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1. THERMODYNAMICS
THERMODYNAMICS AND ENERGY Thermodynamics can be defined as the science of energy. Although everybody has a feeling of what energy is, It is difficult to give a precise definition for it. Energy can be viewed as the ability to cause changes. The name thermodynamics stems from the Greek words therm (heat) and dynanus (power), which is most descriptive of the early efforts to convert heat into power. Today the same name is broadly interpreted to include all aspects of energy and energy transformations, including power generation refrigeration, and relationships among the properties of matter. Thermodynamics may be defined as follows : Thermodynamics is a science which deals with the relations among heat, work and properties of system which are in equilibrium. It describes state and changes in state of physical systems. Or Thermodynamics is the science of the regularities governing processes of energy conversion. Or Thermodynamics is the science that deals with the interaction between energy and material systems. Thermodynamics, basically entails four laws or axioms known as Zeroth, First, Second and Third law of thermodynamics.     The Zeroth law deals with thermal equilibrium and establishes a concept of temperature. The First law throws light on concept of internal energy. The Second law indicates the limit of converting heat into work and introduces the principle of increase of entropy. The Third law defines the absolute zero of entropy.

These laws are based on experimental observations and have no mathematical proof. Like all physical laws, these laws are based on logical reasoning. One of the most fundamental laws of nature is the conservation of energy principle. It simply states that during an interaction, energy can change from one form to another but the total amount of energy remains constant. That is, energy cannot be created or destroyed. A rock falling off a cliff, for example, picks up speed as a result of its potential energy being converted to kinetic energy. The conservation of energy principle also forms the back bone of the diet industry. A person who has a greater energy input (food) than energy output (exercise) will gain weight (store energy in the form of fat), and a person who has a smaller energy input than output will lose weight. The change in the energy content of a body or any other system is equal to the difference between the energy input and the energy output, and the energy balance is expressed as Em - Em = ΔE

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The first law of thermodynamics is simply an expression of the conservation of energy principle, and it asserts that energy is a thermodynamic property. The second law of thermodynamics asserts that energy has quality as well as quantity, and actual processes occur in the direction of decreasing quality of energy. For example, a cup of hot coffee left on a table eventually cools, but a cup of cool coffee in the same room never gets hot by itself. The hightemperature energy of the coffee is degraded (transformed into a less useful form at a lower temperature) once it is transferred to the surrounding air. It is well-known that a substance consists of a large number of particles called molecules. The properties of the substance naturally depend on the behavior of these particles. For example, the pressure of a gas in a container is the result of momentum transfer between the molecules and the walls of the container. However, one does not need to know the behavior of the gas particles to determine the pressure in the container. It would be sufficient to attach a pressure gauge to the container. This macroscopic approach to the study of thermodynamics that does not require a knowledge of the behavior of individual particles is called classical thermodynamics. It provides a direct and easy way to the solution of engineering problems. A more elaborate approach, based on the average behavior of large groups of individual particles, is called statistical thermodynamics. APPLICATION AREAS OF THERMODYNAMICS All activities in nature involve some interaction between energy and mailer thus, it is hard to imagine an area that does not relate to thermodynamics in some manner. Therefore, developing a good understanding of bask principles of thermodynamics has long been an essential part of engineering education. Thermodynamics is commonly encountered in many engineering systems and other aspects of life, and one does not need to go very far to see some application areas of it. In fact, one does not need to go anywhere. The heart is constantly pumping blood to all parts of the human body, various energy conversions occur in trillions of body cells, and the body heat generated is constantly rejected to the environment. The human comfort is closely tied to the rate of this metabolic heat rejection. We try to control this heat transfer rate by adjusting our clothing to the environmental conditions. Other applications of thermodynamics are right where one lives. An ordinary house is, in some respects, an exhibition hall filled with wonders of thermodynamics. Many ordinary household utensils and appliances are designed, in whole or in part by using the principles of thermodynamics. Some examples include the electric or gas range, the heating and airconditioning systems, the refrigerator, the humidifier, the pressure cooker, the water heater, the shower, the iron, and even the computer and the TV. On a larger scale, thermodynamics plays a major part in the design and analysts of automotive engines, rockets, jet engines, and conventional or nuclear power plants, solar collectors, and the design of vehicles from ordinary cars to airplanes. The energy-efficient home that you may be living in, for example, is designed on the basis of minimizing heat loss in winter and beat gain in summer The size, location, and the power input of the fan of your computer is also selected after an analysis that involves thermodynamics.

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SYSTEM, BOUNDARY AND SURROUNDINGS System- A system is a finite quantity of matter or a prescribed region of space Boundary. The actual or hypothetical envelope enclosing the system is the boundary of the system. The boundary may be fixed or it may move, as and when a system containing a gas is compressed or expanded. The boundary may be real or imaginary. It is not difficult to envisage a real boundary but an example of imaginary boundary would be one drawn around a system consisting of the fresh mixture about to enter the cylinder of an I.C. engine together with the remnants of the last cylinder charge after the exhaust process.

1. Closed System. Refer above Fig. (a) If the boundary of the system is impervious to the flow of matter, it is called a closed system. An example of this system is mass of gas or vapour contained in an engine cylinder, the boundary of which is drawn by the cylinder walls, the cylinder head and piston crown. Here the boundary is continuous and no matter may enter or leave. 2.Open System Refer Fig. (c) An open system is one in which matter flows into or out of the system. Molt of the engineering systems are open. 3.Isolated System An isolated system is that system which exchanges neither energy nor matter with at other system or with environment. 4. Adiabatic System An adiabatic system is one which is thermally insulated from its surroundings. It can, however, exchange work with its surroundings. If it does not, it becomes an isolated system. Phase- A phase is a quantity of matter which is homogeneous throughout in chemical composition and physical structure.

The mixture of liquid air and gaseous air is not a pure substance. The behaviour of the system is found by using statistical methods as the number of molecules is very large. kinetic energy. mixture of ice and water. The values of the properties of the system are their average values. . (b) homogeneous in chemical aggregation. force of impact etc which describe the molecule cannot be easily measured by instrument. This is known to thermodynamics which is concerned directly as classical thermodynamic with the structure of the matter is known as statistical thermodynamics. complicated. it is a system which is (a) homogeneous in composition. The values of these energies are considered without taking into account the constantly changing with time. 6.Heterogeneous System A system which consists of two or more phases is called a heterogeneous system. Homogeneous System A system which consists of a single phase is termed as homogeneous system. ice plus water and water plus oil. Our senses cannot feel them. Large number of variables an needed to In order to describe a system only a few describe a system. MACROSCOPIC AND MICROSCOPIC POINTS OF VIEW Macroscopic approach—(Macro mean big or total) Microscopic approach—(Micro means small) Macroscopic approach Microscopic approach In this molecules have different velocities and In this approach a certain quantity of matter is energies. Examples : Mixture of air and water vapour. These properties like pressure and temperature can be measured vary easily. Examples : Water plus steam. mixture of liquid water and steam. In other words. PURE SUBSTANCE A pure substance is one that has a homogeneous and invariable chemical composition even though there is a change of phase. This approach events occurring at molecular. So advanced statistical and mathematical methods are needed to explain the changes in the system. The analysis of macroscopic system requires simple mathematical formulae.4 5. Examples: Liquid. So the approach is properties are needed. water plus nitric acid and octane plus heptane. momentum. The properties like velocity. water. The changes in properties can be felt by our sense. impulse.

Therefore. Thus for attaining a state of thermodynamic equilibrium the following three types of equilibrium states must be achieved : 1. there should be no velocity gradient. if the volume of a system of mass m is V. For example. No chemical reaction takes place in the system and the I cat composition which is same throughout the system does not vary with time. On the basis of the above discussion. then the specific volume of matter within the system is V/m =υ which is an intensive property.5 THERMODYNAMIC EQUILIBRIUM A system is in thermodynamic equilibrium if the temperature and pressure at all points are same . Systems under temperature and pressure equilibrium but not under chemical equilibrium are sometimes said to be in metastable equilibrium conditions. 2.The temperature of the system does not change with time has same value at all points of the system. all properties are identic for identical states.Example . Volume. Or each unique condition of a system is called a state. Therefore. It follows from the definition of state that each property has a single value at each stat Stated differently. Chemical equilibrium. the change in its value between any two prescribed equilibrium states is single-valued. Extensive properties. any variable whose change is fixed by the end states is a property. STATE State is the condition of the system at an instant of time as described or measured by properties. Extensive properties are often divided by mass associated with them to obtain the intensive properties. These properties do not depend on the mass of the systen Examples : Temperature and pressure. all properties are state or point functions. The pressure in the system is same at all points and does not change wit respect to time. if and only if. the chemical equilibrium is also necessary. A variable is a property. Thermal equilibrium. if and only if. 3. These properties depend on the mass of the system. Mechanical equilibrium. it has a single value at each equilibrium state. There are two sorts of property : Intensive properties. bu not upon how the state is reached. PROPERTIES OF SYSTEMS A property of a system is a characteristic of the system which depends upon its state. A process may be non-flow in which a fixed mass within the defined boundary is .There are no unbalanced forces within the system or betwe the surroundings. PROCESS A process occurs when the system undergoes a change in a state or an energy transfer at a steady state. It is only under thermodynamic equilibrium conditions that the properties of a system can be fixed. we can determine if a given variable is property or by applying the following tests : A variable is a property.

Quasi-static process. and it depends on the path the system follows in going from state 1 to state 2. a continuum. Since the area under each curve represents the work for each process. and an equal mass is crossing the boundary at the exit so that the total mass of the system remains constant.6 undergoing a change of state. Yet. Closed systems undergo non-flow processes. Example : A substance which is being heated in a closed cylinder undergoes a non-flaw process. For this reason. very convenient to disregard the atomic nature of a substance and view ii a continuous. such as "the density of in a glass is the same at any point. such as A. and đW is an inexact or imperfect differential. In a steady flow process mass is crossing the boundary from surrounding at entry. A process may be a flow process in which mass is entering and leaving through the boundary of an open system. The processes through which the system has passed can be shown on a state diagram. The continuum idealisation is implicit in many statements we make. continuum idealization allows us to treat properties as point functions I assume the properties vary continually in space with no jump discontinuities. Heat. Quasi means 'almost'. but a complete section of the path requires in addition a statement of the heat and work crossing the boundary of the system. as well as any heat or work crossing the boundary of the system. work is called a path function. homogeneous matter with no holes. This idealization is valid as long as the size of the system we deal is large relative to the space between the molecules. and also of the work delivered from the system at surroundings to cause the mass to leave. B or C. that is. work etc . This is the case in practically all problems. CONTINUUM Matter is made up of atoms that are widely spaced in the gas phase. the amount of work involved in each case is not a function of the end states of the process. This process is a succession of equilibrium states and infinite slowness is its characteristic feature. except some specialized ones. 2 dW 1 ≠ W2 − W1 Examples. it is possible to take a system from state 1 to state 2 along many quasi-static paths. CYCLE Any process or series of processes whose end states are identical is termed a cycle. PATH FUNCTION AND POINT FUNCTION With reference to Fig. In an open system it is necessary to take account of the work delivered from the surroundings to the system at entry to cause the mass to enter.

work done in a quasi-static process between two given states depends on the path followed. T(F)=1. The differentials of point functions are exact or perfect differentials and the integration is simply temperature. ZEROTH LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS • "Zeroth law of thermodynamics' states that if two systems are each equal in temperature to a third. and depends only on the initial and final states of the system. TEMPERATURE  The temperature is a thermal state of a body which distinguishes a hot body from a cold body. The gas as a system has temperature). WC below the freezing point of water.15. The point of absolute temperature is found to occur at 273. then the two systems are equal in temperature (assuming that the systems 1 and 2 do not reacts each other chemically or electrically). On the other hand. Then : Absolute temperature (K) = Thermometer reading in oC + 273. This temperature is known as absolute zero temperature. Absolute temperature is stated in degrees centigrade. If there is no change of pressure when this system is brought into contact with system 2 a block of iron. since for a given state. The temperatures measured with absolute zero as basis are called absolute temperatures. (A particular molecule does not behave a temperature. it has energy. Pressure.  Instruments for measuring ordinary temperatures are known as thermometers and those for measuring high temperatures are known as pyrometers. volume etc The change in volume thus depends only on the end states of the system. The change in a thermodynamic property of a system in a change of state is independent of the path the system follows during the change of state. the average molecular kinetic energy of the molecules in a system. they are equal in temperature to each other. 2 dV 1 = V2 − V1 Examples. denoted by K (SI unit). System '1' may consist of a mass of gas enclosed in a rigid vessel fitted with a pressure gauge.  It has been found that a gas will not occupy any volume at a certain temperature. irrespective of the path the system follows. there is a definite value for each property.8(ToC)+32 Absolute temperature is degree centigrade is known as degrees kelvin.7 Thermodynamic properties are point functions. . The temperature of a body is proportional to the stored molecular energy.

body '3' in the zeroth law it called the thermometer. Therefore. when any other body '1‘ is brought in thermal communication with the thermometer. In practice.8 Experiment reveals that if system T is brought into contact with a third system '8' again with no change of properties then systems T and '3' will show no change in their properties when brought into contact provided they do not react with each other chemically or electrically. This way. becomes a thermometric property. that an functions of temperature. It is brought into thermal equilibrium with a set of standard temperature of a body '2'. and hence with body It. and is thus calibrated. therefore. the body 'V has the temperature of body '2‘ given for example by. THE THERMOMETER AND THERMOMETRIC PROPERTY The zeroth law of thermodynamics provides the basis for the measurement of temperature. 2 and '3' must be in equilibrium. as thermometric properties. we say that the body '1‘ has attained equality of temperature with the thermometer. Then are other methods of temperature measurement which utilize various other properties of materials. It enables us to compare temperatures of two bodies '1' and '2' with the help of a third body '3‘ and say that the temperature of '1‘ is the same as the temperature of ‗2' without actually bringing 'V and '2' in thermal contact. Later. Six different kinds of thermometers. say the height of mercury column in the thermometer '3'. and the names of the corresponding thermometric properties employed an given below: Thermometer 1 2 3 4 5 6 Constant volumes gas Constant pressure gas Alcohol or mercury-in-glass Electric resistance Thermocouple Electromotive Radiation (pyrometer) Thermometric property Pressure (p) Volume (V) Length (L) Resistance (Ω) force (F) Intensity of radiation (I or J) . The height of mercury column in a thermometer.

5 Low pressures are often expressed in terms of nun of water or mm of mercury. When it is below atmospheric. 1 bar = 10 N/m2. The manometer An elevation change in a fluid corresponds to &P/ρg. Thus. record pressure at the difference between two pressures. vacuum pressure and the absolute presssure is given in Fig. This is an abbreviated way of saying that the pressure is such that which will support a liquid column of stated height. Vacuum readings are given in millimeters of mercury or millimeters of water below the atmosphere.76 m for 760 mm) Hg. is independent of the changes in atmospheric pressure. When ft is above the atmospheric pressure. it is termed gauge pressure and is positive. Such devices indicate the pressure either above or below that of the atmosphere. Pa) or bar. The instruments that we generally use. however.9 DEFINITION OF PRESSURE Pressure is defined as a force per unit area. Pgauge=Pabs-Patm. Pressures are exerted by gases. Any pressure measured above the absolute zero of pressure is termed an 'absolute pressure'. It is necessary to establish an absolute pressure scale which. A pressure of absolute zero can exist only in complete vacuum. which suggests that a fluid column can be us measure pressure differences. it is negative end is known as vacuum. Standard atmospheric pressure = 1. it is the difference between the pressure exerted by a fluid of interest and the ambient atmospheric pressure. vapours and liquids. Types of Pressure Measurement Devices 1. • A schematic diagram showing the gauge pressure. .01325 bar = 0. Pvac= Patm-Pabs The fundamental SI unit of pressure is N/m2 (sometimes called pascal.

The sole effect external to the system. or oil keep the size of the manometer to a manageable level. 1 Nm = 1 J.m. if the resistor is replaced by a motor and a load as shown in fig.10 A device based on this principle is called manometer. When the switch is closed. water. the system interacts with its surroundings and the sole effect could fig reduced to the lifting of a weight Therefore the system ( battery ) does work when the switch is closed. current flows through the resistor and the resistor becomes warmer. (a) When the switch is closed.. which is connected to a resistor by means of a switch as shown in fig. thus. (a) (b) . In mechanics work is defined as the product of force and distance moved in the direction of force! It is denoted by W and the unit of work is N . According to the definition of work in mechanics. The barometric and atmospheric pressure Atmospheric pressure is measured by a device called a barometer. the energy transfer across the boundary of a system on account of reasons other than temperature difference is called work. alcohol. the atmospheric pressure is often referred to as the barometric pressure. and it is commonly used to measure small and moderate pressure differences. warming of resistor can be reduced to the lifting of weight. Hence when the switch is closed. WORK Work is one of the basic modes of energy transfer. In thermodynamics. Work is said to be done by a system if the sole effect external to the system can be reduced to the lifting of a weight. motor shaft rotates and the load is lifted. heavy fluids such mercury are used if large pressure differences are anticipated 2. Consider a storage electric battery as a system. A manometer mainly consists of a glass or plastic U-t containing one or more fluids such as mercury. no work is done. ie. (b).

the amount of work W done by the system will be . A system does not contain work. work is also energy in transit. Work is a path function and hence it is not a property of the system. When the piston moves an infinitesimal distance dl. This must also be an equilibrium state. since macroscopic properties p and V are significant only for equilibrium states. (c) 2 𝑑𝑊 1 (d) ≠ 𝑊2 − 𝑊1 . and if V be the area of the piston. V1. PdV Work) be a system having initially the pressure p1 and volume V1 The system is in thermodynamic equilibrium. At any intermediate point in the travel of the piston. The differential sign in đW When the piston moves out from position 1 to position 2 with the volume changing from V1 to V2. upon entering the system it is converted into stored energy. the state of which is described by the coordinates p1. the force F acting on the piston F = p. pdV work Let the piston move out to a new final position 2. pdV-WORK OR DISPLACEMENT WORK Let the gas in the cylinder (Fig. The piston is the only boundary which moves due to gas pressure. let the pressure be p and the volume V.a. and the infinitesimal amount of work done by the gas on the piston. which is also a thermodynamic equilibrium state specified by pressure p2 and volume V2. is the amount of work transferred during a process 1-2.11 Like heat. dW = F dl = padl = pdV where dV = adl = infinitesimal displacement volume.

Ref Fig (c) Heat transferred to a system is considered positive and heat transferred from a system is considered negative. The first law is a theorem of conservation of energy. It is denoted by Q. The second law . heat is converted into potential or kinetic energy of the molecules. as shown in Fig. is Joule (J) or kilo Joule (kJ). It makes no distinction between the various modes of energy and declares that all forms of energy are equivalent. Heat can be identified only when it crosses the boundary of a system and hence it is a form of energy in transit. When a system changes its state the amount of heat transferred depends upon the path followed. A system does not contain heat because upon entering a system.12 𝑊1−2 = 𝑣2 𝑣1 𝑝𝑑𝑉 The magnitude of the work done is given by the area under the path 1-2. Moreover various experiments have proved the validity of these laws. The integration 𝑝𝑑𝑉 can be performed only on a quasi-static path. The unit of heat. However no violation of these laws has ever been noticed. the first law of thermodynamics and the second law of thermodynamics. all the states passed through by the system as the volume changes from V1 Jo V2 must be equilibrium states. and the path 1-2 must be quasi-static. Since p is at all times a thermodynamic coordinate. and therefore it is not a property of the system. Hence heat is a path function. The integral of a differential change in heat can be written as 2 𝑑𝑄 1 ≠ 𝑄2 − 𝑄1 Q is the amount of heat transferred during a process 1-2. The piston moves infinitely slowly so that every state passed through is an equilibrium state. FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS The study of thermodynamics is based on two general laws of nature. Quasi-static pdV work HEAT The energy transfer across the boundary of a system on account of the temperature difference between the system and surroundings is called heat. These laws are based on physical observations and hence cannot be proved mathematically.

W =PE + KE + U ." For a system operating in a cycle.13 states that all forms of energy are not equivalent in their ability to do work. A PMM1 is thus impossible. the energy of the system. The first law of thermodynamics can be stated as. where of stands for the summation over the cyclic process PERPETUAL MOTION MACHINE OF THE FIRST KIND—PMM1 The first law states the general principle of the conservation of energy. In most of the thermodynamic applications we are mainly interested only in the changes in the internal energy of a system. The converse of the above statement is also true. It is very difficult to determine the absolute value of internal energy possessed by a substance. ΔE = Q .e. ). or cyclic integral 𝑑𝑄 = 𝑑𝑊 . Internal energy of a substance may be defined as the algebraic sum of internal kinetic energy and internal potential energy of its molecules and is denoted by U. or in brief. Energy is neither created nor destroyed. It declares that certain processes are impossible to perform even though these processes do not violate the first law. PMM1. there can be no machine which would continuously consume work without some other form of energy appearing simultaneously (Fig.e. can be neglected. but only gets transformed from one form t another. i. internal energy and other energies due to electricity. and is given the name internal energy or simply.). since (𝑑𝑄 − 𝑑𝑊) = 0. Such a fictitious machine is called a perpetual motion machine of the first kind. magnetic energy etc. kinetic energy. magnetism etc. the net heat transfer is equal to the net work transfer" i. A PMM 1 INTERNAL ENERGY Converse of PMM1 Energy storage in a system is neither heat nor work. There can be no machine which would continuously supply mechanical work without some other form of energy disappearing simultaneously (Fig. The total energy of a system is the sum of potential energy. In engineering thermodynamics the concern is with the first three types of energies and electrical energy..

(b) heat Q1 is transferred from the furnace to the water in the boiler to form steam which then works on the turbine rotor to produce work. heat Q1 is transferred to the system. work WE is done by the system. then the steam is condensed to water in the condenser in which an amount Q2 is rejected from the system. ΔE = ΔPE+ ΔKE + ΔU For a stationary closed system undergoing CYCLIC HEAT ENGINE A heat engine cycle is a thermodynamic cycle in which there is a net heat transfer to the system and a net work transfer from the system. (a).14 Change in energy. as represented in Fig. A heat engine may be in the form of a mass of gas confined in a cylinder and piston machine Fig. work Wc is done upon the system. and finally work Wp is done on the system (water) to pump it to the boiler. The net heat transfer in a cycle to either of the heat engines 𝑄𝑛𝑒𝑡 = 𝑄1 − 𝑄2 Net work transfer in the cycle. 𝑄1 − 𝑄2 = 𝑊𝑇 − 𝑊𝐸 . The system which executes a heat engine cycle is called a heat engine. (a) or a mass of water moving in a steady flow through a steam power plant Fig. (a) I. and then heat Q2 is rejected from the system. (b). The system repeats the cycle.C engine (b) Steam power plant Block Diagram In the cyclic heat engine. The system is brought back to the initial state through all these four successive processes which constitute a heat engine cycle. In Fig. 𝑊𝑛𝑒𝑡 = 𝑊𝑇 − 𝑊𝐸 By first law of thermodynamics Wnet = Qnet 𝑖𝑒.

A typical source is a constant temperature source where fuel is continuously burnt. A heat engine is here a certain quantity of water undergoing the energy interactions. The thermal energy reservoir TERL to which heat Q2 is rejected from the system during a cycle is the sink. All processes of interest within an MER are essentially quasi-static. An MER receives and delivers mechanical energy quasi-statically. condenser (C). which is capable of absorbing or rejecting an unlimited quantity of heat without suffering appreciable changes in its thermodynamic coordinates. i. A heat engine is very often called upon to extract as much work (net) as possible from a certain heat input. and pump (P).e. Eg..15 The block diagram indicating the various energy interactions during a cycle. Eg:. A mechanical energy reservoir (MER) is a large body enclosed by an adiabatic impermeable wall capable of storing work as potential energy (such as a raised weight or wound spring ) or kinetic energy (such as a rotating flywheel). to maximize the cycle efficiency ENERGY RESERVOIRS A thermal energy reservoir (TER) is defined as a large body of infinite heat capacity. The changes that do take place in the large body as heat enters or leaves are so very slow and so very minute that all processes within it are quasi-static. η= = 𝑁𝑒𝑡 𝑤𝑜𝑟𝑘 𝑜𝑢𝑡𝑝𝑢𝑡 𝑜𝑓 𝑡𝑕𝑒 𝑐𝑦𝑐𝑙𝑒 𝑁𝑒𝑡 𝑕𝑒𝑎𝑡 𝑖𝑛𝑝𝑢𝑡 𝑡𝑜 𝑡𝑕𝑒 𝑐𝑦𝑐𝑙𝑒 𝑊𝑛𝑒𝑡 𝑄1 𝑊 𝑇 −𝑊 𝐸 𝑄1 𝑄1 −𝑄2 𝑄1 = = =1− 𝑄2 𝑄1 This is also known as the thermal efficiency of a heat engine cycle. Cyclic heat engine (CHE) with source and sink . Sea. all four together constitute a heat engine. turbine (T). Boiler (B). The efficiency of a heat engine or a heat engine cycle is defined as. The thermal energy reservoir TERH from which heat Q1 is transferred to the system operating in a heat engine cycle is called the source. and a typical sink is a river or sea or the atmosphere itself. in cyclic operations to produce net work from a certain heat input The function of a heat engine cycle is to produce work continuously at the expense of heat input to the system.Sun. So the net work and heat input Q1 referred to the cycle are of primary interest. as shown.

Q2 and Ware of primary interest.16 REFRIGERATOR AND HEAT PUMP A refrigerator is a device which. when the temperature drops to a value lower than t2 such that heat Q2 flows from the body A to make the refrigerant evaporate (Process 3-4). called the refrigerant. Such a cyclic device of flow through E1-C1-C2-E2 is called a refrigerator. which evaporates in the evaporator E1 at a temperature lower than t2 absorbing the latent heat of vaporization from the body A which is cooled or refrigerated (Process 4-1). Let the body A (Fig) be maintained at which is lower than the ambient temperature t1. there will always be heat leakage Q2 into the body from the surroundings by virtue of the temperature difference. heat has to be removed from the body at the same rate at which heat is leaking into the body. This heat (Q2) is absorbed by a working fluid. operating in a cycle. Just like . A cyclic refrigeration plant In order to maintain. The condensate then expands adiabatically through an expander (an engine or turbine) producing work WE. and is then condensed in the condenser C2 rejecting the latent heat of condensation Q1 at a temperature higher than that of the atmosphere (at t1]) for heat transfer to take place (Process 2-3). In a refrigerator cycle. maintains a body at a temperature lower than the temperature of the surroundings. body A at the constant temperature t2. attention is concentrated on the body A. Even though A is insulated. The vapour is first compressed in the compressor C1 driven by a motor which absorbs work Wc (Process 1-2).

but the attention is here focused on the high temperature body B. and the COP is defined as. compressor C1 condenser C2 and expander E2. operating in a cycle. which is defined as.). 𝐷𝑒𝑠𝑖𝑟𝑒𝑑 𝑒𝑓𝑓𝑒𝑐𝑡 𝑊𝑜𝑟𝑘 𝑖𝑛𝑝𝑢𝑡 𝑄1 = 𝑄1 𝑊 𝑄1 −𝑄2 = 1 + 𝑄 𝑄2 1 −𝑄2 [COP]HP = [COP]Ref + 1 Cyclic Heat Pump KELVIN-PLANCK STATEMENT OF SECOND LAW The efficiency of a heat engine is given by. abbreviated to COP.e. To produce net work in a thermodynamic cycle. i. . Therefore. maintains a body. called the coefficient of performance. The working fluid operates in a cycle flowing through the evaporator E1. η is less than unity. The Kelvin-Planck statement of the second law states: “It is impossible for a heat engine to produce net work in a complete cycle if it exchanges heat only with bodies at a single fixed temperature”. there will be heat leakage Q1 from the body to the surroundings. if heat is discharged into the body at the same rate at which heat leaks out of the body. and discharged into the high temperature body B. By virtue of the temperature difference. similar to a refrigerator. A heat engine can never be 100% efficient. Here Q1and W are of primary interest.. the source and the sink. η= 𝑊𝑛𝑒𝑡 𝑄1 =1− 𝑄2 𝑄1 Experience shows that Wnet < Q1 since heat Q1 transferred to a system cannot be completely converted to work in a cycle. [COP]HP = = Therefore. Therefore. there has always to be a heat rejection. say B (Fig. Q2 > 0. The body will be maintained at the constant temperature t1. which is nothing but the atmosphere. there is a performance parameter in a refrigerator cycle.17 efficiency in a heat engine cycle. The heat is extracted from the low temperature reservoir. with the expenditure of work W in a cyclic device called a heat pump. [COP]Ref = 𝐷𝑒𝑠𝑖𝑟𝑒𝑑 𝑒𝑓𝑓𝑒𝑐𝑡 𝑊𝑜𝑟𝑘 𝑖𝑛𝑝𝑢𝑡 = 𝑄2 𝑊 = 𝑄2 𝑄1 −𝑄2 A heat pump is a device which. a heat engine has thus to exchange heat with two reservoirs. at a temperature higher than the temperature of the surroundings.

A PMM2 is impossible. Some work must be expended to achieve this.e. Wnet = Q1 or η = 1. operating in a cycle. PMM2 Heat Engine producing net work in a cycle by exchanging heat at two different temperatures CLAUSIUS' STATEMENT OF THE SECOND LAW Heat always flows from a body at a higher temperature to a body at a lower temperature.18 If Q2 = 0 (i.. and vice versa. i. abbreviated to PMM2. will produce no effect other than the transfer of heat from a cooler to a hotter body”. The reverse process never occurs spontaneously. the heat engine will produce net work in a complete cycle by exchanging heat with only one reservoir. EQUIVALENCE OF KELVIN-PLANCK AND CLAUSIUS STATEMENTS At first sight.. Kelvin-Planck's and Clausius' statements may appear to be unconnected. violating Clausius statement. but it can easily be shown that they are virtually two parallel statements of the second law and are equivalent in all respects. . Clausius' statement of the second law gives: “It is impossible to construct a device which. Heat cannot flow of itself from a body at a lower temperature to a body at a higher temperature. thus violating the Kelvin-Planck statement Such a heat engine is called a perpetual motion machine of the second kind.00). (a) Let us first consider a cyclic heat pump P which transfers heat from a low temperature reservoir (t2) to a high temperature reservoir (t1) with no other effect.e. The equivalence of the two statements will be proved if it can be shown that the violation of one statement implies the violation of the second. with no expenditure of work.

producing in one cycle.19 Let us assume a cyclic heat engine E operating between the same thermal energy reservoirs. So we see that the heat pump P and the heat engine E acting together constitute a heat engine operating in cycles and producing net work while exchanging heat only with one body at a single fixed temperature. (b) Let us now consider a perpetual motion machine of the second kind (E) which produces net work in a cycle by exchanging heat with only one thermal energy reservoir (at t 1) and thus. violates the Kelvin-Planck statement (Fig). Let us assume a cyclic heat pump (P) extracting heat Q2 from a low temperature reservoir at t2 and discharging heat to the high temperature reservoir at t1 with the expenditure of work W equal to what the PMM2 delivers in a complete cycle. Then the hot reservoir may be eliminated and the heat Q1 discharged by the heat pump is fed to the heat engine. . So E and P together constitute a heat pump working in cycles and producing the sole effect of transferring heat from a lower to a higher temperature body. The rate of working of the heat engine is such that it draws an amount of heat Q1 from the hot reservoir equal to that discharged by the heat pump. thus violating the Clausius statement. This violates the Kelvin-Planck statement.

then a large part of potential energy of the system is unavailable. If the centre of earth is selected as the datum of zero potential energy. W irr. using the same amount of work and heat transferred during the forward process. because the elevation to calculate potential energy is measured from the surface of earth. then there can be no interaction between the system and surroundings. Therefore the entire heat supplied to an engine is not available for conversion into work. I = Wrev . Any heat engine must reject a portion of heat supplied to it to a low temperature reservoir. direction. This is called the dead state of a system. is called available energy (exergy) and the portion of heat. The availability of a system at a given state is defined as the maximum useful work that can be obtained during a process in which the system . Heat converted into work will be more when the temperature of the low temperature reservoir is less. A process which cannot be completely reversed without leaving a change either in the system or surroundings is called irreversible process. The work done by a system during a reversible process will be maximum. The lowest temperature of a reservoir corresponds to the temperature of atmosphere. The portion of heat. if the process is continued until the system reaches the dead state. if both the system and surroundings can be restored to the original state after the process is completely reversed. The difference between the work done during reversible process and irreversible process is called irreversibility and is denoted by I Irreversibility. is called unavailable energy(anergy). If a system which is in a state of equilibrium is in equilibrium with its surroundings. which is not at absolute zero. Only the remaining portion of heat can be converted into work. In other words a process is said to be reversible. complete conversion of heat in to work is not possible. when the process is carried out in the reverse. which is rejected to the low temperature reservoir. the system passes through the same states as it does in the forward direction. Work done during an irreversible process will be less than the work done during the same process if the process is assumed to be reversible. which is available for conversion into work.Wirr. The conception of reversibility is purely hypothetical and hence irreversibility is a natural tendency. The potential energy of a system can be considered as completely available form of energy. Irreversibility is also known as lost work or degradation AVAILABILITY According to second law of thermodynamics.20 REVERSIBILITY AND IRREVERSIBILITY A process is said to be reversible if. All actual process is irreversible. < W rev. ie.

The equation pυ = constant represents a rectangular hyperbola as shown in fig. the volume of a given mass of a perfect gas varies directly as its absolute temperature. In engineering applications gases such as air. 𝑇1 = constant.21 comes to equilibrium with its surroundings (dead state). on the basis of his experimental results. Availability is thus a composite property depending on the state of both the system and surroundings. EQUATIONS OF STATE A perfect or an ideal gas is the gas which strictly obeys all the gas laws under all conditions of pressure and temperature. if p is constant The above expression shows that at constant pressure. V α T.C Charles in 1787. hydrogen etc. 1 Charles' Law This law was formulated by A. Boyle's law and Charles law govern the behavior of a perfect gas. it is clear that at constant temperature.e. It states that. nitrogen. if the pressure remains constant. are considered as perfect gases. the volume of a given mass of gas is inversely proportional to its absolute pressure. From the above expression. if T is constant. 𝑇2 = constant. the product of absolute pressure and volume of a given mass of a perfect gas is constant. i. if the temperature remains constant. 1 𝑣 At the state 2. the volume increases with absolute temperature. υ ∝ 𝑇 . if T is constant P pυ = constant. In fact no actual or real gas which exists in nature is perfect. 1 . It states that. Boyle's Law This law was formulated by Robert Boyle in 1662. It is represented by a horizontal line in the p-V diagram as shown in figure At the state l. 2 𝑣 Experiments prove that at constant pressure any perfect gas changes its volume by 273 of its volume at 0°C for every 1° C change in its temperature.

4 litres. For a certain gas. and is equal to 22. ie. = 𝑇2 2 𝑉 = 𝑇 𝑉2 2 [Since T1' = T1] 2 𝑉1′ = 𝑇2 x T1 Substituting this value of V1' in the expression. and so on. then the number of kg moles of the gas.P. if m is its mass in kg. 1 kg mol of oxygen has a mass of 32 kg.4 m3 at normal temperature and pressure (N. would be given by n= 𝑘𝑔 𝑘𝑔 𝑘𝑔 𝜇 𝑘𝑔 𝑚𝑜𝑙 𝑚 = 𝑚 𝜇 kg moles The molar volume. n. volume and temperature of a perfect gas is obtained by combining Boyle's law and Charles law. It is denoted by the letter ‗m‘ Avogadro's law states that the volume of a g mol of all gases at the pressure of 760 mm Hg and temperature of 0°C is the same. applying Charles law. v. from 1 to 1' be at constant temperature and the second part of expansion ie. 1 kg mol of nitrogen has a mass of 28 kg. Therefore.. is given by v= 𝑉 𝑁 𝑚3 3 𝑘𝑔 𝑚𝑜𝑙 where V is the total volume of the gas in m . One g mol of oxygen has a mass of 32 gm. p1V1 = p'1V'1 p1 V1 = p2V'1 𝑉1′ 𝑇1′ 𝑉1′ 𝑇1 [Since p'1 = p2] For the second part of expansion at constant pressure. Characteristic Gas Equation A relationship between the three properties pressure. from 1' to 2 be at constant pressure. For the first part of expansion applying Boyle's law.22 Avogadro’s Law A mole of a substance has a mass numerically equal to the molecular weight of the substance. p1 V1 = p2V'1 p1 V1 = p2 x 𝑉2 𝑇2 𝑉 x T1 . and μ its molecular weight. Let first part of expansion.4 x 103 cm3 and 1 kg mol of a gas has a volume of 22. 1 g mol of a gas has a volume of 22.T. Let a given mass m of a perfect gas be expanded from state 1 to state 2.).

specific heat at constant pressure and specific heat at constant volume. then. 𝑠𝑝𝑒𝑐𝑖𝑓𝑖𝑐 𝑕𝑒𝑎𝑡.23 𝑝1 𝑉1 𝑝2 𝑉2 𝑝 𝑉 = = = 𝐶𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑡 𝑇1 𝑇2 𝑇 pV= constant x T.K RATIO OF SPECIFIC HEATS The ratio of specific heat at constant pressure to specific heat at constant volume of gas is denoted by Greek letter gamma (γ) . R for air is 287J/kg K. Let Q be the amount of heat supplied to a gas at constant pressure in J.005 kJ/ kg. O2=260 J/kg K N2=296J/kg K etc pV=nȒT Where ‗n‘ is the number of moles of substance and Ȓ is the universal gas constant and its value is 8. 𝑠𝑝𝑒𝑐𝑖𝑓𝑖𝑐 𝑕𝑒𝑎𝑡. 𝐾 2 1 𝑅 𝑄 Specific Heat at Constant Volume It is defined as the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of unit mass of the substance by unit degree. It is given by formula Ȓ = 𝑚 SPECIFIC HEAT Specific heat of a substance is defined as the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of unit mass of the substance by unit degree. it has two specific heats. Since a gas can be heated under constant pressure and under constant volume. then. It is denoted by letter Cp. This constant depends upon the mass of gas. when it is heated at constant pressure. when it is heated at constant volume. 𝐶𝑝 = 𝑚 (𝑇 −𝑇 ) 𝑘𝐽/𝑘𝑔.314kJ/kg mole K. Let Q be the amount of heat supplied to a gas at constant pressure in J. The equation pV=mRT is called characteristic gas equation or equation of state of a perfect gas. m is the mass of the gas in kg. Specific Heat at Constant Pressure It is defined as the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of unit mass of the substance by unit degree. This constant R is called characteristic gas constant its unit is kJ/kg K it is depend on molar mass and ‗m‘ is molar mass. m is the mass of the gas in kg. the value of which depends upon the properties of gas and the temperature scale. T1 and T2 the initial and final temperature of the gas in K. T1 and T2 the initial and final temperature of the gas in K. K and Cv = 0. Cp = 1.718 kJ/kg. 𝐶𝑣 = 𝑚 (𝑇 −𝑇 ) 𝑘𝐽/𝑘𝑔. properties of gas and temperature scale. It is denoted by letter Cv. 𝐾 2 1 𝑄 For air. pV =mRT where R is a constant.

24 When a gas is heated at constant pressure it expands. ΔU = m Cv (T2 –T1) Heat supplied. The heat supplied to it is used partly in raising its temperature and partly in doing work against the external pressure. According to Joule's law the change of internal energy is proportional to the change of temperature. 1W2 Substituting these values of. 1Q2 =m Cp(T2 –T1) = p (V2 –V1) = mR(T2 –T1) [since PV= RT] Work done. Hence the amount of heat required to be supplied to 1 kg of gas to raise its temperature by 1°C at constant pressure will be more than that at constant volume.2. Relationship between the specific heats and the characteristic gas constant. Hence the value of γ will be always greater than 1. ΔU= 1Q2 − 1W2 m Cv (T2 –T1) = m Cp(T2 –T1) − mR(T2 –T1) Cv = Cp – R From the results Cp – Cv =R and Cp/Cv= γ the following useful results can be obtained. ΔU = m x Cv x ΔT Consider 'm' kg of a gas being heated at constant pressure from state 1 to 2. ΔU α ΔT ΔU = mass x a constant x ΔT Irrespective of the type of process. no work is done and the heat supplied is used only for raising the temperature. For stationary closed system undergoing a process 1 . For air the value on is 1. 𝐶𝑣 𝐶𝑝 𝑐𝑣 − 1 = 𝑅 𝑹 𝛄𝑹 Cv (γ-1) = R Cv = 𝛄−𝟏 Cp = γ Cv = 𝛄−𝟏 . When the gas is heated at constant volume. Therefore the specific heat at constant pressure Cp is greater than the specific heat at constant volume Cv. Change in internal energy. Q and W in the expression.4. the constant in the above expression is always equal to the specific heat at constant volume Cv . ΔU= 1Q2 − 1W2 Change in internal energy. or manner of heating or cooling.

The complete conversion of a low grade energy into high grade energy is impossible. It is denoted by H.2 is given by dH = dU + d(pV) = (U2 −U1 ) + (p2 V2 −p1 V1) = mCv(T2−T1 )+ (mRT2 − mRT1) = mCv(T2−T1) + mR(T2−T1) = m(Cv+R)( T2−T1) H2 – H1= m Cp (T2−T1) ΔH= m Cp ΔT ENTROPY The first law of thermodynamics is a theorem of conservation of energy. Thus enthalpy is defined as the sum of internal energy and. H is also a property of the system. The more the irreversibility. When mechanical work is converted into heat. according to Kelvin . Entropy is defined as a measure of energy that cannot converted into useful work or the measure of degradation which energy experiences as a result of energy conversion. which cannot be measured directly. H = U + pV Since U.25 ENTHALPY The sum of internal energy and pressure volume product (flow work) appears so frequently in thermodynamic calculations.Planck statement. It is also defined as the measure of irreversibility associated with any process. It makes no distinction between various forms of energy and declares that all forms of energy are equivalent. Eg:. The change of enthalpy during a process 1 . the more will be the change in entropy. According to second law of thermodynamics all forms of energy are not equivalent For example work can be completely converted into heat but. heat cannot be completely converted into work. p and V are properties of the system.Melting of ice. Entropy is a property. the energy is degraded. Work is considered as a high grade energy and heat as a low grade energy. pressure volume product (flow work). It is very convenient to use a single letter to denote the sum of these two energies. H2 – H1=(U2 + p2 V2 ) − (U1 + p1 V1) . but the change of entropy during any process can be calculated.

at which heat is transferred. (1) = 𝑝 2 𝑉2 𝑇2 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝑐𝑒. 1-2 = S2-S1 = 𝑑𝑄 𝑇 is independent of path and hence entropy is not a path function. dQ. 𝑉 = 1 𝑉2 𝑝 1𝑇 2 𝑝 2 𝑇1 𝑝 1𝑇 2 𝑝 2 𝑇1 𝑝 1 𝑝 2 𝑝 1 𝑝 2 s2-s1 = 𝑅 𝑙𝑛 = 𝑅 𝑙𝑛 = 𝑅 𝑙𝑛 + 𝐶𝑣 ln + 𝑅 𝑙𝑛 𝑇2 𝑇1 𝑇2 𝑇1 + 𝐶𝑣 ln 𝑇2 𝑇1 𝑇2 𝑇1 + (𝑅 + 𝐶𝑣 )𝑙𝑛 . 𝑑𝑠 = 𝑑𝑄 𝑇 2 𝑑𝑠 1 2 𝑑𝑄 1 𝑇 2 𝑑𝑄 1 𝑇 ie. T. For process 1-2 2 𝑑𝑠 1 ds 2 𝑑𝑣 (R 𝑣 1 𝒗𝟐 𝒗𝟏 =R + 𝐶𝑣 = + 𝐶𝑣 𝑑𝑇 𝑇 ) 𝑻𝟐 𝑻𝟏 s2-s1 = 𝑹 𝒍𝒏 𝑝 1 𝑉1 𝑇1 + 𝑪𝒗 𝐥𝐧 ………………..26 Small change in entropy. During a process. It is a point function and hence entropy is a property. dQ = dW + dU = pdV + mCv dT 𝑑𝑄 𝑇 = 𝑝 pdV + mC v dT 𝑇 𝑑𝑇 𝑇 𝑑𝑇 𝑇 ds = 𝑇 𝑑𝑣 + 𝑚𝐶𝑣 = mR 𝑑𝑣 𝑣 𝑑𝑣 𝑣 + 𝑚𝐶𝑣 𝑑𝑇 𝑇 For unit mass. to the absolute temperature. Calculation of entropy change From first law of thermodynamics. dS is defined as the ratio of small amount of heat transfer.

axis as shown in fig.(3) Temperature . The infinitesimal change in entropy. temperature. is given by. at temperature. 𝑑𝑄 = 𝑇𝑑𝑠 area of the element of width dS and height T. due to reversible heat transfer dQ.(2) = 𝑝 2 𝑉2 𝑝 1 𝑉1 𝑝 2 𝑉2 𝑝 1 𝑉1 𝑝 2 𝑝 1 s2-s1 = 𝐶𝑝 𝑙𝑛 = 𝐶𝑝 𝑙𝑛 − 𝑅 𝑙𝑛 − 𝑅 𝑙𝑛 𝑝 2 𝑝 1 𝑝 2 𝑝 1 𝑝 2 𝑝 1 + 𝐶𝑝 𝑙𝑛 𝑉2 𝑉1 𝑉2 𝑉1 = (𝐶𝑝 − 𝑅)𝑙𝑛 s2-s1 = 𝑪𝒗 𝒍𝒏 𝒑𝟐 𝒑𝟏 + 𝐶𝑝 𝑙𝑛 𝑽𝟐 𝑽𝟏 + 𝑪𝒑 𝒍𝒏 …………. It can be shown that the area under the curve 1-2 represents the heat transferred during the process 1-2..Entropy diagram In temperature . T.Entropy diagram. The curve 1 -2 shows a reversion process. 2 𝑑𝑄 1 For a reversible process 1-2 1Q2 = 2 𝑇𝑑𝑠 1 = 2 𝑇𝑑𝑠 1 = area under curve 1-2 . T is plotted along the Y . S is plotted along the X . dS.27 = 𝑅 + 𝐶𝑣 𝑙𝑛 s2-s1 = 𝑪𝒑 𝒍𝒏 𝑇2 𝑇1 𝑻𝟐 𝑻𝟏 𝑇2 𝑇1 − 𝑅 𝑙𝑛 𝒑𝟐 𝒑𝟏 𝑝 2 𝑝 1 − 𝑹 𝒍𝒏 ……………. 𝑑𝑠 = 𝑑𝑄 𝑇 .axis and entropy.

THERMODYNAMIC PROCESSES When a system changes its state from one equilibrium condition to another it is said to have undergone a process. may change. (ii) Work done 1W2 = = 2 𝑝𝑑𝑣 1 Since. (i) p . no external work is done by the gas.28 2. The entire heat supplied will be stored in the form of internal energy. Since there is no change in volume. g. e.T relationship For a perfect gas. Constant volume (isochoric) process Constant pressure (isobaric) process Constant temperature (isothermal) process Adiabatic process Polytropic process Free expansion Throttling process Using the laws of thermodynamics some useful relations applicable to the above said processes can be developed. b.V . entropy. energy. The thermodynamic process may be performed in different ways. 𝑝 1 𝑉1 𝑇1 = 𝑝 2 𝑉2 𝑇2 𝑝 1 𝑇1 𝑝 2 𝑇2 Since V1=V2 Then. shown in Fig. d. When a gas undergoes a thermodynamic process. Some of them are: a. c. The path of the process is represented by the vertical line 1 -2 in the p-V diagram and a curve 1-2 in the T-S diagram. that shows the process represented on a T-S diagram. v= constant. This process is represented on a p-V diagram. volume. a) Constant volume (isochoric) process Consider 'm' kg of a gas being heated in a cylinder at constant volume from an initial temperature T1 to final temperature T2. 1W2 = 0 . etc. temperature. then dV=0 Therefore. f. the various properties of the gas such as pressure.

𝑉1 𝑇1 = 𝑉2 𝑇2 . (a) and (b) shows the process represented on a T . (b) represents the process in T-S diagram.29 (iii) Change in internal energy Since there is a rise in temperature from T1 to T2. 1W2 = 1Q2 (v) Change in entropy Change in entropy during process 1 -2 s2-s1 = 𝑅 𝑙𝑛 Since V1 =V2 Then. This process. (a) represents the process in pV diagram. 𝑝 1 𝑉1 𝑇1 = 𝑝 2 𝑉2 𝑇2 Since p1=p2 Then. represented on a p-V diagram is as shown in Fig. s2-s1 = 𝐶𝑣 ln 𝑇2 𝑇1 𝑣2 𝑣1 + 𝐶𝑣 ln 𝑇2 𝑇1 = 𝐶𝑣 𝑙𝑛 𝑝 2 𝑝 1 + 𝐶𝑝 𝑙𝑛 𝑉2 𝑉1 = 𝐶𝑣 𝑙𝑛 𝑝 2 𝑝 1 ( b) Constant pressure ( isobaric ) process Consider ‗m‘ kg of gas being heated at constant pressure from state 1 to 2. (i) p . 1Q2 = ΔU + 1W2 0 = ΔU = m Cv(T2−T1) But.T relationship For a perfect gas. ΔU = m Cv(T2−T1) (iv) Heat supplied From first law of thermodynamics. The heating of the gas under constant pressure causes an increase in the volume and temperature.S diagram. The horizontal line 1 -2 in Fig.V . A part of heat supplied during the process is utilised to increase the internal energy and the remaining part is utilised to do external work. The curve 1-2 in Fig. There will be some external work done due to the increase in the volume.

It can be represented on p-V diagram as shown in .30 (ii) Work done = 2 𝑝𝑑𝑣 1 2 = p{𝑉}1 1W2 Therefore. 1Q2 ΔU = m Cv(T2−T1) = ΔU + 1W2 = 𝑝(𝑉2 − 𝑉1 ) = m Cv (T2−T1) + 𝑝 𝑉2 − 𝑉1 = m Cv (T2−T1) + (P2V2 – P1V1) Since PV = mRT = m Cv(T2−T) + mRT2 − mRT1 = m Cv(T2 −T1) + 𝑚𝑅 𝑇2 − 𝑇1 = m (Cv+𝑅) (T2−T1) But. s2-s1 = 𝐶𝑝 𝑙𝑛 𝑇2 𝑇1 𝑇2 𝑇1 − 𝑅 𝑙𝑛 𝑝 2 𝑝 1 = 𝐶𝑣 𝑙𝑛 𝑝 2 𝑝 1 + 𝐶𝑝 𝑙𝑛 𝑉2 𝑉1 = 𝐶𝑝 𝑙𝑛 𝑉2 𝑉1 (c) Constant temperature (isothermal) process A process in which a gas receives or rejects heat in such a way that its temperature remains constant is called isothermal process. (iv) Heat supplied From first law of thermodynamics. 1W2 = 𝑝(𝑉2 − 𝑉1 ) (iii) Change in internal energy Since there is a rise in temperature from T1 to T2. 1W2 1Q2 For constant pressure process P1=P2 1Q2 1Q2 = m Cp (T2−T1) = Enthalpy (H) Fig (b) (v) Change in entropy Change in entropy during process 1 -2 s2-s1 = 𝐶𝑝 𝑙𝑛 Since P1 =P2 Then.

(b) shows the process represented on T-S diagram. Since T1=T2 Then. 1W2 = 2 𝑝 1 𝑉1 1 𝑉 𝑑𝑣 2 𝑑𝑣 1 𝑉 1W2 = 𝑝1 𝑉1 = 𝑝1 𝑉1 ln 𝑉2 𝑉1 𝑉2 𝑉1 1W2 = 𝑝1 𝑉1 ln 𝑝 For isothermal process 𝑝1 𝑉1 = 𝑝2 𝑉2 ie. the entire heat supplied to the gas is used up in doing external work.31 Fig (a). In this case.T relationship For a perfect gas. Fig. 𝑝1 𝑉1 = 𝑝2 𝑉2 (ii) Work done 1W2 = 𝑝 1 𝑉1 𝑉 2 𝑝𝑑𝑣 1 For isothermal process 𝑝1 𝑉1 = 𝑝2 𝑉2 = 𝑝𝑉 = C Or 𝑝 = 𝑝1 𝑉1 𝑝2 𝑉2 = 𝑇1 𝑇2 Then. The line 1-2 in the figures represent isothermal heat addition process. (iv) Heat supplied From first law of thermodynamics. 1Q2 ΔU = 0 = ΔU + 1W2 = 𝑝1 𝑉1 ln 𝑉2 𝑉1 But. 1W2 = 𝑝1 𝑉1 ln 𝑝 1 𝑝 2 (iii) Change in internal energy Since T1 = T2. 1W2 and ΔU = 0 1Q2 = 𝑝1 𝑉1 ln 𝑉2 𝑉1 .V . (i) p . 𝑉2 𝑉1 = 𝑝 1 2 will get.

Work is done by the gas at the expense of internal energy. Here there is only work transfer but no heat transfer. the gas neither receives nor rejects heat. 0 = ΔU + 1W2 or 1W2 = −ΔU ………. 𝑝𝑑𝑉 = − Cv 𝑝𝑑𝑉 + 𝑉𝑑𝑝 R 𝐶𝑣 𝑅 𝑝𝑑𝑉 = − (𝑝𝑑𝑉 + 𝑉𝑑𝑝) =>𝑅 𝑝𝑑𝑉 = − (𝑝𝑑𝑉 + 𝑉𝑑𝑝)𝐶𝑣 =>𝑅 𝑝𝑑𝑉 + 𝐶𝑣 𝑝𝑑𝑉 = − 𝐶𝑣 𝑉𝑑𝑝 =>𝑝𝑑𝑉(𝑅 + 𝐶𝑣 )= − 𝐶𝑣 𝑉𝑑p Since. From the first law. 2 𝑝𝑑𝑉 1 = −m Cv(T2−T1) Write in differential form. pdV + Vdp = mRdT (a) ie. ie.32 (v) Change in entropy Change in entropy during process 1 -2 s2-s1 = 𝑅 𝑙𝑛 𝑣2 𝑣1 + 𝐶𝑣 ln 𝑇2 𝑇1 𝑣2 𝑣1 = 𝐶𝑝 𝑙𝑛 = 𝑅 𝑙𝑛 𝑇2 𝑇1 − 𝑅 𝑙𝑛 𝑝 2 𝑝 1 Since T1 =T2 Then.. Cp = R + Cv and Cp/Cv= γ => 𝐶𝑝 𝑝𝑑𝑉 = − 𝐶𝑣 𝑉𝑑p (b) . 𝑝𝑑𝑉 + 𝑉𝑑𝑝 R = mdT Sub this value in in Equ (2) Will get. s2-s1 = 𝑅 𝑙𝑛 (d) Adiabatic process 𝑝 1 𝑝 2 In an adiabatic process. 𝑝𝑑𝑉 = −CvmdT. In this process the heat exchange Q =0. ΔU = m Cv(T2−T1) Substituting in Equation 1. PV= mRT Differentiating.(2) Considering the general equation.. Q2= ΔU + 1W2 But for an adiabatic process. (1) Change in internal energy.

T relationship Relation between p and V for an adiabatic process is. For an adiabatic process. 𝑉2 𝑇1 𝑉1 𝑇2 𝑇1 𝑇2 = 𝑉2 𝑉1 𝑉2 𝛾 𝑉1 𝛾−1 => = …………(3) Relation between p and T for an adiabatic process is.33 => 𝐶 𝑝𝑑𝑉 = − 𝑉𝑑p 𝑣 𝐶𝑝 => γ 𝑑𝑉 𝑉 + 𝑑p 𝑝 After integration it will become.(2) Sub Equ (2) in (1) will get. (1) Relation between V and T for an adiabatic process is. (a) Fig.. The path of the process is represented by curve 1.S diagram.2 in the T . 𝑝1 𝑉1 𝛾 = 𝑝2 𝑉2 𝛾 = 𝐶 Since. 𝑝1 𝑉1 𝛾 = 𝑝2 𝑉2 𝛾 = 𝐶 => 𝑉2 𝑉1 1 = 𝑝 1 𝛾 ……………. 𝑝 1 𝑉1 𝑇1 = 𝑝 2 𝑉2 𝑇2 or 𝑝 1 𝑝 2 = 𝑉2 1 𝑉 𝑇1 𝑇2 ……….V .(4) 𝑝 2 𝑝1 𝑉2 = 𝑝2 𝑉1 𝑇1 𝑉2 = 𝑇2 𝑉1 𝑇1 𝑝1 = 𝑇2 𝑝2 𝛾 𝛾−1 Sub Equ (4) in (3) will get.. γ ln V + ln p = Constant => ln 𝑝𝑉 𝛾 = 𝐶 1 where C1 is the constant of integration Or 𝒑𝑽𝜸 = 𝑪 Where C is another constant.2 in the p-V diagram and by a vertical line 1 . Therefore for an adiabatic process. (i) p . From the general gas equation. 𝛾−1 𝛾 . 𝒑𝟏 𝒑𝟐 = 𝑽𝟐 𝜸 𝑽𝟏 … … … . (b) shows the process represented on a T-S diagram. 𝑝1 𝑉1 𝛾 = 𝑝2 𝑉2 𝛾 = 𝐶 An adiabatic process can be represented an a p-V diagram as shown in Fig.

s2-s1 = Hear dQ = 0 then. => ΔU = (iv) Heat supplied For adiabatic process 1Q2= 0 𝑝 1 𝑉1 − 𝑝 2 𝑉2 𝛾−1 ΔU = m Cv (T2−T1) For adiabatic process 1Q2= 0. 1W2 −𝑉1 −𝛾 +1 −𝛾+1 = = 1 −𝛾+1 𝑝2 𝑉2 𝛾 𝑉 2 −𝛾+1 − 𝑉1 𝛾 𝑉 1 −𝛾+1 => 1W2 𝑝 2 𝑉2 −𝑝 1 𝑉1 −𝛾+1 𝒑𝟏 𝑽𝟏 − 𝒑𝟐 𝑽𝟐 𝜸−𝟏 1W2 = (iii) Change in internal energy Since there is a rise in temperature from T1 to T2. (v) Change in entropy Change in entropy during a process. p = => 1W2 𝐶 𝑉 𝛾 2 𝐶 1 𝑉 𝛾 = = 𝐶 𝑑𝑉 2 𝑑𝑉 1 𝑉 𝛾 𝑉2 −𝛾 +1 After integration it becomes. ie work done at the expense of internal energy. 1W2 = 𝐶 Substitute value of C. ΔU = − 1W2 ie. 𝑝1 𝑉1 𝛾 = 𝑝2 𝑉2 𝛾 = 𝑝𝑉 𝛾 = 𝐶 Then. s2-s1 = 0 2 𝑑𝑄 1 𝑇 .34 𝑇1 𝑇2 𝑻𝟏 𝑻𝟐 = = 𝑝 1 𝛾 𝑝 2 𝒑𝟏 𝒑𝟐 1 𝛾−1 𝜸−𝟏 𝜸 …………(5) (ii) Work done 1W2 = 2 𝑝𝑑𝑉 1 For an adiabatic process.

For an adiabatic process. 𝑝1 𝑉1 𝑛 = 𝑝2 𝑉2 𝑛 = 𝐶 Since. (b). where 'n' is a constant called polytropic index of expansion or compression. This process represented on a p-V diagram is shown in Fig. From the general gas equation. 𝑉2 𝑇1 𝑉1 𝑇2 𝑇1 𝑇2 = 𝑉1 𝑉2 𝑛 𝑉1 => = 𝑉2 𝑛−1 …………(3) Relation between p and T for a polytropic process is. 𝑝1 𝑉1 𝑛 = 𝑝2 𝑉2 𝑛 = 𝐶 . (a) and on T . (i) p. 𝑝 1 𝑉1 𝑇1 = 𝑝 2 𝑉2 𝑇2 or 𝑝 1 𝑝 2 = 𝑉2 𝑇1 𝑉1 𝑇2 ……….V-T relationship Relation between p and V for a polytropic process is.35 (e) Polytropic process In this process both volume and pressure changes in a certain specified manner.(2) Sub Equ (2) in (1) will get.. 𝒑𝟏 𝒑𝟐 = 𝑽𝟐 𝑛 𝑽𝟏 … … … . (1) Relation between V and T for a polytropic process is. (a) (b) The curve of expansion or compression follows the law pVn = constant.S diagram is shown in Fig.

1W2 = 𝐶 Substitute value of C. 𝑇1 𝑇2 𝑻𝟏 𝑻𝟐 𝑛−1 = = 𝑝 1 𝑛 𝑝 2 1 𝑛−1 𝒏−𝟏 𝒑𝟏 𝒏 𝑛−1 𝑛 𝒑𝟐 …………(5) (ii) Work done 1W2 = 2 𝑝𝑑𝑉 1 For a polytropic process.36 => 𝑉2 𝑉1 = 𝑝 1 𝑛 ……………. 𝑝1 𝑉1 𝑛 = 𝑝2 𝑉2 𝑛 = 𝑝𝑉 𝑛 = 𝐶 Then. 1W2 −𝑛 −𝑛 𝑉2 +1 −𝑉1 +1 −𝑛+1 = = => 1W2 1 𝑝2 𝑉2 𝑛 −𝑛+1 𝑝 2 𝑉2 −𝑝 1 𝑉1 −𝑛+1 −𝑛+1 𝑉2 − 𝑉1 𝑛 𝑉1−𝑛+1 1W2 = 𝒑𝟏 𝑽𝟏 − 𝒑𝟐 𝑽𝟐 𝒏−𝟏 = 𝒎𝑹(𝑻𝟏 −𝑻𝟐 ) 𝒏−𝟏 Since pV= mRT (iii) Change in internal energy Since there is a rise in temperature from T1 to T2. p = => 𝐶 𝑉 𝑛 2 𝐶 1 𝑉 𝑛 1W2 = 2 𝑑𝑉 1 𝑉 𝑛 𝑑𝑉 = 𝐶 After integration it becomes. . (iv) Heat supplied From first law of thermodynamics..(6) Since. 1Q2 ΔU = m Cv (T2−T1) = ΔU + 1W2 = m Cv (T2−T1) + 𝑚𝑅 (𝑇1 −𝑇2 ) 𝑛 −1 𝑅 𝑛−1 = m Cv (T2−T1) − 𝑚𝑅 (𝑇2 −𝑇1 ) 𝑛 −1 1Q2 = m (T2−T1) Cv − …. Cp – Cv =R and Cp/Cv= γ the following useful results can be obtained.(4) 𝑝 2 1 𝑝1 𝑉2 = 𝑝2 𝑉1 𝑇1 𝑉2 = 𝑇2 𝑉1 𝑇1 𝑝1 = 𝑇2 𝑝2 𝑛 Sub Equ (4) in (3) will get.

𝐶𝑣 = s2-s1 = 𝑙𝑛 𝑇2 𝑇1 𝑇2 𝑇1 𝛾 −𝑛 (𝑛 −1) 𝜸−𝒏 (𝒏−𝟏) γ−1 𝑇2 𝑇1 𝑇2 𝑇1 𝛾 −𝑛 (𝑛−1) − 𝛾−1 𝑅 𝑅 𝑛−1 𝑛−1 = 𝑅 𝑙𝑛 − 𝛾−1 1 1 𝑛−1 𝛾−𝑛 = 𝑅 𝑙𝑛 = 𝑅 𝛾 −1 𝑛 −1 − 𝛾−1 𝛾−1 𝑇2 𝑇1 = 𝑅 𝑙𝑛 = 𝐶𝑣 𝛾−1 (𝑛−1) 𝑙𝑛 𝑻𝟐 𝑻𝟏 𝑙𝑛 𝑇2 𝑇1 s2-s1 = 𝑪𝒗 𝒍𝒏 (vi). Expression for poly tropic index ‗n‘ For polytropic process. s2-s1 = 𝑅 𝑙𝑛 Since. 𝑉2 𝑉1 + 𝐶𝑣 ln = 1 𝑇1 𝑛 −1 𝑇2 𝑇1 𝑛 −1 𝑇2 𝑇2 𝑇1 1 Change in entropy become. 𝑝1 𝑉1 𝑛 = 𝑝2 𝑉2 𝑛 . s2-s1 = 𝑅 𝑙𝑛 = 𝐶𝑣 𝑙𝑛 s2-s1 = 𝐶𝑣 𝑙𝑛 𝑇2 𝑇1 + 𝐶𝑣 𝑙𝑛 𝑇2 𝑇1 1 − 𝑅 𝑙𝑛 𝑇2 𝑇1 𝑇2 𝑛 −1 𝑇1 𝑅 𝑛−1 − 𝑅 𝑛 −1 𝑙𝑛 𝑇2 𝑇1 = 𝑙𝑛 𝑅 𝐶𝑣 − Since.37 𝐶𝑣 𝐶𝑝 𝑐𝑣 − 1 = 𝑅 𝑅 Cv (γ-1) = R Cv = γ−1 Therefore equation (6) becomes 1Q2 = m (T2−T1) − γ−1 1 𝑅 𝑅 𝑛−1 1 𝑛 −1 𝑛 −1 − γ−1 γ−1 (𝑛−1) 𝛾−𝑛 γ−1 (𝑛−1) = m 𝑅 (T2−T1) = m 𝑅 (T2−T1) 1Q2 1Q2 − γ−1 = m 𝑅 (T2−T1) = m 𝑅 (T1−T2) 𝑛−𝛾 γ−1 (𝑛−1) = = 𝛾−𝑛 γ−1 𝛾−𝑛 γ−1 m 𝑅 (T1−T2) γ−1 𝑤𝑜𝑟𝑘 𝑑𝑜𝑛𝑒 𝑣2 𝑣1 𝑇2 𝑇1 (v) Change in entropy Change in entropy during a process.

V = C1 ie. h1 = h2. When n = α (i) When n = 0 . (g) Throttling process A throttling process is defined as a process in which there is no change in enthalpy from state one to state two. V = C which represents constant volume process. This process is known as free or unresisted expansion. (ii) When n = 1. V = C1. . V = C1 (where C1 is another constant. which represents an adiabatic process (iv) pVn = C . There is no heat interaction during the free expansion process since Q and W are zero. n= 𝒍𝒏 POLYTROPIC PROCESSES FOR VARIOUS VALUES OF n. taking nth root of both sides p1/n. which represents a constant pressure process. pV n = C becomes pV γ = C. which represents isothermal process. becomes. (iii)When n=γ . and hence the work is not equal to pdV Consider two vessels A and B which are connected to each other by a pipe and a valve. Work does not cross (he boundary of the system and hence no external work is done. ln 𝑝 1 𝑝 2 𝑝 1 𝑝 2 = 𝑉2 𝑛 𝑉1 𝑉2 𝑉1 𝒍𝒏 𝒑𝟏 𝒑𝟐 𝑽𝟐 𝑽𝟏 = 𝑛 𝑙𝑛 . no work is done. and the process is adiabatic. W = 0. Q = 0 p1/n. p0. These processes are shown in fig. By opening the valve.38 ie. pVn = C becomes pV1 = C or pV = constant. the change in internal energy is zero and hence temperature before and after free expansion will be the same. pVn = C becomes pV° = C or p = C. Vessel A is initially filled with a fluid at a certain pressure and B is completely evacuated. (e) Free expansion When a gas expands without a restraining force being exerted by the surroundings the process is called free expansion. This is because the free expansion process is irreversible. the fluid in the vessel A will expand until it fills both vessels. Though this process involves a change in volume the work is zero. Free expansion occurs when a gas is allowed to expand suddenly into a vacuum chamber.

Pressure p=C P.V. slightly opened valve. small orifice etc. without any work interaction and heat transfer or change in kinetic energy and potential energy. Volume V=C Const. pV=nȒT 𝑝𝑣 = 𝑅𝑇. change in kinetic energy across the restriction will be very small. Temp T=C Adiabatic pV = C Polytropic pV = C n γ 𝑝1 𝑉1 = 𝑝2 𝑉2 𝑉2 𝑝1 𝑉1 𝑙𝑛 𝑉1 𝑝 1 𝑉1 − 𝑝 2 𝑉2 𝛾 −1 𝑉2 𝑝1 𝑉1 𝑙𝑛 𝑉1 𝑅 𝑙𝑛 𝑅 𝑙𝑛 or 𝑝1 𝑝2 𝑝1 𝑉1 𝛾 = 𝑝2 𝑉2 𝛾 𝑝1 𝑉1 𝑛 = 𝑝2 𝑉2 𝑛 𝛾 1W2 = 0 𝛾−𝑛 𝛾−1 0 𝐶𝑣 𝛾 − 𝑛 𝑇2 𝑙𝑛 (𝑛 − 1) 𝑇1 𝑇2 𝑇1 𝑝1 𝑉1 − 𝑝2 𝑉2 𝑛 − 1 1Q2 = 1W2 𝑝1 𝑉2 = 𝑝2 𝑉1 𝑇1 𝑉2 = 𝑇2 𝑉1 𝑇1 𝑝1 = 𝑇2 𝑝2 Cp – Cv =R Cp/Cv= γ 𝑅 γ𝑅 s2-s1 = 𝑅 𝑙𝑛 s2-s1 = 𝐶𝑝 𝑙𝑛 𝑉 𝑚 𝑣2 𝑣1 𝑇2 𝑇1 𝑝 2 𝑝 1 + 𝐶𝑣 ln − 𝑅 𝑙𝑛 Cv = 𝛾−1 γ−1 Cp = γ−1 𝑝 2 𝑝 1 𝑉2 𝑉1 pV =mRT. An example of a throttling process is an ideal gas flowing through a valve in mid position. Process Const. by passing through a narrow throat.T relationship 𝑝1 𝑝2 = 𝑇1 𝑇2 𝑉1 𝑉2 = 𝑇1 𝑇2 1W2 1Q2 s2-s1 𝐶𝑣 𝑙𝑛 𝑇2 𝑇1 0 m Cv(T2−T1) 𝑜𝑟 𝐶𝑣 𝑙𝑛 𝑝 2 𝑝 1 𝑝(𝑉2 − 𝑉1 ) m Cp (T2−T1) 𝐶𝑝 𝑙𝑛 𝑇2 𝑇1 𝑜𝑟 𝐶𝑝 𝑙𝑛 𝑣2 𝑣1 𝑉2 𝑉1 Const. the type of process is called throttling.39 When a fluid is allowed to expand from a high pressure to a low pressure. Even though the velocity is high in the region of restriction. Ȓ = 𝑅 𝑚 𝑣 = 𝛾−1 𝛾 s2-s1 = 𝐶𝑣 𝑙𝑛 + 𝐶𝑝 𝑙𝑛 Ȓ =8. ΔU= m CV ΔT [COP]Ref = [COP]HP = 𝐷𝑒𝑠𝑖𝑟𝑒𝑑 𝑒𝑓𝑓𝑒𝑐𝑡 𝑊𝑜𝑟𝑘 𝑖𝑛𝑝𝑢𝑡 𝐷𝑒𝑠𝑖𝑟𝑒𝑑 𝑒𝑓𝑓𝑒𝑐𝑡 𝑊𝑜𝑟𝑘 𝑖𝑛𝑝𝑢𝑡 = = 𝑄2 𝑊 𝑄1 𝑊 Q=U+W 1W2 = 2 𝑝𝑑𝑉 1 2 2 [COP]HP = [COP]Ref + 1 𝑑𝑠 = 1 1 𝑑𝑄 𝑇 .314kJ/kg mole K ΔH= m Cp ΔT.

The cycle may be of imaginary perfect engine or actual engine. Thermal efficiency of a cycle may be defined as the ratio of the work done to the heat supplied during the cycle.40 3. AIR STANDARD CYCLES INTRODUCTION A cycle is defined as a repeated series of operations occurring in a certain order. The working fluid in an internal combustion engine does not operate on a cycle. The former is called ideal cycle and the latter actual cycle. THE CARNOT CYCLE This cycle has the highest possible efficiency and consists of four simple operations namely. if there is no mechanical loss. Many of the power producing device use gas as the working fluid. The actual combustion process is replaced by a heat transfer process. The exhaust process is replaced by a heat rejection process. the analysis of internal combustion engine is carried out in terms of an air standard cycle. An air standard cycle is an idealized cycle in which air is taken as the working fluid. Work done during a cycle = Heat supplied . It maybe repeated by repeating the processes in the same order. In ideal cycle all accidental heat losses are prevented and the working substance is assumed to behave like a perfect working substance. (a) Isothermal expansion (b) Adiabatic expansion (c)Isothermal compression (d)Adiabatic compression. . All the processes are assumed to be reversible. Work done Air standard efficiency = 𝐻𝑒𝑎𝑡 𝑆𝑢𝑝𝑝𝑙𝑖𝑒𝑑 = Heat supplied − Heat Rejected 𝐻𝑒𝑎𝑡 𝑆𝑢𝑝𝑝𝑙𝑖𝑒𝑑 Heat Rejected 𝑊𝑜𝑟𝑘 𝐷𝑜𝑛𝑒 =1 − 𝐻𝑒𝑎𝑡 𝑆𝑢𝑝𝑝𝑙𝑖𝑒𝑑 I. For the sake of simplification.Heat rejected. then. A part of heat transferred to the air is converted into useful work and the remainder is rejected . Therefore the work done by the air is equal to the difference between the heat supplied and heat rejected. The thermal efficiency obtained with air as the working fluid is known as air standard efficiency.

Work done Air standard efficiency =1 − 𝑄2 𝑄1 =1− 𝑇2 𝑇1 . Line 2-3 represents the application of non-conducting cover to the end of the cylinder. Line 3-4 represents the isothermal compression which takes place. This is followed by the adiabatic expansion and the temperature falls from T1 to T2 Stage 3. Stage 4. Stage 2. Line 4-1 represents repeated application of non-conducting cover and adiabatic compression due to which temperature increases from T2 to T1 It may be noted that ratio of expansion during isotherm 1-2 and ratio of compression during isotherm 3-4 must be equal to get a closed cycle.41 Following are the four stages of the Carnot cycle. Line 1-2 in the figure represents the isothermal expansion which takes place at temperature T1 when source of heat is applied to the end of cylinder. Heat is rejected during this operation. Refer figure Stage 1.

During expansion p3. of course is impossible to attain.42 From this equation. CONSTANT VOLUME OR OTTO CYCLE This cycle is so named as it was conceived by 'Otto'. Further more it is not possible to produce an engine that should work on Carnot's cycle as it would necessitate the piston to travel very slowly during first portion of the forward stroke (isothermal expansion) and to travel more quickly during the remainder of the stroke (adiabatic expansion) which however is not practicable. it is quite obvious that if temperature T2 decreases efficiency increases and it becomes 100% if T2 becomes absolute zero which. Fig.V2 and T2 respectively. pressure p1 and absolute temperature T1. petrol. 21.V1 and T1 change to p2.6 shows the theoretical p-V diagram and T-s diagrams of this cycle respectively. . gas and many types of oil engines work. V4 or Vl and T4 respectively. Line 2-3 shows the supply of heat to the air at constant volume so that p2 and T2 changes to p3 and T3 (V3 being the same as V2) Line 3-4 represents the adiabatic expansion of the air.  The point 1 represents that cylinder is full of air with volume V1. On this cycle. It is the standard of comparison for internal combustion engines. V3 and T3 change to a final value of p4. II. Line 1-2 represents the adiabatic compression of air due to which p1.

43 Line 4-1 shows the rejection of heat by air at constant volume till original state (point 1) reaches. It is clear from the above expression that efficiency increases with the increase in the value of r. but due to practical difficulties its value is limited to about 8. The piston then compresses the air adiabatically (i. iii. 1-2 Adiabatic compression. iv. 𝜂𝑜𝑡𝑡𝑜 = 1 − 1 𝑟 𝛾 −1 Where r is the compression ratio = V1/V2 and γ= adiabatic index This expression is known as the air standard efficiency of the Otto cycle. Diesel in 1897. It differs from Otto cycle in that heat is supplied at constant pressure instead of at constant volume. 2-3 Addition of heat at constant pressure. 4-1 Rejection of heat at constant volume. volume and absolute temperature. Point 1 represents that the cylinder is full of air. Vl and T1 be the corresponding pressure. 3-4 Adiabatic expansion. III. Fig.e . ii. This cycle comprises of the following operations : i. CONSTANT PRESSURE OR DIESEL CYCLE This cycle was introduced by Dr. R. shows the p-v and T-s diagrams of this cycle respectively. which means we can have maximum efficiency by increasing r to a considerable extent. Let p1.

This is called the point of cut off. The cycle is shown in the Fig. the air rejects the heat to the cold body at constant volume till the point 1 where it returns to its original state 𝜂𝐷𝑖𝑒𝑠𝑒𝑙 = 1 − 1 𝛾𝑟 𝛾 −1 𝜌 𝛾 −1 𝜌−1 Where 𝜌 is the cut off ratio = V3/V2 It may be observed that from the above equation for efficiency of diesel cycle is different from that of the Otto cycle only in bracketed factor. During this addition of heat volume increases from V2 to V3 and temperature T2 to T3. This factor is always greater than unity. because ρ>1. corresponding to point 3. An ideal gas turbine plant would perform the processes that make up a Brayton cycle. The heat transfers are achieved in reversible constant pressure heat exchangers. It is also called Joule cycle. The air then expands adiabatically to the conditions p4. and it is represented on p-v and T-s diagrams as shown in Fig. V4 and T4 respectively corresponding to point 4. at point 2 Heat is then added from a hot body at a constant pressure.44 pVγ= constant) till the values become V2 and T2 respectively (at the end of the stroke. IV BRAYTON CYCLE Brayton cycle is a constant pressure cycle for a perfect gas. Finally. . the Otto cycle is more efficient. Hence for a given compression ratio.

T2 = T1 𝑝 2 𝑝 1 𝛾 −1 𝛾 = T1 𝑟𝑝 𝛾 −1 𝛾 Where rp = Pressure ratio that is equal to p2/p1 𝑇3 𝑇4 = 𝑝 3 𝑝 4 𝛾 −1 𝛾 Then. No heat flow occurs. Heat is rejected from the system as the volume decreases from V4 to V1 and the temperature from T4 to T1 whilst the pressure remains constant at p1 𝐻𝑒𝑎𝑡 𝑅𝑒𝑗𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑒𝑑 𝜂𝐴𝑖𝑟 𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑑𝑎𝑟𝑑 = 1 − 𝜂𝐵𝑟𝑎𝑦𝑡𝑜𝑛 = 1 − 𝐻𝑒𝑎𝑡 𝑆𝑢𝑝𝑝𝑙𝑖𝑒𝑑 𝐶𝑦𝑐𝑙𝑒 𝐶𝑦𝑐𝑙𝑒 𝑚𝑐 𝑝 𝑇4 −𝑇1 𝑚𝑐 𝑝 𝑇3 −𝑇2 𝜂𝐵𝑟𝑎𝑦𝑡𝑜𝑛 = 1 − 𝛾 −1 𝛾 𝑇4 −𝑇1 𝑇3 −𝑇2 Since. The air is expanded isentropically from p2 to p1 the temperature falling from T3 to T4. Operation 2-3. Heat flows into the system increasing the volume from V2 to V3 and temperature from T2 to T3 whilst the pressure remains constant at p2. Operation 3-4. 𝑇2 𝑇1 = 𝑝 2 𝑝 1 Then. The air is compressed isentropically from the lower pressure pl to the upper pressure p2. No heat flow occurs. T3 = T4 𝑝 3 𝑝 4 𝛾 −1 𝛾 = T4 𝑝 2 𝑝 1 𝛾 −1 𝛾 = T4 𝑟𝑝 𝛾 −1 𝛾 . Operation 4-1. the temperature rising from T1 to T2.45 The various operations are as follows : Operation 1-8.

no further heating of the gas in the combustion chamber would be permissible and the work of expansion would ideally just balance the work of compression so that no excess work would be available for external use.46 Then. 𝜂𝐵𝑟𝑎𝑦𝑡𝑜𝑛 = 1 − 𝑇4 −𝑇1 𝛾 −1 T 4 𝑟𝑝 𝛾 −T 1 1 𝑟𝑝 𝛾 −1 𝛾 𝑟𝑝 𝛾 −1 𝛾 =1 − 𝑇4 −𝑇1 T 4 −T 1 𝑟𝑝 𝛾 −1 𝛾 =1− The above equation shows that the efficiency of the ideal joule cycle increases with the pressure ratio. The absolute limit of upper pressure is determined by the limiting temperature of the material of the turbine at the point at which this temperature is reached by the compression process alone. .

Mechanical refrigeration depends upon the evaporation of liquid refrigerant and its circuit includes the equipments naming evaporator. By sublimation of a solid. Most of the commercial refrigeration is produced by the evaporation of a liquid called refrigerant. By melting of a solid. 3. manufacture of ice. The Romans carried pack trains of snow from Alps to Rome for cooling the Emperor's drinks. from a warm body to a cooler one. Before the advent of mechanical refrigeration water was kept cool by storing it in semiporous jugs so that the water could seep through and evaporate. Not only perishables but to-day many human work spaces in offices and factory buildings are airconditioned and a refrigeration unit is the heart of the system. and later in sawdust-insulated buildings to be used as required.Ice making 2.Chemical and related industries . strawlined pits. This means the removing of heat from a substance to be cooled. This system was used by the Egyptians and by Indians in the Southwest. condenser and expansion valve. refrigeration means the cooling of or removal of heat from a system. Maintaining perishables at their required temperatures is done by refrigeration. solid carbon dioxide and control of air tempera-tars and humidity in the air-conditioning system. Heat always passes downhill.47 4. REFRIGERATION INTRODUCTION Refrigeration is the science of producing and maintaining temperatures below that of the surrounding atmosphere.Transportation of foods above and below freezing 3. The evaporation carried away heat and cooled the water. In simple. By evaporation of a liquid. compressor. 2. Important refrigeration applications: 1.Industrial air-conditioning 4. Natural ice from lakes and rivers was often cut during winter and stored in caves. Though these methods of cooling all make use of natural phenomena. they were used to maintain a lower temperature in a space or product and may properly be called refrigeration. Refrigeration is generally produced in one of the following three ways : 1. It is used for preservation of food. until both bodies are at the same temperature. The equipment employed to maintain the system at a low temperature is termed as refrigerating system and the system which-is kept at lower temperature is called refrigerated system.Comfort air-conditioning 5.

Manufacturing and treatment of metals 10.Freezing food products 11. A receiver to which heat will be transferred from the high temperature highpressure refrigerant. A low temperature thermal "sink" to which heat will flow from the space to be cooled.48 6.Oil refining and synthetic rubber manufacturing 9.Cascade refrigeration system c. iii. and delivering it to a heat receiver. REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS The various refrigeration systems may be enumerated as below: 1. ii. raising the temperature level of this energy. Adsorption refrigeration system b. Mixed refrigeration system d. iv. Means of reducing of pressure and temperature of the refrigerant as it returns from the receiver to the "sink". Ice refrigeration 2.Miscellaneous applications : a) Extremely low temperatures b) Plumbing c) Building construction etc.Vortex tube refrigeration system e. Air refrigeration system 3. Steam jet refrigeration system .Medical and surgical aids 7.Processing food products and beverages 8. ELEMENTS OF REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS All refrigeration systems must include at least four basic units as given below: i. Means of extracting energy from the sink. Vapour compression refrigeration system 4. Special refrigeration systems a. Thermoelectric refrigeration f. Vapour absorption refrigeration system 5.

where with low equipment weight. which is defined as the ratio of heat absorbed by the refrigerant while passing through the evaporator to the work input required to compress the refrigerant in the compressor. Since e latent heat of fusion of ice is 336 J/kg.O. however. The main character-: feature of air refrigeration system.) The performance of a refrigeration system is expressed by a term known as the "coefficient of performance". and MKS unit it is adopted as kcal/min or 3000 kcal/hour. Rn .P. units its conversion is rounded of to 3. If.). i.e. it utilise a portion of the cabin air according to the supercharger capacity.I.O. The rating of the refrigeration machine is given by a unit of refrigeration known as ―standard commercial tonne of refrigeration‖ which is defined as the refrigerating effect produced by the melting of 1 tonne of ice from and at 0°C in 24 hours. Using American units this is equal to removal of200 BTU of heat per minute.E. Note: Ton of refrigeration (TR). It originated from the rate at which heat is required to be removed to freeze one ton of water from and at 0oC. . In closed (or dense air) system the air refrigerant is contained within the piping or components parts of the system at all times and refrigerator with usually pressures above atmospheric pressure. been applied to aircraft refrigeration systems. AIR REFRIGERATION SYSTEM / REVERSED BRAYTON CYCLE Air cycle refrigeration is one of the earliest methods of cooling developed.P.Net refrigerating effect.49 CO-EFFICIENT OF PERFORMANCE (C. in short it is the ratio between heat extracted and work done (in heat units). Open system. W = Work expanded in by the machine during the same interval of time. The air refrigeration system can be divided in two systems: 1. It . is that throughout the cycle the refrigerant remains in gaseous state.P= 𝑹𝒏 𝑾 STANDARD RATING OF A REFRIGERATION MACHINE The rating of a refrigeration machine is obtained by refrigerating effect or amount of heat tracted in a given time from a body. Then. Closed system 2.6 kJ/s (kW) or 210 kJ/min. 1 tonne of refrigeration (TR) = 𝟑𝟑𝟔 ×𝟏𝟎𝟎𝟎 𝟐𝟒 = 14000 kJ/h.O.) and high operating costs. A ton of refrigeration is basically an American unit of refrigerating effect (R. C. It became obsolete several years because of its low co-efficient of performance (C. In S. the refrigerating effect of 336 x 1000 kJ in 24 hours is rated as one tonne.

Compressor 2. Elements of this systems are : 1. A closed system claims the following advantages over open system : (i) In a closed system suction to compressor may be at high pressure. In this system. In pr practice it may or may not be done eg:.50 In the open system the refrigerator is replaced by the actual space to be cooled with the air expanded to atmospheric pressure. the sir picks up moisture n the products kept in the refrigerated chamber . The sizes of expander and compressor can kept within reasonable limits by using dense air (ii) In open air system. Expander 4. Refrigerator.in some aircraft refrigeration systems which employ air refrigeration cycle the expansion work may be used for driving other devices. The pressure of operation in this system is inherently limited to operation at atmospheric pressure in the refrigerator. consequently less external work is needed for operation of the system. the expansion of the refrigerant can be carried only upto atmospheric pressure prevailing the cold chamber but for a closed system there is no such restriction. This system uses reversed Brayton cycle which is described below: . Cooler (Heat exchanger) 3. the moisture may freeze during expansion and is likely to choke the valves whereas it does not happen in closed system (iii)In open tern. circulated through the cold room and then compressed to the cooler pressure. Fig shows a schematic diagram of an air refrigeration system working on reversed brayton cycle. work gained from expander is employed for compression of air.

the vapour compression system is the most important system from the view point of commercial and domestic utility. of this system is very low in comparison to other systems. Demerits 1. The C. It is the most practical form of refrigeration. 3.O. Vapourisation. Compression 2. Expansion 4. In a simple vapour compression system fundamental processes are completed in one cycle These are: 1. a and b shows p-V and T-s diagrams for a reversed Brayton cycle. 2. This refrigeration system thus acts as a latent heat pump since it pumps its latent heat from the cold body or brine and rejects it or delivers it to the external hot body or cooling medium. This is due to the fact that heat is carried by air in the form of sensible heat. C. Here it is assumed that (i) (ii) Absorption and rejection of heat are constant pressure processes. In this system the working fluid is a vapour. Condensation 3. thus creating a cooling effect in the working fluid. therefore there is no risk of fire as in the machine using NH3 as the refrigerant.P= 𝑛 𝑛 −1 𝛾 −1 𝛾 𝑇3 −𝑇2 𝑇4 −𝑇3 +𝑇2 −𝑇1 Merits and Demerits of Air refrigeration System. Merits 1. It readily evaporates and condenses or changes alternately between the vapour and liquid phases without leaving the refrigerating plant. It is cheaper as air is easily available as compared to the other refrigerants. Compression and expansion are isentropic processes. . During evaporation. In condensing or cooling or liquefying. As compared to the other refrigeration systems the weight of air refrigeration system per tonne of refrigeration is quite low. it absorbs heat from the cold body. SIMPLE VAPOUR COMPRESSION SYSTEM Out of all refrigeration systems. Since air is non-flammable. because of this reason this system is employed in aircrafts. it rejects heat to external body. The weight of air required to be circulated is more compared with refrigerants used in other systems. This heat is used as its latent heat to converting it from the liquid to vapour. 2.O.51 Fig.P.

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The vapour at low temperature and pressure (state '2') enters the "compressor" where it is compressed isentropically and subsequently its temperature and pressure increase considerably (state '3'). This vapour after leaving the compressor enters the "condenser" where it is condensed into high pressure liquid (state '4') and is collected in a "receiver tank'. From receiver tank it passes through the "expansion valve", here it is throttled down to a lower pressure and has a low temperature (state '1')- After finding its way through expansion "valve" it finally passes on to "evaporator" where it extracts heat from the surroundings or circulating fluid being refrigerated and vapourises to low pressure vapour (state ‗2‘)

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Merits and demerits of vapour compression system over Air refrigeration system Merits : 1. C.O.P. is quite high as the working of the cycle is very near to that of reversed Carnot cycle. 2. When used on ground level the running cost of vapour-compression refrigeration system is only 1/5th of air refrigeration system. 3. For the same refrigerating effect the size of the evaporator is smaller. 4. The required temperature of the evaporator can be achieved simply by adjusting the throttle valve of the same unit. Demerits : 1. Initial cost is high. 2. The major disadvantages are inflammability, leakage of vapours and toxity. These have been overcome to a great extent by improvement in design. Functions of Parts of a Simple Vapour Compression System Here follows the brief description of various parts of a simple vapour compression system shown in Fig 1. Compressor. The function of a compressor is to remove the vapour from the evaporator, and to raise its temperature and pressure to a point suck that it (vapour) can be condensed with available condensing media. Discharge line (or hot gas line). A hot gas or discharge line delivers the high-pressure, high-temperature vapour from the discharge of the compressor to the condenser. Condenser. The function of a condenser is to provide a heat transfer surface through which heat passes from the hot refrigerant vapour to the condensing medium. Receiver tank. A receiver tank is used to provide storage for a condensed liquid so that a constant supply of liquid is available to the evaporator as required. Liquid line. A liquid line carries the liquid refrigerant from the receiver tank to the refrigerant flow control. Expansion valve (refrigerant flow control). Its function is to meter the proper amount of refrigerant to the evaporator and to reduce the pressure of liquid entering the evaporator so that liquid will vapourize in the evaporator at the desired low temperature and take out sufficient amount of heat. Evaporator. An evaporator provides a heat transfer surface through which heat can pass from the refrigerated space into the vapourizing refrigerant. Suction line. The suction line conveys the low pressure vapour from the evaporator to the suction inlet of the compressor.

2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

7. 8.

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5. HEAT ENGINES
A heat engine is a device which transforms the chemical energy of a fuel into thermal energy and uses this energy to produce mechanical work. Heat engines are classified into two broad types: (a) External combustion engines, and (b) Internal combustion engines.

External Combustion Engines 1

Internal Combustion(IC) Engines

In this products of combustion of air and In this products of combustion are directly the fuel transfer heat to a second fluid which motive fluid. is the working fluid of the cycle Advantages: The use of cheaper fuels including solid fuels, and high starting torque (internal combustion engines are not self-starting). Advantages: It has greater mechanical simplicity, lower ratio of weight and bulk to output due to absence of auxiliary apparatus like boiler and condenser and, hence lower first cost (except in the case of very large units), higher overall efficiency, and lesser requirement of water for dissipation of energy through cooling system.

2

3

It is mainly used for large electric power These are mainly used for transport vehicles — generation automobiles, locomotives, aircrafts, etc. External combustion engines are less suitable for transport vehicles because of bulk and weight, and difficulty of transporting the working fluid

large marine Experimental. space travel Locomotives. electric power Road vehicles.000 Electric power. ships 1. marine 4. Diesel engine (CI) Reciprocating 40. Steam turbine 3.Open cycle gas turbine 6.000 No mechanism Very big Reciprocating 4000 2. Closed cycle gas turbine Rotary 5. Stirling or hot air engine 4. industrial. locomotives electric power. vehicles Electric power. small marine. power in space.000 8000 Road vehicles. industrial. Gas engine (SI) Reciprocating 4000 3. small. Gasoline or petrol Reciprocating 4000 engine (SI) 2.00. small aircrafts Electric power. Steam engine Rotary Rotary 400 15.Wankel engine (SI. Rotary CI) 5. small aircrafts Industrial. Jet engine 7.000 SI = Spark Ignition CI = compression Ignition . marine Reciprocating 800 Rotary 80. aircraft Aircraft Missiles. (propulsion of ships). Rocket (b)External combustion engines 1.55 Classification of Heat Engine Classific Name of Engines ation (a)Internal combustion engines Reciprocating Maximum or Rotary size inkW Principal Use Road vehicles.

The cylinder is supported in position by the cylinder block at the top end is covered by cylinder head. In the cylinder head are inlet valves for taking the charge in the cylinder and exhaust valves for discharging the products of combustion. In the cylinder a piston travels in reciprocating motion.56 IC ENGINE COMPONENTS Figure shows the cross-section of a single cylinder spark-ignition internal combustion engine. . A spark plug near the top of the cylinder initiates the combustion. The space enclosed between the upper part of the cylinder and the top of the piston during the combustion process is called the combustion chamber. A mixture of air and fuel enters the cylinder through the carburattor in spark ignition engine via the inlet manifold i. The energy of the expanding gas is transmitted by the piston (having piston rings to prevent leakage) through the gudgeon pin to the connecting rod. In carburettor a throttle is provided to control the mass of mixture entering the combustion chamber.e the pipe which connects the inlet port of the engine to the air intake. The connecting rod and the crank arm of the crankshaft translate the reciprocating motion of piston into rotational motion of the crankshaft.

Fig. Since the power stroke exists for only a part of the total time. A camshaft is driven by the crankshaft through timing gears.57 The crankshaft is supported in bearings attached to the crankcase. a flywheel is used to smooth out the power pulses and thus obtain a uniform rotation of the crankshaft. Cross-section of spark-ignition engine NOMENCLATURE Fig. The products of combustion leave through exhaust port and exhaust manifold. Lobed cams on the camshaft actuate the push rods and rocker arms for opening the valves against the force of valve. For control of speed under varying load conditions a governor is provided. Four stroke SI Engine . Both the intake and exhaust valves are operated by the valve mechanism. The crankcase is the main body of the engine to which the cylinder is attached.

4.58 1. Cylinder volume (V). Dead centre. b. The sum of piston swept volume and clearance volume V = Vs + Vc (1. 7. Vs = A X L 6.2) 8. Stroke (L). a.Dead centre when the piston is nearest to the crankshaft. Displacement volume or piston swept volume (Vs). calculated as the product of piston area and stroke. Top dead centre (TDC). Clearance volume (Vc). The nominal volume generated by the working piston when travelling from one dead centre to next one. 3. The area of a circle of diameter equal to the cylinder bore. In horizontal engines it is also called outer dead centre (ODC). The nominal distance through which a working pistons between two successive reversals of its direction of motion. 2. In horizontal engines it is also called inner dead centre (IDC). The numerical value of the cylinder volume divided by the numerical value of the combustion space volume or clearance volume Compression ratio r = 𝑉 𝑉 𝑐 FOUR STROKE SPARK IGNITION (SI) ENGINES Working Strokes . Dead centre when the position is farthest from the crankshaft. Compression ratio (CR or r). The position of the working piston and the moving parts which are mechanically connected to it at the moment when the action of the piston motion is reversed (at either end point of the stroke). Bottom dead centre (BDC) . The nominal volume of the space on the combustion side of the piston at top dead centre. Cylinder bore (D). 5. The nominal inner diameter of the working cylinder. Piston area (A).

At the end of the expansion stroke the exhaust valve opens. stroke.59 Stroke 1. Exhaust valve open. and during the suction stroke air alone. and the pressure is also considerably increased. producing a temperature rise of about 2000°C. Expansion stroke. the charge consisting of fresh air mixed with the fuel is drawn into the cylinder. Burning takes place when the piston is almost at top dead centre. the temperature at the end of compression stroke is sufficient to ignite the fuel which is injected into the combustion chamber. The carburettor and ignition system. Comp. Due to high pressure the burnt gases force the piston towards bottom dead centre. Expansion or power stroke. Exhaust stroke. Exhaust valve closed. Both valves closed. During this stroke both inlet and exhaust valves remain closed. Suction stroke. instead of a fuelair mixture. Due to high compression ratio. Exhaust stroke. 4. is inducted. Suction valve closed. are not required in the CI engine. both the inlet and exhaust valves remaining closed. 2. 3. The fresh charge taken into the cylinder during suction stroke is compressed by the return stroke of the piston. necessary in the SI engine. Compression stroke. In the CI engine a high pressure fuel pump and an injector is provided to inject fuel into combustion chamber. and the piston is moving from bottom dead centre to top dead centre sweeps out the burnt gases from the cylinder. the inlet valve remaining closed. Thus power is obtained during this stroke. Valve position Suction valve open. . Both valves closed. Suction stroke starts when the piston is at top dead centre and about to move downwards. Suction stroke. FOUR-STROKE COMPRESSION IGNITION (CI) ENGINES The four-stroke CI engine is similar to four-stroke SI engine except that high compression ratio is used in the former. Just before the end of the compression stroke the mixture is ignited with the help of an electric spark between the electrodes of the spark plug located in combustion chamber wall. The air which occupied the whole cylinder volume is now compressed into clearance volume. The inlet valve is open at this time and the exhaust valve is closed. During the burning process the chemical energy of the fuel is converted into sensible energy. Both pressure and temperature decrease during expansion. Due to the suction created by the motion of the piston towards bottom dead centre. At the end of the Suction stroke the inlet valve closes.

The rate of injection is such that the combustion maintains the pressure constant. Only two piston strokes are required to complete the cycle. Figure shows the simplest type of two-stroke engine. respectively. During this stroke intake valve is open and exhaust valve is closed. After the injection of fuel is over (i.e. 2. Exhaust stroke. Both valves remain closed during compression stroke. Suction stroke. and the cylinder pressure drops to atmospheric as the combustion products leave the cylinder. 3.. The top of the piston sometimes has a . The induction of compressed air removes the products of combustion through exhaust ports. The difference between two-stroke and four-stroke engines is in the method of filling the cylinder with the fresh charge and removing the burned gases from the cylinder. TWO-STROKE ENGINE In two-stroke engines the cycle is completed in two stroke. Both valves remain closed during expansion stroke. one for compressing the fresh charge and the other for expansion or power stroke. permitting the slightly compressed air or mixture in the crankcase to enter the engine cylinder. During the expansion stroke the air in the crankcase is compressed. after fuel cut off) the products of combustion expand. In a four-stroke engine the operations are performed by the engine piston during the suction and exhaust strokes. Near the end of expansion stroke piston uncovers the exhaust ports. Only air is inducted during the suction stroke. one resolution of the crankshaft as against two revolutions of four-stroke cycle. The exhaust valve is open and the intake valve remains closed in the exhaust stroke. The air or charge is sucked through spring-loaded inlet valve when the pressure in the crankcase reduces due to upward motion of the piston during compression stroke. In a two stroke engine suction is accomplished by air compressed in crankcase or by a blower.e. Compression stroke. 4. ignition and expansion takes place in the usual way.60 The ideal sequence of operation for the four-stroke CI engine is as follows: 1. Further motion of the piston uncovers transfer ports. i. Therefore no piston strokes are required for suction and exhaust operations. After the compression. Expansion or power stroke. Fuel is injected in the beginning of the expansion stroke.

is limited by the range fixed by antiknock quality of rapidly increasing weight of the engine structure fuel. Ignition Fuel is injected directly into combustion chamber at high pressure at the end of compression stroke. CI Engine Based on Diesel cycle. Introduction of fuel Fuel and air introduced as a gaseous mixture in the suction stroke. Upper limit of C. as the compression ratio is further increased. Requires an ignition system Self ignition due to high temperature. Low self-ignition temperature Petrol (Gasoline). 14 to 22. During the Upward motion of the piston from bottom dead centre.R. Weight . Compression ratio 6 to 10. Fuel SI Engine Based on Otto cycle. 3.5.61 projection to deflect the fresh air to sweep up to the top of the cylinder before flowing to the exhaust ports. Upper limit of C. 5. Ignition system and spark plug is eliminated. 6. desirable. Maximum efficiency lower Higher maximum efficiency due to higher due to low compression ratio. the transfer ports and then the exhaust port close and compression of the charge begins and the cycle is repeated. when fuel is injected. High self Diesel oil. Speed Higher maximum revolution Maximum r.R.m. The same objective can be achieved without piston deflector by proper shaping of the transfer port. This serves the double purpose of scavenging the upper part of the cylinder of combustion products and preventing the fresh charge from flowing directly to the exhaust ports. per minute due to lighter weight. 4. caused by with spark plug in the com. bustion chamber. Carburetor is eliminated but a high pressure fuel pump and injector necessary.high compression of air. Lighter. Quantity of fuel regulated in pump. compression ratio. Basic cycle 2. lower. Heavier due to higher pressures. Carburetor necessary to provide the mixture Throttle controls the quantity of mixture introduced. ignition temperature desirable. COMPARISON OF SI AND CI ENGINES Description 1. 7 Efficiency 8.p.

62 COMPARISON OF FOUR-STROKE AND TWO-STROKE CYCLE ENGINES Four-stroke cycle 1 The cycle is completed in four strokes of the piston or in two revolutions of the crankshaft. 5 6 7 8 Volumetric efficiency more due to Volumetric efficiency less due to lesser time for greater time of induction. cheaper in higher in initial cost. Thermal efficiency higher. turning movement More uniform turning movement and hence is not so uniform and hence heavier lighter flywheel is needed. 2 Because of the above. wear and tear The four-stroke engine contains valves Two-stroke engines have no valves but only and valve mechanism.3 times). Thus one power stroke is obtained in each revolution of the crankshaft. Thus one power stroke is obtained in every two revolutions of the crankshaft Two-stroke cycle The cycle is completed in two-strokes of the piston or in one revolution of the crankshaft. engine. power produced for same size of engine is small. ports (some two-stroke engines are fitted with conventional exhaust valve or reed valve). part load Thermal efficiency lower. or for the same power the engine is light and compact. induction. power produced for same size of engine is more (theoretically twice. . Lesser rate of Greater rate of wear and tear. or for the same power the engine is heavy and bulky. the absence of valve mechanism. actually about 1. In two-stroke petrol engines some fuel is exhausted during scavenging. lubrication requirements. initial cost. because of one power stroke for two revolutions. Because of the heavy weight and Because of light weight and simplicity due to complication of valve mechanism. 3 4 Because of one power stroke in two Because of one power stroke in one revolution revolutions lesser cooling and greater cooling and lubrication requirement. Because of one power stroke for one revolution. flywheel is needed Again. part load efficiency efficiency better than two-stroke cycle lesser than four-stroke cycle engine.

trucks. mopeds etc. (Lubricating oil mixed with petrol). means Multi Point Fuel Injection system.I. MULTI POINT FUEL INJECTION (MPFI) ENGINES M. I.  No need to crank the engine twice or thrice in case of cold starting as happens in the carburetor system.63 9 Used where efficiency is important. buses. in case of sudden acceleration / deceleration. and (b) compactness and light weight important. for ship propulsion because of low weight and compactness. industrial engines. more than 60 cm bore. power generation.  More uniform A/F mixture will be supplied to each cylinder. Two-stroke diesel engines used in very large sizes. Vibration from the engine equipped with this system is less. . Two-stroke (aircooled) petrol engines used in very small sizes only: lawn mowers. In this system each cylinder has number of injectors to supply/spray fuel in the cylinders as compared to one injector located centrally to supply/spray fuel in case of single point injection system. in cars. F. hence the difference in power developed in each cylinder is minimum.P.F. aeroplanes. scooters. due to this the life of engine components is improved. Advantage of M.  Immediate response. tractors. This is used in petrol powered vehicle as well as in diesel powered vehicles. P. motor cycles. etc Used were (a) low cost.

64  Since the engine is controlled by ECM (Engine Control Module). Pressure. But the common-rail design was quite a step forward. which has tubes that connect all the injectors. This leads to effective utilization of fuel supplied and hence low emission level. Sensing different parameters (Temperature. with much less waste fuel escaping the system unused. more accurate amount of A/F mixture will be supplied and as a result complete combustion will take place. Case II: If ECM fails to service from all sensors then also the engine won't get started COMMON RAIL DIRECT INJECTION (CRDI) ENGINES CRDI has also provided a tremendous boost in diesel-engine performance. Power Transistor etc. Injectors. This allows the fuel to combine with the air much more efficiently. With proper direct injection. the pressure within the system and the timing of both the injection of fuel and the electronic charge applied to make the fuel burn. PCSV. ECM ( Engine Control Module) and its function. Receives control signal from ECM and does function accordingly (ISCA. Engine Speed etc. . These injectors are based on the direct-injection concept. manipulate the signals and send control signals to the actuators. Sensors. The improvement is mainly due to the common-rail design. The function of ECM is to receive signal from various sensors. Actuators.) Case I: If ECM fails to send control signal to all actuators then the engine won't get started. Fuel in the common tube or ―rail‖ is under a set amount of pressure which causes the fuel to be ―atomized‖ or broken down to its smallest particles.  The mileage of the vehicle will be improved.) of the engine and send signal to ECM. fuel use is highly efficient. as was the case in the past. The newest electronic technology has also allowed CRDI engines to better control the amount of fuel used.

engine speeds and loads. a tube or a common rail connects all the injectors and contains fuel at a constant high pressure. they are at least 25% more costly than the conventional engines. atmospheric pressures. the fuel breaks up into small particles and mixes evenly with the air. the lower its static pressure.65 Injectors in the common rail direct injection engine have controls on the injector heads that allow slight variances in the amount of fuel put into the cylinders Disadvantages Like all good things in life. Advantages  CRDI method greatly reduces engine and vehicle vibration. the carburetor must:    Measure the airflow of the engine Deliver the correct amount of fuel to keep the fuel/air mixture in the proper range Mix the two finely and evenly This job would be simple if air and gasoline (petrol) were ideal fluids. and centrifugal forces: . This high pressure in the common rail ensures that when injected. fluid drag. inertia. allows the engine and vehicle to run more quietly and reduces the cost of operation significantly. it actuates carburetor mechanisms which meter the flow of air being pulled into the engine. The throttle (accelerator) linkage does not directly control the flow of liquid fuel. CARBURETOR Carburetor is a device that blends air and fuel for petrol engine. Instead.  They are smooth less noisy and immensely fuel efficient giving around 24 kilometers to a liter of Diesel. and therefore its pressure. in practice.  CRDI engine fitted cars offer 25% more power than the normal direct injection engine with a superior pickup and torque offering sometimes up to 70% more power than the conventional diesel engines. determines the amount of fuel drawn into the airstream. require a great deal of complexity to compensate for exceptionally high or low engine speeds. and the higher its dynamic pressure. They also require a higher degree of maintenance and spares are not cheap also. The speed of this flow. these engines also come at a price. The carburetor works on Bernoulli's principle: the faster air moves. however. Under all engine operating conditions. etc.  In a CRDI engine. thereby leaving little unburnt fuel thus reducing pollution. A carburetor must provide the proper fuel/air mixture across a wide range of ambient temperatures. their deviations from ideal behavior due to viscosity. The fact that Diesel is cheaper than petrol in India further attributes greatness to the engine.

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In addition, modern carburetors are required to do:
    

Hot start Idling or slow-running Acceleration

High speed / high power at full throttle Cruising at part throttle (light load)

To function correctly under all these conditions, most carburetors contain a complex set of mechanisms to support several different operating modes, called circuits. Working

A carburetor basically consists of an open pipe through which the air passes into the inlet manifold of the engine. The pipe is in the form of a venturi: it narrows in section and then widens again, causing the airflow to increase in speed in the narrowest part. Below the venturi is a butterfly valve called the throttle valve a rotating disc that can be turned end-on to the airflow, so as to hardly restrict the flow at all, or can be rotated so that it (almost) completely blocks the flow of air. This valve controls the flow of air through the carburetor throat and thus the quantity of air/fuel mixture the system will deliver, thereby regulating engine power and speed. The throttle is connected, usually through a cable or a mechanical linkage of rods and joints or rarely

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by pneumatic link, to the accelerator pedal on a car or the equivalent control on other vehicles or equipment.Fuel is introduced into the air stream through small holes at the narrowest part of the venturi and at other places where pressure will be lowered when not running on full throttle. Fuel flow is adjusted by means of precisely-calibrated orifices, referred to as jets, in the fuel path.

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6.PROPERTIES OF FUELS
INTRODUCTION TO FUELS The various types of fuels like liquid, solid and gaseous fuels are available for firing in boilers, furnaces and other combustion equipments. The selection of right type of fuel depends on various factors such as availability, storage, handling, pollution and landed cost of fuel. The knowledge of the fuel properties helps in selecting the right fuel for the right purpose and efficient use of the fuel. The following characteristics, determined by laboratory tests, are generally used for assessing the nature and quality of fuels. PROPERTIES OF LIQUID FUELS Liquid fuels like furnace oil and LSHS are predominantly used in industrial application. The various properties of liquid fuels are given below. 1. Density This is defined as the ratio of the mass of the fuel to the volume of the fuel at a reference temperature of 15°C. Density is measured by an instrument called hydrometer. The knowledge of density is useful for quantity calculations and assessing ignition quality. The unit of density is kg/m3. 2. Specific gravity This is defined as the ratio of the weight of a given volume of oil to the weight of the same volume of water at a given temperature. The density of fuel, relative to water, is called specific gravity. The specific gravity of water is defined as 1. Since specific gravity is a ratio, it has no units. The measurement of specific gravity is generally made by a hydrometer. 3. Viscosity The viscosity of a fluid is a measure of its internal resistance to flow. Viscosity depends on temperature and decreases as the temperature increases. Any numerical value for viscosity has no meaning unless the temperature is also specified. The measurement of viscosity is made with an instrument called Viscometer. Viscosity is the most important characteristic in the storage and use of fuel oil. It influences the degree of pre-heat required for handling, storage and satisfactory atomization. If the oil is too viscous, it may become difficult to pump, hard to light the burner, and tough to operate. Poor atomization may result in the formation of carbon deposits on the burner tips or on the walls. Therefore pre-heating is necessary for proper atomization. 4. Flash Point The flash point of a fuel is the lowest temperature at which the fuel can be heated so that the vapour gives off flashes momentarily when an open flame is passed over it. Flash point for furnace oil is 66oC.

The difference being the latent heat of condensation of the water vapour produced during the combustion process. and condensing in cool parts of the chimney or stack. It varies from 0.69 5. Ash Content The ash value is related to the inorganic material in the fuel oil. and is measured either as gross calorific value or net calorific value. Residual oil contains carbon residue ranging from 1 percent or more.03-0. Carbon Residue Carbon residue indicates the tendency of oil to deposit a carbonaceous solid residue on a hot surface.28 depending on the oil specific gravity. 8. etc. Net calorific value (NCV) assumes the water leaves with the combustion products without fully being condensed. It is a very rough indication of the lowest temperature at which fuel oil is readily pumpable 6. . nickel. magnesium. silicon. Light oils have a low specific heat. Fuels should be compared based on the net calorific value. causes damage to the refractories at high temperatures and gives rise to high temperature corrosion and fouling of equipments.22 to 0. The unit of specific heat is kcal/kgoC. Calorific Value The calorific value is the measurement of heat or energy produced. Residual fuels have more of the ash-forming constituents. Typically.07 %. 9. air pre heater and economiser. whereas heavier oils have a higher specific heat. These salts may be compounds of sodium. 10. calcium. such as a burner or injection nozzle. The normal sulfur content for the residual fuel oil (furnace oil) is in the order of 2-4 %. Specific Heat Specific heat is the amount of kcals needed to raise the temperature of 1 kg of oil by 1 oC. The specific heat determines how much steam or electrical energy it takes to heat oil to a desired temperature. The calorific value of coal varies considerably depending on the ash. 7. The main disadvantage of sulphur is the risk of corrosion by sulphuric acid formed during and after combustion. when its vaporisable constituents evaporate. Gross calorific value (GCV) assumes all vapour produced during the combustion process is fully condensed. Excessive ash in liquid fuels can cause fouling deposits in the combustion equipment. aluminum. the ash value is in the range 0. moisture content and the type of coal while calorific value of fuel oils are much more consistent. vanadium. Pour Point The pour point of a fuel is the lowest temperature at which it will pour or flow when cooled under prescribed conditions. Sulphur The amount of sulphur in the fuel oil depends mainly on the source of the crude oil and to a lesser extent on the refining process. iron. Ash has erosive effect on the burner tips. The ash levels of distillate fuels are negligible.

It can also cause spluttering of the flame at the burner tip. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES a) Fixed Carbon Fixed carbon is the solid fuel left in the furnace after volatile matter is distilled off. hydrogen and carbon monoxide. hydrocarbons. It is a hard coal composed mainly of carbon with little volatile content and practically no moisture. possibly extinguishing the flame and reducing the flame temperature or lengthening the flame. Thus the volatile matter is an index of the gaseous fuels present. and lignite. Typical range is 5 to 40% . Volatile matter refers to those combustible constituents of coal that vaporize when coal is heated. and helps in easier ignition of coal. Volatile Matter • • • • Proportionately increases flame length. Influences secondary oil support c) Ash Content: Ash is an impurity that will not burn. Water Content Water content of furnace oil when supplied is normally very low as the product at refinery site is handled hot and maximum limit of 1% is specified in the standard. However there is no clear demarcation between them and coal is also further classified as semianthracite.70 11. Lignite is the youngest coal from geological perspective. Fixed carbon refers to carbon in its free state. sulphur and nitrogen not driven off with the gases. and incombustible gases like carbon dioxide and nitrogen found in coal. Sets minimum limit on the furnace height and volume. oxygen. PROPERTIES OF COAL CLASSIFICATION Coal is classified into three major types namely anthracite. bituminous. It consists mostly of carbon but also contains some hydrogen. Normally D. Typical range of volatile matter is 20 to 35%. and sub-bituminous. semi-bituminous. not combined with other elements. Fixed carbon gives a rough estimate of heating value of coal b) Volatile Matter: Volatile matters are the methane. It is a soft coal composed mainly of volatile matter and moisture content with low fixed carbon. Influences secondary air requirement and distribution aspects. Anthracite is the oldest coal from geological perspective. Water may be present in free or emulsified form and can cause damage to the inside furnace surfaces during combustion especially if it contains dissolved salts.E and F coal grades are available to Indian Industry. The common coals used in Indian industry are bituminous and sub-bituminous coal.

the roll crusher and the hammer mill. Preparation of Coal Preparation of coal prior to feeding into the boiler is an important step for achieving good combustion.8% normally. In a coal handling system. with specific relevance to the type of firing system. The devices most commonly used for crushing are the rotary breaker. .71 Ash • • • • Reduces handling and burning capacity. Poor combustion conditions and inadequate furnace temperature. Since it replaces combustible matter. e) Sulphur Content: Typical range is 0. to a limit. 3. Low thermal efficiency. due to evaporation and superheating of vapour Helps. crushing is limited to a top size of 6 or 4mm.5 to 10% Moisture • • • Increases heat loss. Increases handling costs. in binding fines. Aids radiation heat transfer. Affects combustion efficiency and boiler efficiency Causes clinkering and slagging. 4. Increase of unburnts in the ash.5 to 0. Coal is reduced in size by crushing and pulverizing. Typical range is 0. handled and stored. Large and irregular lumps of coal may cause the following problems: 1. it decreases the heat content per kg of coal. 2. Higher excess air resulting in higher stack loss. (a) Sizing of Coal Proper coal sizing is one of the key measures to ensure efficient combustion. reduced ash losses and better combustion efficiency. Pre-crushed coal can be economical for smaller units. d) Moisture Content: Moisture in coal must be transported. especially those which are stoker fired. Proper coal sizing. helps towards even burning. Sulphur • • • Affects clinkering and slagging tendencies Corrodes chimney and other equipment such as air heaters and economisers Limits exit flue gas temperature.

Fuel should be compared based on the net calorific value. PROPERTIES OF GASEOUS FUELS Gaseous fuels in common use are liquefied petroleum gases (LPG).72 It is necessary to screen the coal before crushing. 2. Recommended practices in coal crushing are: 1. Consequently. For this very reason LPG cylinders should not be stored in cellars or basements. LPG may be defined as those hydrocarbons. but may be condensed to the liquid state at normal temperature. blast furnace gas. producer gas. Escape of even small quantities of the liquefied gas can give rise to large volumes of vapour / air mixture and thus cause considerable hazard. This is especially true for natural gas. Although they are normally used as gases. normal and iso-butane (C4H10) and Butylene(C4H8). The calorific value of gaseous fuel is expressed in Kilocalories per normal cubic meter (kCal/Nm3) i. which have no ventilation at ground level. Propylene(C3H6). Included in the LPG range are propane (C3H8). by the application of moderate pressures. LPG LPG is a predominant mixture of propane and Butane with a small percentage of unsaturates (Propylene and Butylene) and some lighter C2 as well as heavier C5 fractions. There should be adequate ground level ventilation where LPG is stored. which may damage the crusher. coke oven gas etc. which are gaseous at normal atmospheric pressure.e. LPG vapour is denser than air: butane is about twice as heavy as air and propane about one and a half times as heavy as air. the vapour may flow along the ground and into drains sinking to the lowest level of the surroundings and be ignited at a considerable distance from the source of leakage. since increased hydrogen content results in high water formation during combustion. Incorporation of a screen to separate fines and small particles to avoid extra fine generation in crushing. Incorporation of a magnetic separator to separate iron pieces in coal. Liquid LPG evaporates to produce about 250 times volume of gas. gross calorific value is of little interest. This helps to reduce power consumption in the crusher. all LPG's are required to be odorized. . To aid in the detection of atmospheric leaks. they are stored and transported as liquids under pressure for convenience and ease of handling. Natural gas. so that only oversized coal is fed to the crusher. at normal temperature (20oC) and pressure (760 mm Hg) Calorific Value Since most gas combustion appliances cannot utlilize the heat content of the water vapour. In still air vapour will disperse slowly.

generally properties of methane are used when comparing the properties of natural gas to other fuels.  Ingestion may cause spontaneous vomiting. odorless. colorless. Pentane. oxygen. LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS (LNG) Liquefied natural gas. 2. non-corrosive. It mixes with air readily and does not produce smoke or soot.  Emits lesser quantity of sulphur dioxide. whereby certain concentrations of hydrocarbons. and some sulfur compounds are . irritation of mouth throat and gastro intestinal tract. During this process. Natural gas is a high calorific value fuel requiring no storage facilities. Propane. water.  Low sulphur content is its main advantage. It is lighter than air and disperses into air easily in case of leak. Butane. short residue and clarified oil from fluidized catalytic cracker unit.  It is a low viscosity fuel oil. and traces of other gases.73 NATURAL GAS Methane is the main constituent of Natural gas and accounting for about 95% of the total volume. Since methane is the largest component of natural gas. TYPES OF LIQUID FUELS 1. and non-toxic. is cooled below its boiling point. Nitrogen. It is a dark viscous residual fuel obtained by blending mainly heavier components from crude distillation unit. carbon dioxide.  Chemically stable and incompatible with strong oxidizers. This fuel is used in the same applications where furnace oil is suitable. Fuel Oil is used as an industrial fuel. LNG is produced when natural gas is cooled to minus 259 degrees Fahrenheit through a process known as liquefaction. or LNG. Carbon Dioxide. It has no sulphur content.  Gross calorific value of LSHS is more than that of furnace oil hence consumption of fuel oil will be reduced. Very small amounts of sulphur compounds are also present. the natural gas. Its key features include the following:  Has higher pour point than that of fo and hence to be maintained at 75oC at all times. Other components are: Ethane. is natural gas in a liquid form that is clear. FURNACE OIL / FUEL OIL (FO) Internationally Furnace oil is known as Fuel oil and is traded in many varieties based on its specifications of viscosity and sulfur percentage. LOW SULPHUR HEAVY STOCK (LSHS) It is a residual fuel processed from indigenous crude. which is primarily methane. 3.

ignition does not occur immediately. The cetane number of a fuel is defined as the percentage of cetane. generally of the stationery type operating below 750 rpm When fuel is injected into the combustion chamber of a diesel engine. LNG is also less than half the weight of water. relies upon a carburetor to supply into the cylinder a mixture of gasoline vapour and air. which is ignited by the heat of compression and hence the term compression ignition (C. A spark ignition engine on the other hand. In a compression ignition engine. air alone is drawn into cylinder and compressed until it is very hot (about 500 deg C). the higher the cetane number the higher the ignition quality. pumping sets etc. arbitrarily given a cetane number of 100.I.). and on the operating conditions. the engine may be hard to start and when the accumulated fuel does ignite. the engine design.e. locomotives. CETANE NUMBER The most accurate method of assessing the ignition quality of a diesel fuel is by measuring its cetane number in a test engine. Two main grades of diesel fuel are marketed in India. the rate of pressure rise may be so great that it causes roughness or diesel knock. generating sets. At this stage. viz. High Speed Diesel (HSD) and Light diesel oil (LDO). The interval between the commencement of fuel injection and the commencement of combustion is known as the " ignition delay" and is a measure of the ignition quality of the fuel. HSD is normally used as a fuel for high speed diesel engines operating above 750 rpm i. in a blend with alphamethyl-naphthaline (cetane number -0 ). buses. finely atomized fuel is injected at a very high pressure. which is equivalent in ignition quality to that of the test fuel. which after compression. loss of efficiency and power output and a possibility of mechanical damage to the engine if the knocking is prolonged. is ignited by a spark.74 either reduced or removed. DISEL FUELS(HSD/LDO) A diesel fuel is any fuel suitable for burning in diesel or compression ignition engines. 4. Petroleum diesel fuels may be distillates or blends of distillates and residual fuels. If the delay is too long. The effects of diesel knock are similar to the effects of knocking in gasoline engines. The average compression ratio of a diesel engine is much higher (about 15:1) than that of a gasoline engine (about 8:1) and this is the reason for the higher thermal efficiency of the diesel engine (about 33% as compared to about 25% of the gasoline engine) which makes for economy in operation. . This delay period depends on the nature of the fuel. so it will float if spilled on water. The former is a 100% distillate fuel while the latter is a blend of distillate fuel with a small proportion of residual fuel. LDO is used for diesel engines. lorries. Gas turbine requiring distillate fuels normally make use of HSD as fuel.

outlet tank to remove the spent slurry. high octane numbers were achieved by adding lead tetraethyl to the gas (the 'leaded gas'). enriched manure to improve soil fertility. . Also called Octane rating. Biogas is a safe fuel for cooking and lighting.for mixing the feed and letting it into the digester. The biogas consists of 60% methane with rest mainly carbon-di-oxide.  It produces good quality. By-product is usable as high-grade manure. an inlet tank . a pollutant that contributes to lead poisoning. distribution pipeline(s) to transport the gas into the kitchen. Octane number denotes the percentage of volume of iso-octane in a combustible mixture (containing iso-octane and normal-heptane) whose 'anti-knocking' characteristics match those of the gas being tested. human waste or any kind of biological materials derived through anaerobic fermentation process. lighting and for power generation. In the older vehicles. generated from cow-dung. A typical biogas plant has the following components: A digester in which the slurry (dung mixed with water) is fermented. gas holder/dome in which the generated gas is collected. In the newer vehicles. where the spent slurry is stored.75 OCTANE NUMBER Measure of the ignition quality of gas (gasoline or petrol). improving the hygienic conditions. BIO GAS Biogas is a clean and efficient fuel. Advantages of Bio Gas technology  It provides a better and cheaper fuel cooking. Higher this number.  It proves an effective and convenient way for sanitary disposal of human excreta. the less susceptible is the gas to 'knocking' (explosion caused by its premature burning in the combustion chamber) when burnt in a standard (spark-ignition internal combustion) engine. and a manure pit. the same result is achieved by the engine design that increases turbulence in the combustion chamber or by adding aromatic hydrocarbons such as xylenes and oxygenates (oxygen-containing compounds such as alcohols) to the gas.

such as trees and grasses. With advanced technology being developed. animal fats or recycled greases.8% of the world's transport fuel in 2008. Biodiesel is produced from oils or fats using transesterification and is the most common biofuel in Europe. cellulosic biomass.76  It generates social benefits such as reducing burden on forest for meeting cooking fuel by cutting of tree for fuel wood. Biodiesel is made from vegetable oils. . Ethanol can be used as a fuel for vehicles in its pure form. Bioethanol is an alcohol made by fermenting the sugar components of plant materials and it is made mostly from sugar and starch crops. but it is usually used as a gasoline additive to increase octane and improve vehicle emissions.  It also helps in generation of productive employment BIOFUEL Biofuels provided 1. carbon monoxide. Bioethanol is widely used in the USA and in Brazil. and hydrocarbons from diesel-powered vehicles. but it is usually used as a diesel additive to reduce levels of particulates. it reduces the incidence of eye and lung diseases. Liquid biofuel is usually either bioalcohol such as bioethanol or an oil such as biodiesel.  As a smokeless domestic fuel. reduction in the drudgery of women and children etc. Biodiesel can be used as a fuel for vehicles in its pure form. are also used as feedstocks for ethanol production.

nuclear.2 STEAM POWER PLANT Steam is an important medium for producing mechanical energy. then the amount of heat equivalent is more than 200MW per square kilometer. The steam power. The availability of electrical energy and its per capita consumption is regarded as an index of national standard of living in the present day civilization. A steam power plant continuously converts the energy stored in fossil fuels (coal. It is used for power generation as well as irrigation. Steam is produced in a boiler using coal as fuel and used to drive the prime mover (Steam turbine).Gas power plants. the thermal power plants generate more than 80% of the total electricity produced in the world. The amount of energy released by burning one kilogram of uranium is equivalent to the energy obtained by burning 4500tonnes of high-grade coal. They are 1.Steam or thermal power plant. 4. stations are very much suitable where coal is available in abundance.1 INTRODUCTION Power plays a greater role wherever man lives and works. Fossil fuel like coal. the various layouts of power plant are discussed. In this unit. Wind Power Plants 8. Working principle: Steam or thermal power plant is using steam as working fluid. oil and natural gas). This numerical figure shows that enormous potential' is available for developing solar thermal power plants.Nuclear power plants. Steam has the advantage that it can be raised from water which is available in abundance. The pressure range is from I0kg/cm2 to super critical pressure and temperature varies from 250°C to 650°C.Hyde power plant.Tidal Power Plants 7. 5. Hydraulic power plants are essentially multi purpose. LAYOUT OF POWER PLANT 7. transport and easy to control. In the above said power plants. Electricity is the only form of energy which is easy to produce. The types of power plants which is used to produce the electricity are thermal. 3.Geothermal Power Plants 9. hydraulic. 2. 6. Nuclear energy has enlarged the world's power resources. 7. gas turbine and geothermal. If the sunshine is bright for an average for 8hours/day.OTEC Power Plants. The renewable energy source like solar energy in India has ideal1 geographical situations. fuel oil and natural gas are the energy sources and steam is the working fluid.77 7. .Diesel power plant. Thermal power production cost in India is more when compared to nuclear power due to rise in oil prizes.

the dust from the air is removed by means of using air filter. Coal and Ash circuit: This circuit consists of coal storage. Air and Flue gas circuit. Water and steam circuit. 1. 2. . 2. coal from the storage yard is transferred to the boiler furnace by means of coal handling equipment. dust collector chimney. The layout of the steam power plant consists of four main circuits. Air and flue gas circuit 4. This circuit consists of air filter.78 The heat energy is converted into mechanical energy by die steam turbine and that mechanical energy is used for generating power with the help of generator. The handling system consists of belt conveyor screw conveyors etc. By using the waste heat of the flue gas which is passing to the chimney. The Indian coal contains 30 to 40% of ash and a power plant 100MW produces normally 20 to 25 tones of hot ash per hour. Cooling water circuit. ash storage. the air is preheated in the preheater. These are 1. Air is taken from the atmosphere to the air preheater. Coal and ash circuit. coal handling and ash handling systems. Ash resulting from the combustion of coal in the boiler furnace is removed to ash storage through ash handling. 3. air preheater.

feed water is supplied from the external source to compensate losses. boiler. By passing the flue gas around the economiser and air preheater. and feed heaters. The power production does not depend on nature mercy. turbine. Reduced water requirement. Reduced environmental impact in terms of air pollution. The steam generated in die boiler passes through super heater and is supplied to the steam turbine. where it is further heated by means of flue gases. Advantages of steam power plant: 1. The time requirement for construction and commissioning of thermal power plant require less period of time. Characteristics of steam power plant: 1. Part of the steam and water are lost while passing through different components of the system. Higher reliability and availability. so the transmission cost and losses are considerably reduced. 4. 5. dust collector. 3. condenser. The steam is expanded in the steam turbine then passed to the condenser where it is condensed. 2.79 After combustion in the furnace. economiser and preheater before being exhausted to the atmosphere through the chimney. 2. 3. . the flue gas which has sufficient quantity of heat is passed around the boiler tubes. Adequate water supply is available from various sources like river or lake. As compared to hydro powerplant. This circuit consists of boiler feed pump. If adequate quantity of water is not available at plant sites. High efficiency. Disadvantages of steam power plant: 1. cooling water pumps and cooling tower. The feed water is passing through the economiser.Cooling water circuit: This circuit consists of circulating water pump. life and efficiency are less. the warm water coming out from the condenser is cooled in cooling tower and it is recirculated again and again. 4.Feed water and steam circuit. So. the feed water is heated by the feed water heaters and then it is fed into the boiler. 3. 4. Low cost compared with hydro power plant. Initial investment is low. Transportation of fuel is a major problem in this type of power plant. The power plant can be located near load center. Abundant quantity of water is required for condensing the steam in the condenser. The condensate is heated in the HP and LP heaters using the steam tapped from different points of the turbine. Using the economizer. the water and air are preheated before going to the boiler. 2.

The dam also helps to increase the working head of the power plant. A hydroelectric power plant is aimed at harnessing from water flowing under pressure. Water reservoir: Continuously availability of water is the basic necessity for a hydroelectric plant.80 3. 4. 7. The main purpose of the reservoir is to store the water during rainy season and supplied the same to the turbine continuously throughout the year.3. In hydroelectric power plants. Hydroelectric power was initiated in India in 1987 near Darjeeling. Air pollution is the major problem calling for additional investment. The arrangement of different components used in hydraulic power plants is discussed below. 2. . Water surface in the storage reservoir is known as headrace. The coal (fuel) needed may be exhausted by gradual use. 6. the energy of water is utilized to drive the turbine hydro or waterpower is important only next to the thermal: power. It cannot be used as peak load plant. Power generation cost is considerably high when compared to hydro plant. COMPONENTS OF HYDROELECTRIC POWER PLANT: I . 5. Dam: The dam is used in hydro power plants to increase the height of water level and thereby it increases the capacity of reservoir. HYDEL POWER PLANT Water is the cheapest source of power.

The surge tank is introduced between the dam and powerhouse to keep in reducing the sudden rise the penstock. Prime mover which is in common use such as Pelton turbine. Pressure tunnel: Pressure tunnel carries water from the reservoir to surge tank. 6. Surge Tank: There is sudden increase in pressure of the penstock due to sudden backflow of water as load on the turbine is reduced. 11. 8. It must have the capacity to discharge major floods without damage to the dam. Spillway is acting as a safety valve for the dam. Tailrace: It is a waterway to lead the water discharged from the turbine to the river. Penstock: A pipeline fixed between the surge tank and prime mover is known I as penstock. 7. Trash rack: ■ water is taken from the dam or from the forebay is provided with trash rack. 10. 4. The 5. Forebay: It serves as a regulating reservoir. 12. Francis turbine and Kaplan turbine. . It is commonly made of reinforced concrete or steel. It allows the turbine to be placed over tailrace level. Transformer: The transformer is to raise the voltage generated at the generator terminal before transmitting the power to consumers and workstation. This sudden arise pressure in the penstock above normal due to reduce in load the generator is known as water hammer. It stores the water temporarily I when the load on the plant reduces and provides water for initial I increment of an increasing load. It is used to tap the remaining kinetic energy of water coming out of the turbine. 9. The mechanical energy available at the turbine shaft is used to run the electric generator. The water turbine converts kinetic energy of water into mechanical energy to produce electrical energy.81 3.Draft Tube The draft tube is connected at the outlet of the water turbine. Spillway: Water after certain level in the reservoir overflows through spillway without allowing the increase in water level in the reservoir during rainy conditions. Water turbine: Water through the penstock enters into the turbine through the inlet valve.

It requires less supervising staff for the operation of the plant. 5. 6. 10.82 WORKING PRINCIPLE: In the hydroelectric power plants. 7. The mechanical available at the shaft of the turbine is converted into electrical energy through a generator or alternator. 12. flood control. Advantages of hydroelectric power plant: 1. The operating head of water exceeds 70meters. 2. The water is first passed through the penstock to the turbine from the dam. Power generation is dependent on die quantity of water available. 9. The potential energy of water is used to run water turbine to which the electric generator is coupled. CLASSIFICATION OF HYDROPOWER PLANTS: The hydropower plants are classified according to the head of water. Pelton turbine is used as prime mover in this type of power plants. Initial cost of the plant is high. Hydro-plants provide auxiliary benefits like irrigation. Water is the renewable source of energy. Maintenance cost is low. The efficiency does not change with age. diesel and nuclear plants are exhaustive and expansive. 8. Water is the cheapest source of energy. Disadvantages of hydroelectric power plant: 1. The hydraulic power plant is relatively simple in concept and self-contained in operation. Hydropower projects are capital-intensive with a low rate of return. 3. The running cost of hydropower installation is very low as compared to thermal or nuclear power stations. 2. Modem hydropower equipment has greater life expectancy and can easily last 50 years or more. the potential energy of water is converted into kinetic energy. The operating head of water is less than 15meters that power plant is known as low head power plant. 3. There is no problem of handling the fuel and ash. which may vary seasonto-season and year-to-year. . The operating head of water ranges from 15 to 70meters then the power plant is known as medium head power plant. Variable load does not affect the efficiency in the case of a hydro-plant. 4. The fuel cost is totally absent. 11. the plat is known | as "high head power plant". It is neither consumed nor converted into something else. No nuisance of smoker exhaust gases and soot's and no health hazards due to air pollution. The fuels needed for die thermal.

The fuel is burned and the burning gases expand and do work on the piston. where water supply is limited where loads are relatively small. air admitted into the cylinder is compressed. DIESEL POWER PLANT Diesel power plant is suitable for small and medium outputs. The shaft of the engine is directly coupled to the generator. by way of deforestation. Fuel system: It includes the storage tank. The hydel power plants are often far away from the load center and require long transmission lines to deliver power. compared with thermal power plants. At the end of compression stroke. After the combustion. The fuel is supplied to the engine according to the load variation. COMPONENTS OF DIESEL POWER PLANT: 1. fuel pump. fuel transfer pump. the burned gases are exhausted to the atmosphere. 6. Cooling system: The temperature of burning fuel inside the combustion chamber is 1500°C to 2000°C. Hot water leaving the jacket is sent to heat exchanger. Lubrication system: It includes oil pumps. Diesel engine: This is the main component of a diesel power plant. Engine starting system: This includes air compressor and starting air tank. strainers and heaters. combustion chamber.4. destroying vegetarian and uprooting people. It is used to reduce the friction of moving parts and reduce wear and tear of the engine. 7. Large hydro-plants disturb the ecology of the area. It takes considerably longer time for its installation. filters. 2. Diesel electric plants in the range of 2 to 50MW capacity are used as central stations. The engines are classified as twostroke engine and four stroke engines. This is used to start the engine in cold conditions by supplying the air. water is circulated around the engine in water jackets which is passed through the cylinder. 3. 5. oil tanks. The diesel power plants are commonly used where fuel prices or reliability of supply favour oil over coal. coolers and pipes. Air fiber and super charger: The air filter is used to remove the dust from the air which is taken by the engine. 5. 7. 6. the compression ratio being 12 to 20. fuel is injected. Engine is generally directly coupled to the generator for developing power. In diesel engine. . The function of the supercharger is to increase the pressure of the air supplied to the engine and thereby the power of the engine is increased.83 4. To maintain the temperature as reasonable level. piston.

. 9. The exhaust gas has high temperature and so it is used to preheat the oil and air.84 8. The basic principle in diesel engine is the thermal energy which is converted into mechanical energy and this mechanical energy is converted into electrical energy to produce the power by using generator or alternator. 3. Applications of diesel power plant 1. This is done by varying the fuel supply according to the engine load. WORKING PRINCIPLE: The air and fuel mixture are working medium in diesel engine power plant. 2. Quite suitable for mobile power generation. Used as peak load plants in combined with thermal or hydro plants. The air and fuel is mixed inside the engine and the charge is ignited due to high compression inside the engine cylinder. Governing system: It is used to regulate the speed of the engine. The atmosphere air is coming inside the combustion chamber during the suction stroke and die fuel is injected through the injection pump. Exhaust system: It includes silencers and connecting ducts. Used as stand by plants for emergency service.

7. The heat produced due to fission of U and Pu is used to heat water to generate steam which is used for running turbo generator.85 Advantages: 1 Diesel power plants are cheaper. Diesel plants operate at high overall efficiency than steam plants. 6. 9. 2.5 neutrons are released. 3. the nuclear is splitted into two equal fragments and also releases 2. IT" are the most unstable topic. Location of the plant is near the load center. Fuel handling is easier and no problem of ash disposed. The nuclear energy is derived from splitting or by the fission of the nuclear of fissionable atom. 4. 7. 4. The isotopes of Uranium are U"". Chain reaction: The neurons released during the fission can be made to fission and the other nuclei of U23 causing a "Chain Reaction". During the fission process. The efficiency of the diesel engine is about 33% only. Diesel fuel is much more expansive.5 > 107 m/sec and producing energy at 200million-electron volts. Time schedule for manufacturing are shorter.5 fast moving neutrons with a velocity of 1. which is easily fissionable. 3. The repair and maintenance cost are high. when a neutron is captured by the nuclear of an atom U235. Life of the diesel plants is low when compared to thermal plants. When a neutron enters the nuclear of U235.5. Quick starting and easy pick-up of loads. NUCLEAR POWER PLANT The nuclear power plants are now comparable to or even lower than the unit cost in coal fired power plants. One kilogram of U can produce as much energy as possible by burning 4500tonnes of high-grade coal. 2. 5. Efficiency does not fall so much as that of a steam plant during pans loads 10. . Skilled manpower is not required. the atom is splitted into two fragments of more or less of equal mass and about 2.It has no stand by losses Disadvantages: 1. Nuclear fission: Uranium exists in the isotopic form of U which is unstable. Plant capacity is limited to about 5QMW of power. Plant layout is simple. 8. 5. If". Nuclear power utilization can help to save a considerable amount of fossil fuels which can be used in other areas.

MAIN COMPONENTS OF NUCLEAR POWERPLANTS 1. shield etc. Steam generator: It is fed with feed water and the feed water is converted into steam by the heat of the hot coolant. It may be regarded as a substitute for the boiler fire box of a steam power plant.6 neutron is absorbed by control rod and moderator. about 2. 0. This large amount of heat is absorbed by the coolant and it is circulated through the core.9 neutron is converted into fissionable material pU239 and 0. Boiling water reactor 2.Nuclear reactor: It consists of reactor cone.86 The atomic explosion is caused by the under controlled chain reaction.5 neutrons are released out of which one neutron is used to sustain the chain reaction. reflector. Moderator: It is used to the Kinetic energy of fast neutrons into slow neutrons and to increase the probability of chain reaction. We know in fission process. During the fission the large amount of heat is liberated by U235. Fuel: The fuel which is used in the nuclear reactors are U235. The moderator function is to reduce the energy of neutrons and to maintain the chain reaction. Heavy Water-cooled reactor. 4. Pressurised water reactor 3. 3. The coolant is used to transfer the heat from the reactor core to the steam generator. The various types of reactors used in nuclear power plant is 1. pU239 and U233 2. .

This reaction is controlled by moderators. A thick concrete shielding and a pressure vessel are provided to prevent the radiations escaped to atmosphere. 7. The ordinary water or heavy water is a common coolant. Reflector: It is used in the reactor to conscience the neutrons in order to reduce the consumption of fissile material.87 5 . . 6. Shielding: The reactor is a source of intense radioactivity.Turbine: The steam produced by the steam generator is passed to the turbine and it is connected to the generator. Coolant pump and feed pump: It is used to maintain the flow of coolant and feed water in the power plant. shielding is provided to absorb the radioactive rays. WORKING PRINCIPLE OF NUCLEAR POWER PLANT: The fission reaction of Uranium fuel takes places in the reactor and large amount of heat is released. These radiations are very harmful. Control Rods It is used to control the nuclear chain reaction and functions of the nuclear reactor. 9. 8.

Gas turbine installations require only a fraction of water used by their steam turbine counter-parts. This steam is used to run the steam turbine and it is connected to the steam generator. The size of gas turbine plants used varies from 10MW to 50MW and the thermal efficiency of about 22% to 25%. Advantages of nuclear power plant: 1. b. It is easily adopted where water and coal resources are not available. GAS TURBINE POWER PLANT The gas turbine power plant has relatively low cost and can be quickly put into commission. Space for fuel storage is not needed. b. It requires high initial cost. 2. 9. No ash handling. 3. 8. The classification of gas turbine plants are 1. c. Nuclear power plants are well suited to meet large power demands. Disadvantages: 1. 6.88 The large amount of heat produced in the reactor is absorbed by the coolant which is circulated through the reactor core. The used steam is condensed and it is reused in the boiler. There is increased reliability of operation. The hot coolant goes to the steam generator where the feed water is absorbed the heat from the coolant and converted into steam. 2. According to the application a. The gas turbine plant requires less space only. The mechanical energy of the steam turbine is converted into electrical energy by an electric generator. c. 5. 7. It is very much useful in peak load. It is hot suitable for variable load conditions. Peak load Stand by Base load Liquid Gas Solid 2. It does not require large quantity of water. c. 4. Space requirement of a nuclear power plant is less. 7. d. It requires well-trained personnel. Radioactive wastes may affect the health of workers and other population. According to type of load a. According to fuel . b. 4. 3. a. It is not affected by adverse whether conditions. Nuclear power plant consumes very small quantity of fuel.6. Aircraft Marine Locomotive Transport 3.

Intercooler: The intercooler is used to reduce the work of the compressor and it is placed in between the high pressure and low-pressure compressor. According to cycle of operation a. Reheating unit . Compressor: In gas turbine plant. After the fuel injection. 2. The gas turbine classification is 1. 5. Open cycle gas turbine: 2. The cooling of compressed air in intercooler is generally done by water. Low pressure turbine. two compressors are used. The major part of the power developed by the turbine (about 66%) is used to run the compressor. 3. The combustion products from the combustion chamber are first expanded in high-pressure turbine and then it expands in low-pressure turbine. Regenerator 1. Intercoolers are generally used when the pressure ratio is very high. In low-pressure compressor. High pressure turbine. the heat is converted into mechanical work. Due to the expansion taking place in the gas turbine. the combustion takes place. Combustion chambers: Hot air from regenerator flows to the combustion chambers and the fuel like coal. In most of the gas turbine power plant. According to number of shafts a. b. This low-pressure air goes to the high-pressure compressor through the intercooler. This is done by the heat of the hot exhaust gases coming out of the turbine. 4. natural gas or kerosene are injected into the combustion chamber. Closed cycle gas turbine 4. 2. Open cycle Closed cycle 5. the axial and centrifugal flow compressors are used. Multi shaft ELEMENTS OF A GAS TURBINE PLANT 1. high.89 4. Compressor 2. Then the high-pressure air goes into the regenerator. One is low-pressure compressor and the other is high-pressure compressor.Regenerator: Regenerators are used to preheat the air which is entering into the combustion chamber to reduce the fuel consumption and to increase the efficiency. the atmospheric air is drawn into the compressor through the filter. The energy required to compress the air is proportional to the air temperature at inlet. Gas turbine: Two types of gas turbines are used in gas turbine plant 1. Combustion chambers 5. Intercoolers 3.temperature products of combustion are passed through the turbine. Gas turbine 6. These high-pressure.Single shaft b.

the fuel is added to the compressed air and the combustion of the fuel takes place. WORKING OF GAS TURBINE PLANT: The working of gas turbine plant is shown in fig. Then the high-pressure compressed air is goes into the combustion chamber through the regenerator. the exhaust goes to the atmosphere. and the reheated combustion products goes into the low pressure turbine. The compressed low-pressure air goes into the high pressure compressor through the inter cooler. Advantages of gas turbine plant: 1. 2. The product of the combustion goes into the high-pressure turbine. . The atmosphere air is drawn into the low-pressure compressor through the air filter and it is compressed.90 In open cycle gas turbine plant. the heat of the compressed air is removed. After the expansion in the low-pressure turbine. The working fluid is continuously used in the system without change of phase. In the combustion chamber. The exhaust of the high pressure turbine goes to the another combustion chamber and the additional fuel is added the exhaust and it goes to the low pressure turbine. the additional fuel is added to the exhaust gases coming out from the high pressure turbine. The gas turbine plants are subjected to less vibration. Here. After that. the air (or) gases coming out from the gas turbine are exhausted to the atmosphere. the exhaust is used to heat the highpressure air coming to the combustion chamber through the regenerator. 3. Reheating unit: In this unit. the air (or) gases coming out from the gas turbine plant are cooled in the cooler and it is again recirculated. Natural gas is a very suitable fuel. In closed cycle gas turbine plant. 6. Smaller in size and weight as compared to an equivalent steam power plant.

Power generation cost is high. Not suitable for peak load plant. 11. 8. 3. 9. The unit is operated at high temperature and pressure. 7. The initial cost is lower than an equivalent steam plant. Efficiency of the plant is high. It is suitable. The devices that are operated at high temperature are complicated. 7. 6. It is Only dependent on nature's mercy. Major past of the work. 5. It can be started quickly. 6. 2. Transmission losses are high. 7. (about 66%) developed in the turbine is used to drive the compressor.7. Air pollution is more. on Hydro power plant Initial cost is high. It requires less water as compared to a steam plant. Transmission losses are less. Power production is not dependent nature's mercy. 3. Thermal power plant Vs Hydro-plant: No. Any quantity of fuels can be used in gas turbine plants. Located near to load center. 10. COMPARISON AND SELECTION 1 . 4. No air pollution. Not like that. 2. 11. 4. Disadvantages: 1. The installation and maintenance costs are less than thermal plants. Efficiency of the plant is less. 1. Thermal power plant Initial cost is low. Part load efficiency is poor. There are no standby losses in gas turbine plants. Construction time is less. Gas turbines can be built relatively quicker and requires less space. Initial construction requires long time. 5. Life of the plant is less. Fuel transportation is difficult. The exhaust of the gas turbine is free from smoke. Power generation cost is less. 8. No fuel transportable Life of the plant is high. . 9. so special metals are required to maintain the unit.91 4. 10.

The unit is operated at high temperature and pressure so special metals are required. Limited plant capacity. loads. Space requirement is less. Life of the plant is less. No ash-handling problem. Lubrication cost is high. Not suitable for continuous over It can be work on over loads.92 2. Capital cost is less when size of plant is increased. Ash handling problem is there. 5. 1. coal resources are not available. 10. 8.Diesel power plant Vs Gas turbine power No. Very less number of workmen is required. Space requirement is high No fuel storage space. Gas turbine cost is high. 6. The work output is high. Steam power plant Vs Nuclear power No. Radioactive wastes. Fuel storage space is required. 3. = 20to 25%. 2. Cost of the plant is less. Capital cost is high. Capacity of the plant is higher than diesel power plant. 4 It is not require special metals. 5. Workmen required is very high. . No radioactive material. No lubrication cost. Life of the plant is high compared with diesel power plant. 3. Particular fuel should be used in this power plant. 3. 6. 9. 7. 4. 1. Diesel power plant Gas turbine power plant The efficiency of the diesel power The efficiency of the simple gas turbine power plant plant is about 35 to42%. The varying fuel quality also used in this plant The network output is less. 2. Steam power plant Nuclear power plant It is not suitable wherever water and It is suitable for (hat.

Large quantity of fuel is required. The cubature of the tidal flow not only depends on the tidal range but on the width of estuary mouth. In addition to this.93 7. The constructed basin is filled during high tide and emptied during low tide passing through sluices and turbine respectively. The site should not create interruption to the shipping traffic running through the estuary other wise the cost of the plant will increase as locks are to be provided. Maintenance cost is high. by adverse weather It does not require large quantity of water. 2. Steam power plants are affected by Not affected whether conditions. 12. 32%. Operating cost is high. The power produced by a tidal plant depends mainly on the range of tide and the cubature of the tidal flow occurring in the estuary during a tidal cycle which can be stored and utilized for power generation. 8. 11. Factors affecting the suitability of the site for tidal power plant The feasibility and economic vulnerability of a tidal power depends upon the following factors. 7. Operating cost is less. It requires large quantity of water. When the water is above the mean sea level. 9. These tides can be used to produce electrical power which is known as tidal power. Steam power plant efficiency = 20 to Nuclear power plant efficiency = 30 to 30%. conditions. The minimum average tide range required for economical power production is more. Less quantity of fuel required. 3. 1. A dam is constructed in such a away that a basin gets separated from the sea and a difference in the water level is obtained between the basin and sea. . 4.8 TIDAL POWER PLANTS Tide is periodic rise and fall of the water level of the sea. Maintenance cost is less. 10. it is called ebb tide. The site should be such that with a minimum cost of barrage it should be possible to create maximum storage volume. The Potential energy of the water stored in the basin is used to drive the turbine which in turn generates electricity as it is directly coupled to an alternator. it is called flood tide and when the level is below the mean level. the site selected should be well protected from waves action. Tides occur due to the attraction of seawater by the moon.

If reversible pump turbines are provided. The classification is represented with the help of a line diagram as given below COMPONENTS OF TIDAL POWER PLANTS There are three main Components of a tidal Power plant. The function of dam to form a barrier between the sea and the basin or between one basin and the other in case of multiple basins. The modern tubular turbines are so versatile that they can be used either as turbines or as pumps in either direction of flow. (i) The Power house (ii) The dam or barrage (iii) Sluice-ways from the basins to the sea and vice versa. the pumping operation can be taken over at any time by the same machine. The siltation leads to reduction of the range of tides and reduces the power potential of the plant. CLASSIFICATION OF TIDAL POWER PLANTS The tidal power plants are generally classified on the basis of the number of basins used for the power generation. as per operational requirement. the tubular passages can . The design cycle may also provide for pumping between the basin and the sea in either direction.e.94 5. The fresh water prism that falls into the reservoir of the tidal plant (due to the surface flows in the streams having out fall in the estuary) eats away the valuable storage created for storing the tidal prism. the ratio of fresh water prism to tidal water prism becomes an important index in determining the economic feasibility of a tidal scheme. These are gate controlled devices. In addition. They are further subdivided as one-way or two-way system as per the cycle of operation for power generation. Therefore. The effective and cheaper will be the power production with decreasing the ratio mentioned above. i. It is generally convenient to have the power house as well as the sluice-ways in alignment with the dam. electric generators and other auxiliary equipment's are the main equipments of a power house. The turbines. The sluice ways are used either to fill the basin during the high tide or empty the basin during the low tide. 6. Silt index of the water of the estuary should be as small as possible to avoid the siltation troubles.

The technology is about ready to substitute a series of flap gates that operates by water pressure. but it is now possible to built them on land. this. 1. The gates must be opened and closed rapidly and this operation should use a minimum of power. Tidal power barrages have to resist waves whose shock can be severe and where pressure changes sides continuously. Gate structures can be floated as modular units into place. Tidal barrages require sites where there is a sufficiently high tidal range to give a good head of water . . float them to the site. The nearer it is built to the mouth of bay. The best sites are bays and estuaries. For instance. As compared to conventional plants. is tolerable for gates and barrages. the larger the basin. even though heads are small with tidal power cutoffs. Gates and Locks Tidal power basins have to be filled and emptied. To build these channels a temporary coffer dam in necessary. the basin level rises well above to sea level as ebb flow area is far less than flood flow area. however. but water. The location of the barrage is important. and stability problems are far more modest. in existing plants. vertical lift gates have been used. Since we are dealing with seawater. which is not the case with conventional river projects. Dam (Barrage) Dam and barrage are synonymous terms. Gates are opened regularly and frequently but heads very in height and on the side where they occur.95 also be used as sluice-ways by locking the machine in to a stand still. because the energy available is related to the size of trapped basin and to the square of the tidal range. they have been very successfully solved by the catholic protection and where not possible by paint. Leakage.the minimum useful range is around three meters. can also be impounded behind bounded reservoir built between two points on the same shore line. the literature does not always make the distinction. A balance must also be struck between increased out put and increased material requirements and construction costs. 2. and sink them into place. the periodic opening and closing of the sluice-way of a tidal plant are about 730 times in a year. Flap gates are gates that are positioned so as to allow water in to the holding basin and require no mechanical means of operation. Barrage has been suggested as a more accurate term for tidal power scheme. Hence. imposes a great number of operations in tidal power plants. However. The flap gates allow only in the direction of the sea to basin. The barrage needs to provide channels for the turbines in reinforced concrete. but the smaller the tidal range. because it has only to with stand heads a fraction of the structure's height. corrosion problems are actuate. Though.

The water flows from the basin to the sea passing through the turbine and generates power. 2. In this system. Power house Because small heads only are available. Single-basin two-way cycle In this arrangement power is generated both during flood tide as well as ebb tide also. large size turbines are needed. WORKING 1. The arrangement of the basin and the power cycle is shown in fig . The power generation is also intermittent but generation period is increased compared with one-way cycle.96 3. a basin is allowed to get filled during flood tide and during the ebb tide. bulbs have horizontal shafts coupled to a single generator. hence. The cost per installed kilowatt drops with turbine size. and perhaps larger turbines might be installed in a future major tidal power plant. the power house is also a large structure. 1 Single basin Tidal Power Plant Fig shows a single tide basin before the construction of dam. Both the French and Soviet operating plants use the bulb type of turbine of the propeller type. Single basin-One-way cycle This is the simplest form of tidal power plant. However the peak power obtained is less than the one-way cycle. at the mouth of the basin and power generation during the falling tide. with revisable blades. The power is available for a short duration during ebb tide.

5. the same turbine must be used as Prime mover as ebb and tide flows pass through the turbine in opposite directions.97 The main difficulty with this arrangement. Variable pitch turbine and dual rotation generator are used for such schemes. The main disadvantage of this system is that 50% of the Potential energy is sacrificed in introducing the variation in the water levels of the two basins. 3. The period of power production with this system is much longer than the other two described earlier. one basin is intermittently filled by the flood tide and other is intermittently drained by the ebb tide. Complex machines capable of generation Power and Pumping the water in either directions are used. . the turbine is set up between the two basins as shown in Fig 5.5. Therefore a small capacity but continuos power is made available with this system as shown in Fig5. A part of the energy produced is used for introducing the difference in the water levels between the basin and the sea at any time of the tide and this is done by pumping water into the basin up or down. Double basin type In this arrangement. The cycle of operation is shown in Fig 4. In this system. Single-basin two-way cycle with pump storage The Range tidal power plant in France uses this type of arrangement. power is generated both during flood and ebb tides.

It is free from pollution as it does not use any fuel. Net energy gain is possible with such a system if the pumping head is lower than the basin-to-basin turbine generating head. Exploitation of tidal energy will in no case make demand for large area of valuable land because they are on bays. Double basin with Pumping In this case. 2. General Layout of Tidal Powerplant Advantages 1. off peak power from the base load plant in a interconnected transmission system is used either to pump the water up the high basin. .98 5.

This also further increases the capital cost of the plant. there is certainty of power supply a the tide cycle is very definite. 7. 4. Therefore some arrangements (double basin or double basin with pump storage) must be made to supply the continuous power. thermal) 5. this will also not produce any unhealthy waste like gases. . As the sites are available on the bay which will be always far away from the load centers. ash. Tidal Power is superior to conventional hydro power as the hydro plants are know for their large seasonal and yearly fluctuations in the output of energy because they are entirely dependent upon the nature's cycle of rainfall. 7. 4. which is not the case with tidal as monthly certain power is assured. Therefore. 3. It can provide better recreational facilities to visitors and holiday makers. (2) The rotation of the earth about its axis and its motion around the sun. It is much superior to hydro-power plant as it is totally independent of rain which always fluctuates year to year. The power generated must be transported to long distances. in addition to the possibility of fish forming in the tidal basins. because the moon largely influences the tidal rhythm. The navigation is obstructed. 2. 7. The tides are totally independent on nature's cycle of rainfall. These Power plants can be developed only if natural sites are available. As in every form of water power. The supply of power is not continuous as it depends upon the timing of tides. atomic refuse which entails heavy removal costs. 6. 5. It is interesting to note that the output of power from tidal power plant varies with lunar cycle. 6. Disadvantages 1. This increases the transportation cost. (1) The absorption of solar energy on the earth's surface and in the atmosphere.99 3. Sedimentation and siltration of the basins are some of the added problems with tidal power plants. where as our daily power requirement is directly related to solar cycle.5000/kw) is considerably large compared with conventionalpower plants (hydro.9 WIND POWER PLANTS Winds are caused because of two factors. Another notable advantage of tidal power is that it has a unique capacity to meet the peak power demand effectively when it works in combinatiion with thermal or hydroelectric system. The capital cost of the plant (Rs.

A wind mill converts the kinetic energy of moving air into mechanical energy that can be either used directly to run the machine or to run the generator to Produce electricity. and the air is caused to move. alternate heating and cooling cycles occur. Fatigue load may be enough to cause blade root failure. The problems associated with Utilizing wind energy are that: (i) The energy is available in dilute form. This can be judged from the fact that energy available in the wind over the earth's surface is estimated to be 1. Horizontal Axis single blade Wind mills If extremely long blades are mounted on rigid hub. differences in pressure are obtained. gravity and sudden shifts in wind directions on a 200ft long blade. CLASSIFICATION OF WIND MILLS (a) Horizontal Wind mills i. This type of hub design contains fewer parts and costs less. because of this conversion machines have to be necessarily large. To reduce rotor cost. The potential of Wind energy as a source of power is large. Single blade wind mill . (ii) The availability of the energy varies considerably over a day and with the seasons. Large blade root bending moments can occur due to tower shadow.100 Because of these factors.6x107 K. use of single long blade centrifugally balanced by a low cost counter Weight as shown in fig.W Besides the energy available is free and clean. For this reason some Means of storage have to be devised if a continuous supply of power is required. The relatively simple rotor hub consists of a Universal Joint between the rotor shaft and blade allowing for blade.

The rotors of this design have high strength to weight ratios and have been known to survive hours of free wheeling operation in 100kmph winds. they need not to be turned to Force the wind. The arrangement of all the Components used in horizontal axis wind mill is shown in fig When the machine is operating its rotor blades are continuously flexed by Unsteady aerodynamic.two bladed wind mills In this arrangement rotor drives generator through a step-up gear box. Double blade wind mill If the blades are metal. The components are mounted on a bed plate which is mounted on a pinttle at the Top of the tower. flexing reduces their fatigue life. high starting torque ad added advantage of simplicity and low cost.Multi bladed Wind Mills (b) Vertical Wind Mills Wind turbines mounted with the axis of rotation in a vertical Position have advantage that they are omni-directional that is. The wire spokes support light weight aluminum blades.google.com/site/mubarakmes .101 (ii) Horizontal axis . gravitational and inertial loads. The tower is also subjected to unsteady load and dynamic interactions between the components of the machine-tower system can cause serious damage. This type of wheel have narrow rims and Wire spokes. The Vertical mounted Wind Machines eliminates the need for some of the complex mechanical devices and control systems necessary for horizontal mounted wind Machines. Horizontal Axis . They Fig Multi bladed wind mill have good power Co-efficient. The two blade rotor is Usually designed to be oriented down wind of the tower. https://sites.

the nuclear fuels have posed a number of problem Thus. Advantages of Wind energy (1) The wind energy is free. sources of energy such as geothermal ocean thermal. (3) The cost factor. inexhaustible and does not need transportation. Disadvantage of Wind energy (1) Wind power is not consistent and steady. which makes the complications in designing the whole plant.The savonius rotor consists of a long solid's.google. wind and sun. (2) The wind is a very hazard one. which has restricted the development of wind power in large scale for feeding to the existing grid . Such that the water level in the reservoir can be maintained for longer periods.shaped surface mounted to turn at the center of 's' the savonius rotor is self starting and has an efficiency of about 31% while the Darrievs rotor has a slightly higher efficiency of 35% but is not self starting.10 GEOTHERMAL POWER It has been estimated that the growing need for energy will exhaust all fossil fuels within a few decades. ocean tide. The Darrievs rotor consists of two or three convex metal blades with an air foil cross section. It is also hoped that these alternative energy sources will be https://sites. (5) Careful survey is necessary for plant location. The rotor assembly is held in position by guy wires running from the top of the rotor to the ground. Special and costly designs and controls are always required. More over the pollution hazards arising out of fossil fuel burning has become quite significant in recent years. (3) Wind power can be used in combination with hydroelectric plants.com/site/mubarakmes .102 Two types of vertical axis Wind Machines have received attention. mounted on a Central shaft which is supported by bearings at the top and bottom. there a need for tapping new unconventional. (2) Wind mills will be highly desirable and economical to the rural areas which are far from existing grids. Also. (4) It has low power coefficient. Fig (a) Savonius rotor 7.

which is 2900 km thick . This part of the system constitutes the reservoir. a. A vapour dominated system (also called dry steam system) liberates saturated to slightly superheated steam. USA and Japan.com/site/mubarakmes . from the wells drilled in the geothermal reservoir. with temperatures around 250° C and pressures of 30 to 35 bars. The reservoir is generally located in highly fractured rocks. water gets heated from the magmas and becomes less dense which creates a convection cell or system under some covering rocks. it allows only very little heat to enter the surface But at some locations. 95 % of the earth is molten. https://sites. According to various theories. Liquid dominated system. geothermal energy has a great potential and is already being commercially utilised in some of the developed countries. there is transfer of heat from the mantle to the shallower levels of the earth crust by some geothermal fluid. Only a thin outer layer (ranging from 15 to 150 km) is in the solid form.google. Under the earths crust lies the mantle. Leaks from the reservoir to the surface are manifested by steam vents or hot springs. Vapour dominated system 2. and the well flows may range from a few thousand to cover 250. Out of all these sources. The arrangement of the components of the system used is shown in fig. The geothermal fluid is nothing but water containing dissolved minerals and salt. divided into two general classes: 1. From these heat sources geothermal systems developed. As t crust of the earth is an excellent insulator.103 able to meet considerable part of the energy sources will be able to meet considerable part of the energy demand in coming future. The first electric power generating station using the natural dry steam was built in Italy. The geothermal system utilising the geothermal fluid are. It is estimated that the temperature at the centre of the earth is around 3000°C while the temperature towards the outer layer approaches to about 1200°C.000 kg of Italy.

104 The dry steam coming out of the reservoir through the drilled wells is directly fed to the turbines. The steam produced is then passed through the turbine and then passed to the condenser. (b) https://sites.com/site/mubarakmes . The steam. after expansion in the turbine are send to the condenser. In this system a low boiling organic fluid is used as the working fluid which is continuously recirculated. Wells drilled into mis type of reservoir liberate the hot brine solution. out from the hot well is flashed in a flash chamber to produce steam. These turbines are coupled with electric generators for generating electricity. (a) A typical arrangement used in Japan for power generation using a high enthalpy system is shown in fig.google. the heat in the geothermal fluid (hot brine) is utilised in a closed system as shown in fig. b Brine solution lat high temperature coming. c. Under this situation. The temperature of the solution available in such fields ranges from200 to 350°C. Low enthalpy system is used in places where the temperature of the geothermal fluid is not sufficient to produce the flash steam. The condensate coming out of the condenser is fed back to the hot reservoir with the help of a pump. A high enthalpy system is employed in the geothermal zone where water with highly dissolved solids (Brine solution) is available. The condensate from the condenser along with the brine separated in the flash chamber is again pumped back to the geothermal field.

The exceptions are the areas where the geothermal resource was found by chance. the costs are lower than those of all other sources except hydel power. The energy carrier. and returns on investment.com/site/mubarakmes . near the equator. i. The capital costs of discovery. This temperature difference generally increases with decreasing latitude.Current designs are expected closer to the maximum. As with any heat engine. due to low thermal efficiency. In addition to the geothermal reservoirs. Earlier OTEC systems were 1 to 3% efficiency. This vapour is passed through the turbine for generating power.google. Modern designs allow performance approaching the theoretical maximum Carnot efficiency. Expense comes from the pumps and pump energy costs. seawater. well below the theoretical maximum of between 6 and 7%. the main technical challenge of OTEC was to generate significant amounts of power efficiently from small temperature ratios.e. however.11 OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION (OTEC OR OTE) Ocean thermal energy conversion uses the difference between cooler deep and warmer shallow waters to run a heat engine. For the production of electric power from geothermal source. geothermal energy can also be found in the form of the heat content of hot dry rock. OTEC plants can operate continuously as a base load power generation system. The geothermal fluid. is fed back to the geothermal field. OTEC offers total available energy that is one or two orders of magnitude higher than other ocean energy options such as wave power. In order to utilise this form of energy heat will have to be transferred to the surface by means of artificially injected water through specially constructed pathways in the rock. greater efficiency and power comes from larger temperature differences. after giving up its heat to the working fluid. in the tropics. development and installation of geothermal system have tendency to discourage their use for power generation.[ but the small temperature difference makes energy extraction comparatively difficult and expensive. (c) 7.105 The fluid gets heat from the geothermal fluid and vapourises. efficiency. construction costs. https://sites. It is then condensed in a condenser and then recirculated. operational. Accurate cost-benefit analyses include these factors to assess performance. Historically.

google. As heat flows from one to the other. Open-cycle engines use the water heat source as the working fluid. Closed Diagram of a closed cycle OTEC plant https://sites. Desalinating seawater near the sea floor lowers its density. To operate. Rather than using heat energy from the burning of fuel. Much of the energy used by humans passes through a heat engine. the engine converts some of the heat energy to work energy. while refrigerators reverse the direction of flow of both the heat and work energy. open-cycle. Systems may be either closed-cycle or open-cycle.106 A heat engine is a thermodynamic device placed between a high temperature reservoir and a low temperature reservoir. The only heat cycle suitable for OTEC is the Rankine cycle using a low-pressure turbine. Cycle types Cold seawater is an integral part of each of the three types of OTEC systems: closedcycle. and hybrid.[ 1. the cold seawater must be brought to the surface.com/site/mubarakmes . This principle is used in steam turbines and internal combustion engines. Closed-cycle engines use working fluids that are typically thought of as refrigerants such as ammonia or R-134a. which causes it to rise to the surface. thus reducing pumping volumes and reducing technical and environmental problems and lowering costs. The primary approaches are active pumping and desalination. OTEC power draws on temperature differences caused by the sun's warming of the ocean surface. The alternative to costly pipes to bring condensing cold water to the surface is to pump vaporized low boiling point fluid into the depths to be condensed.

https://sites. such as ammonia. similar to the open-cycle evaporation process. The steam. which is then recycled through the system. This method produces desalinized fresh water. Cold water. to power a turbine to generate electricity. It is condensed into a liquid by exposure to cold temperatures from deep-ocean water.and open-cycle systems. pumped through a second heat exchanger. 3. The vaporized fluid then drives a turbine to produce electricity. The expanding steam drives a low-pressure turbine attached to an electrical generator. is pure fresh water. Placing warm seawater in a low-pressure container causes it to boil. In a hybrid. which left its salt and other contaminants in the low-pressure container. 2.com/site/mubarakmes . Open Open-cycle OTEC uses warm surface water to make electricity. The expanding vapor turns the turbo-generator. Warm surface seawater is pumped through a heat exchanger to vaporize the fluid.107 Closed-cycle systems use fluid with a low boiling point. suitable for drinking water or irrigation. The steam vaporizes the ammonia working fluid of a closed-cycle loop on the other side of an ammonia vaporizer. condenses the vapor into a liquid.google. Hybrid A hybrid cycle combines the features of the closed. warm seawater enters a vacuum chamber and is flash-evaporated. The steam condenses within the heat exchanger and provides desalinated water.

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