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1435 阅读 landho
楼主 发表于: 2010-11-22 只看楼主 更多操作
ESDEP European Steel Design Education Programme 以欧规钢结构设计为基础的课程。共分十六卷。 本贴展示第十五卷
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ESDEP (The European Steel Design Education Programme) was published in 1993 and referred to the pre-Standard version of the Eurocodes (the ENV versi*****). The technical content therefore does not necessarily conform to versi***** of the Eurocodes that are being published (as EN versi*****) from 2002 to 2007. The advice given in ESDEP may be used as general guidance but reference should always be made to the published EN Standards and National Annexes for the actual rules and recommendati*****.
This English language version of ESDEP may be freely used by Universities and Colleges as a source of reference for education and training in steel c*****truction, provided this is not for financial gain. In this context it may be freely copied. Other potential uses of the English version of ESDEP should be referred in writing to the SCI for guidance.
There are links from the 18 Working Groups of the ESDEP course contents to 201 lectures which cover 22 broad subject areas. These are identified by group and lecture number, and each lecture corresponds approximately to a presentation of 50 minutes duration. The lectures include a summary page which lists the objectives and scope. Any pre-requisites are also itemised and a brief summary description of the content is given. References, bibliography and line diagrams are included after the main text.
The content of the lectures ranges from applied metallurgy to structural systems, and includes mainstream subjects, such as buckling and composite behaviour, as well as specialised secti*****, for instance those dealing with corrosion protection and seismic design. The material covers not only buildings and bridges but also structures such as offshore platforms, tanks, chimneys and masts. The depth of study ranges from basic introduction to very advanced. Material may be useful to both teachers, as a source for lecture presentati*****, and to students, working individually or in groups. WG 1A : STEEL C*****TRUCTION: ECONOMIC & COMMERCIAL FACTORS WG 1B : STEEL C*****TRUCTION: INTRODUCTION TO DESIGN WG 2 : APPLIED METALLURGY WG 3 : FABRICATION AND ERECTION WG 4A : PROTECTION: CORROSION WG 4B : PROTECTION: FIRE WG 5 : COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN AND MANUFACTURE WG 6 : APPLIED STABILITY WG 7 : ELEMENTS WG 8 : PLATES AND SHELLS WG 9 : THIN-WALLED C*****TRUCTION WG 10 : COMPOSITE C*****TRUCTION WG 11 : CONNECTION DESIGN: STATIC LOADING
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WG 12 : FATIGUE WG 13 : TUBULAR STRUCTURES WG 14 : STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS: BUILDINGS WG 15A : STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS: OFFSHORE WG 15B : STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS: BRIDGES WG 15C : STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS: MISCELLANEOUS WG 16 : STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS: REFURBISHMENT WG 17 : SEISMIC DESIGN WG 18 : STAINLESS STEEL
懒猴航海-海洋石油支持船osv论坛 回复 引用 举报 顶端
沙发 发表于: 2010-11-22
WG 15A : STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS: OFFSHORE
Lecture 15A.1 : Offshore Structures: General Introduction
Lecture 15A.2 : Loads (I) : Introduction and Environmental Loads Lecture 15A.3 : Loads (II) - Other Loads Lecture 15A.4 : - Analysis I
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Lecture 15A.5 : - Analysis II Lecture 15A.6 : Foundati***** Lecture 15A.7 : Tubular Joints in Offshore Structures Lecture 15A.8 : Fabrication Lecture 15A.9 : Installation Lecture 15A.10 : Superstructures I Lecture 15A.11 : - Superstructures II Lecture 15A.12 : Connecti***** in Offshore Deck Structures
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板凳 发表于: 2010-11-22
Previous | Next | Contents ESDEP WG 15A STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS: OFFSHORE
Lecture 15A.1: Offshore Structures:
To identify the basic vocabulary, to introduce the major concepts for offshore platform structures, and to explain where the basic structural requirements for design are generated.
The lecture starts with a presentation of the importance of offshore hydro-carbon exploitation, the basic steps in the
development process (from seismic exploration to platform removal) and the introduction of the major structural concepts (jacket-based, GBS-based, TLP, floating). The major codes are identified. For the fixed platform concepts (jacket and GBS), the different execution phases are briefly explained: design, fabrication and installation. Special attention is given to some principles of topside design.
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A basic introduction to cost aspects is presented. Finally terms are introduced through a glossary.
Offshore platforms are c*****tructed to produce the hydrocarb***** oil and gas. The contribution of offshore oil production in the year 1988 to the world energy c*****umption was 9% and is estimated to be 24% in 2000. The investment (CAPEX) required at present to produce one barrel of oil per day ($/B/D) and the production costs (OPEX) per barrel are depicted in the table below.
Condition [/td] [/td] [/td] Conventional [/td] Average [/td] [/td] [/td] [/td] [/td] [/td] [/td] [/td] [/td] Offshore [/td] North Sea [/td] [/td] [/td] [/td] 35000 [/td] [/td] World oil production in 1988 was 63 million barrel/day. These figures clearly indicate the challenge for the offshore designer: a growing contribution is required from offshore exploitation, a very capital intensive activity. Figure 1 shows the distribution of the oil and gas fields in the North Sea, a major contribution to the world offshore hydrocarb*****. It also indicates the *****hore fields in England, the Netherlands and Germany. [td=1,1,76] 10 - 15 [td=1,1,131] [td=1,1,76] Deepwater [td=1,1,131] 15000 10000 - 25000 5 - 10 Non-Opec [td=1,1,131] [td=1,1,76] 3000 - 12000 8 [td=1,1,131] [td=1,1,76] Middle East [td=1,1,131] [td=1,1,76] 500 - 3000 1 4000 - 8000 5 [td=1,1,131] [td=1,1,76] CAPEX $/B/D OPEX $/B
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(see Slides 1 and 2).
Introduction of Basic Types
The overwhelming majority of platforms are piled-jacket with deck structures, all built in steel
Slide 1 : Jacket based platform - Southern sector North Sea
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Slide 2 : Jacket based platform - Northern sector North Sea A second major type is the gravity concrete structure (see Figure 2), which is employed in the North Sea in the Norwegian and British sectors.
A third type is the floating production unit.
The offshore environment can be characterized by: water depth at location soil, at seabottom and in-depth wind speed, air temperature waves, tide and storm surge, current ice (fixed, floes, icebergs) earthquakes (if necessary) The topside structure also must be kept clear of the wave crest. The clearance (airgap) usually is taken at approximately 1,50 m, but should be increased if reservoir depletion will create significant subsidence.
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3 C*****truction The environment as well as financial aspects require that a high degree of prefabrication must be performed *****hore.php?tid=126910 2. 6. The overall cost of a man-hour offshore is approximately five times that of an *****hore man-hour. e. 3.Powered by phpwind http://bbs. Slide 3 shows a jack-up drilling unit with a cantilever rig.3 months/well providing the off loading system (pipelines. Factors involved in the evaluation may include number of wells required.1 OFFSHORE DEVELOPMENT OF AN OIL/GAS Introduction The different requirements of an offshore platform and the typical phases of an offshore development are summarized in . prior to production: engineering and design fabrication and installation of the production facility drilling of production wells. The worldwide leading structural code is the API-RP2A . 2. fixed or floated production facilities. and pipeline or tanker off-loading. there are four main technical activities. The warranty surveyors apply standards. Norwegian Petroleum Direktorate (NPD). Specific government requirements have to be complied with. require that a designer must carefully c*****ider all c*****truction activities between shop fabrication and offshore installation. for deeper water floating rigs are used. The drilling and c*****truction interaction is described below for two typical fixed platform concepts. The cost of c*****truction equipment required to handle loads. 7.g. taking 2 . Jack-up drilling rigs are used for this purpose for water depths up to 100 . number of such facilities.52ship.4 Codes Structural design has to comply with specific offshore structural codes. 8].) 6 of 54 02-11-2011 PM 11:29 .2 Jacket Based Platform for Shallow Water First the jacket is installed. These factors combined with the size and weight of the items. (In this instance it is engaged in exploratory drilling and is therefore working in isolation.120 m. The major certification bodies are: Det norske Veritas (DnV) Lloyds Register of Shipping (LRS) American Bureau of Shipping (ABS) Bureau Veritas (BV) Germanischer Lloyd (GL) Their requirements are available to the designer [2.com/read. As soon as exploitation is decided and approved.船友技术论坛_海洋石油支持船 . The wells are then drilled by a jack-up drilling unit standing close by with a cantilever rig extending over the jacket. Insurance companies covering transport and installation require the structures to be reviewed by warranty surveyors before acceptance. if available. After several initial phases which include seismic field surveying. 3. In the UK the Piper alpha diaster has led to a completely new approach to regulation offshore. tankers. For the detail design of the topside structure the AISC-code  is frequently used. FIELD 3.5 Certification and Warranty Survey Government authorities require that recognized bodies appraise the aspects of structural integrity and issue a certificate to that purpose. one or more exploration wells are drilled. The resp*****ibility for regulatory control has been moved to the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) and the operator has to produce a formal safety assessment (TSA) himself instead of complying with detailed regulati*****.). and the AWS-code  is used for welding. It is necessary to design to limit offshore work to a minimum. and the cost for logistics are also a magnitude higher offshore. on a confidential basis. The recently issued Lloyds rules  and the DnV rules  are also important. in the rules of Department of Energy (DoE). 2. The results are studied and the economics and risks of different development plans are evaluated. 3. etc.
The installation methods for the jacket and the piles have a profound impact on the design. Skirt piles through pile sleeves at the jacket-base.80 m.3 Jacket and Gravity Based Platform for Deep Water The wells are drilled from a drilling rig on the permanent platform (see Slide 2). 4.船友技术论坛_海洋石油支持船 .2 Pile Foundation The jacket foundation is provided by open-ended tubular steel piles. Drilling starts after the platform is built and completely installed.Powered by phpwind http://bbs. As an alternative to this concept the wells are often accommodated in a separate wellhead platform. 4. where the pile is installed in guides attached to the jacket leg. 4. C*****equently production starts between one and two years after platform installation. the tower-like braced tubular structures. generally perform two functi*****: They provide the substructure for the production facility (topside).com/read. For further wells.52ship. with diameters up to 2m. and in some cases 120 m deep into the seabed. thus providing a stiffer structure. where the pile is installed in the corner legs of the jacket. 7 of 54 02-11-2011 PM 11:29 . The piles are driven approximately 40 . They support laterally and protect the 26-30 inch well conductors and the pipeline riser. 3. the jack-up drilling unit will be called once again and will reach over the well area of the production deck. keeping it stable above the waves. In recent years pre-drilled wells have been used to allow an earlier start of the production.php?tid=126910 Slide 3 : Cantilevered drilling rig: Self-elevating (jack-up) exploration drillingplatform. allowing production to start soon after deck installation. Vertical skirt piles are directly installed in the pile sleeve at the jacket base. linked by a bridge to the production platform (see Slide 1).1 JACKETS AND PILE FOUNDATION Introduction Jackets. Design and c*****truction of the topside are progressed parallel to the drilling. Skirt piles can be grouped in clusters around each of the jacket legs. There are basically three types of pile/jacket arrangement (see Figure 3): Pile-through-leg concept. all other guides are deleted. In contrast inclined piles enlarge the foundation at the bottom. In this case the platform has to be installed exactly above the pre-drilled wells. This arrangement results in reduced structural weight and easier pile driving.
Number.2.T. 5. They result from the lifting capacity of crane vessels and the load-out capacity at the yards: the single integrated deck (up to approx 100 MN) the split deck in two four-leg units the integrated deck with living quarter module the modularized topside c*****isting of module support frame (MSF) carrying a series of modules. diameter and penetration of the piles depend on the environmental loads and the soil conditi***** at the location. water. 8 of 54 02-11-2011 PM 11:29 . the integrated and modularized topside which are positioned either on a jacket or on a concrete gravity substructure. A sacrificial anode (approximate 3 kN each) c*****ists of a zinc/aluminium bar cast about a steel tube and welded on to the structures.2 5. 5. 4. There are basically two structural types of topside. Slide 4 : Integrated topside during load out 5.2. up to approximately 100 MN weight. the support structure c*****ists of trusses or portal frames with deletion of diagonals.Powered by phpwind http://bbs.船友技术论坛_海洋石油支持船 .com/read. e.52ship.4 Corrosion Protection The most usual form of corrosion protection of the bare underwater part of the jacket as well as the upper part of the piles in soil is by cathodic protection using sacrificial anodes.g. The steelwork in the splash zone is usually protected by a sacrificial wall thickness of 12 mm to the members. 5. parafines/waxes and sand support for pumps/compressors required to transport the product ashore power generation accommodation for operating and maintenance staff.A. (Low Astronomic Tide). The moderate vertical load and shear per column allows the topside to be supported by vertical columns (deck legs) only.2 Structural Design for Integrated Topsides For the smaller decks.php?tid=126910 4.1 Jacket-based Topsides Concepts There are four structural concepts in practice. The pile accumulates both skin friction as well as end bearing resistance. Lateral load resistance of the pile is required for restraint of the horizontal forces. oil and non-transportable components in the raw product. Typically approximately 5% of the jacket weight is applied as anodes. arrangement. down to the top of the piles (situated at approximately +4 m to +6 m L. These forces lead to significant bending of the pile near to the seabed. Slide 4 shows an integrated deck (though excluding the living quarters and helideck) being moved from its assembly building.1 TOPSIDES Introduction The major functi***** on the deck of an offshore platform are: well control support for well work-over equipment separation of gas.3 Pile Bearing Resistance Axial load resistance is required for bearing as well as for tension.
php?tid=126910 懒猴航海-海洋石油支持船osv论坛 回复 引用 举报 顶端 landho 地板 发表于: 2010-11-22 只看该作者 5. with lateral bracing down to the top of jacket. Structural Design for Modularized Gravity-based Topsides The topsides to be supported by a gravity-based substructure (see Figure 2) are in a weight The backbone of the structure is a system of heavy box-girders with a height of approximately 10 m and a width of approximately 12 .3 Structural Design for Modularized Jacket-based Topsides A major modularized topside weighs 200 to 400 MN.3 range of 200 MN up to 500 MN.船友技术论坛_海洋石油支持船 .Powered by phpwind http://bbs.com/read.2.15 m (see Figure 5). 9 of 54 02-11-2011 PM 11:29 . In this case the MSF is a heavy tubular structure (Figure 4). 级别: 论坛版主 显示用户信息 关注Ta 发消息 鲜花 鸡蛋 5.52ship.
stiffened plate walls (so called stressed skin or deck house type). C*****truction of Jackets and Topsides Lift Installed Jackets The jacket is built in the vertical (smaller jackets) or horizontal position (bigger jackets) on a The jacket is loaded-out and seafastened aboard a barge. 7.1 quay of a fabrication site. In living quarter modules (5-25 MN) all sleeping rooms require windows and several doors must be provided in the outer walls. heavy base frame (with wind bracings in the walls). is to provide a flexible connection between the deck and concrete column. C*****truction is illustrated below by four examples.52ship. commissioning. Three types of structural concepts. 6. EQUIPMENT AND LIVING QUARTER MODULES Equipment modules (20-75 MN) have the form of rectangular boxes with one or two The floors are steel plate (6. This connection introduces wave-induced fatigue in the deck structure. This requirement can interfere seriously with truss arrangements. 7. hook-up. thus eliminating fatigue in the deck . can be distinguished: conventional trusses in the walls. offshore installation. foreseen for the Norwegian Troll platform. intermediate floors.船友技术论坛_海洋石油支持船 .php?tid=126910 The substructure of the deck is rigidly connected to the concrete column and acts as a beam supporting the deck modules.com/read.Powered by phpwind http://bbs. all avoiding interior columns. A recent development. 7.2 7. sea transport. module installation. weight. C*****TRUCTION Introduction The design of offshore structures has to c*****ider various requirements of c*****truction relating A documented c*****truction strategy should be available during all phases of the design and the actual design development should be monitored against the c*****truction strategy. At the offshore location the barge is 10 of 54 02-11-2011 PM 11:29 . and grating for intermediate floors.2.1 to: fabrication. 8 or 10 mm thick) for roof and lower floor. Floors are flat or stiffened plate. load-out.
and carefully set down onto the seabed. driven into the seabed.com/read. upended from the horizontal. For load-out to the transport barge.52ship. The jacket is lifted off the barge.2 Launch Installed Jackets The jacket is built in horizontal position. 11 of 54 02-11-2011 PM 11:29 . It immerses deeply into the water and assumes a floating position afterwards (see Figure 6). the piles are installed into the sleeves and. Fixing the piles to the jacket completes the installation.2.Powered by phpwind http://bbs. the jacket is put on skids sliding on a straight track of steel beams. 7. Slide 5 : Jacket being loaded onto barge by skidding At the offshore location the jacket is slid off the barge. and pulled onto the barge (Slide 5).php?tid=126910 moored alongside an offshore crane vessel.船友技术论坛_海洋石油支持船 . After setting down the jacket.
php?tid=126910 Two parallel heavy vertical trusses in the jacket structure are required.3 Topsides for a Gravity-Based Structure (GBS) The topside is assembled above the sea on a temporary support near a yard. a Norwegian fjord. 12 of 54 02-11-2011 PM 11:29 .船友技术论坛_海洋石油支持船 .52ship.g. rocker arms are attached to the stern of the barge. The next phase is to upright the jacket by means of controlled flooding of the buoyancy tanks and then set down onto the seabed.2. 7. Self-upending jackets obtain a vertical position after the launch on their own. Slide 6 shows a 60 MN topside being installed by floating cranes. The GBS is brought in a deep floating condition in a sheltered site. Piling and pile/jacket fixing completes the installation.Powered by phpwind http://bbs.4 Jacket Topsides For topsides up to approximately 120 MN. The barge is positioned between the columns and the GBS is then deballasted to mate with and to take over the deck from the barge. e. The floating GBS with deck is then towed to the offshore site and set down onto the seabed. 7. capable of taking the support reacti***** during launching. To reduce forces and moments in the jacket. the topside may be installed in one lift. It is then taken by a barge of such dimensi***** as to fit between the columns of the temporary support and between the columns of the GBS.2.com/read.
php?tid=126910 Slide 6 : Installation of 60MN K12-BP topside by floating crane For the modularized topside. i.3 Offshore Lifting Lifting of heavy loads from barges (Slide 6) is one of the very important and spectacular c*****truction activities requiring a focus on the problem when concepts are developed. Due to the space required. The heaviest sling available now has a diameter of approximately 350 mm. steel wire ropes in a four-sling arrangement are used which directly rest in the four-point hook of the crane vessel. are required for these operati*****.Powered by phpwind http://bbs. Figure 7 provides information on a typical big. periods of suitable weather conditi*****.52ship. connecting more than one shackle to the same column is not very attractive. So when the sling load exceeds 10 MN.2 Sling-arrangement.3. 7. (see Figure 8). a breaking load of approximately 48 MN. 显示用户信息 关注Ta 发消息 13 of 54 02-11-2011 PM 11:29 .船友技术论坛_海洋石油支持船 . Shackles are available up to 10 MN SWL to connect the 级别: 论坛版主 padeyes installed at the module's columns. immediately followed by the modules. dual crane vessel. Table 1 (page 16) lists some of the major offshore crane vessels.com/read. 懒猴航海-海洋石油支持船osv论坛 回复 引用 举报 顶端 landho 4楼 发表于: 2010-11-22 只看该作者 7. and a safe working load (SWL) of 16 MN. 7.3. Slings and Shackles For lifting. Weather windows.1 Crane Vessel Lifting of heavy loads offshore requires use of specialized crane vessels.e. padears become an option. first the MSF will be installed.
php?tid=126910 鲜花 鸡蛋 Table 1 Major Offshore Crane Vessels [/td] [/td] [/td] [/td] [/td] [/td] Operator [td]Name [/td] Heerema [td=1.18%] [td=126.96.36.199%] [td=1.1.Powered by phpwind http://bbs.com/read.52ship.14%] [td=1.1.42%] [td]Mode [/td] Thor Monohull Fix 2720 [td]Type [/td] 14 of 54 02-11-2011 PM 11:29 .船友技术论坛_海洋石油支持船 .
船友技术论坛_海洋石油支持船 . if possible. The module requires fixing to the barge (see Figure 9) to withstand barge moti***** in rough seas.18%] [td=1.14%] [td=1.1. The sea fastening concept is determined by the positi***** of the framing in the module as well as of the "hard points" in the barge.14%] [td=1.1.42%] 7.1.42%] [td=1. = Load [td=1.1.php?tid=126910 McDermott [/td] [/td] [/td] [/td] [/td] [td=1.18%] [td=1.c.10%] [td=1.10%] [td=1. 15 of 54 02-11-2011 PM 11:29 .10%] [td=1.com/read. on the deck of the crane vessel.2. Rev = Load capability with fully revolving crane.14%] [td=1.18%] [td=1.4 Transport and Sea Fastening Sea Transportation is performed aboard a flat-top barge or.1. When the crane vessels are provided with two cranes.2.1.Powered by phpwind http://bbs.1.42%] Micoperi [/td] [/td] [/td] [/td] 14000 [/td] ETPM [/td] [/td] [/td] [/td] [/td] Notes: Rated lifting capacity in metric tonnes.t.1. these cranes are situated at the vessels stern or bow at approximately 60 m distance c. 3.52ship.1.1. Fix capability with crane fixed.
acting as track.5. 7.3 Trailers Platform Specialized trailer units (see Figure 10) can be combined to act as one unit for loads up to 60 . The system c*****ists of a series of steel beams.52ship. 7. on which a group of skids with each approximately 6 MN load capacity is arranged.Powered by phpwind http://bbs. 16 of 54 02-11-2011 PM 11:29 .5.5.船友技术论坛_海洋石油支持船 .1 Introduction Load-ou For load-out three basic methods are applied: skidding platform trailers shearlegs.2 Skidding Skidding is a method feasible for items of any weight.php?tid=126910 7.5 t 7. Each skid is provided with a hydraulic jack to control the reaction. The wheels are individually suspended and integrated jacks allow adjustment up to 300 mm.75 MN.com/read.
船友技术论坛_海洋石油支持船 . Many elements can exhibit local dynamic behaviour.5. conductors. The mode of removal depends strongly on the regulati***** of the local authorities. slender jacket members. thus allowing deck and deckleg to be installed in one lift offshore.php?tid=126910 The load capacity over the projected ground area varies from approximately 55 to 85 kN/sq.com/read.52ship.m. CTURAL ANALYSIS 8.2 Phase In-place Three types of 17 of 54 02-11-2011 PM 11:29 . Smaller decks (up to 10 .Powered by phpwind http://bbs. 7. compressor foundati*****. flare-stacks. 8. e. Provision for removal should be c*****idered in the design phase.6 m Removal Platfor In recent years platform removal has become common. The units can drive in all directi***** and negotiate curves. crane-pedestals. 8. 7. Dynamic analysis is performed for the system behaviour under wave-attack if the natural period exceeds 3 seconds.4 s Shearleg Load-out by shearlegs is attractive for small jackets built on the quay.12 MN) can be loaded out on the decklegs pre-positioned on the barge.1 tion STRU Introduc The majority of structural analyses are based on the linear theory of elasticity for total system behaviour.g.
maintenance and repair (IMR). under full operation.船友技术论坛_海洋石油支持船 . the designer and c*****tructor of offshore platforms.2 Expenditure (CAPEX) Capital The major elements in the CAPEX for an offshore platform are: project management and design material and equipment procurement fabrication transport and installation hook-up and commissioning. basic provisi***** for scaffolding. "Bullwinkle" developed by Shell Oil for a Gulf of Mexico location.1 tion COST Introduc The economic feasibility of an offshore project depends on many aspects: capital expenditure (CAPEX).com/read. avoiding jacket attachments dangerous to divers. All these analyses are performed on the complete and intact structure. Assessments at damaged structures. Operational state. 9. and assessments of collision situati***** are occasionally performed. IMR is the area in which the structural engineer makes a contribution by effort in design. etc. The CAPEX of an installed offshore platform topside amounts to approximately 20 ECU/kg. ASPECTS 9.e.3 onal Expenditure (OPEX) Operati In the North Sea approximately 20 percent of OPEX are required for offshore inspection. under wave/current/wind attack with 50 or 100 years recurrence period.3 ction Phase C*****tru The major phases of c*****truction when structural integrity may be endangered are: Load-out Sea transport Upending of jackets Lifting. Fatigue assessment. i. 9. one third of the CAPEX is spent on the platform. selection of material.php?tid=126910 analysis are performed: Survival state. under wave/current/wind attack with 1 or 5 years recurrence period. In a typical offshore field development. royalties. improved corrosion protection. P WATER DEVELOPMENTS DEE Deep water introduces a wide range of extra difficulties for the operator. 9. operational expenditure (OPEX). Accidental. The amount to be spent on IMR over the project life can add up to approximately half the original investment.52ship. The jacket weighed nearly 500 MN. e. 8. with one member deleted.Powered by phpwind http://bbs. tax. The maximum 18 of 54 02-11-2011 PM 11:29 . Cost estimates are usually prepared in a deterministic approach. depth. accessibility. one third on the drilling of wells and one third on the pipelines.g. 10. Recently cost-estimating using a probabilistic approach has been developed and adopted in major offshore projects. Fixed platforms have recently been installed in water of 410 m.
Subsea wells are now feasible for 300 . CLUDING SUMMARY CON The lecture starts with the presentation of the importance of offshore hydro-carbon exploitation. The deepest wells have been developed off Brasil in moderate weather conditi*****. the different execution phases are briefly explained: design.350 m are in operation (Cerveza.Powered by phpwind http://bbs.船友技术论坛_海洋石油支持船 . Special attention is given to the principles of topside design. floating). fabrication and installation. An option for deeper locati***** is to use subsea wells with flowlines to a nearby (approximately maximum 10 km) fixed platform at a smaller water depth. A basic introduction to cost aspects is presented. The first TLP was Hutton in the North Sea and recently TLP-Jolliet was installed at a 530 m deep location in the Gulf of Mexico. tied to the seabed by vertical prestressed tethers.php?tid=126910 depth of water at platform sites in the North Sea is approximately 220 m at present.com/read. the basic steps in the development process (from seismic exploration to platform removal) and the introduction of the major structural concepts (jacket-based. Exxon has a guyed tower platform (Lena) in operation in 300 m deep water. The development of the Troll field situated in approximately 305 m deep water is planned for 1993. TLP. The major codes are identified. GBS-based. The tension leg platform (TLP) seems to be the most promising deepwater production unit (Figure 11). For the fixed platform concepts (jacket and GBS). 19 of 54 02-11-2011 PM 11:29 .900 m deep water. Finally terms are introduced within a glossary. Alternatively subsea wells may be used with flexible risers to a floating production unit. In the Gulf of Mexico and offshore California several fixed platforms in water depths of 250 . Cognac).52ship. 11. It c*****ists of a semi-submersible pontoon. Norwegian Snorre and Heidrun fields have been developed with TLPs as well.
directly receiving slings and transversely welded to the main structure. CAISS***** Se 13.52ship. Bringing the jacket in vertical position. SUBSEA TEMPLATE Structure at seabottom. American Petroleum Institute 18th ed. SLINGS s with spliced eyed at both ends. UP ENDING WINDOW A period of calm weather.S. LOAD-OUT e operation of bringing the object (module. PIPELINE RISER The piping section which rises from the sea bed to topside level. The structural offshore code. welded to the main structure. used in lifting operation. WELLHEAD AREA Area in topside where the wellheads are positioned including the valves mounted on its top. London (UK) 1988. REFERENCES  Recommended practice for planning. to guide conductors prior to jacket installation. 1989.  DnV: Rules LRS Code for API-RP2A: 20 of 54 02-11-2011 PM 11:29 . jacket. Regulati***** of a major certifying authority. Lloyds Register of Shipping. TOPSIDE side. sitting flatly on the sea bottom. SUMPS al pipes from topside down to 5-10 m below water level for intake or discharge.com/read. after installation offshore. defined on basis of operational limits for the offshore marine operation. SEA-FASTENING The structure to keep the object rigidly connected to the barge during transport.船友技术论坛_海洋石油支持船 . JACKET ar sub-structure under a topside. PADEARS (TRUNNI*****) Thick-walled tubular stubs. standing in the water and pile founded. GLOSSARY OF TERMS AIR GAP e SUMPS CONDUCTORS T he tubular protecting and guiding the drill string from the topside down to 40 to 100m under the sea bottom. the upper end resting in the crane hook. ity based structure. with all auxiliaries. governs the majority of platforms. receiving the pin of the shackle. for offshore lifting. PADEYES ck-walled plate with hole. After drilling it protects the well casing. prior to set down on the sea bottom. G.  offshore platforms.Powered by phpwind http://bbs. SPREADER ubular frame. positioned above the waves. stable through its weight. HOOK-UP necting components or systems.php?tid=126910 12. designing and c*****tructing fixed offshore platforms. the compact offshore process plant. deck) from the quay onto the transportation barge. SHACKLES onnecting element (bow + pin) between slings and padeyes.B. WEATHER Top Vertic T Cable C Thi Th Tubul Con Grav Clearance between the top of maximum wave and underside of the topside.
II pp. Bureau Veritas.船友技术论坛_海洋石油支持船 . Important set of rules. Austin U. American Welding Society 1990.S.  Operati*****: Standard for insurance warranty surveys in marine operati*****. DoE Offshore installati*****: Guidance on design and c*****truction.K. Delft University Press 1981. Important theoretical and practical book. ASME/OMAEconference The Hague 1989 Vol. American Institute of Steel C*****truction 1989.  Berkelder et al: Flexible deck joints.Steel. Governmental regulati***** for British offshore sector only. British Standards Institution 1982. UEG Offshore Research Publ. Paris 1975.1-90: Structural Welding Code . ADDITIONAL READING BS 6235: Code of practice for fixed offshore structures. Wardenier: Hollow section joints. 21 of 54 02-11-2011 PM 11:29 .  primer of offshore operati*****. fabrication and erection of structural steel for buildings. Theoretical publication on tubular design including practical design formulae. 1987. Edition Technip. Det norske Veritas June 1985. J.com/read. Fundamental information about offshore oil and gas operati*****. American Bureau of Shipping 1983. U. Regulati***** of a major certifying authority. 753-760. Important code.Powered by phpwind http://bbs. Presents interesting new concept in GBS design. Paris (France).php?tid=126910 for the classification of fixed offshore installati*****.33 1985.52ship.  Specification for the design. UEG: Design of tubular joints (3 volumes).R. AGJ ANON: A BV: Rules and ABS: Rules DnV/Marine AWS AISC: 14. Petex Publ. Widely used structural code for topsides.  for building and classing offshore installati*****. 1985.  regulati***** for the c*****truction and classification of offshore platforms. Part 1 Structures. Det Norske Veritas 1989. U.A 2nd ed. mainly for the British offshore sector. Important theoretical and practical book.  D1. Regulati***** of a major certifying authority. The structural offshore welding code. ARSEM: Design guides for offshore structures welded tubular joints. Department of Energy 1990. Regulati***** of a major certifying authority.
Karsan et al: An economic study on parameters influencing the cost of fixed platforms. PREREQUISITES A basic knowledge of structural analysis for static and dynamic loadings. Houston 1986.Strength and Safety for Structural design. Doody et al: Important c*****iderati***** for successful fabrication of offshore structures.2: Loads (I) : Introduction 级别: 论坛版主 and Environmental Loads OBJECTIVE/SCOPE 发消息 显示用户信息 关注Ta To introduce the types of loads for which a fixed steel offshore structure must be designed. pp 531-539. but in offshore 22 of 54 02-11-2011 PM 11:29 . marine growth and tide generated loads. current. earthquake. Accidental loads. as well as to the relevant regulati***** of the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate.船友技术论坛_海洋石油支持船 .installation loads. pp 79-93. T. waves and earthquake are discussed in more detail together with their idealizati***** for the various types of analyses. Vol 2 .Powered by phpwind http://bbs. London 1992. Gulf Publishing Company. New York 1986. Loads due to wind. I. Up to date presentation of offshore design and c*****truction. C*****truction . OTC paper 5348. Houston 1981. ice and snow. Frequent references are made to the codes of practice recommended by the American Petroleum Institute. the British Standards Institution and the British Department of Energy. B. pp 132 . W. and the loads arising in the various stages of c*****truction and installation. SUMMARY The categories of load for which a pile supported steel offshore platform must be designed are introduced and then the 鲜花 鸡蛋 different types of environmental loads are presented. Det Norske Veritas.A. 1. Good presentation on development opti*****.J. earthquakes are normally regarded as accidental loads (see Eurocode 8 ). D. INTRODUCTION Permanent (dead) loads. Gerwick: C*****truction of offshore structures.C. The loads for which an offshore structure must be designed can be classified into the following categories: Whilst the design of buildings *****hore is usually influenced mainly by the permanent and operating loads. Valuable paper on fabrication aspects.142. Operating (live) loads. especially waves. In civil engineering. John Wiley & S*****. Environmental loads including earthquakes. G. temperature. whilst the other loadings are treated in Lecture 15A. This lecture deals with environmental loads. the design of offshore structures is dominated by environmental loads. To present briefly the loads generated by environmental factors. Good presentation on offshore CAPEX assessment. wave. Fundamental publication on structural behaviour. Good general introduction to offshore structures. Claum et al: Offshore Structures: Vol 1: Conceptual Design and Hydri-mechanics.php?tid=126910 D. Houston 1986. Springer Verlag.3. Previous | Next | Contents 懒猴航海-海洋石油支持船osv论坛 回复 引用 举报 顶端 只看该作者 landho 5楼 发表于: 2010-11-22 Previous | Next | Contents ESDEP WG 15A STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS: OFFSHORE Lecture 15A. May 5 1986. Oil & Gas Journal. The loads include: wind. Graff: Introduction to offshore structures.com/read.I. Johnston: Field development opti*****. sea bed movement.52ship. OTC paper 5301.
etc. This practice is followed in the two lectures dealing with loads. can be found in the regulati***** and codes of practice listed in  . 2. the mean recurrence interval for the corresponding design event must be 100 years. while according to the British rules it should be 50 years or greater.2 Wave Loads The wave loading of an offshore structure is usually the most important of all environmental loadings for which the structure must be designed. 23 of 54 02-11-2011 PM 11:29 .52ship. 2. as well as on any equipment. This static analysis is appropriate when the dominant wave periods are well above the period of the structure. the most probable maximum force during the lifetime of the structure is calculated using linear wave theory. required data. = (1/2) r V2 Cs A (2) API-RP2A  distinguishes between global and local wind load effects. b.225 Kg/m3) Cs is the shape coefficient (Cs = 1.1 Wind Loads Wind loads act on the portion of a platform above the water level. The first is the sea state computed using an idealisation of the wave surface profile and the wave kinematics given by an appropriate wave theory. 2. the DNV  and DOE-OG  rules recommend the most unfavourable of the following two loadings: a.2 and15A. The forces on the structure are caused by the motion of the water due to the waves which are generated by the action of the wind on the surface of the sea.e. According to US and Norwegian regulati***** (or codes of practice). For the first case it gives guideline values of mean 1-hour average wind speeds to be combined with extreme waves and current.Powered by phpwind http://bbs. No dynamic behaviour of the structure is c*****idered. Cs = 0. API-RP2A requires the dynamic effects of the wind to be taken into account in this case and the flow induced cyclic wind loads due to vortex shedding must be investigated. sea bed movement. From the design wind velocity V(m/s). wind speeds are classified as gusts. 1/n is 1/13 to 1/7. is chosen.2. are determined in special studies on the basis of available data. Wind loads are generally taken as static.com/read. The wind velocity profile may be taken from API-RP2A : Vh/VH where: Vh VH = (h/H)1/n (1) is the wind velocity at height h. the distance from land and the averaging time interval. Determination of these forces requires the solution of two separate. earthquakes.e. The statistical approach has to be chosen to analyze the fatigue strength and the dynamic behaviour of the structure. housing. the static wind force Fw(N) acting perpendicular to an exposed area A(m2) can be computed as follows: Fw where: r is the wind density (r » 1. Appropriate wave spectra are defined to perform the analysis in the frequency domain and to generate random waves. the maximum wave with a return period of 100 years. temperature. When. Shielding and solidity effects can be accounted for.5 for beams and sides of buildings. In particular. the ratio of height to the least horizontal dimension of the wind exposed object (or structure) is greater than 5. waves. typically 10m above mean water level. Lectures 15A. if dynamic analyses for extreme wave loadings are required for deepwater structures. period (T) and water depth (d) as shown in Figure 1. 2. though interrelated problems.3. and marine growth. where a regular wave of given height and period is defined and the forces due to this wave are calculated using a high-order wave theory.1 Wave theories Wave theories describe the kinematics of waves of water on the basis of potential theory. Details of design criteria. from the fluid motion. i. defining design load values. The waves are assumed to be long-crested. ice.5 for cylindrical secti***** and Cs = 1. they can be described by a two-dimensional flow field.php?tid=126910 engineering they are treated as environmental loads. using appropriate coefficients.. ENVIRONMENTAL LOADS Environmental loads are those caused by environmental phenomena such as wind. simplifying assumpti*****. This is the case of extreme storm waves acting on shallow water structures. An important parameter pertaining to wind data is the time interval over which wind speeds are averaged. i. For averaging intervals of one minute or longer they are classified as sustained wind speeds. current. is the wind velocity at reference height H. however. Usually the 100-year wave. 3-second gusts. With statistical methods. Statistical analysis on the basis of a wave scatter diagram for the location of the structure. depending on the sea state. derrick. For averaging intervals less than one minute. It is approximately equal to 1/13 for gusts and 1/8 for sustained winds in the open ocean.. Their characteristic parameters. For combination with wave loads. located on the deck. Two different analysis concepts are used: The design wave concept. and are characterized by the parameters: wave height (H). they serve to calculate the particle velocities and accelerati***** and the dynamic pressure as functi***** of the surface elevation of the waves. 1-minute sustained wind speeds combined with extreme waves. tides. The second is the computation of the wave forces on individual members and on the total structure. etc. in the judgement of the designer.0 for total projected area of platform).船友技术论坛_海洋石油支持船 . then this object (or structure) could be wind sensitive. For the second case it gives values of extreme wind speeds to be used without regard to waves.
see . the solitary wave theory. the graph shown in Figure 2 may be c*****ulted. Results from high-order wave theories can be found in the literature.com/read. Note the strong influence of the water depth on the wave kinematics.船友技术论坛_海洋石油支持船 .g.php?tid=126910 Different wave theories of varying complexity. Dean's stream function theory and the numerical theory by Chappelear. 24 of 54 02-11-2011 PM 11:29 . are appropriate for different ranges of the wave parameters. Among the most common theories are: the linear Airy theory.Powered by phpwind http://bbs. Corresponding particle paths are illustrated in Figures 3 and 4.52ship. As an example. Table 1 presents results of the linear wave theory for finite depth and deep water conditi*****. For the selection of the most appropriate theory. developed on the basis of simplifying assumpti*****. the cnoidal theory. the Stokes fifth-order theory. e.
php?tid=126910 2.船友技术论坛_海洋石油支持船 . As an additional parameter the spectral width can be taken into account.52ship.2 Wave Statistics In reality waves do not occur as regular waves. 25 of 54 02-11-2011 PM 11:29 . usually called the wave spectrum for simplicity.Powered by phpwind http://bbs. It is formulated as a function of the wave frequency f using the parameters: significant wave height Hs (i.e. but as irregular sea states. The best means to describe a random sea state is using the wave energy density spectrum S(f).com/read. the mean of the highest third of all waves present in a wave train) and mean wave period (zero-upcrossing period) To.2. The irregular appearance results from the linear superposition of an infinite number of regular waves with varying frequency (Figure 5).
26 of 54 02-11-2011 PM 11:29 .php?tid=126910 Wave directionality can be introduced by means of a directional spreading functionD(f. From the resulting resp*****e spectrum the significant and the maximum expected resp*****e in a given time interval can be easily deduced.s) can then be defined as: S (f. is calculated by multiplication of the wave energy spectrum with the square of a linear transfer function.s). where s is the angle of the wave approach direction (Figure 6).com/read.s )(3) The resp*****e of the structure.52ship.D (f.Powered by phpwind http://bbs. i.s ) = S(f).船友技术论坛_海洋石油支持船 . A directional wave spectrum S(f. forces.e. moti*****.
For tubular members Cs» p. Since the drag force varies with the square of the velocity. CD » 0. the drag force has to be linearized in a suitable way . When insufficient field measurements are available. The forces on these bodies have to be determined by costly numerical calculati***** based on diffraction theory.com/read. circulation and storm generated currents. these forces can be estimated as follows: FL FS = = (1/2) r CL Dv 2 (1/2) r Cs Dv2 (5) (6) where CL. for which the forces due to the operational level waves are dominated by the linear inertia term.3 CD. The steel jackets of offshore structures can usually be regarded as hydrodynamically transparent. yielding finally the desired resp*****e spectrum. frequency domain soluti***** are appropriate for fatigue life calculati*****. The values of CD and CM depend on the wave theory used. The forces result from the dynamic pressure and the water particle moti*****. CM are drag and inertia coefficients. the maximum forces and moti***** have to be calculated by statistical methods or a time-domain analysis. storm waves. For every pair of parameters the wave spectrum is calculated by a standard formula. Lift forces can be estimated by taking CL » 1. Additional information can be found in the DNV rules . For fatigue analysis the total number and amplitude of load cycles during the life-time of the structure can be derived in this way.g.3 to 2. Appendix A of DNV . PiersonMoskowitz (Figure 6). and the rest of the symbols are as defined in Morison's equation. a wave scatter diagram for the location of the structure is needed.船友技术论坛_海洋石油支持船 . The scatter diagram contains the joint probability of occurrence of pairs of significant wave height and mean wave period. For the analysis of the motion resp*****e of a structure it has to be modified to account for the motion of the cylinder . As a rule. calculated with the selected wave theory at the cylinder axis v. Two different cases can be distinguished: Large volume bodies. The fluid velocities and accelerati***** at the integration points are found by direct application of the selected wave theory. including marine growth (m) CD. cyclic loads induced by vortex shedding may also be important and should be examined. It can be obtained from measurements over a long period or be deduced from weather observati***** in the region (the so-called hindcast method). influence the wave field by diffraction and reflection.Powered by phpwind http://bbs. can be important for local member design. Slamming forces acting on the underside of horizontal members near the mean water level are impulsive and nearly vertical. According to Morison's equation the drag force is non-linear. 2. The wave forces on the submerged members can therefore be calculated by Morison's equation. According to API-RP2A. |v| are water particle velocity normal to the cylinder. However. CS are the lift and slamming coefficients respectively. this addition can greatly increase the forces on a platform. hydrodynamically transparent structures have no significant influence on the wave field. This non-linear formulation is used in the design wave concept. Thus. 2.php?tid=126910 For long-term statistics. For structures with substantial dynamic resp*****e to the wave excitation. the lift forces FD and the slamming forces FS. surface roughness and the flow parameters. which expresses the wave force as the sum of an inertia force proportional to the particle acceleration and a non-linear drag force proportional to the square of the particle velocity: where F (4) is the wave force per unit length on a circular cylinder (N) are water particle acceleration normal to the cylinder. 27 of 54 02-11-2011 PM 11:29 .g. The total wave force on each member is obtained by numerical integration over the length of the member.52ship.2. Figure 7 shows a wind and tidal current profile typical of the Gulf of Mexico. e. the effects of current superimposed on waves are taken into account by adding the corresponding fluid velocities vectorially.3 Wave forces on structural members Structures exposed to waves experience substantial forces much higher than wind loadings. The nonlinear formulation and hence time domain soluti***** are required for dynamic analyses of deepwater structures under extreme. For slender members. In platform design. Slender. Morison's equation may be applied when D/L £ 0. respectively. The forces can be calculated in a straight-forward manner with Morison's equation.3 Current Loads There are tidal. current velocities may be obtained from various sources. where D is the member diameter and L is the wave length. termed hydrodynamic compact structures. Lift forces are perpendicular to the member axis and the fluid velocity v and are related to the vortex shedding frequency. For a member section of unit length. In addition to the forces given by Morison's equation. calculated with the selected wave theory at the cylinder axis (m/s) (m/s 2) r is the water density (kg/m3) D is the member diameter.2.2 and CM » 1.0. e. In this form the equation is valid for fixed tubular cylinders. for which the drag portion of the force is the dominant part . typically neglected in global resp*****e computati*****.6 to 1. for the determination of a transfer function needed for frequency domain calculati*****.
5amax for the vertical direction. Use of design spectra has a number of advantages over time history soluti***** (base acceleration input).船友技术论坛_海洋石油支持船 . the structure is designed to respond elastically. For this reason design resp*****e spectra are the preferable approach for strength level designs.5 a max for the vertical. If the design spectral intensity. For strength level design. For the ductility level earthquake. is denoted by amax. defined as close to the "maximum credible earthquake" at the site. the seismic loading may be specified either by sets of accelerograms (Figure 8) or by means of design resp*****e spectra (Figure 9). on the other hand. For the strength level earthquake.4 Earthquake Loads Offshore structures in seismic regi***** are typically designed for two levels of earthquake intensity: the strength level and the ductility level earthquake. characteristic of the seismic hazard at the site. 28 of 54 02-11-2011 PM 11:29 .52ship. The DNV rules. defined as having a "reasonable likelihood of not being exceeded during the platform's life" (mean recurrence interval ~ 200 .php?tid=126910 2. The value of amax and often the spectral shapes are determined by site specific seismological studies.Powered by phpwind http://bbs. recommend amax and 0.500 years).7 amax for the two horizontal directi***** (two different combinati*****) and 0.com/read. the structure is designed for inelastic resp*****e and to have adequate reserve strength to avoid collapse. then API-RP2A recommends using amax for the two principal horizontal directi***** and 0.
Generally. Relevant data for the North Sea are given in BS6235 . detailed studies based on field measurements.7. large blocks of ice driven by current. More detail of the analysis of earthquakes is given in theLectures 17: Seismic Design. real or artificial. resulting in higher gravity loads and in lower member frequencies. Ci is the coefficient accounting for shape.Powered by phpwind http://bbs. but also the drag coefficient due to higher surface roughness. it increases the unit mass of the member.e. It is accounted for in design through appropriate increases in the diameters and masses of the submerged members. e.php?tid=126910 Designs for ductility level earthquakes will normally require inelastic analyses for which the seismic input must be specified by sets of 3-component accelerograms. In addition. The characteristics of such moti*****. may still be prescribed by means of design spectra. human factors can also generate thermal loads.7 Marine Growth Marine growth is accumulated on submerged members. Depending upon geographic location. horizontal ice forces may be estimated as follows: Fi = Cifc A (7) where: A is the exposed area of structure. the latter by increasing areas exposed to the action of wind. representative of the extreme ground moti***** that could shake the platform site.0 m/s. Its main effect is to increase the wave forces on the members by increasing not only exposed areas and volumes.3m or more. In addition to the environmental sources. winds and waves with speeds that can approach 0. 2. Ice formation and expansion can generate large pressures that give rise to horizontal as well as vertical forces.3 and 0.5 to 1. i.6 Loads due to Temperature Variati***** Offshore structures can be subjected to temperature gradients which produce thermal stresses. 2. extreme values of sea and air temperatures which are likely to occur during the life of the structure must be estimated. fc is the compressive strength of ice. through accidental release of cryogenic material. As a first approximation. however.com/read. through the variation of the level of the sea surface.g. The temperature of the oil and gas produced must also be c*****idered.8 Tides Tides affect the wave and current loads indirectly. with usual values between 0. 2.52ship. ice formation and snow accumulati***** increase gravity and wind loads. laboratory tests and analytical work are required to develop reliable design ice forces for a given geographical location.5 Ice and Snow Loads Ice is a primary problem for marine structures in the arctic and sub-arctic zones. The tides are 29 of 54 02-11-2011 PM 11:29 . which are usually the result of a site specific seismotectonic study. statically applied. may hit the structure and produce impact loads. To take account of such stresses. rate of load application and other factors. More detailed information on snow loads may be found in Eurocode 1 .船友技术论坛_海洋石油支持船 . In addition. which must be taken into account in design as accidental loads. the thickness of marine growth can reach 0. In addition to these forces. 2.
K. while for design c*****iderati***** such as levels for boat landing places.52ship. Oslo. 1981.C. The main environmental loads are due to wind. Some environmental loads can be highly uncertain. etc. pp. Vol 1 .  NPD. C*****truction and Inspection of Offshore Structures".船友技术论坛_海洋石油支持船 . "Regulation for Structural Design of Load-bearing Structures Intended for Exploitation of Petroleum Resources".. as used in platform design. provide guideline values for most environmental loads. Gerwick. Storm surges depend upon the return period c*****idered and their range is on the order of 1.A. "Applied Offshore Structural Engineering".caused by the combined action of wind and barometric pressure differentials during a storm. T. extreme storm waves are superimposed on the still water level (see Figure 10). Clauss. current. Graff. 1986. marine growth. Washington. "C*****truction of Offshore Structures". specification of environmental design loads requires specific studies. Gulf Publishing Co. For major structures. "Recommended Practice for Planning. earthquakes. Dept. U. barge fenders. "Dynamic Resp*****e of Offshore Structures to Extreme Waves including Fluid . London 1985.com/read. Designing and C*****tructing Fixed Offshore Platforms". The definition of certain environmental loads depends upon the type of analysis used in the design. "Requirements for Verifying the Structural Integrity of OCS Platforms".J. 1982. CEN (in preparation). 1985. Vol.5 Finite water depth d/L < 0..Conceptual Design and Hydromechanics". S. of Energy. not only the design of the piles.. earthquakes.    Hsu. Springer. CEN (in preparation).  Anagnostopoulos. API-RP2A. 3. are shown in Figure 10.Powered by phpwind http://bbs. Gulf Publishing Co. upper limits of marine growth. pressure reduction in the producing reservoir. but the jacket as well. G. 1989. waves. W. DOE-OG. Structures..     BS6235.  DNV. 4. Det Norske Veritas. H.C. London 1992.php?tid=126910 classified as: (a) astronomical tides . the daily variati***** of the astronomical tide are used. 2. London. The astronomical tide range depends on the geographic location and the phase of the moon. B. Deep water d/L ³0. Houston. occurs at new moon. 18th ed. Virginia.9 Sea Floor Movements Movement of the sea floor can occur as a result of active geologic processes.Structure Interaction". temperature variati*****. Tide dependent water levels and the associated definiti*****. tides and seafloor movements.caused essentially from the gravitational pull of the moon and the sun and (b) storm surges . etc. British Standards Institution..0m. listed as  .. "Code of Practice for Fixed Offshore Structures".. 1982. CONCLUDING SUMMARY Environmental loads form a major category of loads which control many aspects of platform design. Reston. et al: "Offshore Structures.. Engr. D. United States Geologic Survey. "Offshore Installation: Guidance on Design and C*****truction". the spring tide. American Petroleum Institute.  OCS. 1981. storm wave pressures.5 Table 1 Results of Linear Airy Theory  Phase q = kx wt Relative water depth d/L 30 of 54 02-11-2011 PM 11:29 .. Houston.. "Rules for the Design.. Such forces are determined by special geotechnical studies and investigati*****. When designing a platform.T. The loads generated by such movements affect. The combined effect of the two types of tide is called the storm tide. National Centre. John Wiley. Its maximum.   REFERENCES Eurocode 8: "Structures in Seismic Regi***** . ice and snow. Norwegian Petroleum Directorate.0 to 3. 1980. 1977 (with correcti***** 1982).Design". The range varies from centimetres to several metres and may be obtained from special maps. New York. "Introduction to Offshore Structures".. Jr.179-185. 4. Eurocode 1: "Basis of Design and Acti***** on Structures". Widely accepted rules of practice.
gif[/img] /Image181.com /esdep/media/wg15a /esdep/media/wg15a /Image186.gif[/img] [img]http://www.gif[/img] Elliptical orbits Where z a = [img]http://www.haiyangshiyou.haiyangshiyou.com /esdep/media/wg15a /Image183.com /esdep/media/wg15a /Image188.haiyangshiyou.com [img]http://www.gif[/img] ko = [img]http://www.png[/img] background-vertical.gif[/img] Circular frequency w= cgr = w= [img]http://www.船友技术论坛_海洋石油支持船 .haiyangshiyou.52ship.com /esdep/media/wg15a /Image190.gif[/img] Wave length L= Wave number k= /Image182.png[/img] 懒猴航海-海洋石油支持船osv论坛 31 of 54 02-11-2011 PM 11:29 .haiyangshiyou.Powered by phpwind http://bbs.com [img]http://www.haiyangshiyou.gif[/img] Water particle displacements horizontal x vertical z Particle trajectories -za ekz sinq z a ekz cos q Circular orbits [img]http://www.php?tid=126910 Velocity potential q za cosq Surface elevation z Dynamic pressure pdyn = Water particle velocities horizontal u = za wekz cos q z awekz sin q rgz a ekz cosq z a cos q vertical w = Water particle accelerati***** horizontal u' = vertical w' = z a w 2 ekz sinq -z a w2 ekz cosq Wave celerity c= Group velocity cgr = co = cgr = c= [img]http://www.com/esdep/media/wg15a/Image867.gif[/img] kd tanh kd = [img]http://www.com /esdep/media/wg15a /Image187.haiyangshiyou.com /esdep/media/wg15a /esdep/media/wg15a /Image185.gif[/img] w= Lo = [img]http://www.haiyangshiyou.com /esdep/media/wg15a /Image189.gif[/img] Previous | Next | Contents [img]chrome://livemargins/skin/monitor-background-horizontal.haiyangshiyou.com/read.png[/img] [img]chrome://livemargins/skin/monitor- [img]chrome://livemargins/skin/monitor-play-button.haiyangshiyou.haiyangshiyou.com /esdep/media/wg15a /Image184.gif[/img] L= [img]http://www.
php?tid=126910 回复 引用 举报 顶端 只看该作者 landho 6楼 发表于: 2010-11-22 Previous | Next | Contents ESDEP WG 15A STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS: OFFSHORE Lecture 15A. Hydrostatic forces on the various members below the waterline. support systems. etc. facilities (e. b. a horizontal load applied at the points of impact and taken equal to half the maximum take-off weight must be c*****idered. FABRICATION AND INSTALLATION LOADS These loads are temporary and arise during fabrication and installation of the platform or its components. as well as during lifts related to 32 of 54 02-11-2011 PM 11:29 . The data need to be critically evaluated by the designer.g. OPERATING (LIVE) LOADS Operating loads arise from the operati***** on the platform and include the weight of all non-permanent equipment or material. a. furniture. For example. erection lifts of various structural components generate lifting forces. operating loads include the following: a. two types of helicopter landing should be c*****idered. loadout. The impact load in the first case is to be taken as 1. The categories of loads described herein are the following: Permanent (dead) loads Operating (live) loads Fabrication and installation loads Accidental loads The major categories of environmental loads are not included. including environmental. vessel mooring. For vessel mooring.com/read.3: Loads (II) . PERMANENT (DEAD) LOADS Weight of the structure in air. the different load combinati***** for all types of loads. etc. 2. not to be taken less than 6. as well as forces generated during operation of equipment.g. crew quarters and passageways: working areas: 8. drilling. e. Sealed tubular members must be designed for the worst condition when flooded or non-flooded. as required (or suggested) by applicable regulati***** (or codes of practice) are given. 发消息 显示用户信息 关注Ta PREREQUISITES A basic knowledge of structural analysis for static and dynamic loadings.5 times the maximum take-off weight. including the weight of grout and ballast. except environmental. launching and upending) and accidental loads.87KN/m3. operating (live) loads.Powered by phpwind http://bbs.g. etc.5 KN/m 2 3.2 KN/m2 c. Forces generated during operati***** are often dynamic or impulsive in nature and must be treated as such. SUMMARY The various categories of loads. drilling equipment. According to BS6235. The necessary data for computation of all operating loads are provided by the operator and the equipment manufacturers. transportation to the site. if necessary. may normally be treated as harmonic forces. the minimum impact to be c*****idered is of a vessel of 2500 tonnes at 0.2. according to the BS6235 rules. crane operati*****. More specifically. During fabrication. 1. etc). except environmental loads. the following values are recommended in BS6235 : a. Loads from rotating machinery. launching and upending. The weight of all non-permanent equipment (e. In the absence of such data. liquids. heavy and emergency landing. loads generated during 鲜花 鸡蛋 fabrication and installation (due to lifts. living quarters. b. drilling. production). An example of detailed live load specification is given in Table 1 where the values in the first and second columns are for design of the porti***** of the structure directly affected by the loads and the reduced values in the last column are for the structure as a whole. and the load combinati***** for which a fixed offshore structure must be designed. for which a pile-supported steel offshore platform must be designed are presented. attachments or associated structures which are permanently mounted on the platform.5. helicopter landing.5 m/s. storage areas: gH KN/m2 where g is the specific weight of stored materials. c*****umable supplies.Other Loads 级别: 论坛版主 OBJECTIVE/SCOPE To present and briefly describe all loads. heliport. Weights of equipment. while in the installation phase forces are generated during platform loadout.船友技术论坛_海洋石油支持船 . while in the second case this factor becomes 2. transportation. design forces are computed for the largest ship likely to approach at operational speeds. 3. These categories include permanent (dead) loads. In addition. They are dealt with inLecture 15A. H is the storage height (m). c.52ship. These forces include buoyancy and hydrostatic Permanent loads include the following: pressures. life Forces generated during operati*****. In addition. b.
all loading conditi***** can be taken as static. The first is for designing the padeyes as well as all members and their end connecti***** framing the joint where the padeye is attached.0 and 1. If loadout is done by skidding the structure onto the barge. marine traffic or change of draft. because lifting in the open sea creates a more severe loading condition which requires higher dynamic load factors. In particular.船友技术论坛_海洋石油支持船 . According to the DNV rules . API-RP2A. respectively. 3.15. from movement of the barge due to tidal fluctuati*****. on the other hand .com/read. 1. applied perpendicular to the padeye at the centre of the pin hole.2 Loadout Forces These are forces generated when the jacket is loaded from the fabrication yard onto the barge. All members and connecti***** of a lifted component must be designed for the forces resulting from static equilibrium of the lifted weight and the sling tensi*****. Typical values of friction coefficients for calculation of skidding forces are the following: 33 of 54 02-11-2011 PM 11:29 . however. with the jacket supported on its side. the return period for computing design environmental conditi***** for installation as well as fabrication should normally be three times the duration of the corresponding phase. leaves this design return period up to the owner. the number and location of lifting eyes used for the lift. API-RP2A recommends that in order to compensate for any side movements. If the loadout is carried out by direct lift. unless the lifting arrangement is different from that to be used for installation. while the second is for all other members transmitting lifting forces. then dynamic load factors should be applied to the static lifting forces. Moreover. Since movement of the jacket is slow. the angle between each sling and the vertical axis and the conditi***** under which the lift is performed (Figure 1). while the BS6235 rules  recommend a minimum recurrence interval of 10 years for the design environmental loads associated with transportation of the structure to the offshore site. for lifts made offshore API-RP2A recommends two minimum values of dynamic load factors: 2. All these design forces are applied as static loads if the lifts are performed in the fabrication yard. a number of static loading conditi***** must be c*****idered. Such loading conditi***** arise from the different positi***** of the jacket during the loadout phases.php?tid=126910 installation.5 and 1. lifting eyes and the connecti***** to the supporting structural members should be designed for the combined action of the static sling load and a horizontal force equal to 5% this load. For loadout at sheltered locati*****. lifting forces need not be computed. (as shown in Figure 2).1 Lifting Forces Lifting forces are functi***** of the weight of the structural component being lifted. the lifting derrick or the structure to be lifted is on a floating vessel. then. the corresponding minimum load factors for the two groups of structural components become. 3.52ship.Powered by phpwind http://bbs. according to API-RP2A.35. and from possible support settlements. If.
............. winds and currents) that are encountered during transportation.... The types of motion that a floating structure may experience are shown schematically in Figure 3..........25 steel on steel with lubrication........... They depend upon the weight.3 Transportation Forces These forces are generated when platform components (jacket........................... geometry and support conditi***** of the structure (by barge or by buoyancy) and also on the environmental conditi***** (waves........... 0........ 0......................船友技术论坛_海洋石油支持船 . 0. 0................ deck) are transported offshore on barges or self-floating.....08 3...52ship.......................10 teflon on teflon............15 steel on teflon...................... 34 of 54 02-11-2011 PM 11:29 ....com/read.........................php?tid=126910 steel on steel without lubrication........Powered by phpwind http://bbs...........
waves and currents.2 g When transporting a large jacket by barge.amplitude roll: Single . For open sea conditi*****.php?tid=126910 In order to minimize the associated risks and secure safe transport from the fabrication yard to the platform site. wave and current conditi*****. the following: Previous experience along the tow route Exposure time and reliability of predicted "weather windows" Accessibility of safe havens Seasonal weather system Appropriate return period for determining design wind. the loads can be calculated directly.e. it is important to plan the operation carefully by c*****idering. when the size of the tow. They are determined from the design winds.52ship. Special computer programs are available to compute the transportation loads in the structure-barge system and the resulting stresses for any specified environmental condition. If the structure is self-floating. according to API-RP2A .Powered by phpwind http://bbs. the structure and supporting barge. the relative stiffness of jacket and barge may need to be taken into account together with the wave slamming forces that could result during a heavy roll motion of the tow (Figure 4) when structural analyses are carried out for designing the tie-down braces and the jacket members affected by the induced loads. taking into account characteristics of the tow such as size. 35 of 54 02-11-2011 PM 11:29 . the following may be c*****idered as typical design values: Single . sensitivity and cost. magnitude of the sea state and experience make such assumpti***** reasonable. Moreover. stability against capsizing is a primary design c*****ideration because of the high centre of gravity of the jacket.com/read.船友技术论坛_海洋石油支持船 . i. Transportation forces are generated by the motion of the tow. perpendicular and at 45° to the tow axis.amplitude pitch: Period of roll or pitch: Heave acceleration: 20° 10° 10 second 0. According to API-RP2A . structure. towing analyses must be based on the results of model basin tests or appropriate analytical methods and must c*****ider wind and wave directi***** parallel. Inertial loads may be computed from a rigid body analysis of the tow by combining roll and pitch with heave moti*****.
As the jacket slides. ACCIDENTAL LOADS According to the DNV rules . The support length keeps decreasing and reaches a minimum. which may 36 of 54 02-11-2011 PM 11:29 . stable motion.52ship. e. Jacket slides along the skid beams b. To start the launch. There are five stages in a launch-upending operation: a. waves and currents expected during the operation.com/read. induced during each of these stages and the force required to set the jacket into motion can be evaluated by appropriate analyses. the barge must be ballasted to an appropriate draft and trim angle and subsequently the jacket must be pulled towards the stern by a winch. accidental loads are loads. The loads. its weight is supported on the two legs that are part of the launch trusses. It is generally at this instant that the most severe launching forces develop as reacti***** to the weight of the jacket. equal to the length of the rocker beams. Jacket rotates on the rocker arms Jacket rotates and slides simultaneously Jacket detaches completely and comes to its floating equilibrium position Jacket is upended by a combination of controlled flooding and simultaneous lifting by a derrick barge.4 Launching and Upending Forces These forces are generated during the launch of a jacket from the barge into the sea and during the subsequent upending into its proper vertical position to rest on the seabed. Computer programs are available to perform the stress analyses required for launching and upending and also to portray the whole operation graphically.php?tid=126910 3. static as well as dynamic. 4.船友技术论坛_海洋石油支持船 . which also c*****ider the action of wind. ill-defined with respect to intensity and frequency. During stages (d) and (e).Powered by phpwind http://bbs. A schematic view of these operati***** can be seen in Figure 5. c. when rotation starts. variable hydrostatic forces arise which have to be c*****idered at all members affected. Sliding of the jacket starts as soon as the downward force (gravity component and winch pull) exceeds the friction force. d. Buoyancy calculati***** are required for every stage of the operation to ensure fully controlled.
Load combinati***** and load factors depend upon the design method to be used. Accidental loads are not well defined with respect to intensity and probability of occurrence.php?tid=126910 occur as a result of accident or exceptional circumstances. 6. Serviceability limit state All load factors are to be taken as 1. The DNV rules  permit allowable stress design but recommend the semi-probabilistic limit state design method. d.0 D + 0. British Standards Institution. appropriate to normal operati***** of the platform. 7. environmental loads. c.3 L + 1. while DNV and NPD recommend limit state design.0 P + 1. CONCLUDING SUMMARY In addition to environmental loads. According to the DNV and the NPD rules for limit state design. D and E stand for Permanent (dead). Earthquakes are treated as an environmental load in offshore structure design. appropriate for combining with extreme conditi*****. differential settlement) and Environmental loads respectively.Powered by phpwind http://bbs. 1982. BS6235 permits both methods but the design equati***** it gives are for the allowable stress method . This number is meant as an order of magnitude estimate and is extremely difficult to compute. listed in the references. appropriate for combining with extreme conditi*****. fabrication and installation loads as well as accidental loads. for structures that are unmanned during storm conditi***** and which are not used for storage of oil and gas. Dynamic and impact effects are normally taken into account by means of appropriate dynamic load factors. Furthermore.g.   REFERENCES BS6235.0. Fatigue limit state All load factors are to be taken as 1.0 D + 1. i.0.0 L + 1. if applicable..0. Special measures are normally taken to reduce the risk from accidental loads. L. Dead loads plus extreme (design) environmental loads plus minimum live loads. whether limit state or allowable stress design is employed. The type and magnitude of fabrication. Accidental loads are also specified as a separate category in the NPD regulati***** .3 E where P. the 1. API-RP2A is very specific in recommending not to apply limit state methods. four limit states must be checked: Ultimate limit state For this limit state the following two loading combinati***** must be used: Ordinary: 1. transportation and installation loads depend upon the methods and sequences used for the corresponding phases. dropped objects. and Extreme : 1. if exceeded.  API-RP2A. impact resistant covers.15.52ship. Operating (live). "Code of Practice for Fixed Offshore Structures". etc. Deformation (e. protection of wellheads or other critical equipment from a dropped object can be provided by specially designed. and unintended flooding of bouyancy tanks.7 E. Examples of accidental loads are loads due to collision with vessels. They will typically require special protective measures.e. "Recommended Practice for Planning.3 may be reduced to 1. BSI favours allowable stress design. LOAD COMBINATI***** The load combinati***** used for designing fixed offshore structures depend upon the design method used. C*****truction and Inspection of Offshore Structures". the load factor 1. Designing and C*****tructing Fixed Offshore Platforms". i. Operating environmental conditi***** are defined as representative of severe but not necessarily limiting conditi***** that. Dead loads plus operating environmental loads plus minimum live loads. Moreover. Widely accepted rules of practice.e. London.except earthquakes . which the NPD rules also require .3 P + 1. For example. an offshore structure must be designed for dead and live loads. Det Norske Veritas (DNV). The so-called characteristic values of the loads used in the above combinati***** and limit states are summarized in Table 2. should be combined in a manner c*****istent with their joint probability of occurrence during the loading condition c*****idered. an accidental load can be disregarded if its annual probability of occurrence is less than 10-4. For well controlled dead and live loads during fabrication and installation. BS6235  or the DOE-OG rules . Dead loads plus operating environmental loads plus maximum live loads. 5.. not to be combined with waves. Earthquake loads. with the exception of earthquake loads. are usually followed for specifying such loads. API-RP2A is based on allowable stress design and recommends against limit state design. are to be imposed as a separate environmental load. The load combinati***** recommended for use with allowable stress procedures are: a. but not in API-RP2A .3 load factor for environmental loads . would require cessation of platform operati*****. "Rules for the Design. temperature. Progressive Collapse limit state All load factors are to be taken as 1. 1977 (with correcti***** 1982). American 37 of 54 02-11-2011 PM 11:29 .2. appropriate to normal operati***** of the platform. taken from the NPD rules. Dead loads plus extreme (design) environmental loads plus maximum live loads.船友技术论坛_海洋石油支持船 .may be reduced to 1. fire or explosion. wind. According to the NPD regulati***** . b.com/read. Oslo.
C. Gulf Publishing Co. "Introduction to Offshore Structures".light 18 9 10 6 12 6 10 4 8 (2) 4 (2) 5 3 2 5 1. John Wiley. Gulf Publishing Co. D. Gerwick. Houston.. 8. 1981. New York. Norwegian Petroleum Directorate (NPD).K. Department of Energy. Houston. with a minimum value of 5 kN.5 2. "C*****truction of Offshore Structures".. ADDITIONAL READING OCS. Table 1 Minimum design live load specification Loads to be taken into account (kN/m2) Zone c*****idered Process zone (around wells and large-scale machines) Drilling zone Catwalks and walking platforms (except emergency exits) Stairways (except emergency exits) Module roofing Emergency exits STORAGE Storage floors Storage floors Delivery zone Non-attributed area (1) . Virginia. 18th ed. Washington. "Applied Offshore Structural Engineering". U... Reston. United States Geologic Survey. Point loads are assumed as being applied to a 0.Powered by phpwind http://bbs. 1989. B.php?tid=126910 Petroleum Institute.G. 1980. National Centre.heavy .3m surface. 1985.5 5 1 0 4 3 0 5 (1) 3 5 (1) 2. (3) This column gives the loads to be taken into account for the structure's overall calculation.5 For porti***** of the structure For the structure as a whole (3) Accumulated with a point load equal to the weight of the heaviest part likely to be removed. "Offshore Installation: Guidance on Design and C*****truction"..52ship.5 1 Flooring and joists 5 (1) Other components 5 (1) 2. W. 1981. These values are the input for the computer runs. H...船友技术论坛_海洋石油支持船 . London 1985.3m ´ 0. Hsu.C. "Requirements for Verifying the Structural Integrity of OCS Platforms".T.com/read. DOE-OG.   "Regulation for Structural Design of Load-bearing Structures Intended for Exploitation of Petroleum Resources". 1986. Table 2 Characteristic Loads according to NPD  LOAD TYPE LIMIT STATES FOR TEMPORARY PHASES Serviceability Fatigue Ultimate Progressive Collapse Abnormal effects Damage condition LIMIT STATES FOR NO Serviceability Fatigue DEAD LIVE DEFORMATION ENVIRONMENTAL Dependent Expected on load operational history requirements ACCIDENTAL NOT APPLICABLE EXPECTED VALUE SPECIFIED VALUE EXPECTED EXTREME VALUE Value dependent on measures taken Dependent Expected on load operational history requirements NOT APPLICABLE Dependent on operational requirements Previous | Next | Contents 懒猴航海-海洋石油支持船osv论坛 回复 引用 举报 顶端 landho 7楼 发表于: 2010-11-22 只看该作者 38 of 54 02-11-2011 PM 11:29 .. Graff. (2) Applied on the entirety of the flooring surface (including traffic). Jr.
flare booms) and lattice trusses (modules. Acceptance criteria for the verification of offshore structures are presented. The same model is used throughout the analysis process with only minor adjustments being made to suit the specific conditi*****. The characteristics assumed for the plate elements depend on the principal state of stress which they are subjected to. a stability check for elements in compression where the characteristic resistance relates to the buckling limit of the element. If more accuracy is required.52ship. 2. They primarily address jackets. 3.船友技术论坛_海洋石油支持船 . at supports in particular.1 Joints Each member is normally rigidly fixed at its ends to other elements in the model. embracing c*****ideration of the different stages. 2.1: Lecture 15A.2 Plate Models Integrated decks and hulls of floating platforms involving large bulkheads are described by plate elements. Elements should also be verified against fatigue. execution. e.1.5: Offshore Structures: General Introduction Loads I: Introduction and Environmental Loads Loads II: Other Loads Analysis II RELATED LECTURES SUMMARY 鲜花 鸡蛋 Analytical models used in offshore engineering are briefly described. local flexibility of the connecti***** may be represented by a joint stiffness matrix. AISC). temperature or durability wherever relevant. These checks may indicate the need for local reinforcement of the chord using overthickness or internal ring-stiffeners.2 Members In addition to its geometrical and material properties. decks). metallurgy are involved. and which more closely resemble *****hore petro-chemical plants. structural. Tubular joints are checked against punching under various load patterns. relating to drag. e. Membrane stresses are taken when the element is subjected merely to axial load and shear. 3. 1. and in-service stages.g. Only the salient features of offshore models are presented here. 2.2: Lecture 15A. corrosion.2 Allowable Stress Method This method is presently specified by American codes (API. ANALYTICAL MODEL The analytical models used in offshore engineering are in some respects similar to those adopted for other types of steel structures. to allow wave forces to be automatically generated.1 Stick Models Stick models (beam elements assembled in frames) are used extensively for tubular structures (jackets. naval architecture. installation. Simple rules for preliminary member sizing are given and procedures for static in-place and dynamic analysis are described.5 are purposely limited to presenting an overview of available analysis procedures and providing benchmarks for the reader to appreciate the validity of his assumpti***** and results. 3.com/read.1 ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA Code Checks The verification of an element c*****ists of comparing its characteristic resistance(s) to a design force or stress.g. The loads remain unfactored and a unique coefficient is applied to the characteristic resistance to obtain an allowable 39 of 54 02-11-2011 PM 11:29 . 2. 2. Many disciplines.Powered by phpwind http://bbs. ANALYTICAL MODEL The analysis of an offshore structure is an extensive task. inertia. where the characteristic resistance is related to the yield strength of the element. bridges. i. which are more unusual structures compared to decks and modules.php?tid=126910 Previous | Next | Contents ESDEP WG 15A STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS: OFFSHORE Lecture 15A.Analysis I 级别: 论坛版主 OBJECTIVE/SCOPE To present the main analysis procedures for offshore structures.e.g. It includes: a strength check.4 . each member is characterised by hydrodynamic coefficients.1. during its life. geotechnical. and marine growth. An element (member or plate) is checked at typical secti***** (at least both ends and midspan) against resistance and buckling. particularly for the assessment of natural vibration modes. relating to each analysis.3: Lecture 15A. This verification also includes the effect of water pressure for deepwater structures. Plate stresses are adopted when bending and lateral pressure are to be taken into account. 显示用户信息 关注Ta 发消息 PREREQUISITES Lecture 15A. This lecture and Lecture 15A. e.
0 1.0 1.Powered by phpwind http://bbs. personnel.0 1. D are deformati***** (out-of-level supports.88 Weak axis bending 0. i. Guidance for classifying typical conditi***** into typical limit states is given in the following table: Condition C*****truction Load-Out P P Transport Tow-out (accidental) P P transport wind and wave flooded compart ULS PLS Launch Lifting In-Place (normal) P P P+L wind.0 1. wind.0 0.船友技术论坛_海洋石油支持船 .0 0. 3. Service Limit State (SLS): corresponds to criteria for normal use or durability (often specified by the plant operator). fire).0 Norwegian Authorities (2.0 1.php?tid=126910 stress as follows: Condition Normal Extreme Axial 0. blast.2 3. E A are environmental loads (wave. 4) specify the following sets of load factors: Limit State ULS (normal) ULS (extreme) FLS PLS (accidental) PLS (post-damage) SLS where the respective load categories are: P are permanent loads (structural weight.0 1.75 1.0 E 0.3 1.0 1. are accidental loads (dropped object.3 Limit State Method This method is enforced by European and Norwegian Authorities and has now been adopted by API as it offers a more uniform reliability.0 1.0 A 0.1 Load factors Load Categories P L 1.0 0. Progressive Collapse Limit State (PLS): reflects the ability of the structure to resist collapse under accidental or abnormal conditi*****. the platform is to endure over its lifetime. hydrostatic pressure).0 1.3 1. subsidence).com/read. Partial factors are applied to the loads and to the characteristic resistance of the element. ship impact.3.00 "Normal" and "Extreme" respectively represent the most severe conditi*****: under which the plant is to operate without shut-down.0 1. current.0 1.0 1.0 1. ballast.3 1.15 for ULS and 1.SLS In-Place (extreme) P+L wind & 100 year wave actual ULS SLS In-Place (exceptional) P+L wind & 10000 year wave actual PLS Earthquake Rare Earthquake Explosion Fire P+L P+L P+L P+L 10-2 quake 10-4 quake blast fire ULS PLS PLS PLS 40 of 54 02-11-2011 PM 11:29 .3.00 for PLS and SLS design. L are live loads (storage.66 0.SLS reduced wind support disp ULS The material partial factors for steel is normally taken equal to 1.0 0. reflecting the amount of confidence placed in the design value of each parameter and the degree of risk accepted under a limit state. liquids).0 0.0 1.3 Material factors Classification of Design Conditi***** Loadings P/L E D A Design Criterion ULS. 3. Fatigue Limit State (FLS): relates to the possibility of failure under cyclic loading.60 0.0 D 1.52ship.80 Strong axis bending 0.0 0.3. dry equipments. 3.0 1.7 1. earthquake).0 0. wave & snow actual ULS ULS ULS.e: Ultimate Limit State (ULS): corresponds to an ultimate event c*****idering the structural resistance with appropriate reserve.
php?tid=126910 Dropped Object P+L drill collar PLS Boat Collision P+L boat impact PLS Damaged Structure P + reduced L reduced wave & wind PLS 4. Gravity loads c*****ist of: dead weight of structure and equipments. 4. 5. often from a simplified model.3.Powered by phpwind http://bbs. assuming an equivalent soil subgrade modulus and full fixity at the base of the jacket. It is therefore of the utmost importance to start the main analysis from a model which is close to the final optimized one. 4.船友技术论坛_海洋石油支持船 . caiss*****.2 and15A. calculate the moment caused by wind loads on topsides and derive the appropriate thickness. to size the main elements of the structure. live loads. select a pile diameter in accordance with the expected leg diameter and the capacity of pile driving equipment.com/read. derive the maximum axial and shear force at the top of the pile. They are therefore analysed separately and their reacti***** applied as loads at the interfaces with the main structure. This matrix may need to be adjusted to the mean reaction corresponding to each loading condition. The simple rules given below provide an easy way of selecting realistic sizes for the main elements of offshore structures in moderate water depth (up to 80m) where dynamic effects are negligible. 5.1. calculate the maximum moment in the pile and derive its wall thickness. 41 of 54 02-11-2011 PM 11:29 . Typical models for North Sea jackets may feature over 800 nodes and 4000 members.2 5.1. J-tubes. the overall shear and the overturning moment (environmental forces) at the mudline.1. determine by straight beam formulae the sizes of the main girders under "blanket" live loads and/or the respective weight of the heaviest equipments.1 5. calculate the axial force in the brace from the overall shear and the local bending caused by the wave assuming partial or total end restraint. and subjected to pseudo-static loads. which are described in more detail in Lectures 15A. assuming that the jacket behaves as a rigid body.1 Structural Model Main Model The main model should account for eccentricities and local reinforcements at the joints.2 Deck Leg Sizes adapt the diameter of the leg to that of the pile. derive the penetration from the shaft friction and tip bearing diagrams. 5. 5. etc.3 Jacket Bracings select the diameter in order to obtain a span/diameter ratio between 30 and 40. buoyancy). derive the plate thickness from formulae accounting for local plastification under the wheel footprint of the design forklift truck. 4. The structure is modelled as it stands during its operational life. They are represented by an equivalent load-dependent secant stiffness matrix.4 Deck Framing select a spacing between stiffeners (typically 500 to 800mm).) to the overall stiffness of the structure is normally neglected.1 Loadings Gravity Loads This Section is a reminder of the main types of loads. STATIC IN-PLACE ANALYSIS The static in-place analysis is the basic and generally the simplest of all analyses. boat-fenders. 5.2 Appurtenances The contribution of appurtenances (risers.2. conductors. derive the thickness such that the diameter/thickness ratio lies between 20 and 70 and eliminate any hydrostatic buckle tendency by imposing D/t<170/3ÖH (H is the depth of member below the free surface).3 Foundation Model Since their behaviour is non-linear.1 Jacket Pile Sizes calculate the vertical resultant (dead weight. foundati***** are often analysed separately from the structural model.52ship. This analysis is always carried at the very early stage of the project. 4. PRELIMINARY MEMBER SIZING The analysis of a structure is an iterative process which requires progressive adjustment of the member sizes with respect to the forces they transmit. coefficients are determined by an iterative process where the forces and displacements at the common boundaries of structural and foundation models are equated. determine the effective length from the degree of fixity of the leg into the deck (depending upon the height of the cellar deck). until a safe and economical design is achieved.
6.5% structural.2.com/read. As a further simplification to larger models involving c*****iderable degrees-of-freedom. the added mass of water (mass of water displaced by the member and determined from potential flow theory) and the mass of marine growth.船友技术论坛_海洋石油支持船 . 42 of 54 02-11-2011 PM 11:29 . this may occur for instance when positioning the drilling rig.1 Mass The mass matrix represents the distribution of masses over the structure. current and wind loads assumed to act simultaneously in the same direction. It may c*****ist of structural and hydrodynamic damping. X'' are the displacement. In general eight wave incidences are selected. 6.1 DYNAMIC ANALYSIS Dynamic Model A dynamic analysis is normally mandatory for every offshore structure.2 Equati***** of Motion The governing dynamic equati***** of multi-degrees-of-freedom systems can be expressed in the matrix form: MX'' + CX' + KX = P(t) where M C K is the mass matrix is the damping matrix is the stiffness matrix of time).3 Loading Combinati***** The static in-place analysis is performed under different conditi***** where the loads are approximated by their pseudostatic equivalent. 6. Depending on the area of structure under scrutiny.3 Stiffness The stiffness matrix is in all aspects similar to the one used in static analyses. Masses include that of the structure itself. masses are lumped at the member ends. velocity and acceleration vectors (function P(t) also (i. fluids.3 Free Vibration Mode Shapes and Frequencies The first step in a dynamic analysis c*****ists of determining the principal natural vibration mode shapes and frequencies of the undamped. relative motion of the structure with respect to the wave velocity in Morison equation). 6. It may have one of the following representati*****: modal damping: a specific damping ratio z expressing the percentage to critical associated with each mode (typically defined as a linear combination of stiffness and mass matrices. being roughly proportional to the strain energy involved in each.Powered by phpwind http://bbs. X'. 6. Representation of Damping Viscous damping represents the most common and simple form of damping. 6.php?tid=126910 live loads (equipments. z = 1. is the time dependent force vector.2.5% hydrodynamic) proportional damping: All other types of non-viscous damping should preferably be expressed as an equivalent viscous damping matrix. The basic loads relevant to a given condition are multiplied by the appropriate load factors and combined to produce the most severe effect in each individual element of the structure. The selection of lumping points may significantly affect the ensuing solution.2. live loads must be positioned to produce the most severe configuration (compression or tension). z = 0. 5. liquids trapped in legs or tanks. but may alternatively be accounted as part of the forcing function when vibrati***** are close to resonance (vortex-shedding in particular). Masses are generally lumped at discrete points of the model. The mass matrix c*****equently becomes diagonal but local modes of vibration of single members are ignored (these modes may be important for certain members subjected to an earthquake). the system can be condensed to a few freedoms while still retaining its basic energy distribution. but can be restricted to the main modes in the case of stiff structures. multi-degree-of-freedom structure up to a given order (30th to 50th). Some simplificati***** may however take place: local joint reinforcements and eccentricities may be disregarded.2 Environmental Loads Environmental loads c*****ist of wave. 6. personnel). for each the position of the crest relative to the platform must be established such that the maximum overturning moment and/or shear are produced at the mudline. It increases with the order of the mode. 5. the appurtenances.e. Structural Damping Structural damping is associated with the loss of energy by internal friction in the material. in the most general case it may depend on the displacements of the structure X.2 Damping Damping is the most difficult to estimate among all parameters governing the dynamic resp*****e of a structure. The dynamic model of the structure is derived from the main static model.2. the foundation model may be derived from cyclic soil behaviour. Hydrodynamic Damping Damping provided by the water surrounding the structure is commonly added to the former.52ship.
4 Modal Superposition Method A convenient technique c*****ists of uncoupling the equati***** through the normal modes of the system. Unconditionally stable methods are always to be preferred (for instance Newmark-beta with b = 1/4 or Wilson-theta with q = 1. stiffness.4).e. The dynamic equilibrium at an instant t is governed by the same type of equati*****. load) are simultaneously dependent on the time and structural resp*****e as well. as the transient part of the resp*****e vanishes rapidly under the effect of damping.52ship. All available integration techniques are characterised by their stability (i. The same model is used throughout the analysis process. CONCLUDING SUMMARY The analysis of offshore structures is an extensive task. 6. the tendency for uncontrolled divergence of amplitude to occur with increasing time steps). 6. 6. It may however prove time-c*****uming when a large number of modes is required to represent the resp*****e accurately. stiffness and damping matrix is time-independent. such as: H = [-M w 2 + i x C w + K] the elements of which represent: Hj.4. Simple rules are available for preliminary member sizing.com/read.1 Frequency Domain Analysis Such analysis is most appropriate for evaluating the steady-state resp*****e of a system subjected to cyclic loadings. damping. it must be corrected by the static contribution of the higher modes (mode-acceleration method) for wave loadings. resp*****es involving many vibration modes to be determined over a short time interval. Usually.php?tid=126910 This c*****ists in solving the eigenvalue problem: KX = l MX For rigid structures having a fundamental vibration period well below the range of wave periods (typically less than 3 s). Static in-plane analysis is always carried out at the early stage of a project to size the main elements of the structure.船友技术论坛_海洋石油支持船 . This method is only applicable if: each mass.4.2 Xj(t) Time Domain Analysis The resp*****e of the i-th mode may alternatively be determined by resorting to Duhamel's integral: = The overall resp*****e is then obtained by summing at each time step the individual resp*****es over all significant modes.5 Direct Integration Methods Direct step-by-step integration of the equati***** of motion is the most general method and is applicable to: non-linear problems involving special forms of damping and resp*****e-dependent loadings.k = The spectral density of resp*****e in freedom j versus force is then: The fast Fourier transform (FFT) is the most efficient algorithm associated with this kind of analysis. The verification of an element c*****ists of comparing its characteristic resistance(s) to a design force or stress. and can be re-used for as many subsequent resp*****e calculati***** as needed at later stages. Previous | Next | Contents 懒猴航海-海洋石油支持船osv论坛 43 of 54 02-11-2011 PM 11:29 . 7. non-linear forces are linearized beforehand (drag). Therefore: the simple superposition method (mode-displacement) is applied to a truncated number of lowest modes for predicting earthquake resp*****e. 6. significant values of pj only occur within a narrow range of frequencies and the analysis can be restricted to it. The analytical models used in offshore engineering are in some respects similar to those used for other types of steel structures. The relati*****hip between resp*****e and force vectors is expressed by the transfer matrix H. Several methods are available. The total resp*****e is obtained by summing the resp*****es of the individual single-degree-of-freedom oscillators associated to each normal mode of the structure. The loading function is developed in Fourier series up to an order h: p(t) = The plot of the amplitudes pj versus the circular frequencies w j is called the amplitude power spectra of the loading.Powered by phpwind http://bbs. the dynamic behaviour is simply accounted for by multiplying the time-dependent loads by a dynamic amplification factor (DAF): DAF = where b = TN/T is the ratio of the period of the structure to the wave period. This method offers the advantage that the eigen modes provide substantial insight into the problem. A dynamic analysis is normally mandatory for every offshore structure. where all matrices (mass.
船友技术论坛_海洋石油支持船 . Analyses required for load-out and transportation and for installation are outlined. The effect of the c*****tant stresses. 发消息 显示用户信息 关注Ta PREREQUISITES Lecture 15A. different phases to determine the stress range for a given wave at each joint. impact and progressive collapse.Powered by phpwind http://bbs. Local analysis for specific parts of the structure which are better treated by dedicated models outside of the global analysis are identified. The cumulative damage caused by ni cycles of stress Dsi. 1. different incidences (typically eight). The mode . Quasi-static analysis is often chosen. mainly welding residual stresses.1.1.Analysis II 级别: 论坛版主 OBJECTIVE/SCOPE To present the analysis procedures for offshore structures relating to fatigue. it permits all local stresses to be comprehensively represented. Modal analysis may be used instead. structures under rotating equipments.2: Lecture 15A. it offers computational efficiency.1 1. over the operational life of the platform (30 to 50 years) is obtained by the Palmgren-Miner rule: D = The limit of this ratio depends on the position of the joint with respect to the splash zone (typically +/-4m on either side of the mean sea level).4 Fatigue Damage Model The fatigue failure of joints in offshore structures primarily depends on the stress ranges and their number of occurrences. installation and local design. 0. 1.4: Offshore Structures: General Introduction Loads I: Introduction and Environmental Loads Loads II: Other Loads Analysis I RELATED LECTURES 鲜花 鸡蛋 SUMMARY Methods of fatigue analysis are described including the fatigue model (structural.1: Lecture 15A.2 Hydrodynamic Loading Model A very large number of computer runs may be necessary to evaluate the stress range at the joints.1. 1.0 above.3 Joint Stress Model Nominal joint stresses are calculated for eight points around the circumference of the brace.5 . floating structures).52ship.acceleration method may overcome this problem. but may also overlook important local resp*****e modes. FATIGUE ANALYSIS A fatigue analysis is performed for those structures sensitive to the action of cyclic loadings such as: wave (jackets. The maximum local (hot spot) stress is obtained by multiplying the former by a stress concentration factor (SCF) given by parametric formulae which are functi***** of the joint geometry and the load pattern (balanced/unbalanced). is implicitly accounted for in this formulation.1 within. 44 of 54 02-11-2011 PM 11:29 . load-out and transportation. hydrodynamic loading.php?tid=126910 回复 引用 举报 顶端 只看该作者 landho 8楼 发表于: 2010-11-22 Previous | Next | Contents ESDEP WG 15A STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS: OFFSHORE Lecture 15A. each associated with a characteristic wave and zero-upcrossing period. 1. The ratio should normally not exceed: 1. The dynamic effects are accounted for by factoring the loads by the relevant DAF. wind (flare booms.1. abnormal and accident conditi*****. The wave is repeatedly generated for: different blocks of wave heights (typically from 2 to 28m in steps of 2m). Abnormal and accidental conditi***** are c*****idered relating to earthquake.com/read.2). particularly near the waterline where direct wave action causes high out-of-plane bending (see Section 5.1 Fatigue Model Structural Model The in-place model is used for the fatigue analysis. 1. and joint stress models) and the methods of fatigue damage assessment.3: Lecture 15A. stair towers). formulated by S-N curves: log Ni = log a + mlog Dsi The number of cycles to failure Ni corresponds to a stress range.
4. the directionality function derived from the mean direction and associated spreading function.2 Vortex Shedding Vortex induced failure occurs for tubes subjected to a uniform or oscillating flow of fluid.1. k is a long-term distribution parameter. each with different period and incidence: The resp*****e has normally a narrow-banded spectrum and can be described by a Rayleigh distribution. If this range corresponds to a peak in the structural resp*****e.4. 2. The main feature of such analysis is the introduction of coherence functi***** accounting for the spanwise correlation of forces. the fatigue life predicted by the deterministic method can be seriously distorted. Eventually the most thorough representation of a sea state c*****ists of: the frequency spectrum c*****tructed from the significant wave heights and mean zero-crossing periods. depending on the position of the joint in the structure.3 Spectral Analysis Waves of a given height are not characterised by a unique frequency. 1. This phenomenon involves forced displacements. m are coefficients of the selected S-N curve.4 1. N is the total number of cycles. Ds is the stress range exceeded once in N cycles. eddies are shed at a frequency close to the resonant frequency of the member. Transfer functi***** TF are determined from time-domain analyses involving various wave heights. which can be determined by models such as those suggested in .1 Earthquake Analysis Model Particular attention shall be paid to: foundati*****: the near field (i. Design recommendati***** are 45 of 54 02-11-2011 PM 11:29 . Within a specific range of fluid velocities.1. A minimum of four regular waves described in terms of height and associated period are c*****idered for each heading angle. This approach requires that the physical process be approximately linear (or properly linearised) and stationary.3 below the splash zone.1 2. 1.com/read. in which the joint occurrence of wave height and period is quantified. ABNORMAL AND ACCIDENTAL CONDITI***** This type of analysis addresses conditi***** which may c*****iderably affect the integrity of the structure.2 Deterministic Analysis This analysis c*****ists of time-domain analysis of the structure. but only have a limited risk of occurrence. The main advantage of this representation is that non-linear effects (drag. The zero-upcrossing frequency of stress cycles is then approximated by: Tz = where mn is the nth order moment of the resp*****e. 2. modal damping (in general taken as 5% and 7% of critical for ULS and PLS analyses respectively). This problem is overcome by using a scatter diagram.船友技术论坛_海洋石油支持船 .q) is the directional wave energy spectrum. but rather by a range of frequencies. 1. Wave directionality may also be accounted for.5 Closed Form Expression The damage may alternatively be expressed in closed form: D where = a.1 Wind Fatigue Wind Gusts The fatigue damage caused by the fluctuating part of wind (gusts) on slender structures like flare booms and bridges is usually predicted by spectral methods.1. 1. 1.php?tid=126910 0. high order wave theories) are handled explicitly. As a general rule the lateral foundation behaviour is essentially controlled by horizontal ground moti***** of shallow soil layers. the soil mass in the direct vicinity of the structure) shall accurately represent load-deflection behaviour.52ship.2 Ductility Requirements The seismic forces in a structure are highly dependent on its dynamic characteristics. Typically all events with a probability level less than the 10-4 threshold are disregarded. 2.Powered by phpwind http://bbs. The significant stress range is readily obtained for each sea state as: ssig = where S(w.e.
Modal spectral resp*****e analysis is normally used. 3.com/read.3 Analysis Method Earthquake analyses can be carried out according to the general methods presented in Lecture 15A.3 Progressive Collapse Some elements of the structure (legs. 3. 3. 2.2 Load-Out by Trailers As the reaction on each trailer can be kept c*****tant. Their residual strength may be represented by forces applied at the boundary nodes with the intact structure. The recommendati***** call for: providing sufficient redundancy and symmetry in the structure.1.1 Dropped Object/Boat Impact When a wellhead protection cover is hit by a drill collar. bulkheads) may partially or completely loose their strength as a result of accidental damage. However their distinctive feature is that they represent essentially a base motion problem and that the seismic loads are therefore dependent on the dynamic characteristics of the structure. 2. the reduction of material strength and elastic modulus under temperature increase. or by using trailers underneath it. global deformation along plastic hinges with possible appearance of membrane forces. It c*****ists of a superposition of maximum mode resp*****e and forms a resp*****e spectrum curve characteristic of the input motion. The purpose of such analysis is to ensure that the spare resistance of the remaining structure is sufficient to allow the loads to redistribute. or a tube (jacket leg. Since such a configuration is only temporary (mobilisation period prior to repairs) and that operati***** will also be restricted around the damaged area.2 Impact The analysis of impact loads on structures is carried out locally using simple plastic models . 3. reduced live and environmental loads are generally accepted. the damaged elements are removed from the model. two load/deformation mechanisms occur simultaneously: local punch-through (cover) or denting (tube). 2. 3. favouring X-bracings instead of K-bracings. from the barge just after it has left the quay.1. bracings. avoiding abrupt changes in stiffness.4. Should a more sophisticated analysis be required.52ship.2.1 LOAD OUT & TRANSPORTATION Load-Out The load-out procedure c*****ists in moving the jacket or module from its c*****truction site to the transportation barge by skidding.2. 2. improving the post-buckling behaviour of bracings. The whole energy must be absorbed within acceptable deformati*****.Powered by phpwind http://bbs. buoyancy tanks) which contribute significantly to the righting moment.2 3. particular care shall be taken in the representation of overhanging parts (legs.1. as well as sharp corners which introduce heavy viscous damping. In this analysis. analysis of load-out by trailers only requires a single step to determine the optimal distribution of trailers. 46 of 54 02-11-2011 PM 11:29 . based on a better understanding of the pressure-time histories and the effective resistance and resp*****e of structures to explosi***** and fire. In the aftermath of recent mishaps however. it can be accomplished using time-domain techniques presented in Section 6 of Lecture 15A. or grounded on the bottom of the harbour. Direct time integration can be used instead for specific accelerograms adapted to the site. The barge may be floating and is continuously deballasted as the package progresses onto it. The analysis should also investigate the possibility of high local reacti***** being the result of settlement of the skidway or errors in the ballasting procedure. fender) is crushed by a supply boat. the behaviour of structures in such events has so far been only predicted by simple models based on: equivalent static overpressure and plastic deformation of plates for blast analysis. more accurate analyses may become mandatory. For jacket transport. Barges are in general characterised by a low length/beam ratio and a high beam/draught ratio. This spectrum is the result of time-histories of a SDOF system for different natural periods of vibration and damping.2.2 Blast and Fire Owing to the current lack of definitive guidance regarding explosi***** and fire. 2.php?tid=126910 given by API to determine an efficient geometry.1 Transportation Naval Architectural Model The model c*****ists of the rigid-body assembly of the barge and the structure.1 Skidding The most severe configuration during skidding occurs when the part of the structure is cantilevering out: from the quayside before it touches the barge.4.船友技术论坛_海洋石油支持船 .
see Section 5.6 4. Hydrodynamic acti***** are added for underwater driving.2. The force and elongation in these springs should always remain small.1.4 Unpiled Stability The condition where the jacket may for a while stand unpiled on the seafloor is analysed for the design installation wave.6. barge weight.5 Piling The piles are checked during driving for the dynamic stresses caused by the impact wave of the hammer blow. which is the sole vertical support in the model and shall be located exactly on the vertical through the centre of gracity (CoG) of the model.1 Design Factors Skew Load Factor (SKL) Different factors are applied to the basic sling forces to account for specific effects during lifting operati*****. 4. and also the partition and intensity of buoyancy and slamming forces.2.2 Upending No dedicated structural analysis is required for this phase. The model therefore represents the jacket and the barge as two structures coupled together by the seafastening members.3 Docking Docking of a jacket onto a pre-installed template requires guides to be analysed for local impact.2 omitted. accounting for first and second order moments arising from the pile batter. 4.2 Structural Model The structural model is in all aspects identical to the one used for the transportation analysis. Skew factors may either be directly computed by applying to a pair of opposite slings a temperature difference such that their elongation/shortening corresponds to the mismatch. buoyancy and ballast forces.php?tid=126910 Dry-transported decks and modules may be simply represented by their mass and moments of inertia.com/read. otherwise they are inactivated and the analysis restarted for that step. As the barge passes over a wave trough or a crest.船友技术论坛_海洋石油支持船 . For single lifts the slings converge towards the hook joint. spreader frames). 4.6. with possibly a finer representation of the launch legs. Once the tilting phase has begun. 4. The mathematical instability of the model with respect to horizontal forces is avoided by using soft horizontal springs at the padeyes.52ship. together with the resistance of the mudmats against soil pressure. or 47 of 54 02-11-2011 PM 11:29 . the CoG shall be contained in the vertical plane defined by the two hook joints. the jacket/barge rigid body system is repositioned to equilibrate the internal and external forces produced by: jacket weight.Powered by phpwind http://bbs. The rocker arm is also represented as a vertical beam hinged approximately at midspan. For heavier dual-crane lifts. At each time step. 4. 4. The maximum reaction on the rocker arm is normally obtained when the jacket just starts rotating about the rocker hinge. inertia. Structural Model The jacket model is a simplified version of the in-place model. a portion only of the barge is supported by buoyancy (long barges may be spanning over a whole trough or be half-cantilevered).6. buoyancy and drag forces.2 4. Interface loads obtained by the rigid body analysis are input at boundary conditi***** on the launch legs. 4. A local analysis of the lugs is performed for crane-assisted upendings. from which eccentricities and local reinforcements may be The barge is modelled as a plane grid. 4. sleeves) shall also be checked. which is essentially a naval architecture problem. Elements in the vicinity of the piles (guides. 4. The same requirement applied for bumpers to aid the installation of modules. with members having the equivalent properties of the longitudinal and transversal bulkheads. vertical reacti***** and friction forces between jacket and barge.1 INSTALLATION Launching Naval Architectural Model A three dimensional analysis is carried out to evaluate the global forces acting on the jacket at various time steps during the launch sequence.1 4. The maximum cantilevered (stick-up) length of pile must be established for the self-weight of the pile and hammer combined. This analysis shall provide the linear and angular accelerati***** and displacements of the structure to be entered in the structural model as inertia forces.1.1 Lifting Model The model used for the lift analysis of a structure c*****ists of the in-place model plus the representation of the rigging arrangement (slings. All interface members must remain in compression. the jacket is analysed at least for each main leg node being at the vertical of the rocker arm pivot. The stability of the jacket as a whole (overturning tendency) is investigated. This factor represents the effect of fabrication tolerances and lack-of-fit of the slings on the load repartition in a statically undetermined rigging arrangement (4 slings or more). 3.1.
2.05 This factor accounts for additional sling loading caused by the rotation of the lifted object about a horizontal axis and by the longitudinal deviation of the hooks from their theoretical position in the case of a multi-hook lift.10 1000 t to 2500t 1. It shall normally be based on 5° and 3° tilt respectively depending on whether cranes are on different vessels or not.30. 5.2/3 repartition).2 Dynamic Amplification Factor (DAF) This factor accounts for global dynamic effects normally experienced during lifting operati*****.5 times the take-off weight of the heaviest helicopter factored by a DAF of 1. 5.3 Straightened Nodes Typical straightened nodes (ring-stiffened nodes.05 more than 2500 t 1. The installation sequence of the different casings must be c*****idered to assess the distribution of stresses in the different tubes forming the overall composite section. the fatigue damage in the shear plates and the attachment welds to the main jacket accumulated during pile driving and throughout the life of the platform.com/read. while the main framing is analysed elastically. Pull-In J-tubes are empty ducts continuously guiding a post-installed riser pulled inside. 5. bottle legs nodes with diaphragms) are analysed by finite-elements models. The main verificati***** address: the shear stresses in the concrete.4.Powered by phpwind http://bbs. caiss***** and J-tubes are verified either by structural or piping programs for the action of environmental forces. DnV  recommends minimum values as follows: Lifted Weight W (tonnes) DAF offshore DAF inshore 4.php?tid=126910 determined arbitrarily (typically 1/3 .6. 5. see .4 Yaw Effect Factor (YEF) This factor accounts for the rotation of the lifted object about a vertical axis (equal to 1.4 5.30 1. The list of analyses below is not exhaustive and more information can be found in [1-24] which provide a complete design procedure in each particular case. from which parametric envelope formulae are drawn and applied to all nodes representative of the same class.15 1. 5. 4. internal pressure and temperature.4.6.30 1.6 Flare Booms 48 of 54 02-11-2011 PM 11:29 .52ship.15 100 t to 1000t 1.20 1.00 for spreader frames.2.1 Appurtenances Risers.2 Conductors Conductors are analysed in-place as beam columns on discrete simple supports.10 1. Also the portion of compression force in the conductor caused by the hanging casings is regarded as an internal force (similar to prestressing) which therefore does not induce any buckling tendency. Particular attention is paid to the bends not always satisfactorily represented by structural programs and the location of the touch-down point now known a-priori.2.3 Tilt Effect Factor (TEF) up to 100 t 1.1 Pile/Sleeve Connecti***** Underwater pile/sleeve connection is usually achieved by grouting the annulus between the outside of the pile and the inner sleeve. A slamming coefficient Cs=3.15 1. They are verified by empirical plastic models against the forces generated during pull-in by the friction of the cable and the deformation of the pull head. 5.5 is often selected. lifting points (padeyes) and their attachment to the structure. see . A fatigue analysis is also performed to assess the fatigue damage to the clamps and the attachments to the jacket.2 Members within the Splash Zone Horizontal members (conductor guide frames in particular) located within the splash zone (+/-5m on either side of the mean-sea-level approximately) shall be analysed for fatigue caused by repeated wave slamming.3 C*****equence Factors Forces in elements checked under lift conditi***** are multiplied by a factor reflecting the c*****equence a failure of that specific element would have on the integrity of the overall structure: 1.5 Helidecks The helideck is normally designed to resist an impact load equal to 2. LOCAL ANALYSES AND DESIGN Local analyses address specific parts of the structure which are better treated by dedicated models outside the global analysis.6.船友技术论坛_海洋石油支持船 . Caiss***** & J-Tubes Static In-Place and Fatigue Risers.6. for other elements. 5. 4. 5.05 typically). these being provided by the horizontal framing of the jacket (typically 20 to 25 m span). 4. Plastic theories are applicable for designing the plate and stiffeners. for all members transferring the load to the lifting points.
Dynamics of Offshore Structures/Wiley Interscience. & Wyatt T.J. 263-270. lift upright). Planning and Design of Fixed Offshore Platforms/Van Nostrand Reinhold. April 1984. 懒猴航海-海洋石油支持船osv论坛 回复 引用 举报 顶端 landho 9楼 发表于: 2010-11-22 只看该作者 Previous | Next | Contents 49 of 54 02-11-2011 PM 11:29 . to assess the influence of a particular parameter. Davenport A. June 1985. of Petroleum Technology.P. Random Vibrati***** and Spectral Analysis/Longman Scientific (2nd edition). Zienkiewicz O..D.船友技术论坛_海洋石油支持船 .. The Behaviour of Steel Offshore Structures under Accidental Collisi*****/OTC paper 4136...E. London.. October 1982. October1984 and Veiledning om Utforming. Offshore Installati*****: Guidance on Design and C*****truction/London. May1983.   DnV.Powered by phpwind http://bbs. dynamic resp*****e under gusty winds.  API-RP2A.G. verify the validity of the data resulting from a complex analysis against a simplified model.W.60. A Design Basis for the J-Tube Method of Riser Installation/J. Node Flexibility and its Effect on Jacket Structures/CIRIA Report UR22.  Bunce J. January 1989. An Heuristic Model for Determining Flow-Induced Vibrati***** of Offshore Structures/OTC paper 1843. No ST10. April 1982.  NPD. 1975. & Davies P..W.  1982. of the Structural Div. Vol. more elaborate theories are necessary to analyse complex situati*****. & Rhinne J. & Wootton L. Development of Unified Design Criteria for Heavy Lift Operati***** Offshore/OTC paper 4192. September 1989. Fatigue Analysis of Steel Offshore Structures/ICE Vol.  REFERENCES Skop R..    DoE. New York. Standard for Insurance Warranty Surveys in Marine Operati*****. November 1983. Williams A.C. 1978. Heaf N. of Naval Architects. Designing and C*****tructing Fixed Offshore Platforms/18th edition. & Griffin O. December1989. Beregning og Dimensjonering av Stalk*****truksjoner i Petroleumsvirksomheten.  Walker A.A.. October 1978. Numerical Methods in Offshore Engineering/Wiley Interscience..G. Previous | Next | Contents Hambro L. & Reifel M.  Stahl B. vol.F. reduced material characteristics due to high temperature in the vicinity of the tip during operation.R. Hydrodynamic Analysis of Barge-Platform Systems in Waves/Royal Inst... & Bentson J.3.. local excitation of diagonals by wind vortex-shedding.E. May 1981.4 No. There is a risk for the Engineer having increasingly to rely on the sole results of computer analyses at the expense of sound design practice. the following recommendati***** are given: × × × check the interfaces between the different analyses and ensure the c*****istency of the input/output. & Penzien J. UEG. May 1982. 108. 1984. 6. Jacket Launching Simulation by Differentiation of C*****traints/ Applied Ocean Research. & Mangiavacchi A. McClelland B.com/read. 1984.  Kaplan P. Design Methodology for Offshore Platform Conductors/J.K. of Energy Resources Technology.W.php?tid=126910 Analyses of flare booms particularly c*****ider: variable positi***** during installation (horizontal pick-up from the barge.23.  Hallam M. A Critical Review of Transportation Analysis Procedures/OTC paper 4617.. Recommended Practice for Planning.  DnV . Rules for the Classification of Fixed Offshore Structures.G. Anagnostopoulos S. 7.Rules for the Classification of Steel Ships. Regulation for Structural Design of Loadbearing Structures Intended for Exploitation of Petroleum Resources. pp. Wave and Earthquake Resp*****e of Offshore Structures: Evaluation of Modal Chianis J. Soluti*****/ASCE J.A. September 1983.  De Oliveira J. Clough R. CONCLUDING SUMMARY With the trend to ever deeper and more slender offshore structures in yet harsher environments. & Baur M.W.C..         Wilson J. November 1976.. The Resp*****e of Slender Line-Like Structures to a Gusty Wind/ICE Vol. 1984.G. May 1973.A. & Stagg K.. September1989.52ship.. Newland D. Dynamics of Structures/McGraw-Hill. Dynamics of Marine Structures/ CIRIA Report UR8 (2nd edition). To retain enough control of the process of analysis. Jiang C. 1986.M. 1962.. DnV..W. Lewis R. which can also be used make full use of "good engineering judgement" to criticise the unexpected results of an analysis.
50 of 54 02-11-2011 PM 11:29 . 2.05mm) offering a high permeability. driven deep into the soil (Figure 1). 1. their permeability is low.com/read. For design purposes the influence of these factors on soil behaviour is expressed in terms of two fundamental parameters: friction angle. soils can be classified within "ideal" categories: granular soils.02mm. Since the least significant of either of these parameters is often neglected. The piles have to transfer the loads acting on the jacket into the sea bed. The lecture starts with the classification of soil. undrained shear strength Cu.002mm which tend to stick together. 1. The different kinds of piles and hammers are described. Soil texture c*****ists of small mineral or organic particles basically characterized by their grain size and mutual interaction (friction.Powered by phpwind http://bbs. 1.6: Lectures 12.5: Limit State Design Philosophy and Partial Safety Factors Shear Connection Fatigue Behaviour of Hollow Section Joints Connecti***** in Offshore Deck Structures Requirements and Verificati***** of Seismic Resistant Structures 鲜花 鸡蛋 A general knowledge of design in offshore structures and an understanding of offshore installation are also required.船友技术论坛_海洋石油支持船 . The properties of a specific soil depend mainly on the following factors: density. each having c*****tant properties throughout. Checking of the pile itself is described in detail in the Worked Example.2: Lectures 10. The nature and characteristics of the soil surrounding a pile generally vary with the depth. cohesive soils. The three main execution phases are briefly discussed: fabrication.1 INTRODUCTION Classification of Soils The stratigraphy of the sea bed results from a complex geological process during which various materials were deposited. transport and installation.3 1. For analysis purposes. In this section theoretical aspects of the design of piles are presented. silts : characterized by particle sizes between 0.4 Cohesive Soils Multi-Layered Strata Clays are plastic soils with particle sizes less than 0. SUMMARY In this lecture piled foundati***** for offshore structures are presented.4: Lecture 15A. The number of layers depends on the precision required of the analysis. over c*****olidation ratio. water content.2. 1. They include: sands : characterized by large to medium particle sizes (1mm to 0. cohesion).52ship. DESIGN Steel offshore platforms are usually founded on piles.05 and 0. the soil is divided into several layers.php?tid=126910 ESDEP WG 15A STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS: OFFSHORE Lecture 15A. they may exhibit some cohesion.6: Foundati***** OBJECTIVE\SCOPE 级别: 论坛版主 to classify different types of piles to understand main design methods to cover various methods of installation 发消息 显示用户信息 关注Ta PREREQUISITES Lecture 1B. they are generally over-c*****olidated.2 Granular Soils Granular soils are non-plastic soils with negligible cohesion between particles. The main steps in the design of piles are then explained. remoulded and pressed together.12: Lecture 17.
2. and lateral shear force plus bending.com/read.Powered by phpwind http://bbs. are basically horizontal. is calculated by the "alpha" or "lambda" method and is a c*****tant equal to the shear strength Cu at great 51 of 54 02-11-2011 PM 11:29 .1. earthquake.1. resulting in: vertical compression or pullout force. etc.2 2. equilibrated by axial tension/ compression in symmetrically disposed piles (upstream/downstream). is proportional to the overburden pressure.船友技术论坛_海洋石油支持船 . The unit shaft friction: for sands: for clays: depth. current. overturning moment on the jacket. Their resultant at mudline c*****ists of: shear distributed as horizontal forces on the piles. Skin friction is mobilized along the shaft of the tubular pile (and possibly also along the inner wall when the soil plug is not removed).52ship. 2.php?tid=126910 2.1. 2. Lateral friction is integrated along the whole penetration of the pile.1 Design Loads Gravity loads These loads are those transferred from the jacket to the foundation.3 Load combinati***** The basic gravity and environmental loads multiplied by relevant load factors are combined in order to produce the most severe effect(s) at mudline.1 2. wind.2 Environmental loads Environmental loads due to waves. Gravity loads (platform dead load and live loads) are distributed as axial compression forces on the piles depending upon their respective eccentricity.2.1 Static Axial Pile Resistance Lateral friction along the shaft (shaft friction) The overall resistance of the pile against axial force is the sum of shaft friction and end bearing. They are calculated at the mudline.
The fourth order differential equation which expresses the pile deformation is integrated by successive iterati*****. which reflects on the pile tip. the second order contribution of the axial compression to the bending moment (P-Delta effect) shall be taken into account.2 Wave equation This method of analysing the driving process c*****ists of representing the ensemble of pile/soil/hammer as a one-dimensional assembly of masses. The shape of these curves varies with the depth and the type of soil at the c*****idered elevation.e. The general shape of the curves for increasing displacement features: elastic (linear) behaviour for small deflecti*****. i.php?tid=126910 2.4.52ship. the soil is idealized as a massless medium characterized by elastic-perfectly-plastic springs and linear dashpots.4. the soil is modelled as lumped non-linear springs distributed along the pile. 2.1 Empirical formulae A c*****iderable number of empirical formulae exist to predict pile driveability. This action may generate large deformati***** and high bending moments in the part of the pile directly below the mudline.3. 52 of 54 02-11-2011 PM 11:29 .2 Lateral pile analysis For analysis purposes. 2. 2. The bearing pressure: for clays: for sands: is equal to 9 ´ Cu.Powered by phpwind http://bbs. the secant stiffness of the soil springs being updated at each step.2 of API-RP2A . The energy is progressively lost by plastic friction on the sides and bearing at the tip of the pile. the hammer is modelled as a mass falling with an initial velocity.1 P-y curves P-y curves represent the lateral soil resistance versus deflection. Each formula is generally limited to a particular type of soil and hammer.3 Lateral Pile Resistance The shear at the mudline caused by environmental loads is resisted by lateral bearing of the pile on the soil.船友技术论坛_海洋石油支持船 . springs and dashpots: the pile is modelled as a discrete assembly of masses and elastic springs. the pile cap is represented by a mass of infinite rigidity. with or without the area of plug if relevant.com/read. elastic/plastic behaviour for medium deflecti*****. particularly in soft soils. The impact is transmitted along the pile in the form of a wave.4 Pile Driving Piles installed by driving are forced into the soil by a ram hitting the top. No bearing resistance can be mobilized against pull-out: the friction available must be equated to the pull out force multiplied by the appropriate factor of safety.2. For large deformati*****.2 End bearing End bearing is the resultant of bearing pressure over the gross end area of the pile.2.3.3 Pile penetration The pile penetration shall be sufficient to generate enough friction and bearing resistance against the maximum design compression multiplied by the appropriate factor of safety. the cushion is represented by a weightless spring (see Figure 3). 2. 2. is proportional to the overburden pressure as explained in Section 6. c*****tant resistance for large deflecti***** or loss of resistance when the soil skeleton deteriorates (clay under cyclic load in particular). 2. 2.4.
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