, be a constant valueover the lower part of the building. The heightup to which this constantvalue occursis to be takenas the breadthof the building or the actualheight of the building whicheveris the lesser.The constantvalue shall be taken as the designwind pressure this height. at

7. 7.1

DYNAMIC EFFECTS The total along-wind force F on an enclosedbuilding with significant resonant dynamicresponse shallbe determined the following equation: by F : where G c Cf Xq,A., (3)

is the dynamic magnification factor to be determinedin accordance with AppendixF; is the force coefficientfor the structure, determined accordance in with Appendix D; is the designhourly meanwind pressure heightz givenin Table at 2:and is the effective projected area of that part of the building corresponding % to




Pressures forceson the individualelements and suchas walls, roofs,claddingpanels of a building with significant resonantdynamic responseor membersof open frameworkstructures shallbe determined accordance section in with 6.

Table 2 : Designhourly meanwind pressure Heightabove site-ground level m 5 101n 20m 301n 50m 75m 100m 1501n 200m 250m 300m 400m 500m Designhourlymeanwind pressure 7(N 0B7 7 0.90 1.05 1,15 1.28 1.40 1.49 1.63 1.74 1.83 1.90 2603 2.13

Note: For intermediate valuesof height,linearinterpolation permitted. is


where the topographyis consideredsignificant, the design hourly mean wind pressureshall be multiplied by a topographyfactor assessed accordance in with AppendixC. Temporary buildingsor buildingswhich will remainin positionfor a period of not morethan one yearmay be designed with designhourly meanwind pressures not of lessthan70 per centof thepressures given in Table2. No allowance shallbe madefor the general specificshielding otherstructures or of or naturalfeatures. In the caseof an openframedbuildingwith significantresonant dynamicresponse or a buildingfor which the fundamental naturalfrequency lessthan0.2FIz,or the is crosswind resonant responsetorsionalresonant / response be significant, may the resonant dynamiceffectsshouldbe investigated accordance in with




given in publishedliteratureand/orthroughthe useof dynamic recommendations The total response sucha buildingwould usuallybe wind tunnelmodelstudies. of calculatedfrom the combinationof the response the threefundamental in modesof vibration.

APPEIIDD( A : TESTING StaticStructures (a)


The naturalwind is to be modelledto accountfor the variationwith heightof hourly meanwind speed turbulence and intensityappropriate the site. to The instrumentation its response and characteristics to be appropriate the are to loadsrequired. The measurements should enable peak wind loads consistentwith the intentions this codeto be properlydetermined" of




DynamicStructures Where resonantdynamic responsemay be significant, the provisions for static structures shall be met and, in addition,the sffuctureshall be accurately represented (physicallyor mathematically) massdistributionand stiffnessin accordance in with established laws of dimensional scalingand the effect of structuraldampingshall be appropriate reflected. ly Topography Modelling If the loadingon a building may be significantlyinfluenced the local topography, by the effect on the wind propertiesmay be investigated small-scale by wind tunnel testingor established usingreliablepublished data.


ProximityModel If the loadingon a building is significantlyinfluenced the presence surrounding by of buildings or topographicfeatures,it is necessary include the models of these to proximity features the wind tunneltesting.Wherethe local topography too large in is to be sensibly accounted in the proximity model,its effectsshouldbe accounted for for as described Clause in ,43. Whereparticular adjoining surrounding or buildings could provide significant shelter, the effect of their possible removal should also be considered.


Model ScaleLimitations The geometricscaleand velocity scaleemployedin the wind tunnel testingshould meetthe requirement a minimumReynolds of number.For building modelswith sharp comers, Reynolds the numberbased the breadth the buildingmodelshouldnot be on of lessthan 1x104. general A guideis that the buildingmodel shouldnormallybe not smaller than 1:500 in scaleandthat the testwind speed shouldbe greater than I 0%o of the full-scalewind speed. For roundedshapes sensitive Reynolds to numbereffects,theseconditions may not be sufficientandfurtherevidence the suitabilityof the testconditions of maybe required. 7

in The blockage the wind tunnelshouldnormallybe lessthanl0o/o unless a exceeds 1004, blockage toleranttunnelis beingused. If blockage special forms correction may be required. of blockage Wind ProfilesandDesignWind Pressure The variationsof hourly meanwind speedand turbulenceintensitywith height in the wind tunnel, with the proximity and test model removed,should be geometricscaleand velocity similar to (afterbeing scaledup with appropriate scale)the full-scalehourly meanwind speedandthe turbulence intensitygiven inAppendixF. Calibrationbetween wind tunnel valuesand full-scalevaluesshouldbe made so that the peak gust wind pressureat a referenceheight in the wind tunnel given in Table 1. The reference testingshouldmatchthe designwind pressure height to be usedshall normally conespond 90m (full-scale)or 213of the to building height,whicheveris greater. Where the effect of topographyis modelledas describedin Clause,A.3, the from the small-scale wind profilesdetermined topographic modelshallbe used in the buildingmodeltests. For matchingpurposes, peakgustwind pressure the wind tunnelshallbe the in calculated below: as

q :

ll2 p v2 (l+3.7I)2

@ @ @ @ u @ @ @ @ @ h @

density air 0: l.2kg/m3 of hourly meanwind velocity turbulenceintensitv


For the purposeof this Code, local topographyis considered significantfor a site located within thetopography significant zoneas definedin FigureCl. The relevantdimensions the topography definedin Figure C2. of are The effective slope c[" and the eflective slope length L" are defined in terms of these dimensions the following : by

< For shallowupwind slopes 0.05< cru 0.3 :

de : 0u and L. : ['o


For steep upwind slopes uu> 0.3 : 0" : 0.3 and L" : FV0.3

Whentopography considered is significant, design the wind pressure heightz shall at be multiplied by a topographyfuctor Sa at that height. The topographyfactor Suat heightz abovesitegroundlevel shallbe determined the following equation:by S u= ( 1 + 1 . 2 u * . s ) 2



is the effectiveslopeof the topographic features definedin Clause as C2 above. is a topography locationfactor,the valuesof which are given for hills andridgesin FigureC3 andfor cliffs andescarpments FigureC4. in

For cases complicated of topography, specialist adviceshouldbe soughtand/orwind tunnelmodeltestingshouldbe conducted.

Acknowledgement : Figures CI, C2, C3, C4 in Appendix C were modified from figures with the permissionof BSI under licencenumber2002/SK0004. extractedfrom British Standards British Standards be obtainedfrom BSI CustomerServices,389 Chiswick High Road, London can W4 4AL, United Kingdom. (Tel +44(0)2089969001).


0.5x slopelength C[,u< 0.3 if 1.6x slopeheight C[u > 0.3 if upwindslope C[,u> 0.05 downwind slope O[o > 0.05

H = slope height
downwind slope

Lg : slope length

b) Escarpment > upwind (0.3 slope> 0.0b;downwind slope< 0.05)andcliff(upwind slope> 0.3;downwind slope< 0.05)

FigureC1 Definition significant of topography


of C[owith level
(C[u> 0.05, a) Hilland ridge C[o'0.0s)


x<0 ,

(0.3 b) Escarpment > Cfu > 0.05,C[o . O.OS) cliff(C[r t 0.3,Cf,o< 0.05) and

Lo Lu X H t @ @ @ - @ c Lengthof the downwind slopein the wind direction Lengthof the upwindslopein the winddirection Horizontal distance the sitefrom the crest of Effectiveheightof the feature

Upwind H slope / Lu inthewinddirection Downwind slope / Lo in thewinddirection H


Definition topographic of dimensions

position Horizontal ratios FigureC3 Topographic location factors for hillsand ridges

B 2 . 0 R m n 4 . 5 R O v n 1 . 0 d c n v 0 . 5 n O O f h O 0.2 Z -4.0 -0.5 X/Lu position Horizontal ratios Figure c4 Topographic location factors for cliffsand escarpments 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 X/Le



Enclosedbuilding Dl.1 The forcecoeffrcient Clfor an enclosed buildingshallbe(a) the product of the height aspect factor C1 and the shape factor C, given in TableDl and TableD2 respectively; or the appropriate value specified in other lnternational Codes acceptable the Building Authority. to


The force coefficient shall be applied to the enclosedbuilding as a whole providedthat : (a) In the case of a building with isolated blocks projecting above a generalroof level, individual force coefficientscorresponding the to heightand shape ofeach block shall be applied. In the caseof a building composedof similar contiguousstructures joints, the force coefficientsshall be applied separated expansion by to the entirebuilding.



If the frontal projectedareaof that part of the building for which Cf operates is greaterthan 500 rnl the force coefficient determined ClauseDl.l may by be multiplied by a reduction factor Ra given in Table D3. This reduction factor shouldnot be appliedto the total wind force calculatedin accordance with Section7.


Open framework buildings D2.I The force coefficientClfor an openframeworkbuilding shallbe(a) (b) the value given in TableD4; or appropriate value specifiedin other IntemationalCodesacceptable to the Building Authority.


Table Dl : Height aspectfactors C1 for enclosed building of generallyuniform section H e i t t h t Height aspect factor C6 Breadth

1.0 less or 2.0 4 .0 6.0 10.0 20.0andover

0B 95 1.0 1,05 1 . 1 1.2 1.4

Note : Linear interpolation may be usedto obtain intermediate values.

Table D2 : ShapefactorsC, for enclosed buildings of generallyuniform section planshape General Rectangular d e P O r hQ @@ h O @ @ @ h h R @ @ O u Bb @ k @ \ \ \ \ \ T R 1 . 0 1 . 1 W . 3 1 Shape factor C, u \ \lnterpolate \ \ linearly R

Circular 0.75 wlnd


Value of C, for the respective enclosing rectangular shapein the direction thewind. of

Note: Whenthe actualshape a building renders to becomesensitive wind of it to actingnot perpendicular its face,the diagonalwind effectsandtorsional to wind effectsshouldbe considered.


Table D3 : Reduction factors Ro for enclosed buildings according to frontal projected area Frontalprojectedarea, m2 500 or less 800 1000 3000 5000 8000 10000 15 000 and over Reduction factorRa 1.00 0.97 0.96 0.92 0B 89 0.86 0.84 0.80

Note : l. Linear interpolationmay be usedto obtainintermediate values.

Table D4 : Force coefticientsCl for open framework buildings Solidity ratio g

O O @ @ OP @ @ O Q @ @ O R @ @ O S @ @ O T @ @ O W @ @ X O @ @ P O Force coefficient Cc 2.0 1,9 1.8 1.7 1.7 1.6 1.6 1,8 2,0

Note :

l. The solidity ratio rpis equalto the effectiveprojectedareaof the open frameworkbuilding divided by the areaenclosed the boundaryof the by framenormalto the directionof the wind. 2. Linear interpolationmay be usedto obtain intermediate values.


The total pressure coefficientCo for individual elements a particularareaof an in enclosed building shallbe :(a) in the casewherethereis only a negligibleprobabilityof a dominantopening occurringduringa severe storm,the valuegivenin TableEl; and in the case wherea dominantopeningis likely to occurduringa severe storm, the value determined with the aid of otherpublished materialsacceptable to the Building Authorityor throughthe useof wind tunnelmodelstudies.



The total pressurecoeffrcientCo for individual membersof an open framework building shallbe :(a) (b) 2.0;or appropriatevalue specified in other Intemational Codes acceptableto Building Authority.

Table El : Total pressure coelficients Cp for individual elementsof enclosed buildingswith negligible probability of dominantopening Walls and claddings (a) edgezonesof the building (b) other surfaces Flat roofs (a) edgezones ofthe roof (b) other surfaces

-1,4 or+1.0 -1.O or+1.0 -2.2 ]1 . 2

roof angle 10 30 60

Pitchedroofs (a) edgezones ofroof (b) ridgezones ofthe roof (c) othersurfaces : (i) wind across ridge,windwardsurface (iD wind across ridge,leewardsurface (iii) wind parallel ridge to

R2 2. -1,4 - 4

rterpolate linearl

]0 -1.0

- l . 2 o r + 0 . 3| +1.0 -0.8 -07 -0.8 | -1.0 - 1.0 I ]1 . 0



Canopies (a) (b)

edgezones otherareas

+2.O and-2.0 +1.2 and-1.2

Notc: 1.

Negativevalue of Cp indicatesthat the resultantforce is outwardsor upwards. Where altemative coefficients are given the element should be designed acceptboth loadingconditions. to 3. Edge zonesof the building are the areaswithin a distancefrom the edge of the building equal to 0.25 times the lesser horizontal dimension the building. of Edgezonesof the roof are the areaswithin a distancefrom the edge of the roof equalto 0.15 timesthe lesser horizontaldimensionof the roof. Ridge zonesof the roof are the areaswithin a distancefrom the ridge of theroof equalto 0.15timesthe spanof thepitchedroof.



6. Canopies means any structure which projects more than 500 mm from any wall of any building to provide protection from rain or sun and at a height of not more than 7.5m above the level of ground. 7. Edgezonesof the canopyarethe areas within a distancefrom the edge of the canopyequalto 0.2 times the spanof the canopy.


APPENDD( F : DYIIAMIC AI\ALYSIS Fl. using the gust of The along-wind dynamicresponse a building shall be assessed of response factor method. The method involves an assessment dynamic the hourly mean wind the magnification factor which represents amount by which forces shall be multiplied to account for dynamic behaviour. The dynamic magnificationfactor G may be taken as the valuesfrom Table Fl or Table F2, ot :by determined usingthe following equation

2B+gf bL G 1 + 2 1 h gb

rbulence mtellsity at the top of thc building which shall be whcre lh is d 1055(h/90)E n wherc h is equal to tle hcight of the taFen as OB buildm in metres.

gv ls the peak factor for background response which i gr is the peak factor for resonance response and is equal to V2bgB(3600 na)Whett na he ttndametti naturz qucncy oftte by building in Hertz which canbe takenas 46lh or determined a more analysis. detailed B is a backgroundfactor which is a measureof the slowly varying by caused the lower of component the fluctuatingresponse background variationand is equalto frequency wind speed


V36h2+64b2 Lr' heightof thebuilding in metres of the breadth the building in metres ^ R O P P OO] P \ P P lengthscale turbulence the effective _ O m 0'47\,,, : @ k :

where h

and is the wind energyspectrum is equalto

(t * t'y'u

reduced frequency:g WhereN: effective Vn


is the size factor to accountfor the correlationof pressures over a building is equalto and S \ \ 3.5 nah \


where na %

the fundamental naturalfrequency the building of in hertz 461h, determined a moredetailed ot by analysis : the design hourly-mean wind speed heighth which at givenin TableF3. shallbetakenasthevalues o'otl,"

E is thewind energy spectrum is equal and to ,


ilu|-r =Vh Where N : e{l'ectivereducedfr equency

is the dampingratio of the fundamental mode. This shallnormallybe takenas 1.5o/ofor steel structuresand 2o/ofor reinforced concretestructures.For particularlyslenderbuildings,lower valuesmay be appropriate specialist and adviceshouldbe sought. Stockybuildingsmay havehigherdamping values.

Table Fl : DynamicMagnilicationFactorG for C= l.Soh x E 200 180 160 140 120 100 20 1.994 1.983 1.972 1.959 1.945 1.929 30 1.955 l,943 1.930 1,916 1.902 1.886 40 1,922 1.909 1.896 1.882 1.868 1.853

Note : For intermediate values, linearinterpolation permitted. is


Table F2: DynamicMagnificationFactor G for e = 2.0Vo 20 200 180 160 140 120 100 1.907 1.900 1.894 1.886 1.879 1.871 30 1.874 1.867 1.859 1.851 1.843 1,836 40 1.847 1=840 1.832 1.824 1.816 1.808

values,linear interpolationis permitted. Note : For intermediate

Table F3 : Designhourly-meanwind velocity Hcight above S-3TOund level m 5 10m 201n 301 501n 75m 100 Fn 1501n 200m 250m 300m 400m >500m mean whd velocity Design holBri V Km/S) RT W D RW V D S ] V D SRU D SUQ D SW R B SX W D TQ ] D TR W D TT ] C TUQ D O TW D TX T D

is valuesof height"linearinterpolation permitted. Note : For intermediate


Codeof Practiceon Wind Effects in Hong Kong 2004

utF t t S N I Z t V x A

of @The Government the Hong Kong SpecialAdministrativeRegion

First published: December2004

by: Prepared

Buildings Department, 12lF-188 PioneerCentre. 750 NathanRoad, Mongkok, Kowloon, Hong Kong.

vriting ThiS pLlbliCation can be purchased byA to: Publications Sales Section, Infollllatlon Services Dcpartmellt, Room 402,4dl Floor,MLlrra_y Building, Gardcn Road,Central, Hong](ong. Faxt(852)25237195 0r: e calling the Publicatlons Sales Section oflnfollllq 10m Services Dcpartment(lSD)at (852)25371910 0 Visiting the online HK SAR Govemment Bookstore ratllttp;// e Downloading the order form from the ISD website at itS and submming the htW / order online or by ttx to(852)25237195 8 Place order with ISD by e] matl at pubordttc~ ] E @ hk

The Explanatory Materials give a summary of the background information and considerationsreviewed by the code drafting committee during the preparing of the Code of Practiceon Wind Effects in Hong Kong 2004, which will be referred to as .the Code' in this document. As the Code aims to retain the essenceof a simple format of its predecessorfor easeof application, the Explanatory Materials was set out to accomplish the Code by explaining in depth the major changesin the Code and to addresson situations where tfre apptication of the Code may require specialattention. The Explanatory Materials is a technical publication and should not be taken as a part of the Code.

The compilationof ttre ExplanatoryMaterialsto the Codeof Practiceon Wind Effects Hong Kong 2004 owesa greatdeal to Dr. K. M. Lam and Ir. K. L. Lo for their contribution of manuscripts,and to the Chairmanof the Ad-hoc Committee to review the Codeof Practiceon Wind Effects, Ir. K. M. Cheungfor his adviceand guidancein formulating the document. is Specialacknowledgment also due to many individuals,in particularDr. R. Denoon,Ir. K. S. Wong, Ir. J. MacArthur, Ir. C. C. Wong and Ir. Y. C. Tsui for their valuable "ExplanatoryMaterials". offered during the courseof compilationof this comments Thank is also due to the Hong Kong Observatoryfor providing the cloud imageryon the MeteorologicalSatellite cover pagewhich was originally capturedwith the Geostationary Agency. (GMS-5) of JapanMeteorological


The Basic Wind Velocity Profile Wind Characteristics Hong Kong in Reference Wind Speed Hourly Mean Wind Velocity profile Gust Wind Velocity Profile profiles The DesignVelocity and Pressure Terrain and Topographic Effect TerrainCategorization Topographic Effect TopographyFactor Dynamic Response Structures of Signpost Dynamic Sensitivity to Along-wind Response Cross-windandTorsionalResponses Force Coefficients and Pressure Coefficients ForceCoeffrcients Pressure Coeffrcients Wind Pressure nearGroundSurface Wind Tunnel Test General StaticStructures Dynamic Structures Topography Proximity Modelling and Model Scale Limitations DesignWind Pressure

o y P P P Q S T V V V W 10 10 12 14 16 16 17 17 P X P X P X Q R Q S Q T Q U

Section 2







Section 1 The Basic Wind Velocitv Profile

Wind Characteristics in Hong Kong Wind characteristics the groundare mainly described the hourly mean near by wind velocity profile, peak gust wind velocity profile, turbulenceintensity profile, and directionaldistributionof wind speed.Two dominantfactorsshape extreme the wind loading in Hong Kong. The first is the exposure severetyphoons. The secondis the protection to affordedby oneof the most sheltered naturalharbours the world. These in two characteristics tend to interact. 1.2 The wind characteristics Hong Kong environment for havebeendiscussed by 1.1

manyresearchers pastyearsincludingMackey(I3), in 6o(14), Chen(I8), Davenport et Choi(16), al(le), Melbou*"('o), Jeary(zs), Holmeset al.(3e) and However,dueto the difficulties involved in both the understanding typhoon structure over large hills or mountains and the of measurement wind characteristics of during typhoons, the wind characteristics near the groundin Hong Kong associated with building designare still not fully understood.

ReferenceWind Speed The Hong Kong Observatory was founded in 1883 and has been keeping almost completerecordsof wind speedfrom 1884 onwards.Theserecordshave enabled estimatesof extreme wind speedat the ground surfaceto be made. The Hong Kong Observatory maintains largenumberof measuring a stations. Amongthesestations, one at the WaglanIslandis considered be the principal sourceof informationduring the past years. to Therearetwo main reasons this. Firstly,the Waglan dataue obtained for from measurements on an isolatedisland exposed the predominant to winds. Secondly, datafrom other sources within the city areashave beensubject,over the years,to a changingenvironment to the or infl uence topographical of features. Before 1993,the height of the anemometer waglan Islandwas 75 metres. at As a result of the erectionof a new mast in 1993,the anemometer height at Waglanwas adjusted 82 metres. The steeprocky profile of the islandpresents blockage the wind, to a to and the subsequent speed-up over the island meansthat the measurements anemometer at heightare actuallyrepresentative the wind speeds a greater of at heightover the openwater approaching island. Melbournesuggested the measurements anemometer the that at heightare 1.4


representatives unobstructed of measurements 90 metres. In practice,this correctionmakes at only a small difference to the absoluteestimatesof wind speedsand an effective reference heightof 90 metresis adopted the Codefor derivation the designwind speeds. in of 1.5 The data from measllrements at Wagian lsiand were analysed ushg the

L i e b l c i n B L L I E sL i n e a r U n b i a s e d E s u mc h Bq u e s ( 2 2 ) t o e S t a b l i s h t h e p r o b a b i l i t y e t O Te at ni occurrence of certam mean and gust wind speeds.All avallable typhoon data meastlred at Wagian lsland since 1953 follll the basis I r analysis. 1.6 Basedon theseanalyses othersources publishedinformation,the Code and of

has adoptedreferencehourly-mean gust wind speedsof 46.9 and 65.2 mls and 3-second respectively a heightof 90 m abovemeansealevel. at When comparing the adopted hourly-meanwind speed of 46.9m/s and gust 3-second wind speed 65.2mlswith the measurements WaglanIslandfor somesevere of at typhoonsoccurredin Hong Kong in the past years(see Table l.l), it can be seenthat the adopted valueshavedemonstrate expected the levelof confidence designpurposes. for 1.7

Table 1.1

Measurementof Severe Typhoon Data at Waglan Island

Typhoon Wanda(1962) Rose(1971) Ellen(1983) York(1999) Reference Speed

Hourly-mean wind speed 41.4 Hys 39.Om/s 44.2 s R 42.5 Hys 46.9m/s

Gustwind speed 60,2m/s 52.4HR s 62.7HR s 65.O Hys 2 65BHys

Hourly Mean Wind Velocity Profile The profile of hourly-mean wind velocity againstheightmay be characterised nearthe groundsurfaceby a logarithmicrelationship and the velocity reaches value that is a 1.8 reasonably constantat the gradientheight at which the ground friction influencebecomes insignificant. In the Code,a power law profile is usedas an arithmeticalapproximation to coverthewholerangeof heights for usein calculating and wind loadson buildings.

The hourly-meanwind velocity v" at height z can be describedby the following powerlaw relationship: ^ R I A ] \ ] ] \ ] ] ] h ] j ^ v" : the hourly-mean wind speed the gradie at ntheig)ttz" cr : the power law exponent. The gradient height is the height at which the ground friction influence becomes insignificant. Recentfield research the NationalHurricaneCentreof the United by States confirmedthat the maximumhurricane has velocitiesoccurat a heightof around500m abovethe ocean(37'3e). Thesedatawere obtainedby droppingmany hundreds GPS dropof sondesinto hurricaneeyewallssince 1997 and formed the largestdata set yet gathered on tropical cyclone wind profiles. The field data supportsthe appropriateness the Code of adoptinga gradientheight of 500m over open seacondition and modelling a conventional boundary layerbelowthis level. The field datarefenedto in clause I .l0 showthatpower law exponents 0.I 0 of to 0.11for equation (l.l) areappropriate over deepopenwaterat the designwind speed range expectedin Hong Kong. Since Waglan Island,from where the basic reference data were collected analysis, an isolated for is islandexposed opensea,it is therefore to decided adopt to an open seacondition and used a power law exponentof 0.11 for the construction the of velocityprofile in the Code. In additionto the analysis waglan Islanddata,computersimulations of using Monte-Carlostatistical techniques havebecomea standard tool in the predictionof typhoon strengths and directionality. Conveniently, most of thesesimulationsassume that gradient balanceoccursat 500 m. Theseincludethe works conducted the Universityof Westem at Ontarioand by Dr PeterVickery at Applied Research Associates.The latter have beenthe subject a numberof peer-reviewed of publications recent in yeals(33X3+X35X301. using equation(1.1) with reference hourly mean wind speedof 46.9rn/s at 90m, gradient heightof 500mand o valueof 0.11,the gradient hourlymeanwind speed is calculated be 56.6mls. This value is slightly higher than the gradienthourly meanwind to speeds predicted usingcomputer simulation techniques, is considered but within theacceptable errorrange associated these with techniques. 1.13


( 1 ) E 1





Gust Wind Velocitv Profile The gust wind velocity profile is obtained by applying a gust factor to the hourly meanwind profile. The gustfactor in tum is a function of the turbulenceintensity. The relationshipbetweenthe gust and the hourly meanwind speedcan be expressed through the following relationship :-


v" =i,G =i,(l+ g"I,)



G : the gustfactor; o,, : the peak factor which reflectsthe measured relationshipbetweenthe peakand
6 '

the hourly mean wind speedsmeasuredusing a standardanemometer. The

H : intensityathei$tz; @ the turbulence c = the gust wind velocity atheight z; 1.15

valueis normallytakenbetween3.4and3.7;

: the hourlymeanwind velocityat height z.

Based on a review of the analysesby many researchers, the turbulence intensityat the reference heightof 90m is takento be 0.1055. The turbulence intensity defines the degreeof gustinessof the wind and is relatedto root meansquare(RMS) wind velocity. With the RMS wind velocity takento havea constantvalue at different heights,the turbulenceintensityalso varieswith height accordingto the power law, but with the powerexponent equalto -a. As a result,the turbulence intensity would vary with heightaccording the following expression: to


^ ^ PR P j R \ P \ P \ P \ \ P \ \ P m P m \ _ _


(l.l), (1.2) and (1.3),the gustvelocityat anyheight By combining equations

canbe calculated :as

R z= g ( b 1 ) 1 + gvr gtU ~ ) l


Vg : gradient mean wind speed:56.6mls z, : gradientheight: 500m 1, : turbulentintensityat gradient height: 0.087 g" : peakfactor:3.7 ,r : powerexponent:0.11 1.18 74.9m/sc The gust wind speedat gradientheight of 500m is thus calculatedto be

The De.sign Velocity and Pressure Profiles There is still considerable uncertaintyabout wind speedsand profiles in typhoons.The above simplified approach assumes the wind profile follows a "nomal" that power law until the gradientvalue of hourly meanwind speedor gust speedis achieved. tn determiningthe appropriatedesignwind speedsfor a Code of Practicein typhoon wind climateareas like Hong Kong, it is necessary obtainan adequate to level of reliability. Taking into consideration uncertainties the inherentin the predictionof typhoonwind speeds to and ensure appropriate an level of safetyin structural design, coderecommends the wind the that speed designto be increased 5Yoabove derived50 yearretumwind speed.The use for by the of a higher designwind speedalso accounts the fact that high localizedwind pressure for coefficients excess codevalues oftendetected in of are durinswind tunneltests. (1.1),the design Usingequation hourlymeanwind speed at heightz is thus u, expressed as:\ yR \ P v , = 1 . 0 5 v , P _ m 1.20 F.F9


where ve : hourly meanwind speed gradient at height: 56.6mls : gradient zr height: 500m a : powerexponent meanwind: 0.1I for e v a}1 0 n o f d c s i g n h o w l y m e a n w i n d s p e e d w i tc u ld g h t b y c lq u (R . 5 ) a n d c t z h ated on 1 the results arc tabulated in Table F3 ofthe Code.


gustwind speedv, at heightz is calculated combining by The design3 second

(1.3)and(1.5):(1.2), equations = y c1 + 3 . 7 / z ) =1.05b g( :) y \ V q R

wherebg=hOurly mean wind speed at gradient height=56.6nys rg=mrbulence intensity at ttadient height=0.087 Zg= dient height=500m j =power exponent for mean whd=0.H


gustwind speed reference wind speed 3-second and at The designhourly-mean

as heightrespectively summarised follows :are heightandgradient at heightof 90m : 49.2mls Designhourly-mean wind speed reference heightof 500m : 59.5m/s Designhourly-mean wind speed gradient at at heightof 90m Design3-secgustwind speed reference at heightof 500m Design3-secgustwind speed gradient 1.23 q" as The designwind pressure at heightz is calculated :7 , 4, =;Pvf p : density air: l.2kglm3 of with heightare given in Table wind pressure The variationof designgustand hourly-mean andTable2 in the Code. : 68.5m/s = 78.7mls

Section DynamicResponse Structures 3 of

Signpostto Dynamic Sensitivity 3.1 For the assessment resonant dynamic responseeffect of a strucfure, a of signpostis to be provided to first determinewhether the resonantdynamic response is

significantor not. In the casethat it is, then several new elements assessment required of are for the purpose estimation dynamicresponse of of effect. Theseincludethe determination of turbulenceintensity,dampingratio, natural frequencyand some other descriptors wind of energy parameters. In the casethat the structure is not with significant resonantdynamic response, a quasi-static then approach may be adopted. Severalcodesof practiceprovide signposts define whethera quasi-static to approachis suffrcientor a fully dynamic analysisis necessary determiningwind force for (Table3.1 refers) actingon a structure. Table 3.1 Authorised Code Various Signposts Dynamically SensitiveStructures for Definitions of dynamic sensitivestructure 3.2

A u s t r a l i a / N e w Z e a l a n d S t a n d a r d exceeds 5 times the least plan Height ASNZS l170B 21989 dimension,and the natural frequencyin the frst modeof vibrationis lessthan 1.0Hz. ASCE Stand ASCE 7-02 } d Height exceeding times the leasthorizontal 5 dimension a fundamental or naturalfrequency lessthan L0 FIz.
National Building Code of Canada 1995

Height is greaterthan 4 times the minimum effectivewidth or greater than 120m.


The first governing conditionrelates an aspect to ratio of the structure the and

leasthorizontal dimension intended account stepped tapered is to for or buildingprofiles. This conditionwould excludeshortsquatbuildingsfrom therequirement a dynamicanalysis. for



The second condition relates to the fundamental natural frequency of the structure,or indirectly to the height of the structure. In general,if the fundamentalnatural frequencyis lessthan I Hz,the building hasto be designed the effect of resonant for dynamic response. Jearyand Yip(ttl carriedout a studyon threedifferent signposts 1994. The in signposts were taken from the proposedISO Code for wind loading@avenport1989),the AustralianWind LoadingCode(AS 1170.2- 1989)andthe BRE digestseries 346 which was issuedfor a basisof the new Eurocodes.The ISO and BRE versionsboth have formulaeto evaluate signposts, the whilst the AustralianCodehasa simplerequirement. Sevenbuildings for which dynamicdatawere availablewere usedto studythe effect of the different signposts. Theseincludedthe JardineHouse (179m high), Bank of China(305mhigh), Hong Kong Bank (179mhigh), Peoples College, Nottingham(4.Smhigh) and threeharmonyblocks from Housing Departmentranging from 82m to I l8m high. These buildings were chosento represent set includes clearly dynamically sensitive(Jardine a Houses,Bank of China and Hong Kong Bank Building) to clearly quasi-static @eople's College) with thethreeharmony blockscloseto the threshold. The results from the three sets of signpostsare in broad agreement with the three categories buildingsin the set assumed of above. More detailsof the evaluationand outcome be found in the research can reportby JearyandYip (1994)(tt). 3.5




The 1989 Australian approachis chosenas the basis for formulating the signpostfor Hong Kong. The Australian Code requiredthe aspectratio to be lessthan 5 and the natural frequency greater than 1.0 Hz if the structure is not to be classified as with significant resonant dynamicresponse. Use of the standard Ellis formulafor evaluation the of : 46lheight of structurein metres,would fundamental natural frequencyi.e. nafural frequency imply that any building with a height greaterthan 46 metreswould be classifiedas being dynamically significant. Although many standardforms of constructionin Hong Kong are particularly stiff and study by Jeary and Yip suggested l00m restriction is reasonable a for Hong Kong typical buildings,it is notedthat slender buildingswith a heightof lessthan 100m may alsobe dynamicallysignificant. [n the Code,a building is therefore considered be one to with significantresonant dynamicalresponse it has either one of the following properties if unlessit can bejustified that the fundamental naturalfrequency the building is greater of than I llz(a) The heightexceeds timesthe leasthorizontaldimension. five

than 100m. The heightof the buildingis greater

Along-wind Response may be resolvedinto two dynamicforce on a tall structure The wind-induced components: along-wind dynamic force parallel and cross-winddynamic force normal to the to of directionof incident meanwind velocity. The response the structure the along-wind 3.9 of the and dynamicresponse, correspondingly response dynamicforceis calledthe along-wind response. as dynamicforce is regarded the cross-wind by the building caused the cross-wind when the along-wind may alsooccurespecially of response a tall structure Torsionald1'namic and/orcross-winddynamicforces and/orthe centreof massdo not coincidewith the elastic centreof the structure. Most modemwind loadingcodesin the world providethe gust factor method for estimatingthe along-wind dynamicresponse.The gust factor approachwas derived from method assessment as in the earlywork of Davenport the 1960's.It is recognised a satisfactory 3.10 by momentis determined wherethe designpeakbaseoverturning for the along-windresponse the of momentby the gustfactor. For ease application, multiplyingthe meanbaseovertuming Code recommendsthat the gust factor be defined as a dynamic magnification factor that represents amountby which the meanwind forces shall be multiplied to accountfor the the dynamicbehaviour. resonant The basic mechanismof along-wind responseof a slender structure is turbulencebuffeting. Wind flow is turbulent and the gustinessin the wind produces fluctuating forceson the structure. The fluctuating along-wind loadingacting on a structureis 3.11 primarily a function of turbulenceintensityand turbulencescale. The turbulenceintensity scale,in relationto of the determines local magnitude fluctuatingloadingwhile the turbulence how well the fluctuationsare correlatedover the structure. the sizeof the structure,determines response low frequency for as may be calculated a sum of quasi-static The dynamicresponse at response the first nafuralfrequency. The following gust factor component and resonance givenin AppendixF of the Codeis the simplifiedone. equation

+ S a



The turbulence intensity I , , at the roof top of the structure, be assessed can by ,

in as usingthe power law expression discussed Sectionl. The two functionsundemeath the 12


The parameter, is a spectrumof turbulencein the approaching E wind stream

and it is given by

where N is an effective reducedfrequencyand is equalto F r o


The damping ratio, (, reflects the damping capacrtyof the structure and is defined as a fraction of the critical damping. In general,the dampingratio includesboth structuraldamping and aerodynamic damping. The Code recommends1.5%o critical of damping for steel sfuctures and 2Yoof critical damping for concretestructures,which are generallyaccepted reasonable as figuresfor designpurposes designload levels. For very at squat or very slender structures,the value of structural damping may be lower or higher respectively. As structuraldampingis amplitudedependent, is commonto use lower values it (e.g. if assessing dynamicresponse accelerations) lower returnperiods. at With the assumed fundamentalnatural frequencyof 46h and critical damping values of l.5Yo and 2o/o suggested Clause3.17, the dynamicresponse as in multiplication factor, G, canbe determined from the height,h, and breath,b, of the structure. Variation of G valueswith height(h), and breathO) of a structure critical dampingof 1.5%;o for arc and2%o given in TablesFl and F2 in the Code for designers' easyreference and use. When more refined estimatesof the natural frequency and critical damping value appropriateto the structure available, are designers shouldusethe basicequation(3.1) to derivethe value of G for the structure. 3.18


Cross-windand Torsional Responses 3.19 Cross-windvibration of structures causedbv the combinedeffects from is

and buffeting,vortex shedding galloping. Due to the complexinteraction theseforces, of there is no preciseanalyical methodavailableto calculatecross-windresponse tall structures. of Saunders Melbourne(1975)and Kwok (1982) carriedout extensive and aero-elastic testsof tall buildingsof various sizesin wind tunnelsand proposeda spectralmethodto estimate cross-windresponse tall buildings. This methodis basedon the generalized of first mode 14

cross-windforce spectrummeasured from wind tunnel tests as well as the random vibration theory. This methodhasbeenadopted the AustralianWind LoadingCode (1989). In the in Australia/Trlew ZealandStandard(2002), values of the cross-windforce speckumcoefficient for both squareand rectangular sectionbuildings areprovided in the form of curveswhich are functions of turbulenceintensity and the StrouhalNumber, and they are obtainedfrom wind tunneltestsof isolatedbuildingsundertypical wind conditions. Similardatafor typical Hong Kong buildingsshapes the wind regimedescribed the Codearenot available this time. in in at However, it should be noted that the Aushalia/New Zealand Standardindicates that, for slender exposed buildings,the cross-wind loadscangreatlyexceed along-windloads. For the suchbuildings,it is recommended specialist that adviceshouldbe sought.


The torsionaldynamicresponse a tall buildingmay be especially of significant

when the along-windand/orcross-wind dynamicforcesor the centreof massdo not coincide with the elasticcentreof the building. This may occur,for example,as a resultof building shape,structural eccentricity and/or uneven load pafferns resulting from the surroundings. Furthermore, when the masscentreof the building doesnot coincidewith the elasticcenhe, coupledtranslational-torsional vibrationmay occur. The code-based procedure evaluating for the torsionalresponse the coupledtranslational-torsional and response tall buildingsis still of under development. Boundarylayer wind tunnel testsor specialistadvicemay have to be soughtto tackle theseproblemsfor buildingsof unusualshapes buildingswith complex and surroundinss.


The code doesnot provideany guidance assessment the cross-wind for of and

torsional responses tall structures, designers reminded Clause7.3 in the Codethat of but are by in the caseof a structure which the crosswind response for and/ortorsionalresponse may be significant, the dynamic effects should be investigated in accordance with the recommendations given in publishedliterature and/orthroughthe useof dynamicwind tunnel modelstudies.Thetotal response a strucfure of maynormallybetakenasa combination the of responses the threefundamental in modes vibration. of


Section4 Force Coefficientsand PressureCoefficients

Force Coefficients 4.1 The Code adopts the force coefficient method in the determinationof total force on a bullding due to wind eSttcts. The static wind force acting on a bullding is expressed as thc product ofthe design wind pressllrc and the force coettcient,which isin ttm aItion ofthe bullding shape and thc height aspect ratio.A simllar approach was adopted in the Code of Practicc on Wind Effects Hong Kong-1983.The tttal wind force on a building,F,is thus expressed as t] F=C/ ?zI z Where Cr


is the force coefficientfor the building,which is a productof the heightaspect faOtor,Co andtheshape factor C" given in Appendix D of the Code;

Q" A" 4.2

is the designwind pressure atheightz; is the effectiveprojected areaof the building In the absence ofaccurate data on irregular shapes, for the convenience and of

application, the Code adopts only a few fundamental shapesi.e. square,rectangularand circular, and recommends using coefficientsfor the respective enclosingrectangles all for othershapes. Nevertheless, is allowance madein Clause D1.1(b)of the Codefor designers to in useappropriate valuesspecified otherinternational codes. 4.3 Contiguous buildingsmay be regarded one singlebuilding in aerodynamic as

terms although they may be categorically structurally independentfrom each other. It is thereforerecommended ClauseDl.2(b) of the Code that contiguousbuildings may be in considered a whole building block when considering wind loadingeffect. The shape as the factorfor this type of contiguous factorandthe heightaspect building structure shallembrace the overall enclosed building. For dynamicallysensitivebuildings,care shouldbe taken to ensure that the differentialwind-induced loadsand motionsbetween contiguous buildingsare adequately cateredfor. 4.4 The reductionfactorsfor buildings with largefrontal areaand force coefficients for openframeworkbuildingsremainthe sameasthosegiven in the Codeof Practice Wind on - 1983. EffectsHongKong 16

Pressure Coefficients 4.5 The total force on a building elementis the sum of the forcesacting on the

extemalandintemalfacesof the element.Intemalandextemalpressure coefficients shouldbe chosen give the most critical positive and negative(suction)forceson the element. The to critical combinationsof these coefficients for normal rectangularbuildings have been in calculated the Code and they are given as the resultantpressure coefficientsin Table El. The value of intemal pressurecoefficient assumedin deriving the resultant pressure coefftcients towardsa building surface is act coefficients +0.2 or -0.3. The positivepressure (or downwardsin the caseof canopies)and negativepressurecoeffrcientsact away from a (or in of Therefore, is necessary combine it buildingsurface upwards the case canopies). to the negative extemalpressure coefficientwith the positiveinternalpressure coefficientto caterfor coefficient,or reverse abovefor calculating worst net the the worst net negativepressure the positivepressure coefficient. 4.6 pressure TableEl of the Codegivesgeneralised coefficients elements for such

as roofs, cladding and wall panels. Pressure coefficientsfor designof canopiesare also given in the Aushalia/l.,lewZealandStandard. The wind inhoducedbasedon the assessment loadingon the building element,Fo , is equalto the productof the pressure coefficientat the location,the projected areaof the buildingelement the basicdesign and wind pressure.
Fo : C oQ"A. : the pressurecoeffrcient for individual elements; (4.2)

Where Cp

g" A,

: the designwind pressure corresponding the heightz of the element; to : the surface areaof the element.

Wind Pressure near Ground Surface


wind tunnel data from building studies indicate that high pressures and suctions experienced the groundsurface tall buildings. Theseareresulted are near for from the

way the wind is channelled down the fagade a tall building and subsequently of accelerated to flow aroundbuilding corners. This effecthasan impacton the designof canopies, claddings and wall panel elements.In the Code, the design wind pressure, for design of roofs, q" canopies, wall and claddingpanelsis adjusted allow for the effect of largerpressures to and suctions occurred lower levelof a building. Clause of the Codespecifies minimum at 6.2 a 17

valuefor qz overthe lower part of the building. The designwind pressuta, shallbe taken Q", as constant over a heightwhich is equalto the breadthof the building or the actualheightof the buildingwhicheveris the lesser.


One importantcharacteristic wind is how the meanwind speedvarieswith of height at a particular groundterrain type. The roughness the groundretardsthe wind in the of 5.4 is ABL. The wind speed zeroat the groundlevel. It increases with heightabovegrounduntil gradient heighl above which the wind speedis assumedto remain roughly constantwith height. In tropical cycloneso is a simplificationas wind speedcan actuallydecrease this at great heights (>500-600 m), while other extreme wind events such as thunderstorms, havequite different structures. downbursts tornadoes and The variationof hourly-mean wind speedwith height,or the hourly meanwind profile, is specified the Code.It is described usingthepowerlaw as: speed in by ^ R P j \ ] \ P S ] e P \ _ m 5.5

A similar profile is requiredin the wind tunnel modelling. The data of hourly meanwind speedat different heightsin the wind tunnel, when plotted in this non-dimensional form, shouldfall closelyonto the target profile with a power exponentu. AWES-QAM-1-2001 recommends the simulationis acceptable the wind tunnelspeed that if datafall within l|Yo of thetargetprofile. 5.6 Another importantfeatureof wind is its turbulence gustiness.This plays an or important role in generating peakpressures a structure inducingvibrations a flexible on and on structure.On the first level,wind turbulence be measured the turbulence cari by intensity.It is the ratio of the standard deviationvalue of wind speedfluctuations the meanwind speed. to The turbulence intensitynormallydecreases with increasing height. The turbulence intensity profile is specified the Codeanda powerlaw is usedto describe profile: in the V R j \ \ \ X m


Like the hOurly mean wind specd proilc,the ttrbulcnce intcnsity proilc in thc

wind tunnelto that in the ABL is checked plotting the measured by valuesin the wind tunnel alongside targetprofiles with the height normalised the reference the by height. The same accuracy within 10%is recommended AWES-QAM-I-2001for thisprofile. by The allowablevariationsin meanwind speed turbulence and intensitycanresultin significant deviationfrom the intended peakgustpressures plus or minusabout30%). Thereis thusa (of 20

requirementin the Codeto calibratethe wind profiles to reproduce gust pressures given the as in the Code. The size of dominantgust eddiesin the turbulent wind are importantin producing peakloadson an areaof a building. This is measured the integral'scales turbulence by of and the turbulencespectra. The usual practice in wind tunnel modelling is to measure alongthe wind spectrum Suu(n)at an appropriate height and then match it to the universal wind turbulence spectrum. The universal spectrum is on a non-dimensionalfrequency axis of nLq,,/V and the value of the longitudinal scaleof along-wind turbulence,L,r*, is obtainedfrom the best match. Ideally, this value should match with the full-scale ABL value, that is (L".)p(L".). : I. In practice, is seldompossible obtaina perfectmatchand a mismatch it to of not more than 2 and3 is considered acceptable respectively modellingof overall wind for loadsandfor claddingpressures (AWES-QAM-I-2001). Wind speed,wind pressures and wind loads fluctuatewith time due to wind gustiness.It is commonlyaccepted that fluctuationswith a period shorterthan one second produce negligiblewind effectson a building structure.The variousmeasuring equipment and techniquesused in the wind tunnel are thus required to be able to measurequantities at fluctuationsfasterthan this one-second criterion. ln the wind tunnel,time and frequencyare in themodelscale determined the lengthscaleandthe velocityscale: as by
n I tn Lov_ )"



/ t . = - = - = - - = -





where subscriptr indicatestime, subscriptn indicatesfrequency, and subscriptv indicates velocitv.


For example,if a velocity scale1:5 is usedin a wind tunneltest and the length

scaleis l:250, the modeltime is 1/50the full-scaletime. Fluctuations fasterthan l/50 second needto be measured. order to obtain adequate ln resolutionto detectpeaksat this frequency, the response the instrumentation of needto be goodup to four times50 Hz,thatis 200H2. 5.11 During a wind tunneltest,a pitot-static tube is normallyplacedin the test section

to monitorthe wind speed to providethe reference and staticpressure the wind tunnel.The in pitot-static tube shouldbe locatedoutsidethe zone in which the wind field is modifiedby the presence the wind tunnelmodel. The pitot-static of tube is suitable only for measurements of mean wind speedin relatively low turbulenceconditions. For measurement gust wind of speeds turbulence and intensities, therearea numberof othersuitableinstruments suchas hotwire andhot-film anemometers miniaturepressure and probes. 21

The pressure a point on the surfaceof the test building structureis usually at measured meansof a pressure by tap. Pressure the tap locationis commutedthrougha at 5.12 length of flexible tubing to a pressuretransducerwhich convertsthe pressuresignal into an electricsignal. Wind pressures vary greatlyover the building surfaceand pressure can taps need to be placed at a sufficient density in order to accurately measure the pressure distribution. AWES-QAM-1-2001 recommends the average pressure densityshould that tap be higherthanonetap per 120square metres surface of areaon thetestbuilding. The frequency 5.13 response pressure of measurement normally limited by that of is the pressure tubing. The frequencyresponse and the associated distortionto the pressure signalare greaterfor longerand largerdiametertubing. Thereare standard methodsto correct problem including the use of restrictors,leakedtube systemsor for this tubing response mathematical hansformconections.


Wind forcesandmoments a buildingmodel are sometimes on measured directly

with force balances.Where dynamic loads are to be measured (either background and/or resonant components), model-balance the assembly must be stiff enoughto havea combined naturalfrequencylying aboveand away from the frequencyrangeof the wind loadsto be measured. Model valuesof wind pressures wind load obtainedin the wind tunnel can and be converted appropriatefull-scale values through the use of loading coefficients. For to example, wind forcesareconverted throughan equationsuchas: (v \"

5.5 r

The choiceof the prototypewind speeddepends the full-scaleeventto be simulated. To on estimate designwind loadsof a normalbuilding,the designwind speed the shouldbe used as ihe prototypewind speed.The determination wind forcesand wind momentsby this of conversion only valid for staticbuildingsthat do not exhibit resonant is dynamicresponse to wind actions. Wind effectsdepend the incidentwind directions. It is thus requiredto make on wind tunnelmeasurements a numberof wind directionsin orderto obtainthe most critical at wind loading cases. ln general,a minimum of 24 wind directionsat l5o intervalsis necessary, with smallerintervals aroundthe wind directions causing critical loads. Many wind tunnellaboratories routinely now testat 36 wind directions pressures loads. for and 22 5.16

Dvnamic Structures Many structures,such as tall buildings, towers, cable-suspended bridges and cable-suspended roofs are sensitiveto wind-inducedvibration that depends a large extenton to the characteristics the structures. The most relevantdynamicpropertiesof a structureare of mode shapes vibration, naturalfrequencies of (which dependon the massdistributionsand stiffness),modal masses, and damping. They define the mechanical admittancefunction, which describes how fluctuatingdeflectionsareproducedfrom fluctuatingforces. In modellingthe responses a dynamicstructure, dynamiccharacteristics of the of thc structtre havc to be modd in addon tt thc whd charactO ttd the aerodynam d l ics shape charactcdsticsc ln ttmcmal dynamics,wind\ induced auctuating responses are usually lysed with the spectrum method in which the response spectrum is obtained ttm ttc a product of the aerOdynarnic force specmm and the mechanical admittce functim of the s cture.Therefore,simllarity ofresponses requires both similarity of the aerodynarnic force spccmm and similar,ofthe mechanical admttmce nmction. 5B9 1 A satisfactory simulation ofthe whd characteristics for static structures discussed 5B8 1 5,17

above wiu resutt in the simllarity of the fOrce specttm.The equz of aerOdynamic shape ity factors in the protOtype and the modcl is provided by having thc same cxtemal shapes for the structure ttd the modcl.Thc similari ofthC mechanical admitance function can be achieved b y i n t r o t t c h g t h e d y n a m i c n hcrs c h e b u l l d h g d t h e r a l hty i n h e w t t d t u r l n c l c i a oft a p t s t model or analytically during the analysis Ofwind ttrIIlel data. 5B 20 Aero-elastic testsphysicallysimulatethe dynamiccharacteristics the prototype of

building. Full similarity can only be met by a full aero-elastic model that reproduces the in appropriatescalethe massdistribution, stiffrressdistribution and structuraldamping at every part of the prototypebuilding. For a tall building,a rigid modelon an elasticbasecan be an alternative a full aero-elastic to model. Most energyof the wind-induced vibrationsof a tall building(with the exception thosewheretorsionalresponse significant)is conhibuted of is by the orthogonal fundamentaltranslational modeswhosemodaldeflection follows very closelya linearshape.It is thuspossible estimate dynamicbehaviour to the with a "stick model" where properties the buildingarelumpedtogether the base.A stickmodelis a rigid the dynamic of at modelof the buildingmounted elastically a pivot at the basesothat it canvibratein a linear on mode shape. If significanttorsionalresponse likely, then it is necessary use a three is to degree-of-freedom aero-elastic rig. test


The high-frequencyforce-balance base balance)techniqueis the most (or commonlyusedmethodof determiningwind-inducedloadsand responses tall buildings. of The technique basedon the measurement basemoments, is of hencegeneralized forces,on a rigid modelof the building andthe computation wind-inducedresponse of usingthe random vibration theory. Mean and fluctuatingwind momentson the whole building are obtained from direct measurements a lightweight rigid model of the building in the wind tunnel on with a sensitiveforce balance. The basemomentsapproximate generalized the wind forces on the building of the fundamental vibration mode. This providesthe aerodynamic force spectrum. The dynamicpropertiesof the building are obtainedfrom a dynamicanalysisof the building structure. Together with an assumedvalue of damping, the mechanical admittance function of the building is obtained. Following the randomvibration theory, generalised the measured wind forcesand the mechanical admittance function are combined to obtainthe basemomentof the prototypebuilding. Thesebasemomentsaretypically then distributedto providefloor-by-floor loadsfor structuraldesign.



The 'high-frequency pressure integration' is the third methodsometimes used

to obtain structuralloads. Like the high-frequency force balance technique, this employsa rigid model and requires the mathematicalincorporationof the mechanicaladmittance function. This techniqueis most commonlyemployedwhen testinglong-span roofs but has recently been used on simple-shaped buildings. ln Hong Kong there are practical tall limitationsto this techniqueon many buildingswhere the surfaceareais high in relation to the internalvolume (e.g.typical housingblocks)as it is not possibleto fit sufficientpressure tubesinto the model.


with all the abovetechniques, appropriate load casescombiningresponses in

differentmodesand from differentexcitationmechanisms shouldbe provided.

Topographyand Proximity Modelling The simulationmethods described abovefor staticstructures produce correct the general wind characteristics a uniform terrain. If the site is nearto or locatedon a local over topographic feature, wind characteristics, particularthe meanwind speed the in profile, maybe significantlymodified by that feature. The sameappliesif the test building is sunounded by sizeable neighbouring buildings. In these situations,it is necessary include a detailedrepresentation the to of suffounding topographic features and/orneighbouring buildingsin a region of somedistance aroundthe site. This "proximity model" includes reproduction the neighbouring a of buildings 24



in the correctscaleand may also include small local topographicfeatures. If too small an area is represented, simulationmay not be able to includeall the possibleeffectson the wind the characteristics from the structuresin the proximity. If too large an areais included,the linear scaleof the modelhasto be reduced, giventhe dimensions the wind tunnel. AWES-QAMof "in general, major buildingsand l-2001 recommends that all topographical features within a radiusof 500 mefes of the building site shouldbe modelledto the correctscale,to an accuracy of l0%o beffer". or ln situations where wind characteristicsat the site are affected by large-scale topographic features,it may be necessary model and study the effects of these features to separately.The topographymodel is built at a much smallerscaleto cover a largeareaso that the large-scale topographicfeaturescan be included. The wind profiles at the location of the site are measured the topographymodel. Afterwards,thesewind profiles are reproduced in in the test section of the wind tunnel at the normal geometriclength scale and a model of the building,with the proximity modelof neighbouring buildingsif required, testedunderthese is wind conditions.It is normalto removebuildingsthatwill be includedin the proximity model from the topographymodel.


Model Scale Limitations


Wind flow pattemsdependon the Reynoldsnumber(Re) but it is impractical to

achievethe sameReynoldsnumberin the wind tunnel simulationas the full-scaleprototype wind flow. Fortunately, effect of the Reynoldsnumberon the flow is significantonly at the low Reynoldsnumbers. When the flow is full turbulent, at sufficiently high Reynolds numbersothe flow patterns become almost independentof the Reynolds number. The Reynoldsnumber effect becomesinsignificant and a mismatchof Reynoldsnumberbetween the model and the prototypeis acceptable.For building shapes with sharpcomers,AWESthe on QAM-1-2001recommends minimum value of Re : 5 x lOabased the smallerbuilding width and the meanwind speed roof height,while the ASCE Manual of Practice Wind at on : I x l0a. For building shapes Tunnel Testingrecommends minimum value of Re a of smoothprofiles or with roundedcomerq separation wind flow on the building surfaces of dependson Reynolds' number and turbulenceto a much higher degreethan on sharpedged is surfaces wherethe separation fixed by the sharpedge. ln suchcases, Re mismatchin the the wind tunnel must be addressed and dealt with. One simple and efficient way is to add roughness the surfaces the building model to trigger turbulentflow separation.Care to of shouldbe takento ensure an appropriate that degree ofroughness usedasthis canalsocause is inappropriate separationbehaviour. [n some cases,special larger scale studieswill be necessary calibrate to this. 25

lengthscaleand velocity the To satisfuthe minimum Re requirement, geometric lnot ratio used in thc wind tunnel silnulation cay bc too small. A general criterlon for the c mttg ttdd, VCbCV ratiOthat i shodd bc grcaterq 1:10.Forthc Lngth sczofttc b a scale larger than l:500 is desirable.On thc accllracy ofthe bullding model,AWESR QAM-12001 recoIImends that thc overall dilnenslons ofthe test bullding modei should bc accuratc to A vithin 20/O alld architecttlral detalls should bc hcluded when their smallest dilnenslon is l metre or greater. 5.27 0n the other hand,theA vind ttlIInel lnodels should not be too large othenvisc the flow

will be distorted by blockagc.Wind tullncl blockage is measured by the blockage ratio which

s ti d p i s t h e r a t i o o f f r o n t a l a r c a o f t h e b u l l d i n g m o d c l s eKca no n a lr O x i m i t blockage,the test rcsu may b9juStCd by appropriate blockage corrcctbns,howcver these s arc not simple to calculate in turbulent boundary layer conditions. The requirement for a maximum blockage ratio can be relaxed Fblockage toLranttett section employed.

area ofthe wind turlllcl tcst sccjon.The blockage ratio should bc

DesignWind Pressure [n Clause5.5 above,it is mentionedthat a l0o/ouncertaintyis allowed on the mean wind speedprofile and on the turbulenceintensity profile. In the conversionof measured model values of wind pressures and wind loads to full-scalevalues,the ratio of prototypevelocity to model velocity is important. It is thus desirable specifi a reference to heightat which the velocity value,or the dynamicpressure value,is taken for the model-toprototypeconversion. In the Code, the velocity values are obtainedfrom extremewind analysis Hong Kong and most of the wind datawereobtained a heightof 90 m. Hence, in at height for the pu{poseof this sectionis specifiedto be 90 m, or 213 of the the reference buildingheight,whicheveris greater. The inclusionof the latterheightis to accountfor very tall buildingswherethe wind pressures upper levelsplay a major part in the overall wind at loads. The useof the gustwind speed, gustwind pressure, the calibrationis in line with or in the Codewhich tabulates gustwind pressures differentheights.This shouldbe regarded the at guideline, asa general although therearespecial cases wherethe useof othermatchingheights may be moreappropriate, especially wheretopography significant. is 5.28



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