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1. THERMODYNAMICS
THERMODYNAMICS AND ENERGY Thermodynamics can be defined as the science of energy. Although everybody has a feeling of what energy is, It is difficult to give a precise definition for it. Energy can be viewed as the ability to cause changes. The name thermodynamics stems from the Greek words therm (heat) and dynanus (power), which is most descriptive of the early efforts to convert heat into power. Today the same name is broadly interpreted to include all aspects of energy and energy transformations, including power generation refrigeration, and relationships among the properties of matter. Thermodynamics may be defined as follows : Thermodynamics is a science which deals with the relations among heat, work and properties of system which are in equilibrium. It describes state and changes in state of physical systems. Or Thermodynamics is the science of the regularities governing processes of energy conversion. Or Thermodynamics is the science that deals with the interaction between energy and material systems. Thermodynamics, basically entails four laws or axioms known as Zeroth, First, Second and Third law of thermodynamics.     The Zeroth law deals with thermal equilibrium and establishes a concept of temperature. The First law throws light on concept of internal energy. The Second law indicates the limit of converting heat into work and introduces the principle of increase of entropy. The Third law defines the absolute zero of entropy.

These laws are based on experimental observations and have no mathematical proof. Like all physical laws, these laws are based on logical reasoning. One of the most fundamental laws of nature is the conservation of energy principle. It simply states that during an interaction, energy can change from one form to another but the total amount of energy remains constant. That is, energy cannot be created or destroyed. A rock falling off a cliff, for example, picks up speed as a result of its potential energy being converted to kinetic energy. The conservation of energy principle also forms the back bone of the diet industry. A person who has a greater energy input (food) than energy output (exercise) will gain weight (store energy in the form of fat), and a person who has a smaller energy input than output will lose weight. The change in the energy content of a body or any other system is equal to the difference between the energy input and the energy output, and the energy balance is expressed as Em - Em = ΔE

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The first law of thermodynamics is simply an expression of the conservation of energy principle, and it asserts that energy is a thermodynamic property. The second law of thermodynamics asserts that energy has quality as well as quantity, and actual processes occur in the direction of decreasing quality of energy. For example, a cup of hot coffee left on a table eventually cools, but a cup of cool coffee in the same room never gets hot by itself. The hightemperature energy of the coffee is degraded (transformed into a less useful form at a lower temperature) once it is transferred to the surrounding air. It is well-known that a substance consists of a large number of particles called molecules. The properties of the substance naturally depend on the behavior of these particles. For example, the pressure of a gas in a container is the result of momentum transfer between the molecules and the walls of the container. However, one does not need to know the behavior of the gas particles to determine the pressure in the container. It would be sufficient to attach a pressure gauge to the container. This macroscopic approach to the study of thermodynamics that does not require a knowledge of the behavior of individual particles is called classical thermodynamics. It provides a direct and easy way to the solution of engineering problems. A more elaborate approach, based on the average behavior of large groups of individual particles, is called statistical thermodynamics. APPLICATION AREAS OF THERMODYNAMICS All activities in nature involve some interaction between energy and mailer thus, it is hard to imagine an area that does not relate to thermodynamics in some manner. Therefore, developing a good understanding of bask principles of thermodynamics has long been an essential part of engineering education. Thermodynamics is commonly encountered in many engineering systems and other aspects of life, and one does not need to go very far to see some application areas of it. In fact, one does not need to go anywhere. The heart is constantly pumping blood to all parts of the human body, various energy conversions occur in trillions of body cells, and the body heat generated is constantly rejected to the environment. The human comfort is closely tied to the rate of this metabolic heat rejection. We try to control this heat transfer rate by adjusting our clothing to the environmental conditions. Other applications of thermodynamics are right where one lives. An ordinary house is, in some respects, an exhibition hall filled with wonders of thermodynamics. Many ordinary household utensils and appliances are designed, in whole or in part by using the principles of thermodynamics. Some examples include the electric or gas range, the heating and airconditioning systems, the refrigerator, the humidifier, the pressure cooker, the water heater, the shower, the iron, and even the computer and the TV. On a larger scale, thermodynamics plays a major part in the design and analysts of automotive engines, rockets, jet engines, and conventional or nuclear power plants, solar collectors, and the design of vehicles from ordinary cars to airplanes. The energy-efficient home that you may be living in, for example, is designed on the basis of minimizing heat loss in winter and beat gain in summer The size, location, and the power input of the fan of your computer is also selected after an analysis that involves thermodynamics.

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SYSTEM, BOUNDARY AND SURROUNDINGS System- A system is a finite quantity of matter or a prescribed region of space Boundary. The actual or hypothetical envelope enclosing the system is the boundary of the system. The boundary may be fixed or it may move, as and when a system containing a gas is compressed or expanded. The boundary may be real or imaginary. It is not difficult to envisage a real boundary but an example of imaginary boundary would be one drawn around a system consisting of the fresh mixture about to enter the cylinder of an I.C. engine together with the remnants of the last cylinder charge after the exhaust process.

1. Closed System. Refer above Fig. (a) If the boundary of the system is impervious to the flow of matter, it is called a closed system. An example of this system is mass of gas or vapour contained in an engine cylinder, the boundary of which is drawn by the cylinder walls, the cylinder head and piston crown. Here the boundary is continuous and no matter may enter or leave. 2.Open System Refer Fig. (c) An open system is one in which matter flows into or out of the system. Molt of the engineering systems are open. 3.Isolated System An isolated system is that system which exchanges neither energy nor matter with at other system or with environment. 4. Adiabatic System An adiabatic system is one which is thermally insulated from its surroundings. It can, however, exchange work with its surroundings. If it does not, it becomes an isolated system. Phase- A phase is a quantity of matter which is homogeneous throughout in chemical composition and physical structure.

mixture of liquid water and steam. . This approach events occurring at molecular.Heterogeneous System A system which consists of two or more phases is called a heterogeneous system. 6. mixture of ice and water. impulse. Examples: Liquid. Homogeneous System A system which consists of a single phase is termed as homogeneous system. Examples : Water plus steam. The properties like velocity. So advanced statistical and mathematical methods are needed to explain the changes in the system. These properties like pressure and temperature can be measured vary easily. (b) homogeneous in chemical aggregation. it is a system which is (a) homogeneous in composition. ice plus water and water plus oil. The changes in properties can be felt by our sense. The mixture of liquid air and gaseous air is not a pure substance. This is known to thermodynamics which is concerned directly as classical thermodynamic with the structure of the matter is known as statistical thermodynamics. water. MACROSCOPIC AND MICROSCOPIC POINTS OF VIEW Macroscopic approach—(Macro mean big or total) Microscopic approach—(Micro means small) Macroscopic approach Microscopic approach In this molecules have different velocities and In this approach a certain quantity of matter is energies. complicated. Large number of variables an needed to In order to describe a system only a few describe a system. In other words. The analysis of macroscopic system requires simple mathematical formulae. The behaviour of the system is found by using statistical methods as the number of molecules is very large. force of impact etc which describe the molecule cannot be easily measured by instrument. The values of the properties of the system are their average values. The values of these energies are considered without taking into account the constantly changing with time. So the approach is properties are needed. momentum. water plus nitric acid and octane plus heptane. PURE SUBSTANCE A pure substance is one that has a homogeneous and invariable chemical composition even though there is a change of phase. kinetic energy.4 5. Examples : Mixture of air and water vapour. Our senses cannot feel them.

Systems under temperature and pressure equilibrium but not under chemical equilibrium are sometimes said to be in metastable equilibrium conditions. then the specific volume of matter within the system is V/m =υ which is an intensive property. there should be no velocity gradient. PROCESS A process occurs when the system undergoes a change in a state or an energy transfer at a steady state.5 THERMODYNAMIC EQUILIBRIUM A system is in thermodynamic equilibrium if the temperature and pressure at all points are same . Thus for attaining a state of thermodynamic equilibrium the following three types of equilibrium states must be achieved : 1. A variable is a property. if and only if. if and only if.There are no unbalanced forces within the system or betwe the surroundings. it has a single value at each equilibrium state. It follows from the definition of state that each property has a single value at each stat Stated differently. if the volume of a system of mass m is V. Volume. No chemical reaction takes place in the system and the I cat composition which is same throughout the system does not vary with time.Example . Extensive properties. Therefore. STATE State is the condition of the system at an instant of time as described or measured by properties. we can determine if a given variable is property or by applying the following tests : A variable is a property. Mechanical equilibrium. the change in its value between any two prescribed equilibrium states is single-valued. 2. On the basis of the above discussion. Chemical equilibrium. These properties do not depend on the mass of the systen Examples : Temperature and pressure. all properties are identic for identical states. Thermal equilibrium. bu not upon how the state is reached. For example.The temperature of the system does not change with time has same value at all points of the system. PROPERTIES OF SYSTEMS A property of a system is a characteristic of the system which depends upon its state. It is only under thermodynamic equilibrium conditions that the properties of a system can be fixed. Or each unique condition of a system is called a state. Therefore. any variable whose change is fixed by the end states is a property. 3. There are two sorts of property : Intensive properties. all properties are state or point functions. Extensive properties are often divided by mass associated with them to obtain the intensive properties. The pressure in the system is same at all points and does not change wit respect to time. the chemical equilibrium is also necessary. These properties depend on the mass of the system. A process may be non-flow in which a fixed mass within the defined boundary is .

Example : A substance which is being heated in a closed cylinder undergoes a non-flaw process. PATH FUNCTION AND POINT FUNCTION With reference to Fig. such as "the density of in a glass is the same at any point. it is possible to take a system from state 1 to state 2 along many quasi-static paths. The processes through which the system has passed can be shown on a state diagram. CYCLE Any process or series of processes whose end states are identical is termed a cycle. except some specialized ones. work etc . Heat. The continuum idealisation is implicit in many statements we make. as well as any heat or work crossing the boundary of the system. 2 dW 1 ≠ W2 − W1 Examples. Yet. In a steady flow process mass is crossing the boundary from surrounding at entry. homogeneous matter with no holes. B or C. but a complete section of the path requires in addition a statement of the heat and work crossing the boundary of the system. Quasi means 'almost'. and đW is an inexact or imperfect differential. and it depends on the path the system follows in going from state 1 to state 2. A process may be a flow process in which mass is entering and leaving through the boundary of an open system. and also of the work delivered from the system at surroundings to cause the mass to leave. For this reason. Closed systems undergo non-flow processes. such as A. This process is a succession of equilibrium states and infinite slowness is its characteristic feature. Quasi-static process. CONTINUUM Matter is made up of atoms that are widely spaced in the gas phase. In an open system it is necessary to take account of the work delivered from the surroundings to the system at entry to cause the mass to enter. continuum idealization allows us to treat properties as point functions I assume the properties vary continually in space with no jump discontinuities. that is. Since the area under each curve represents the work for each process.6 undergoing a change of state. and an equal mass is crossing the boundary at the exit so that the total mass of the system remains constant. work is called a path function. very convenient to disregard the atomic nature of a substance and view ii a continuous. This is the case in practically all problems. This idealization is valid as long as the size of the system we deal is large relative to the space between the molecules. the amount of work involved in each case is not a function of the end states of the process. a continuum.

and depends only on the initial and final states of the system. (A particular molecule does not behave a temperature. volume etc The change in volume thus depends only on the end states of the system. work done in a quasi-static process between two given states depends on the path followed. 2 dV 1 = V2 − V1 Examples.  Instruments for measuring ordinary temperatures are known as thermometers and those for measuring high temperatures are known as pyrometers. System '1' may consist of a mass of gas enclosed in a rigid vessel fitted with a pressure gauge. T(F)=1. the average molecular kinetic energy of the molecules in a system. The temperature of a body is proportional to the stored molecular energy.  It has been found that a gas will not occupy any volume at a certain temperature. Absolute temperature is stated in degrees centigrade. On the other hand. Then : Absolute temperature (K) = Thermometer reading in oC + 273. . TEMPERATURE  The temperature is a thermal state of a body which distinguishes a hot body from a cold body.7 Thermodynamic properties are point functions. ZEROTH LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS • "Zeroth law of thermodynamics' states that if two systems are each equal in temperature to a third. since for a given state. they are equal in temperature to each other.8(ToC)+32 Absolute temperature is degree centigrade is known as degrees kelvin. denoted by K (SI unit). Pressure. The point of absolute temperature is found to occur at 273. there is a definite value for each property. The temperatures measured with absolute zero as basis are called absolute temperatures. irrespective of the path the system follows.15. If there is no change of pressure when this system is brought into contact with system 2 a block of iron. The differentials of point functions are exact or perfect differentials and the integration is simply temperature. This temperature is known as absolute zero temperature. WC below the freezing point of water. The gas as a system has temperature). then the two systems are equal in temperature (assuming that the systems 1 and 2 do not reacts each other chemically or electrically). The change in a thermodynamic property of a system in a change of state is independent of the path the system follows during the change of state. it has energy.

that an functions of temperature.8 Experiment reveals that if system T is brought into contact with a third system '8' again with no change of properties then systems T and '3' will show no change in their properties when brought into contact provided they do not react with each other chemically or electrically. 2 and '3' must be in equilibrium. It is brought into thermal equilibrium with a set of standard temperature of a body '2'. THE THERMOMETER AND THERMOMETRIC PROPERTY The zeroth law of thermodynamics provides the basis for the measurement of temperature. and the names of the corresponding thermometric properties employed an given below: Thermometer 1 2 3 4 5 6 Constant volumes gas Constant pressure gas Alcohol or mercury-in-glass Electric resistance Thermocouple Electromotive Radiation (pyrometer) Thermometric property Pressure (p) Volume (V) Length (L) Resistance (Ω) force (F) Intensity of radiation (I or J) . Then are other methods of temperature measurement which utilize various other properties of materials. becomes a thermometric property. when any other body '1‘ is brought in thermal communication with the thermometer. It enables us to compare temperatures of two bodies '1' and '2' with the help of a third body '3‘ and say that the temperature of '1‘ is the same as the temperature of ‗2' without actually bringing 'V and '2' in thermal contact. say the height of mercury column in the thermometer '3'. we say that the body '1‘ has attained equality of temperature with the thermometer. In practice. This way. Later. and is thus calibrated. The height of mercury column in a thermometer. therefore. Therefore. and hence with body It. Six different kinds of thermometers. as thermometric properties. the body 'V has the temperature of body '2‘ given for example by. body '3' in the zeroth law it called the thermometer.

1 bar = 10 N/m2.9 DEFINITION OF PRESSURE Pressure is defined as a force per unit area. It is necessary to establish an absolute pressure scale which. is independent of the changes in atmospheric pressure. The instruments that we generally use. • A schematic diagram showing the gauge pressure. vapours and liquids. The manometer An elevation change in a fluid corresponds to &P/ρg. it is the difference between the pressure exerted by a fluid of interest and the ambient atmospheric pressure. Vacuum readings are given in millimeters of mercury or millimeters of water below the atmosphere. however. . Standard atmospheric pressure = 1. When it is below atmospheric. A pressure of absolute zero can exist only in complete vacuum. Thus. Pvac= Patm-Pabs The fundamental SI unit of pressure is N/m2 (sometimes called pascal. 5 Low pressures are often expressed in terms of nun of water or mm of mercury. Such devices indicate the pressure either above or below that of the atmosphere.76 m for 760 mm) Hg. it is termed gauge pressure and is positive. When ft is above the atmospheric pressure. vacuum pressure and the absolute presssure is given in Fig. it is negative end is known as vacuum. Pgauge=Pabs-Patm. Any pressure measured above the absolute zero of pressure is termed an 'absolute pressure'. Pressures are exerted by gases. This is an abbreviated way of saying that the pressure is such that which will support a liquid column of stated height. Types of Pressure Measurement Devices 1. record pressure at the difference between two pressures. which suggests that a fluid column can be us measure pressure differences.01325 bar = 0. Pa) or bar.

. no work is done. which is connected to a resistor by means of a switch as shown in fig. When the switch is closed. water. (a) When the switch is closed. heavy fluids such mercury are used if large pressure differences are anticipated 2.m. According to the definition of work in mechanics. current flows through the resistor and the resistor becomes warmer. WORK Work is one of the basic modes of energy transfer. the energy transfer across the boundary of a system on account of reasons other than temperature difference is called work. the system interacts with its surroundings and the sole effect could fig reduced to the lifting of a weight Therefore the system ( battery ) does work when the switch is closed. (a) (b) . The barometric and atmospheric pressure Atmospheric pressure is measured by a device called a barometer. The sole effect external to the system. In mechanics work is defined as the product of force and distance moved in the direction of force! It is denoted by W and the unit of work is N . 1 Nm = 1 J. warming of resistor can be reduced to the lifting of weight. (b). Consider a storage electric battery as a system. and it is commonly used to measure small and moderate pressure differences. thus. the atmospheric pressure is often referred to as the barometric pressure. if the resistor is replaced by a motor and a load as shown in fig. Work is said to be done by a system if the sole effect external to the system can be reduced to the lifting of a weight.10 A device based on this principle is called manometer. or oil keep the size of the manometer to a manageable level. In thermodynamics. A manometer mainly consists of a glass or plastic U-t containing one or more fluids such as mercury. motor shaft rotates and the load is lifted. alcohol. ie. Hence when the switch is closed.

and if V be the area of the piston. The differential sign in đW When the piston moves out from position 1 to position 2 with the volume changing from V1 to V2. PdV Work) be a system having initially the pressure p1 and volume V1 The system is in thermodynamic equilibrium. pdV-WORK OR DISPLACEMENT WORK Let the gas in the cylinder (Fig. V1. A system does not contain work. The piston is the only boundary which moves due to gas pressure. At any intermediate point in the travel of the piston. let the pressure be p and the volume V. work is also energy in transit. and the infinitesimal amount of work done by the gas on the piston. the state of which is described by the coordinates p1. is the amount of work transferred during a process 1-2. This must also be an equilibrium state. since macroscopic properties p and V are significant only for equilibrium states. upon entering the system it is converted into stored energy. When the piston moves an infinitesimal distance dl. the amount of work W done by the system will be .a. the force F acting on the piston F = p. pdV work Let the piston move out to a new final position 2.11 Like heat. Work is a path function and hence it is not a property of the system. which is also a thermodynamic equilibrium state specified by pressure p2 and volume V2. (c) 2 𝑑𝑊 1 (d) ≠ 𝑊2 − 𝑊1 . dW = F dl = padl = pdV where dV = adl = infinitesimal displacement volume.

The piston moves infinitely slowly so that every state passed through is an equilibrium state.12 𝑊1−2 = 𝑣2 𝑣1 𝑝𝑑𝑉 The magnitude of the work done is given by the area under the path 1-2. When a system changes its state the amount of heat transferred depends upon the path followed. Moreover various experiments have proved the validity of these laws. Hence heat is a path function. FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS The study of thermodynamics is based on two general laws of nature. Quasi-static pdV work HEAT The energy transfer across the boundary of a system on account of the temperature difference between the system and surroundings is called heat. However no violation of these laws has ever been noticed. as shown in Fig. The unit of heat. and therefore it is not a property of the system. Ref Fig (c) Heat transferred to a system is considered positive and heat transferred from a system is considered negative. The integration 𝑝𝑑𝑉 can be performed only on a quasi-static path. It is denoted by Q. Since p is at all times a thermodynamic coordinate. The integral of a differential change in heat can be written as 2 𝑑𝑄 1 ≠ 𝑄2 − 𝑄1 Q is the amount of heat transferred during a process 1-2. These laws are based on physical observations and hence cannot be proved mathematically. The second law . heat is converted into potential or kinetic energy of the molecules. and the path 1-2 must be quasi-static. Heat can be identified only when it crosses the boundary of a system and hence it is a form of energy in transit. all the states passed through by the system as the volume changes from V1 Jo V2 must be equilibrium states. The first law is a theorem of conservation of energy. It makes no distinction between the various modes of energy and declares that all forms of energy are equivalent. A system does not contain heat because upon entering a system. the first law of thermodynamics and the second law of thermodynamics. is Joule (J) or kilo Joule (kJ).

PMM1. Internal energy of a substance may be defined as the algebraic sum of internal kinetic energy and internal potential energy of its molecules and is denoted by U. kinetic energy. Energy is neither created nor destroyed. and is given the name internal energy or simply. or in brief. ). can be neglected. The first law of thermodynamics can be stated as." For a system operating in a cycle.13 states that all forms of energy are not equivalent in their ability to do work. In most of the thermodynamic applications we are mainly interested only in the changes in the internal energy of a system. A PMM 1 INTERNAL ENERGY Converse of PMM1 Energy storage in a system is neither heat nor work. where of stands for the summation over the cyclic process PERPETUAL MOTION MACHINE OF THE FIRST KIND—PMM1 The first law states the general principle of the conservation of energy.). Such a fictitious machine is called a perpetual motion machine of the first kind. i. The converse of the above statement is also true. There can be no machine which would continuously supply mechanical work without some other form of energy disappearing simultaneously (Fig. internal energy and other energies due to electricity.. since (𝑑𝑄 − 𝑑𝑊) = 0. It declares that certain processes are impossible to perform even though these processes do not violate the first law.W =PE + KE + U . magnetic energy etc. the net heat transfer is equal to the net work transfer" i. ΔE = Q . the energy of the system. there can be no machine which would continuously consume work without some other form of energy appearing simultaneously (Fig. It is very difficult to determine the absolute value of internal energy possessed by a substance. A PMM1 is thus impossible. or cyclic integral 𝑑𝑄 = 𝑑𝑊 .e. In engineering thermodynamics the concern is with the first three types of energies and electrical energy. The total energy of a system is the sum of potential energy.e. but only gets transformed from one form t another. magnetism etc.

𝑄1 − 𝑄2 = 𝑊𝑇 − 𝑊𝐸 . The system repeats the cycle. 𝑊𝑛𝑒𝑡 = 𝑊𝑇 − 𝑊𝐸 By first law of thermodynamics Wnet = Qnet 𝑖𝑒. (a) or a mass of water moving in a steady flow through a steam power plant Fig. The system which executes a heat engine cycle is called a heat engine.14 Change in energy. The system is brought back to the initial state through all these four successive processes which constitute a heat engine cycle. and finally work Wp is done on the system (water) to pump it to the boiler. heat Q1 is transferred to the system. In Fig. as represented in Fig. work WE is done by the system. (b). The net heat transfer in a cycle to either of the heat engines 𝑄𝑛𝑒𝑡 = 𝑄1 − 𝑄2 Net work transfer in the cycle. (b) heat Q1 is transferred from the furnace to the water in the boiler to form steam which then works on the turbine rotor to produce work. then the steam is condensed to water in the condenser in which an amount Q2 is rejected from the system. and then heat Q2 is rejected from the system. (a) I. A heat engine may be in the form of a mass of gas confined in a cylinder and piston machine Fig. ΔE = ΔPE+ ΔKE + ΔU For a stationary closed system undergoing CYCLIC HEAT ENGINE A heat engine cycle is a thermodynamic cycle in which there is a net heat transfer to the system and a net work transfer from the system. work Wc is done upon the system. (a).C engine (b) Steam power plant Block Diagram In the cyclic heat engine.

to maximize the cycle efficiency ENERGY RESERVOIRS A thermal energy reservoir (TER) is defined as a large body of infinite heat capacity. which is capable of absorbing or rejecting an unlimited quantity of heat without suffering appreciable changes in its thermodynamic coordinates. A heat engine is here a certain quantity of water undergoing the energy interactions. all four together constitute a heat engine. in cyclic operations to produce net work from a certain heat input The function of a heat engine cycle is to produce work continuously at the expense of heat input to the system. and pump (P).15 The block diagram indicating the various energy interactions during a cycle. A typical source is a constant temperature source where fuel is continuously burnt. Cyclic heat engine (CHE) with source and sink . The efficiency of a heat engine or a heat engine cycle is defined as. turbine (T). The changes that do take place in the large body as heat enters or leaves are so very slow and so very minute that all processes within it are quasi-static. as shown. All processes of interest within an MER are essentially quasi-static.e. Boiler (B). and a typical sink is a river or sea or the atmosphere itself. The thermal energy reservoir TERL to which heat Q2 is rejected from the system during a cycle is the sink. η= = 𝑁𝑒𝑡 𝑤𝑜𝑟𝑘 𝑜𝑢𝑡𝑝𝑢𝑡 𝑜𝑓 𝑡𝑕𝑒 𝑐𝑦𝑐𝑙𝑒 𝑁𝑒𝑡 𝑕𝑒𝑎𝑡 𝑖𝑛𝑝𝑢𝑡 𝑡𝑜 𝑡𝑕𝑒 𝑐𝑦𝑐𝑙𝑒 𝑊𝑛𝑒𝑡 𝑄1 𝑊 𝑇 −𝑊 𝐸 𝑄1 𝑄1 −𝑄2 𝑄1 = = =1− 𝑄2 𝑄1 This is also known as the thermal efficiency of a heat engine cycle. So the net work and heat input Q1 referred to the cycle are of primary interest..Sun. A mechanical energy reservoir (MER) is a large body enclosed by an adiabatic impermeable wall capable of storing work as potential energy (such as a raised weight or wound spring ) or kinetic energy (such as a rotating flywheel). Sea. The thermal energy reservoir TERH from which heat Q1 is transferred to the system operating in a heat engine cycle is called the source. A heat engine is very often called upon to extract as much work (net) as possible from a certain heat input. Eg. i. An MER receives and delivers mechanical energy quasi-statically. condenser (C). Eg:.

A cyclic refrigeration plant In order to maintain. operating in a cycle. body A at the constant temperature t2. The condensate then expands adiabatically through an expander (an engine or turbine) producing work WE. Even though A is insulated. maintains a body at a temperature lower than the temperature of the surroundings. called the refrigerant.16 REFRIGERATOR AND HEAT PUMP A refrigerator is a device which. and is then condensed in the condenser C2 rejecting the latent heat of condensation Q1 at a temperature higher than that of the atmosphere (at t1]) for heat transfer to take place (Process 2-3). In a refrigerator cycle. heat has to be removed from the body at the same rate at which heat is leaking into the body. Q2 and Ware of primary interest. Just like . Let the body A (Fig) be maintained at which is lower than the ambient temperature t1. The vapour is first compressed in the compressor C1 driven by a motor which absorbs work Wc (Process 1-2). when the temperature drops to a value lower than t2 such that heat Q2 flows from the body A to make the refrigerant evaporate (Process 3-4). This heat (Q2) is absorbed by a working fluid. Such a cyclic device of flow through E1-C1-C2-E2 is called a refrigerator. which evaporates in the evaporator E1 at a temperature lower than t2 absorbing the latent heat of vaporization from the body A which is cooled or refrigerated (Process 4-1). attention is concentrated on the body A. there will always be heat leakage Q2 into the body from the surroundings by virtue of the temperature difference.

operating in a cycle. 𝐷𝑒𝑠𝑖𝑟𝑒𝑑 𝑒𝑓𝑓𝑒𝑐𝑡 𝑊𝑜𝑟𝑘 𝑖𝑛𝑝𝑢𝑡 𝑄1 = 𝑄1 𝑊 𝑄1 −𝑄2 = 1 + 𝑄 𝑄2 1 −𝑄2 [COP]HP = [COP]Ref + 1 Cyclic Heat Pump KELVIN-PLANCK STATEMENT OF SECOND LAW The efficiency of a heat engine is given by. and the COP is defined as. Therefore. [COP]Ref = 𝐷𝑒𝑠𝑖𝑟𝑒𝑑 𝑒𝑓𝑓𝑒𝑐𝑡 𝑊𝑜𝑟𝑘 𝑖𝑛𝑝𝑢𝑡 = 𝑄2 𝑊 = 𝑄2 𝑄1 −𝑄2 A heat pump is a device which. say B (Fig. maintains a body. and discharged into the high temperature body B. at a temperature higher than the temperature of the surroundings. To produce net work in a thermodynamic cycle.. with the expenditure of work W in a cyclic device called a heat pump. Q2 > 0. which is defined as. By virtue of the temperature difference. but the attention is here focused on the high temperature body B. there will be heat leakage Q1 from the body to the surroundings. [COP]HP = = Therefore. abbreviated to COP.). . Here Q1and W are of primary interest. The heat is extracted from the low temperature reservoir. if heat is discharged into the body at the same rate at which heat leaks out of the body. which is nothing but the atmosphere. The working fluid operates in a cycle flowing through the evaporator E1.17 efficiency in a heat engine cycle. compressor C1 condenser C2 and expander E2. a heat engine has thus to exchange heat with two reservoirs. there is a performance parameter in a refrigerator cycle. η is less than unity. the source and the sink. The body will be maintained at the constant temperature t1. Therefore. The Kelvin-Planck statement of the second law states: “It is impossible for a heat engine to produce net work in a complete cycle if it exchanges heat only with bodies at a single fixed temperature”. similar to a refrigerator. called the coefficient of performance.e. there has always to be a heat rejection. η= 𝑊𝑛𝑒𝑡 𝑄1 =1− 𝑄2 𝑄1 Experience shows that Wnet < Q1 since heat Q1 transferred to a system cannot be completely converted to work in a cycle. i. A heat engine can never be 100% efficient.

18 If Q2 = 0 (i. and vice versa. Some work must be expended to achieve this. The equivalence of the two statements will be proved if it can be shown that the violation of one statement implies the violation of the second.e. Heat cannot flow of itself from a body at a lower temperature to a body at a higher temperature.e. with no expenditure of work. . thus violating the Kelvin-Planck statement Such a heat engine is called a perpetual motion machine of the second kind. The reverse process never occurs spontaneously. the heat engine will produce net work in a complete cycle by exchanging heat with only one reservoir. abbreviated to PMM2. Clausius' statement of the second law gives: “It is impossible to construct a device which. Kelvin-Planck's and Clausius' statements may appear to be unconnected. but it can easily be shown that they are virtually two parallel statements of the second law and are equivalent in all respects. Wnet = Q1 or η = 1. violating Clausius statement. will produce no effect other than the transfer of heat from a cooler to a hotter body”.00). (a) Let us first consider a cyclic heat pump P which transfers heat from a low temperature reservoir (t2) to a high temperature reservoir (t1) with no other effect. PMM2 Heat Engine producing net work in a cycle by exchanging heat at two different temperatures CLAUSIUS' STATEMENT OF THE SECOND LAW Heat always flows from a body at a higher temperature to a body at a lower temperature. EQUIVALENCE OF KELVIN-PLANCK AND CLAUSIUS STATEMENTS At first sight. A PMM2 is impossible... operating in a cycle. i.

So E and P together constitute a heat pump working in cycles and producing the sole effect of transferring heat from a lower to a higher temperature body. producing in one cycle. Let us assume a cyclic heat pump (P) extracting heat Q2 from a low temperature reservoir at t2 and discharging heat to the high temperature reservoir at t1 with the expenditure of work W equal to what the PMM2 delivers in a complete cycle. This violates the Kelvin-Planck statement. thus violating the Clausius statement. Then the hot reservoir may be eliminated and the heat Q1 discharged by the heat pump is fed to the heat engine. . So we see that the heat pump P and the heat engine E acting together constitute a heat engine operating in cycles and producing net work while exchanging heat only with one body at a single fixed temperature.19 Let us assume a cyclic heat engine E operating between the same thermal energy reservoirs. violates the Kelvin-Planck statement (Fig). The rate of working of the heat engine is such that it draws an amount of heat Q1 from the hot reservoir equal to that discharged by the heat pump. (b) Let us now consider a perpetual motion machine of the second kind (E) which produces net work in a cycle by exchanging heat with only one thermal energy reservoir (at t 1) and thus.

the system passes through the same states as it does in the forward direction. because the elevation to calculate potential energy is measured from the surface of earth. which is not at absolute zero. Heat converted into work will be more when the temperature of the low temperature reservoir is less. ie. is called unavailable energy(anergy). This is called the dead state of a system. Irreversibility is also known as lost work or degradation AVAILABILITY According to second law of thermodynamics. Only the remaining portion of heat can be converted into work. < W rev. if the process is continued until the system reaches the dead state. The conception of reversibility is purely hypothetical and hence irreversibility is a natural tendency. The work done by a system during a reversible process will be maximum. is called available energy (exergy) and the portion of heat. The lowest temperature of a reservoir corresponds to the temperature of atmosphere.Wirr. Work done during an irreversible process will be less than the work done during the same process if the process is assumed to be reversible. The difference between the work done during reversible process and irreversible process is called irreversibility and is denoted by I Irreversibility. If the centre of earth is selected as the datum of zero potential energy. A process which cannot be completely reversed without leaving a change either in the system or surroundings is called irreversible process. In other words a process is said to be reversible.20 REVERSIBILITY AND IRREVERSIBILITY A process is said to be reversible if. The availability of a system at a given state is defined as the maximum useful work that can be obtained during a process in which the system . using the same amount of work and heat transferred during the forward process. which is available for conversion into work. then there can be no interaction between the system and surroundings. The portion of heat. If a system which is in a state of equilibrium is in equilibrium with its surroundings. direction. The potential energy of a system can be considered as completely available form of energy. if both the system and surroundings can be restored to the original state after the process is completely reversed. then a large part of potential energy of the system is unavailable. W irr. Any heat engine must reject a portion of heat supplied to it to a low temperature reservoir. All actual process is irreversible. when the process is carried out in the reverse. Therefore the entire heat supplied to an engine is not available for conversion into work. which is rejected to the low temperature reservoir. complete conversion of heat in to work is not possible. I = Wrev .

1 𝑣 At the state 2. 1 . nitrogen. Boyle's law and Charles law govern the behavior of a perfect gas. 𝑇2 = constant. EQUATIONS OF STATE A perfect or an ideal gas is the gas which strictly obeys all the gas laws under all conditions of pressure and temperature. if the temperature remains constant. it is clear that at constant temperature. hydrogen etc. the volume increases with absolute temperature. It states that. Availability is thus a composite property depending on the state of both the system and surroundings. It states that.C Charles in 1787. Boyle's Law This law was formulated by Robert Boyle in 1662. 2 𝑣 Experiments prove that at constant pressure any perfect gas changes its volume by 273 of its volume at 0°C for every 1° C change in its temperature.21 comes to equilibrium with its surroundings (dead state). V α T. if p is constant The above expression shows that at constant pressure. From the above expression. It is represented by a horizontal line in the p-V diagram as shown in figure At the state l. 𝑇1 = constant. if the pressure remains constant. the volume of a given mass of gas is inversely proportional to its absolute pressure. In engineering applications gases such as air. υ ∝ 𝑇 . In fact no actual or real gas which exists in nature is perfect. i. are considered as perfect gases. the product of absolute pressure and volume of a given mass of a perfect gas is constant. if T is constant P pυ = constant. 1 Charles' Law This law was formulated by A. The equation pυ = constant represents a rectangular hyperbola as shown in fig.e. on the basis of his experimental results. the volume of a given mass of a perfect gas varies directly as its absolute temperature. if T is constant.

if m is its mass in kg. then the number of kg moles of the gas. = 𝑇2 2 𝑉 = 𝑇 𝑉2 2 [Since T1' = T1] 2 𝑉1′ = 𝑇2 x T1 Substituting this value of V1' in the expression. For a certain gas.4 x 103 cm3 and 1 kg mol of a gas has a volume of 22. p1 V1 = p2V'1 p1 V1 = p2 x 𝑉2 𝑇2 𝑉 x T1 . applying Charles law. volume and temperature of a perfect gas is obtained by combining Boyle's law and Charles law. For the first part of expansion applying Boyle's law. Let a given mass m of a perfect gas be expanded from state 1 to state 2. It is denoted by the letter ‗m‘ Avogadro's law states that the volume of a g mol of all gases at the pressure of 760 mm Hg and temperature of 0°C is the same. is given by v= 𝑉 𝑁 𝑚3 3 𝑘𝑔 𝑚𝑜𝑙 where V is the total volume of the gas in m . and is equal to 22. 1 g mol of a gas has a volume of 22.). and so on..P. Therefore.T. n. One g mol of oxygen has a mass of 32 gm. p1V1 = p'1V'1 p1 V1 = p2V'1 𝑉1′ 𝑇1′ 𝑉1′ 𝑇1 [Since p'1 = p2] For the second part of expansion at constant pressure. from 1' to 2 be at constant pressure. Characteristic Gas Equation A relationship between the three properties pressure. ie. and μ its molecular weight.4 litres. 1 kg mol of oxygen has a mass of 32 kg.4 m3 at normal temperature and pressure (N. would be given by n= 𝑘𝑔 𝑘𝑔 𝑘𝑔 𝜇 𝑘𝑔 𝑚𝑜𝑙 𝑚 = 𝑚 𝜇 kg moles The molar volume. from 1 to 1' be at constant temperature and the second part of expansion ie. Let first part of expansion. 1 kg mol of nitrogen has a mass of 28 kg. v.22 Avogadro’s Law A mole of a substance has a mass numerically equal to the molecular weight of the substance.

It is given by formula Ȓ = 𝑚 SPECIFIC HEAT Specific heat of a substance is defined as the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of unit mass of the substance by unit degree. 𝑠𝑝𝑒𝑐𝑖𝑓𝑖𝑐 𝑕𝑒𝑎𝑡. pV =mRT where R is a constant.314kJ/kg mole K. it has two specific heats. when it is heated at constant pressure.718 kJ/kg.K RATIO OF SPECIFIC HEATS The ratio of specific heat at constant pressure to specific heat at constant volume of gas is denoted by Greek letter gamma (γ) . Cp = 1. R for air is 287J/kg K. specific heat at constant pressure and specific heat at constant volume. It is denoted by letter Cv. This constant R is called characteristic gas constant its unit is kJ/kg K it is depend on molar mass and ‗m‘ is molar mass. This constant depends upon the mass of gas. 𝐶𝑣 = 𝑚 (𝑇 −𝑇 ) 𝑘𝐽/𝑘𝑔. Since a gas can be heated under constant pressure and under constant volume. 𝐾 2 1 𝑅 𝑄 Specific Heat at Constant Volume It is defined as the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of unit mass of the substance by unit degree. when it is heated at constant volume. 𝐾 2 1 𝑄 For air. O2=260 J/kg K N2=296J/kg K etc pV=nȒT Where ‗n‘ is the number of moles of substance and Ȓ is the universal gas constant and its value is 8.23 𝑝1 𝑉1 𝑝2 𝑉2 𝑝 𝑉 = = = 𝐶𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑡 𝑇1 𝑇2 𝑇 pV= constant x T. then. m is the mass of the gas in kg. It is denoted by letter Cp. T1 and T2 the initial and final temperature of the gas in K. 𝑠𝑝𝑒𝑐𝑖𝑓𝑖𝑐 𝑕𝑒𝑎𝑡. the value of which depends upon the properties of gas and the temperature scale. K and Cv = 0. then. Specific Heat at Constant Pressure It is defined as the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of unit mass of the substance by unit degree. Let Q be the amount of heat supplied to a gas at constant pressure in J. Let Q be the amount of heat supplied to a gas at constant pressure in J.005 kJ/ kg. T1 and T2 the initial and final temperature of the gas in K. The equation pV=mRT is called characteristic gas equation or equation of state of a perfect gas. properties of gas and temperature scale. m is the mass of the gas in kg. 𝐶𝑝 = 𝑚 (𝑇 −𝑇 ) 𝑘𝐽/𝑘𝑔.

Relationship between the specific heats and the characteristic gas constant. For stationary closed system undergoing a process 1 . According to Joule's law the change of internal energy is proportional to the change of temperature. 𝐶𝑣 𝐶𝑝 𝑐𝑣 − 1 = 𝑅 𝑹 𝛄𝑹 Cv (γ-1) = R Cv = 𝛄−𝟏 Cp = γ Cv = 𝛄−𝟏 . the constant in the above expression is always equal to the specific heat at constant volume Cv . When the gas is heated at constant volume. Change in internal energy. no work is done and the heat supplied is used only for raising the temperature. Hence the amount of heat required to be supplied to 1 kg of gas to raise its temperature by 1°C at constant pressure will be more than that at constant volume. Therefore the specific heat at constant pressure Cp is greater than the specific heat at constant volume Cv.2. The heat supplied to it is used partly in raising its temperature and partly in doing work against the external pressure. ΔU α ΔT ΔU = mass x a constant x ΔT Irrespective of the type of process. ΔU= 1Q2 − 1W2 Change in internal energy. Hence the value of γ will be always greater than 1. ΔU = m Cv (T2 –T1) Heat supplied. 1W2 Substituting these values of. 1Q2 =m Cp(T2 –T1) = p (V2 –V1) = mR(T2 –T1) [since PV= RT] Work done. For air the value on is 1. or manner of heating or cooling.24 When a gas is heated at constant pressure it expands. ΔU= 1Q2 − 1W2 m Cv (T2 –T1) = m Cp(T2 –T1) − mR(T2 –T1) Cv = Cp – R From the results Cp – Cv =R and Cp/Cv= γ the following useful results can be obtained. ΔU = m x Cv x ΔT Consider 'm' kg of a gas being heated at constant pressure from state 1 to 2. Q and W in the expression.4.

H2 – H1=(U2 + p2 V2 ) − (U1 + p1 V1) . heat cannot be completely converted into work.Planck statement. pressure volume product (flow work). The complete conversion of a low grade energy into high grade energy is impossible. Work is considered as a high grade energy and heat as a low grade energy. according to Kelvin . the more will be the change in entropy. The more the irreversibility. According to second law of thermodynamics all forms of energy are not equivalent For example work can be completely converted into heat but. which cannot be measured directly. Entropy is a property. Eg:. the energy is degraded. but the change of entropy during any process can be calculated. It is also defined as the measure of irreversibility associated with any process. It is denoted by H. Entropy is defined as a measure of energy that cannot converted into useful work or the measure of degradation which energy experiences as a result of energy conversion. It is very convenient to use a single letter to denote the sum of these two energies. It makes no distinction between various forms of energy and declares that all forms of energy are equivalent. H = U + pV Since U. p and V are properties of the system.Melting of ice. When mechanical work is converted into heat. The change of enthalpy during a process 1 . Thus enthalpy is defined as the sum of internal energy and. H is also a property of the system.25 ENTHALPY The sum of internal energy and pressure volume product (flow work) appears so frequently in thermodynamic calculations.2 is given by dH = dU + d(pV) = (U2 −U1 ) + (p2 V2 −p1 V1) = mCv(T2−T1 )+ (mRT2 − mRT1) = mCv(T2−T1) + mR(T2−T1) = m(Cv+R)( T2−T1) H2 – H1= m Cp (T2−T1) ΔH= m Cp ΔT ENTROPY The first law of thermodynamics is a theorem of conservation of energy.

26 Small change in entropy. 1-2 = S2-S1 = 𝑑𝑄 𝑇 is independent of path and hence entropy is not a path function. at which heat is transferred. (1) = 𝑝 2 𝑉2 𝑇2 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝑐𝑒. to the absolute temperature. dQ. For process 1-2 2 𝑑𝑠 1 ds 2 𝑑𝑣 (R 𝑣 1 𝒗𝟐 𝒗𝟏 =R + 𝐶𝑣 = + 𝐶𝑣 𝑑𝑇 𝑇 ) 𝑻𝟐 𝑻𝟏 s2-s1 = 𝑹 𝒍𝒏 𝑝 1 𝑉1 𝑇1 + 𝑪𝒗 𝐥𝐧 ………………. During a process. 𝑉 = 1 𝑉2 𝑝 1𝑇 2 𝑝 2 𝑇1 𝑝 1𝑇 2 𝑝 2 𝑇1 𝑝 1 𝑝 2 𝑝 1 𝑝 2 s2-s1 = 𝑅 𝑙𝑛 = 𝑅 𝑙𝑛 = 𝑅 𝑙𝑛 + 𝐶𝑣 ln + 𝑅 𝑙𝑛 𝑇2 𝑇1 𝑇2 𝑇1 + 𝐶𝑣 ln 𝑇2 𝑇1 𝑇2 𝑇1 + (𝑅 + 𝐶𝑣 )𝑙𝑛 .. T. dQ = dW + dU = pdV + mCv dT 𝑑𝑄 𝑇 = 𝑝 pdV + mC v dT 𝑇 𝑑𝑇 𝑇 𝑑𝑇 𝑇 ds = 𝑇 𝑑𝑣 + 𝑚𝐶𝑣 = mR 𝑑𝑣 𝑣 𝑑𝑣 𝑣 + 𝑚𝐶𝑣 𝑑𝑇 𝑇 For unit mass. It is a point function and hence entropy is a property. Calculation of entropy change From first law of thermodynamics. dS is defined as the ratio of small amount of heat transfer. 𝑑𝑠 = 𝑑𝑄 𝑇 2 𝑑𝑠 1 2 𝑑𝑄 1 𝑇 2 𝑑𝑄 1 𝑇 ie.

27 = 𝑅 + 𝐶𝑣 𝑙𝑛 s2-s1 = 𝑪𝒑 𝒍𝒏 𝑇2 𝑇1 𝑻𝟐 𝑻𝟏 𝑇2 𝑇1 − 𝑅 𝑙𝑛 𝒑𝟐 𝒑𝟏 𝑝 2 𝑝 1 − 𝑹 𝒍𝒏 ……………. S is plotted along the X . 𝑑𝑠 = 𝑑𝑄 𝑇 . at temperature. T is plotted along the Y . T. dS..axis as shown in fig. temperature. It can be shown that the area under the curve 1-2 represents the heat transferred during the process 1-2.(3) Temperature . due to reversible heat transfer dQ.Entropy diagram.Entropy diagram In temperature . is given by.axis and entropy.(2) = 𝑝 2 𝑉2 𝑝 1 𝑉1 𝑝 2 𝑉2 𝑝 1 𝑉1 𝑝 2 𝑝 1 s2-s1 = 𝐶𝑝 𝑙𝑛 = 𝐶𝑝 𝑙𝑛 − 𝑅 𝑙𝑛 − 𝑅 𝑙𝑛 𝑝 2 𝑝 1 𝑝 2 𝑝 1 𝑝 2 𝑝 1 + 𝐶𝑝 𝑙𝑛 𝑉2 𝑉1 𝑉2 𝑉1 = (𝐶𝑝 − 𝑅)𝑙𝑛 s2-s1 = 𝑪𝒗 𝒍𝒏 𝒑𝟐 𝒑𝟏 + 𝐶𝑝 𝑙𝑛 𝑽𝟐 𝑽𝟏 + 𝑪𝒑 𝒍𝒏 …………. The infinitesimal change in entropy. 𝑑𝑄 = 𝑇𝑑𝑠 area of the element of width dS and height T. The curve 1 -2 shows a reversion process. 2 𝑑𝑄 1 For a reversible process 1-2 1Q2 = 2 𝑇𝑑𝑠 1 = 2 𝑇𝑑𝑠 1 = area under curve 1-2 .

The path of the process is represented by the vertical line 1 -2 in the p-V diagram and a curve 1-2 in the T-S diagram. a) Constant volume (isochoric) process Consider 'm' kg of a gas being heated in a cylinder at constant volume from an initial temperature T1 to final temperature T2. 1W2 = 0 . energy. volume. entropy. etc. 𝑝 1 𝑉1 𝑇1 = 𝑝 2 𝑉2 𝑇2 𝑝 1 𝑇1 𝑝 2 𝑇2 Since V1=V2 Then. then dV=0 Therefore. c.V . temperature. d. b. (ii) Work done 1W2 = = 2 𝑝𝑑𝑣 1 Since. Constant volume (isochoric) process Constant pressure (isobaric) process Constant temperature (isothermal) process Adiabatic process Polytropic process Free expansion Throttling process Using the laws of thermodynamics some useful relations applicable to the above said processes can be developed.28 2. This process is represented on a p-V diagram. e. may change.T relationship For a perfect gas. no external work is done by the gas. the various properties of the gas such as pressure. THERMODYNAMIC PROCESSES When a system changes its state from one equilibrium condition to another it is said to have undergone a process. g. The thermodynamic process may be performed in different ways. that shows the process represented on a T-S diagram. shown in Fig. When a gas undergoes a thermodynamic process. Since there is no change in volume. v= constant. Some of them are: a. The entire heat supplied will be stored in the form of internal energy. (i) p . f.

The heating of the gas under constant pressure causes an increase in the volume and temperature.29 (iii) Change in internal energy Since there is a rise in temperature from T1 to T2. s2-s1 = 𝐶𝑣 ln 𝑇2 𝑇1 𝑣2 𝑣1 + 𝐶𝑣 ln 𝑇2 𝑇1 = 𝐶𝑣 𝑙𝑛 𝑝 2 𝑝 1 + 𝐶𝑝 𝑙𝑛 𝑉2 𝑉1 = 𝐶𝑣 𝑙𝑛 𝑝 2 𝑝 1 ( b) Constant pressure ( isobaric ) process Consider ‗m‘ kg of gas being heated at constant pressure from state 1 to 2. The curve 1-2 in Fig. A part of heat supplied during the process is utilised to increase the internal energy and the remaining part is utilised to do external work. 1W2 = 1Q2 (v) Change in entropy Change in entropy during process 1 -2 s2-s1 = 𝑅 𝑙𝑛 Since V1 =V2 Then. There will be some external work done due to the increase in the volume. This process.S diagram.V . (i) p . (b) represents the process in T-S diagram. (a) represents the process in pV diagram. 𝑝 1 𝑉1 𝑇1 = 𝑝 2 𝑉2 𝑇2 Since p1=p2 Then. ΔU = m Cv(T2−T1) (iv) Heat supplied From first law of thermodynamics. represented on a p-V diagram is as shown in Fig. 𝑉1 𝑇1 = 𝑉2 𝑇2 . 1Q2 = ΔU + 1W2 0 = ΔU = m Cv(T2−T1) But. The horizontal line 1 -2 in Fig. (a) and (b) shows the process represented on a T .T relationship For a perfect gas.

1Q2 ΔU = m Cv(T2−T1) = ΔU + 1W2 = 𝑝(𝑉2 − 𝑉1 ) = m Cv (T2−T1) + 𝑝 𝑉2 − 𝑉1 = m Cv (T2−T1) + (P2V2 – P1V1) Since PV = mRT = m Cv(T2−T) + mRT2 − mRT1 = m Cv(T2 −T1) + 𝑚𝑅 𝑇2 − 𝑇1 = m (Cv+𝑅) (T2−T1) But. It can be represented on p-V diagram as shown in .30 (ii) Work done = 2 𝑝𝑑𝑣 1 2 = p{𝑉}1 1W2 Therefore. 1W2 = 𝑝(𝑉2 − 𝑉1 ) (iii) Change in internal energy Since there is a rise in temperature from T1 to T2. (iv) Heat supplied From first law of thermodynamics. 1W2 1Q2 For constant pressure process P1=P2 1Q2 1Q2 = m Cp (T2−T1) = Enthalpy (H) Fig (b) (v) Change in entropy Change in entropy during process 1 -2 s2-s1 = 𝐶𝑝 𝑙𝑛 Since P1 =P2 Then. s2-s1 = 𝐶𝑝 𝑙𝑛 𝑇2 𝑇1 𝑇2 𝑇1 − 𝑅 𝑙𝑛 𝑝 2 𝑝 1 = 𝐶𝑣 𝑙𝑛 𝑝 2 𝑝 1 + 𝐶𝑝 𝑙𝑛 𝑉2 𝑉1 = 𝐶𝑝 𝑙𝑛 𝑉2 𝑉1 (c) Constant temperature (isothermal) process A process in which a gas receives or rejects heat in such a way that its temperature remains constant is called isothermal process.

(iv) Heat supplied From first law of thermodynamics. 1W2 = 𝑝1 𝑉1 ln 𝑝 1 𝑝 2 (iii) Change in internal energy Since T1 = T2. 1W2 and ΔU = 0 1Q2 = 𝑝1 𝑉1 ln 𝑉2 𝑉1 .31 Fig (a). The line 1-2 in the figures represent isothermal heat addition process. the entire heat supplied to the gas is used up in doing external work.V . In this case.T relationship For a perfect gas. 𝑝1 𝑉1 = 𝑝2 𝑉2 (ii) Work done 1W2 = 𝑝 1 𝑉1 𝑉 2 𝑝𝑑𝑣 1 For isothermal process 𝑝1 𝑉1 = 𝑝2 𝑉2 = 𝑝𝑉 = C Or 𝑝 = 𝑝1 𝑉1 𝑝2 𝑉2 = 𝑇1 𝑇2 Then. (i) p . Fig. 𝑉2 𝑉1 = 𝑝 1 2 will get. 1Q2 ΔU = 0 = ΔU + 1W2 = 𝑝1 𝑉1 ln 𝑉2 𝑉1 But. (b) shows the process represented on T-S diagram. Since T1=T2 Then. 1W2 = 2 𝑝 1 𝑉1 1 𝑉 𝑑𝑣 2 𝑑𝑣 1 𝑉 1W2 = 𝑝1 𝑉1 = 𝑝1 𝑉1 ln 𝑉2 𝑉1 𝑉2 𝑉1 1W2 = 𝑝1 𝑉1 ln 𝑝 For isothermal process 𝑝1 𝑉1 = 𝑝2 𝑉2 ie.

0 = ΔU + 1W2 or 1W2 = −ΔU ………. From the first law.. ΔU = m Cv(T2−T1) Substituting in Equation 1. 𝑝𝑑𝑉 = −CvmdT. 𝑝𝑑𝑉 + 𝑉𝑑𝑝 R = mdT Sub this value in in Equ (2) Will get.(2) Considering the general equation. Cp = R + Cv and Cp/Cv= γ => 𝐶𝑝 𝑝𝑑𝑉 = − 𝐶𝑣 𝑉𝑑p (b) ..32 (v) Change in entropy Change in entropy during process 1 -2 s2-s1 = 𝑅 𝑙𝑛 𝑣2 𝑣1 + 𝐶𝑣 ln 𝑇2 𝑇1 𝑣2 𝑣1 = 𝐶𝑝 𝑙𝑛 = 𝑅 𝑙𝑛 𝑇2 𝑇1 − 𝑅 𝑙𝑛 𝑝 2 𝑝 1 Since T1 =T2 Then. ie. PV= mRT Differentiating. In this process the heat exchange Q =0. the gas neither receives nor rejects heat. s2-s1 = 𝑅 𝑙𝑛 (d) Adiabatic process 𝑝 1 𝑝 2 In an adiabatic process. pdV + Vdp = mRdT (a) ie. Q2= ΔU + 1W2 But for an adiabatic process. Work is done by the gas at the expense of internal energy. 𝑝𝑑𝑉 = − Cv 𝑝𝑑𝑉 + 𝑉𝑑𝑝 R 𝐶𝑣 𝑅 𝑝𝑑𝑉 = − (𝑝𝑑𝑉 + 𝑉𝑑𝑝) =>𝑅 𝑝𝑑𝑉 = − (𝑝𝑑𝑉 + 𝑉𝑑𝑝)𝐶𝑣 =>𝑅 𝑝𝑑𝑉 + 𝐶𝑣 𝑝𝑑𝑉 = − 𝐶𝑣 𝑉𝑑𝑝 =>𝑝𝑑𝑉(𝑅 + 𝐶𝑣 )= − 𝐶𝑣 𝑉𝑑p Since. Here there is only work transfer but no heat transfer. (1) Change in internal energy. 2 𝑝𝑑𝑉 1 = −m Cv(T2−T1) Write in differential form.

T relationship Relation between p and V for an adiabatic process is. The path of the process is represented by curve 1.S diagram..(4) 𝑝 2 𝑝1 𝑉2 = 𝑝2 𝑉1 𝑇1 𝑉2 = 𝑇2 𝑉1 𝑇1 𝑝1 = 𝑇2 𝑝2 𝛾 𝛾−1 Sub Equ (4) in (3) will get. From the general gas equation. (i) p . γ ln V + ln p = Constant => ln 𝑝𝑉 𝛾 = 𝐶 1 where C1 is the constant of integration Or 𝒑𝑽𝜸 = 𝑪 Where C is another constant.33 => 𝐶 𝑝𝑑𝑉 = − 𝑉𝑑p 𝑣 𝐶𝑝 => γ 𝑑𝑉 𝑉 + 𝑑p 𝑝 After integration it will become. 𝒑𝟏 𝒑𝟐 = 𝑽𝟐 𝜸 𝑽𝟏 … … … . For an adiabatic process. 𝑉2 𝑇1 𝑉1 𝑇2 𝑇1 𝑇2 = 𝑉2 𝑉1 𝑉2 𝛾 𝑉1 𝛾−1 => = …………(3) Relation between p and T for an adiabatic process is. 𝑝1 𝑉1 𝛾 = 𝑝2 𝑉2 𝛾 = 𝐶 => 𝑉2 𝑉1 1 = 𝑝 1 𝛾 …………….. (b) shows the process represented on a T-S diagram.(2) Sub Equ (2) in (1) will get. 𝑝1 𝑉1 𝛾 = 𝑝2 𝑉2 𝛾 = 𝐶 Since.2 in the p-V diagram and by a vertical line 1 . (a) Fig.V . 𝑝1 𝑉1 𝛾 = 𝑝2 𝑉2 𝛾 = 𝐶 An adiabatic process can be represented an a p-V diagram as shown in Fig. 𝑝 1 𝑉1 𝑇1 = 𝑝 2 𝑉2 𝑇2 or 𝑝 1 𝑝 2 = 𝑉2 1 𝑉 𝑇1 𝑇2 ………. (1) Relation between V and T for an adiabatic process is. Therefore for an adiabatic process. 𝛾−1 𝛾 .2 in the T .

p = => 1W2 𝐶 𝑉 𝛾 2 𝐶 1 𝑉 𝛾 = = 𝐶 𝑑𝑉 2 𝑑𝑉 1 𝑉 𝛾 𝑉2 −𝛾 +1 After integration it becomes. 1W2 = 𝐶 Substitute value of C. ΔU = − 1W2 ie. s2-s1 = 0 2 𝑑𝑄 1 𝑇 .34 𝑇1 𝑇2 𝑻𝟏 𝑻𝟐 = = 𝑝 1 𝛾 𝑝 2 𝒑𝟏 𝒑𝟐 1 𝛾−1 𝜸−𝟏 𝜸 …………(5) (ii) Work done 1W2 = 2 𝑝𝑑𝑉 1 For an adiabatic process. 1W2 −𝑉1 −𝛾 +1 −𝛾+1 = = 1 −𝛾+1 𝑝2 𝑉2 𝛾 𝑉 2 −𝛾+1 − 𝑉1 𝛾 𝑉 1 −𝛾+1 => 1W2 𝑝 2 𝑉2 −𝑝 1 𝑉1 −𝛾+1 𝒑𝟏 𝑽𝟏 − 𝒑𝟐 𝑽𝟐 𝜸−𝟏 1W2 = (iii) Change in internal energy Since there is a rise in temperature from T1 to T2. 𝑝1 𝑉1 𝛾 = 𝑝2 𝑉2 𝛾 = 𝑝𝑉 𝛾 = 𝐶 Then. s2-s1 = Hear dQ = 0 then. ie work done at the expense of internal energy. => ΔU = (iv) Heat supplied For adiabatic process 1Q2= 0 𝑝 1 𝑉1 − 𝑝 2 𝑉2 𝛾−1 ΔU = m Cv (T2−T1) For adiabatic process 1Q2= 0. (v) Change in entropy Change in entropy during a process.

𝑉2 𝑇1 𝑉1 𝑇2 𝑇1 𝑇2 = 𝑉1 𝑉2 𝑛 𝑉1 => = 𝑉2 𝑛−1 …………(3) Relation between p and T for a polytropic process is.S diagram is shown in Fig. 𝑝 1 𝑉1 𝑇1 = 𝑝 2 𝑉2 𝑇2 or 𝑝 1 𝑝 2 = 𝑉2 𝑇1 𝑉1 𝑇2 ………. 𝑝1 𝑉1 𝑛 = 𝑝2 𝑉2 𝑛 = 𝐶 . (b). For an adiabatic process. (1) Relation between V and T for a polytropic process is. (a) and on T . 𝑝1 𝑉1 𝑛 = 𝑝2 𝑉2 𝑛 = 𝐶 Since.(2) Sub Equ (2) in (1) will get.35 (e) Polytropic process In this process both volume and pressure changes in a certain specified manner. (a) (b) The curve of expansion or compression follows the law pVn = constant.. From the general gas equation. (i) p. where 'n' is a constant called polytropic index of expansion or compression. 𝒑𝟏 𝒑𝟐 = 𝑽𝟐 𝑛 𝑽𝟏 … … … . This process represented on a p-V diagram is shown in Fig.V-T relationship Relation between p and V for a polytropic process is.

(iv) Heat supplied From first law of thermodynamics. 1Q2 ΔU = m Cv (T2−T1) = ΔU + 1W2 = m Cv (T2−T1) + 𝑚𝑅 (𝑇1 −𝑇2 ) 𝑛 −1 𝑅 𝑛−1 = m Cv (T2−T1) − 𝑚𝑅 (𝑇2 −𝑇1 ) 𝑛 −1 1Q2 = m (T2−T1) Cv − …. 𝑇1 𝑇2 𝑻𝟏 𝑻𝟐 𝑛−1 = = 𝑝 1 𝑛 𝑝 2 1 𝑛−1 𝒏−𝟏 𝒑𝟏 𝒏 𝑛−1 𝑛 𝒑𝟐 …………(5) (ii) Work done 1W2 = 2 𝑝𝑑𝑉 1 For a polytropic process. p = => 𝐶 𝑉 𝑛 2 𝐶 1 𝑉 𝑛 1W2 = 2 𝑑𝑉 1 𝑉 𝑛 𝑑𝑉 = 𝐶 After integration it becomes. 1W2 = 𝐶 Substitute value of C. Cp – Cv =R and Cp/Cv= γ the following useful results can be obtained.(6) Since. .36 => 𝑉2 𝑉1 = 𝑝 1 𝑛 …………….(4) 𝑝 2 1 𝑝1 𝑉2 = 𝑝2 𝑉1 𝑇1 𝑉2 = 𝑇2 𝑉1 𝑇1 𝑝1 = 𝑇2 𝑝2 𝑛 Sub Equ (4) in (3) will get.. 𝑝1 𝑉1 𝑛 = 𝑝2 𝑉2 𝑛 = 𝑝𝑉 𝑛 = 𝐶 Then. 1W2 −𝑛 −𝑛 𝑉2 +1 −𝑉1 +1 −𝑛+1 = = => 1W2 1 𝑝2 𝑉2 𝑛 −𝑛+1 𝑝 2 𝑉2 −𝑝 1 𝑉1 −𝑛+1 −𝑛+1 𝑉2 − 𝑉1 𝑛 𝑉1−𝑛+1 1W2 = 𝒑𝟏 𝑽𝟏 − 𝒑𝟐 𝑽𝟐 𝒏−𝟏 = 𝒎𝑹(𝑻𝟏 −𝑻𝟐 ) 𝒏−𝟏 Since pV= mRT (iii) Change in internal energy Since there is a rise in temperature from T1 to T2.

𝐶𝑣 = s2-s1 = 𝑙𝑛 𝑇2 𝑇1 𝑇2 𝑇1 𝛾 −𝑛 (𝑛 −1) 𝜸−𝒏 (𝒏−𝟏) γ−1 𝑇2 𝑇1 𝑇2 𝑇1 𝛾 −𝑛 (𝑛−1) − 𝛾−1 𝑅 𝑅 𝑛−1 𝑛−1 = 𝑅 𝑙𝑛 − 𝛾−1 1 1 𝑛−1 𝛾−𝑛 = 𝑅 𝑙𝑛 = 𝑅 𝛾 −1 𝑛 −1 − 𝛾−1 𝛾−1 𝑇2 𝑇1 = 𝑅 𝑙𝑛 = 𝐶𝑣 𝛾−1 (𝑛−1) 𝑙𝑛 𝑻𝟐 𝑻𝟏 𝑙𝑛 𝑇2 𝑇1 s2-s1 = 𝑪𝒗 𝒍𝒏 (vi). s2-s1 = 𝑅 𝑙𝑛 = 𝐶𝑣 𝑙𝑛 s2-s1 = 𝐶𝑣 𝑙𝑛 𝑇2 𝑇1 + 𝐶𝑣 𝑙𝑛 𝑇2 𝑇1 1 − 𝑅 𝑙𝑛 𝑇2 𝑇1 𝑇2 𝑛 −1 𝑇1 𝑅 𝑛−1 − 𝑅 𝑛 −1 𝑙𝑛 𝑇2 𝑇1 = 𝑙𝑛 𝑅 𝐶𝑣 − Since. 𝑝1 𝑉1 𝑛 = 𝑝2 𝑉2 𝑛 .37 𝐶𝑣 𝐶𝑝 𝑐𝑣 − 1 = 𝑅 𝑅 Cv (γ-1) = R Cv = γ−1 Therefore equation (6) becomes 1Q2 = m (T2−T1) − γ−1 1 𝑅 𝑅 𝑛−1 1 𝑛 −1 𝑛 −1 − γ−1 γ−1 (𝑛−1) 𝛾−𝑛 γ−1 (𝑛−1) = m 𝑅 (T2−T1) = m 𝑅 (T2−T1) 1Q2 1Q2 − γ−1 = m 𝑅 (T2−T1) = m 𝑅 (T1−T2) 𝑛−𝛾 γ−1 (𝑛−1) = = 𝛾−𝑛 γ−1 𝛾−𝑛 γ−1 m 𝑅 (T1−T2) γ−1 𝑤𝑜𝑟𝑘 𝑑𝑜𝑛𝑒 𝑣2 𝑣1 𝑇2 𝑇1 (v) Change in entropy Change in entropy during a process. s2-s1 = 𝑅 𝑙𝑛 Since. 𝑉2 𝑉1 + 𝐶𝑣 ln = 1 𝑇1 𝑛 −1 𝑇2 𝑇1 𝑛 −1 𝑇2 𝑇2 𝑇1 1 Change in entropy become. Expression for poly tropic index ‗n‘ For polytropic process.

p0. which represents an adiabatic process (iv) pVn = C .38 ie. Work does not cross (he boundary of the system and hence no external work is done. the fluid in the vessel A will expand until it fills both vessels. V = C which represents constant volume process. (ii) When n = 1. which represents isothermal process. and hence the work is not equal to pdV Consider two vessels A and B which are connected to each other by a pipe and a valve. ln 𝑝 1 𝑝 2 𝑝 1 𝑝 2 = 𝑉2 𝑛 𝑉1 𝑉2 𝑉1 𝒍𝒏 𝒑𝟏 𝒑𝟐 𝑽𝟐 𝑽𝟏 = 𝑛 𝑙𝑛 . V = C1. (iii)When n=γ . When n = α (i) When n = 0 . These processes are shown in fig. n= 𝒍𝒏 POLYTROPIC PROCESSES FOR VARIOUS VALUES OF n. pVn = C becomes pV° = C or p = C. . pV n = C becomes pV γ = C. W = 0. pVn = C becomes pV1 = C or pV = constant. There is no heat interaction during the free expansion process since Q and W are zero. h1 = h2. the change in internal energy is zero and hence temperature before and after free expansion will be the same. becomes. no work is done. Vessel A is initially filled with a fluid at a certain pressure and B is completely evacuated. This process is known as free or unresisted expansion. (g) Throttling process A throttling process is defined as a process in which there is no change in enthalpy from state one to state two. By opening the valve. (e) Free expansion When a gas expands without a restraining force being exerted by the surroundings the process is called free expansion. which represents a constant pressure process. This is because the free expansion process is irreversible. taking nth root of both sides p1/n. Q = 0 p1/n. V = C1 (where C1 is another constant. and the process is adiabatic. Free expansion occurs when a gas is allowed to expand suddenly into a vacuum chamber. V = C1 ie. Though this process involves a change in volume the work is zero.

Volume V=C Const. Ȓ = 𝑅 𝑚 𝑣 = 𝛾−1 𝛾 s2-s1 = 𝐶𝑣 𝑙𝑛 + 𝐶𝑝 𝑙𝑛 Ȓ =8. by passing through a narrow throat.V. An example of a throttling process is an ideal gas flowing through a valve in mid position. change in kinetic energy across the restriction will be very small. small orifice etc. the type of process is called throttling.39 When a fluid is allowed to expand from a high pressure to a low pressure.T relationship 𝑝1 𝑝2 = 𝑇1 𝑇2 𝑉1 𝑉2 = 𝑇1 𝑇2 1W2 1Q2 s2-s1 𝐶𝑣 𝑙𝑛 𝑇2 𝑇1 0 m Cv(T2−T1) 𝑜𝑟 𝐶𝑣 𝑙𝑛 𝑝 2 𝑝 1 𝑝(𝑉2 − 𝑉1 ) m Cp (T2−T1) 𝐶𝑝 𝑙𝑛 𝑇2 𝑇1 𝑜𝑟 𝐶𝑝 𝑙𝑛 𝑣2 𝑣1 𝑉2 𝑉1 Const. pV=nȒT 𝑝𝑣 = 𝑅𝑇. slightly opened valve. Process Const. Temp T=C Adiabatic pV = C Polytropic pV = C n γ 𝑝1 𝑉1 = 𝑝2 𝑉2 𝑉2 𝑝1 𝑉1 𝑙𝑛 𝑉1 𝑝 1 𝑉1 − 𝑝 2 𝑉2 𝛾 −1 𝑉2 𝑝1 𝑉1 𝑙𝑛 𝑉1 𝑅 𝑙𝑛 𝑅 𝑙𝑛 or 𝑝1 𝑝2 𝑝1 𝑉1 𝛾 = 𝑝2 𝑉2 𝛾 𝑝1 𝑉1 𝑛 = 𝑝2 𝑉2 𝑛 𝛾 1W2 = 0 𝛾−𝑛 𝛾−1 0 𝐶𝑣 𝛾 − 𝑛 𝑇2 𝑙𝑛 (𝑛 − 1) 𝑇1 𝑇2 𝑇1 𝑝1 𝑉1 − 𝑝2 𝑉2 𝑛 − 1 1Q2 = 1W2 𝑝1 𝑉2 = 𝑝2 𝑉1 𝑇1 𝑉2 = 𝑇2 𝑉1 𝑇1 𝑝1 = 𝑇2 𝑝2 Cp – Cv =R Cp/Cv= γ 𝑅 γ𝑅 s2-s1 = 𝑅 𝑙𝑛 s2-s1 = 𝐶𝑝 𝑙𝑛 𝑉 𝑚 𝑣2 𝑣1 𝑇2 𝑇1 𝑝 2 𝑝 1 + 𝐶𝑣 ln − 𝑅 𝑙𝑛 Cv = 𝛾−1 γ−1 Cp = γ−1 𝑝 2 𝑝 1 𝑉2 𝑉1 pV =mRT. Pressure p=C P. Even though the velocity is high in the region of restriction.314kJ/kg mole K ΔH= m Cp ΔT. without any work interaction and heat transfer or change in kinetic energy and potential energy. ΔU= m CV ΔT [COP]Ref = [COP]HP = 𝐷𝑒𝑠𝑖𝑟𝑒𝑑 𝑒𝑓𝑓𝑒𝑐𝑡 𝑊𝑜𝑟𝑘 𝑖𝑛𝑝𝑢𝑡 𝐷𝑒𝑠𝑖𝑟𝑒𝑑 𝑒𝑓𝑓𝑒𝑐𝑡 𝑊𝑜𝑟𝑘 𝑖𝑛𝑝𝑢𝑡 = = 𝑄2 𝑊 𝑄1 𝑊 Q=U+W 1W2 = 2 𝑝𝑑𝑉 1 2 2 [COP]HP = [COP]Ref + 1 𝑑𝑠 = 1 1 𝑑𝑄 𝑇 .

For the sake of simplification. THE CARNOT CYCLE This cycle has the highest possible efficiency and consists of four simple operations namely.40 3. The actual combustion process is replaced by a heat transfer process. if there is no mechanical loss. AIR STANDARD CYCLES INTRODUCTION A cycle is defined as a repeated series of operations occurring in a certain order. The former is called ideal cycle and the latter actual cycle. An air standard cycle is an idealized cycle in which air is taken as the working fluid. then. Work done Air standard efficiency = 𝐻𝑒𝑎𝑡 𝑆𝑢𝑝𝑝𝑙𝑖𝑒𝑑 = Heat supplied − Heat Rejected 𝐻𝑒𝑎𝑡 𝑆𝑢𝑝𝑝𝑙𝑖𝑒𝑑 Heat Rejected 𝑊𝑜𝑟𝑘 𝐷𝑜𝑛𝑒 =1 − 𝐻𝑒𝑎𝑡 𝑆𝑢𝑝𝑝𝑙𝑖𝑒𝑑 I.Heat rejected. . Therefore the work done by the air is equal to the difference between the heat supplied and heat rejected. The exhaust process is replaced by a heat rejection process. It maybe repeated by repeating the processes in the same order. The cycle may be of imaginary perfect engine or actual engine. (a) Isothermal expansion (b) Adiabatic expansion (c)Isothermal compression (d)Adiabatic compression. Work done during a cycle = Heat supplied . the analysis of internal combustion engine is carried out in terms of an air standard cycle. A part of heat transferred to the air is converted into useful work and the remainder is rejected . The working fluid in an internal combustion engine does not operate on a cycle. All the processes are assumed to be reversible. Many of the power producing device use gas as the working fluid. Thermal efficiency of a cycle may be defined as the ratio of the work done to the heat supplied during the cycle. In ideal cycle all accidental heat losses are prevented and the working substance is assumed to behave like a perfect working substance. The thermal efficiency obtained with air as the working fluid is known as air standard efficiency.

Heat is rejected during this operation. Line 4-1 represents repeated application of non-conducting cover and adiabatic compression due to which temperature increases from T2 to T1 It may be noted that ratio of expansion during isotherm 1-2 and ratio of compression during isotherm 3-4 must be equal to get a closed cycle.41 Following are the four stages of the Carnot cycle. Line 1-2 in the figure represents the isothermal expansion which takes place at temperature T1 when source of heat is applied to the end of cylinder. Refer figure Stage 1. Line 3-4 represents the isothermal compression which takes place. Line 2-3 represents the application of non-conducting cover to the end of the cylinder. This is followed by the adiabatic expansion and the temperature falls from T1 to T2 Stage 3. Stage 2. Stage 4. Work done Air standard efficiency =1 − 𝑄2 𝑄1 =1− 𝑇2 𝑇1 .

6 shows the theoretical p-V diagram and T-s diagrams of this cycle respectively. V3 and T3 change to a final value of p4. 21. It is the standard of comparison for internal combustion engines. gas and many types of oil engines work. Line 1-2 represents the adiabatic compression of air due to which p1. Further more it is not possible to produce an engine that should work on Carnot's cycle as it would necessitate the piston to travel very slowly during first portion of the forward stroke (isothermal expansion) and to travel more quickly during the remainder of the stroke (adiabatic expansion) which however is not practicable.42 From this equation.V1 and T1 change to p2. it is quite obvious that if temperature T2 decreases efficiency increases and it becomes 100% if T2 becomes absolute zero which.V2 and T2 respectively. CONSTANT VOLUME OR OTTO CYCLE This cycle is so named as it was conceived by 'Otto'. Line 2-3 shows the supply of heat to the air at constant volume so that p2 and T2 changes to p3 and T3 (V3 being the same as V2) Line 3-4 represents the adiabatic expansion of the air. During expansion p3. II. Fig. On this cycle. V4 or Vl and T4 respectively. pressure p1 and absolute temperature T1. of course is impossible to attain.  The point 1 represents that cylinder is full of air with volume V1. petrol. .

iv. volume and absolute temperature. III. Fig. Vl and T1 be the corresponding pressure. 𝜂𝑜𝑡𝑡𝑜 = 1 − 1 𝑟 𝛾 −1 Where r is the compression ratio = V1/V2 and γ= adiabatic index This expression is known as the air standard efficiency of the Otto cycle. 1-2 Adiabatic compression. 3-4 Adiabatic expansion.43 Line 4-1 shows the rejection of heat by air at constant volume till original state (point 1) reaches. ii.e . This cycle comprises of the following operations : i. shows the p-v and T-s diagrams of this cycle respectively. iii. which means we can have maximum efficiency by increasing r to a considerable extent. Diesel in 1897. Let p1. The piston then compresses the air adiabatically (i. 4-1 Rejection of heat at constant volume. Point 1 represents that the cylinder is full of air. 2-3 Addition of heat at constant pressure. but due to practical difficulties its value is limited to about 8. CONSTANT PRESSURE OR DIESEL CYCLE This cycle was introduced by Dr. It is clear from the above expression that efficiency increases with the increase in the value of r. R. It differs from Otto cycle in that heat is supplied at constant pressure instead of at constant volume.

This is called the point of cut off. the air rejects the heat to the cold body at constant volume till the point 1 where it returns to its original state 𝜂𝐷𝑖𝑒𝑠𝑒𝑙 = 1 − 1 𝛾𝑟 𝛾 −1 𝜌 𝛾 −1 𝜌−1 Where 𝜌 is the cut off ratio = V3/V2 It may be observed that from the above equation for efficiency of diesel cycle is different from that of the Otto cycle only in bracketed factor. Finally.44 pVγ= constant) till the values become V2 and T2 respectively (at the end of the stroke. corresponding to point 3. It is also called Joule cycle. the Otto cycle is more efficient. because ρ>1. and it is represented on p-v and T-s diagrams as shown in Fig. During this addition of heat volume increases from V2 to V3 and temperature T2 to T3. Hence for a given compression ratio. An ideal gas turbine plant would perform the processes that make up a Brayton cycle. This factor is always greater than unity. The air then expands adiabatically to the conditions p4. at point 2 Heat is then added from a hot body at a constant pressure. . The cycle is shown in the Fig. The heat transfers are achieved in reversible constant pressure heat exchangers. V4 and T4 respectively corresponding to point 4. IV BRAYTON CYCLE Brayton cycle is a constant pressure cycle for a perfect gas.

No heat flow occurs. No heat flow occurs. T3 = T4 𝑝 3 𝑝 4 𝛾 −1 𝛾 = T4 𝑝 2 𝑝 1 𝛾 −1 𝛾 = T4 𝑟𝑝 𝛾 −1 𝛾 . Operation 4-1. Operation 3-4. Operation 2-3. Heat flows into the system increasing the volume from V2 to V3 and temperature from T2 to T3 whilst the pressure remains constant at p2.45 The various operations are as follows : Operation 1-8. The air is expanded isentropically from p2 to p1 the temperature falling from T3 to T4. Heat is rejected from the system as the volume decreases from V4 to V1 and the temperature from T4 to T1 whilst the pressure remains constant at p1 𝐻𝑒𝑎𝑡 𝑅𝑒𝑗𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑒𝑑 𝜂𝐴𝑖𝑟 𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑑𝑎𝑟𝑑 = 1 − 𝜂𝐵𝑟𝑎𝑦𝑡𝑜𝑛 = 1 − 𝐻𝑒𝑎𝑡 𝑆𝑢𝑝𝑝𝑙𝑖𝑒𝑑 𝐶𝑦𝑐𝑙𝑒 𝐶𝑦𝑐𝑙𝑒 𝑚𝑐 𝑝 𝑇4 −𝑇1 𝑚𝑐 𝑝 𝑇3 −𝑇2 𝜂𝐵𝑟𝑎𝑦𝑡𝑜𝑛 = 1 − 𝛾 −1 𝛾 𝑇4 −𝑇1 𝑇3 −𝑇2 Since. T2 = T1 𝑝 2 𝑝 1 𝛾 −1 𝛾 = T1 𝑟𝑝 𝛾 −1 𝛾 Where rp = Pressure ratio that is equal to p2/p1 𝑇3 𝑇4 = 𝑝 3 𝑝 4 𝛾 −1 𝛾 Then. the temperature rising from T1 to T2. 𝑇2 𝑇1 = 𝑝 2 𝑝 1 Then. The air is compressed isentropically from the lower pressure pl to the upper pressure p2.

. 𝜂𝐵𝑟𝑎𝑦𝑡𝑜𝑛 = 1 − 𝑇4 −𝑇1 𝛾 −1 T 4 𝑟𝑝 𝛾 −T 1 1 𝑟𝑝 𝛾 −1 𝛾 𝑟𝑝 𝛾 −1 𝛾 =1 − 𝑇4 −𝑇1 T 4 −T 1 𝑟𝑝 𝛾 −1 𝛾 =1− The above equation shows that the efficiency of the ideal joule cycle increases with the pressure ratio.46 Then. The absolute limit of upper pressure is determined by the limiting temperature of the material of the turbine at the point at which this temperature is reached by the compression process alone. no further heating of the gas in the combustion chamber would be permissible and the work of expansion would ideally just balance the work of compression so that no excess work would be available for external use.

The Romans carried pack trains of snow from Alps to Rome for cooling the Emperor's drinks. condenser and expansion valve.Chemical and related industries . Mechanical refrigeration depends upon the evaporation of liquid refrigerant and its circuit includes the equipments naming evaporator. Not only perishables but to-day many human work spaces in offices and factory buildings are airconditioned and a refrigeration unit is the heart of the system. and later in sawdust-insulated buildings to be used as required. manufacture of ice. This system was used by the Egyptians and by Indians in the Southwest. REFRIGERATION INTRODUCTION Refrigeration is the science of producing and maintaining temperatures below that of the surrounding atmosphere. until both bodies are at the same temperature. Maintaining perishables at their required temperatures is done by refrigeration.Transportation of foods above and below freezing 3. By sublimation of a solid. Important refrigeration applications: 1. compressor. Most of the commercial refrigeration is produced by the evaporation of a liquid called refrigerant. By evaporation of a liquid. Natural ice from lakes and rivers was often cut during winter and stored in caves. they were used to maintain a lower temperature in a space or product and may properly be called refrigeration. Refrigeration is generally produced in one of the following three ways : 1. By melting of a solid. 3. Heat always passes downhill. Though these methods of cooling all make use of natural phenomena. It is used for preservation of food. refrigeration means the cooling of or removal of heat from a system. solid carbon dioxide and control of air tempera-tars and humidity in the air-conditioning system. The equipment employed to maintain the system at a low temperature is termed as refrigerating system and the system which-is kept at lower temperature is called refrigerated system.Ice making 2. In simple. strawlined pits. This means the removing of heat from a substance to be cooled. The evaporation carried away heat and cooled the water. 2. Before the advent of mechanical refrigeration water was kept cool by storing it in semiporous jugs so that the water could seep through and evaporate.Comfort air-conditioning 5.Industrial air-conditioning 4.47 4. from a warm body to a cooler one.

48 6. Vapour absorption refrigeration system 5.Manufacturing and treatment of metals 10.Processing food products and beverages 8. Steam jet refrigeration system .Cascade refrigeration system c. Air refrigeration system 3. A low temperature thermal "sink" to which heat will flow from the space to be cooled.Vortex tube refrigeration system e. ii. raising the temperature level of this energy. Means of reducing of pressure and temperature of the refrigerant as it returns from the receiver to the "sink".Miscellaneous applications : a) Extremely low temperatures b) Plumbing c) Building construction etc.Oil refining and synthetic rubber manufacturing 9.Freezing food products 11. iv. REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS The various refrigeration systems may be enumerated as below: 1. A receiver to which heat will be transferred from the high temperature highpressure refrigerant. iii. ELEMENTS OF REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS All refrigeration systems must include at least four basic units as given below: i. Special refrigeration systems a. Ice refrigeration 2. and delivering it to a heat receiver. Vapour compression refrigeration system 4. Mixed refrigeration system d. Adsorption refrigeration system b.Medical and surgical aids 7. Thermoelectric refrigeration f. Means of extracting energy from the sink.

E. It originated from the rate at which heat is required to be removed to freeze one ton of water from and at 0oC. 1 tonne of refrigeration (TR) = 𝟑𝟑𝟔 ×𝟏𝟎𝟎𝟎 𝟐𝟒 = 14000 kJ/h. Open system.O.Net refrigerating effect. AIR REFRIGERATION SYSTEM / REVERSED BRAYTON CYCLE Air cycle refrigeration is one of the earliest methods of cooling developed.P. If.I. Note: Ton of refrigeration (TR). in short it is the ratio between heat extracted and work done (in heat units). C. Rn . The rating of the refrigeration machine is given by a unit of refrigeration known as ―standard commercial tonne of refrigeration‖ which is defined as the refrigerating effect produced by the melting of 1 tonne of ice from and at 0°C in 24 hours. Using American units this is equal to removal of200 BTU of heat per minute. Then.) The performance of a refrigeration system is expressed by a term known as the "coefficient of performance". is that throughout the cycle the refrigerant remains in gaseous state. it utilise a portion of the cabin air according to the supercharger capacity. It became obsolete several years because of its low co-efficient of performance (C. . W = Work expanded in by the machine during the same interval of time. The air refrigeration system can be divided in two systems: 1.O. Closed system 2. i. where with low equipment weight.P. units its conversion is rounded of to 3. and MKS unit it is adopted as kcal/min or 3000 kcal/hour.P= 𝑹𝒏 𝑾 STANDARD RATING OF A REFRIGERATION MACHINE The rating of a refrigeration machine is obtained by refrigerating effect or amount of heat tracted in a given time from a body. which is defined as the ratio of heat absorbed by the refrigerant while passing through the evaporator to the work input required to compress the refrigerant in the compressor.O.6 kJ/s (kW) or 210 kJ/min. In closed (or dense air) system the air refrigerant is contained within the piping or components parts of the system at all times and refrigerator with usually pressures above atmospheric pressure. A ton of refrigeration is basically an American unit of refrigerating effect (R. It . however. the refrigerating effect of 336 x 1000 kJ in 24 hours is rated as one tonne.49 CO-EFFICIENT OF PERFORMANCE (C. The main character-: feature of air refrigeration system. Since e latent heat of fusion of ice is 336 J/kg. In S.) and high operating costs.). been applied to aircraft refrigeration systems.e.

the moisture may freeze during expansion and is likely to choke the valves whereas it does not happen in closed system (iii)In open tern. the sir picks up moisture n the products kept in the refrigerated chamber . In pr practice it may or may not be done eg:. Refrigerator. In this system. Fig shows a schematic diagram of an air refrigeration system working on reversed brayton cycle. Compressor 2. This system uses reversed Brayton cycle which is described below: . circulated through the cold room and then compressed to the cooler pressure. The pressure of operation in this system is inherently limited to operation at atmospheric pressure in the refrigerator. A closed system claims the following advantages over open system : (i) In a closed system suction to compressor may be at high pressure. work gained from expander is employed for compression of air. the expansion of the refrigerant can be carried only upto atmospheric pressure prevailing the cold chamber but for a closed system there is no such restriction. consequently less external work is needed for operation of the system. The sizes of expander and compressor can kept within reasonable limits by using dense air (ii) In open air system. Expander 4. Elements of this systems are : 1. Cooler (Heat exchanger) 3.in some aircraft refrigeration systems which employ air refrigeration cycle the expansion work may be used for driving other devices.50 In the open system the refrigerator is replaced by the actual space to be cooled with the air expanded to atmospheric pressure.

It readily evaporates and condenses or changes alternately between the vapour and liquid phases without leaving the refrigerating plant. 3. Expansion 4. This is due to the fact that heat is carried by air in the form of sensible heat. it absorbs heat from the cold body. Here it is assumed that (i) (ii) Absorption and rejection of heat are constant pressure processes. Condensation 3. 2. During evaporation. because of this reason this system is employed in aircrafts. In condensing or cooling or liquefying. Since air is non-flammable.51 Fig. Compression 2. thus creating a cooling effect in the working fluid. Vapourisation. This refrigeration system thus acts as a latent heat pump since it pumps its latent heat from the cold body or brine and rejects it or delivers it to the external hot body or cooling medium.O. of this system is very low in comparison to other systems.P= 𝑛 𝑛 −1 𝛾 −1 𝛾 𝑇3 −𝑇2 𝑇4 −𝑇3 +𝑇2 −𝑇1 Merits and Demerits of Air refrigeration System. As compared to the other refrigeration systems the weight of air refrigeration system per tonne of refrigeration is quite low. In a simple vapour compression system fundamental processes are completed in one cycle These are: 1.O. The C. C. a and b shows p-V and T-s diagrams for a reversed Brayton cycle. it rejects heat to external body. The weight of air required to be circulated is more compared with refrigerants used in other systems. It is the most practical form of refrigeration. . Compression and expansion are isentropic processes. SIMPLE VAPOUR COMPRESSION SYSTEM Out of all refrigeration systems. therefore there is no risk of fire as in the machine using NH3 as the refrigerant. the vapour compression system is the most important system from the view point of commercial and domestic utility.P. It is cheaper as air is easily available as compared to the other refrigerants. Merits 1. In this system the working fluid is a vapour. 2. Demerits 1. This heat is used as its latent heat to converting it from the liquid to vapour.

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The vapour at low temperature and pressure (state '2') enters the "compressor" where it is compressed isentropically and subsequently its temperature and pressure increase considerably (state '3'). This vapour after leaving the compressor enters the "condenser" where it is condensed into high pressure liquid (state '4') and is collected in a "receiver tank'. From receiver tank it passes through the "expansion valve", here it is throttled down to a lower pressure and has a low temperature (state '1')- After finding its way through expansion "valve" it finally passes on to "evaporator" where it extracts heat from the surroundings or circulating fluid being refrigerated and vapourises to low pressure vapour (state ‗2‘)

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Merits and demerits of vapour compression system over Air refrigeration system Merits : 1. C.O.P. is quite high as the working of the cycle is very near to that of reversed Carnot cycle. 2. When used on ground level the running cost of vapour-compression refrigeration system is only 1/5th of air refrigeration system. 3. For the same refrigerating effect the size of the evaporator is smaller. 4. The required temperature of the evaporator can be achieved simply by adjusting the throttle valve of the same unit. Demerits : 1. Initial cost is high. 2. The major disadvantages are inflammability, leakage of vapours and toxity. These have been overcome to a great extent by improvement in design. Functions of Parts of a Simple Vapour Compression System Here follows the brief description of various parts of a simple vapour compression system shown in Fig 1. Compressor. The function of a compressor is to remove the vapour from the evaporator, and to raise its temperature and pressure to a point suck that it (vapour) can be condensed with available condensing media. Discharge line (or hot gas line). A hot gas or discharge line delivers the high-pressure, high-temperature vapour from the discharge of the compressor to the condenser. Condenser. The function of a condenser is to provide a heat transfer surface through which heat passes from the hot refrigerant vapour to the condensing medium. Receiver tank. A receiver tank is used to provide storage for a condensed liquid so that a constant supply of liquid is available to the evaporator as required. Liquid line. A liquid line carries the liquid refrigerant from the receiver tank to the refrigerant flow control. Expansion valve (refrigerant flow control). Its function is to meter the proper amount of refrigerant to the evaporator and to reduce the pressure of liquid entering the evaporator so that liquid will vapourize in the evaporator at the desired low temperature and take out sufficient amount of heat. Evaporator. An evaporator provides a heat transfer surface through which heat can pass from the refrigerated space into the vapourizing refrigerant. Suction line. The suction line conveys the low pressure vapour from the evaporator to the suction inlet of the compressor.

2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

7. 8.

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5. HEAT ENGINES
A heat engine is a device which transforms the chemical energy of a fuel into thermal energy and uses this energy to produce mechanical work. Heat engines are classified into two broad types: (a) External combustion engines, and (b) Internal combustion engines.

External Combustion Engines 1

Internal Combustion(IC) Engines

In this products of combustion of air and In this products of combustion are directly the fuel transfer heat to a second fluid which motive fluid. is the working fluid of the cycle Advantages: The use of cheaper fuels including solid fuels, and high starting torque (internal combustion engines are not self-starting). Advantages: It has greater mechanical simplicity, lower ratio of weight and bulk to output due to absence of auxiliary apparatus like boiler and condenser and, hence lower first cost (except in the case of very large units), higher overall efficiency, and lesser requirement of water for dissipation of energy through cooling system.

2

3

It is mainly used for large electric power These are mainly used for transport vehicles — generation automobiles, locomotives, aircrafts, etc. External combustion engines are less suitable for transport vehicles because of bulk and weight, and difficulty of transporting the working fluid

Gasoline or petrol Reciprocating 4000 engine (SI) 2.000 No mechanism Very big Reciprocating 4000 2. Closed cycle gas turbine Rotary 5.000 SI = Spark Ignition CI = compression Ignition . (propulsion of ships). Stirling or hot air engine 4.00. locomotives electric power. aircraft Aircraft Missiles. industrial. small marine. Steam engine Rotary Rotary 400 15.000 Electric power. Rocket (b)External combustion engines 1. space travel Locomotives. small.000 8000 Road vehicles. vehicles Electric power. Jet engine 7. Steam turbine 3. large marine Experimental. power in space. industrial. marine Reciprocating 800 Rotary 80. Diesel engine (CI) Reciprocating 40. Gas engine (SI) Reciprocating 4000 3.Open cycle gas turbine 6. electric power Road vehicles.Wankel engine (SI. small aircrafts Electric power. small aircrafts Industrial. ships 1. marine 4.55 Classification of Heat Engine Classific Name of Engines ation (a)Internal combustion engines Reciprocating Maximum or Rotary size inkW Principal Use Road vehicles. Rotary CI) 5.

In the cylinder a piston travels in reciprocating motion. . A spark plug near the top of the cylinder initiates the combustion. In carburettor a throttle is provided to control the mass of mixture entering the combustion chamber.56 IC ENGINE COMPONENTS Figure shows the cross-section of a single cylinder spark-ignition internal combustion engine. The cylinder is supported in position by the cylinder block at the top end is covered by cylinder head. A mixture of air and fuel enters the cylinder through the carburattor in spark ignition engine via the inlet manifold i. The energy of the expanding gas is transmitted by the piston (having piston rings to prevent leakage) through the gudgeon pin to the connecting rod. In the cylinder head are inlet valves for taking the charge in the cylinder and exhaust valves for discharging the products of combustion. The space enclosed between the upper part of the cylinder and the top of the piston during the combustion process is called the combustion chamber. The connecting rod and the crank arm of the crankshaft translate the reciprocating motion of piston into rotational motion of the crankshaft.e the pipe which connects the inlet port of the engine to the air intake.

Fig.57 The crankshaft is supported in bearings attached to the crankcase. Four stroke SI Engine . Both the intake and exhaust valves are operated by the valve mechanism. A camshaft is driven by the crankshaft through timing gears. Lobed cams on the camshaft actuate the push rods and rocker arms for opening the valves against the force of valve. Since the power stroke exists for only a part of the total time. The products of combustion leave through exhaust port and exhaust manifold. The crankcase is the main body of the engine to which the cylinder is attached. Cross-section of spark-ignition engine NOMENCLATURE Fig. For control of speed under varying load conditions a governor is provided. a flywheel is used to smooth out the power pulses and thus obtain a uniform rotation of the crankshaft.

The nominal inner diameter of the working cylinder. The nominal distance through which a working pistons between two successive reversals of its direction of motion. The numerical value of the cylinder volume divided by the numerical value of the combustion space volume or clearance volume Compression ratio r = 𝑉 𝑉 𝑐 FOUR STROKE SPARK IGNITION (SI) ENGINES Working Strokes . 3. The area of a circle of diameter equal to the cylinder bore. Piston area (A). The nominal volume of the space on the combustion side of the piston at top dead centre. a. Dead centre when the position is farthest from the crankshaft. Compression ratio (CR or r). In horizontal engines it is also called inner dead centre (IDC). Cylinder volume (V). 7. Stroke (L). 5. In horizontal engines it is also called outer dead centre (ODC). 2. calculated as the product of piston area and stroke. b.Dead centre when the piston is nearest to the crankshaft.58 1. Cylinder bore (D). Clearance volume (Vc). Dead centre. Vs = A X L 6. The sum of piston swept volume and clearance volume V = Vs + Vc (1. 4. The nominal volume generated by the working piston when travelling from one dead centre to next one. The position of the working piston and the moving parts which are mechanically connected to it at the moment when the action of the piston motion is reversed (at either end point of the stroke).2) 8. Bottom dead centre (BDC) . Displacement volume or piston swept volume (Vs). Top dead centre (TDC).

Due to high pressure the burnt gases force the piston towards bottom dead centre. Comp. the charge consisting of fresh air mixed with the fuel is drawn into the cylinder. Exhaust stroke. Both valves closed. At the end of the expansion stroke the exhaust valve opens. Suction valve closed. 2.59 Stroke 1. During this stroke both inlet and exhaust valves remain closed. instead of a fuelair mixture. and the pressure is also considerably increased. Both pressure and temperature decrease during expansion. Valve position Suction valve open. 4. Suction stroke starts when the piston is at top dead centre and about to move downwards. Expansion stroke. the inlet valve remaining closed. The air which occupied the whole cylinder volume is now compressed into clearance volume. . and the piston is moving from bottom dead centre to top dead centre sweeps out the burnt gases from the cylinder. Expansion or power stroke. Exhaust stroke. and during the suction stroke air alone. The fresh charge taken into the cylinder during suction stroke is compressed by the return stroke of the piston. necessary in the SI engine. both the inlet and exhaust valves remaining closed. Exhaust valve closed. Due to high compression ratio. Thus power is obtained during this stroke. Both valves closed. Exhaust valve open. The inlet valve is open at this time and the exhaust valve is closed. is inducted. Burning takes place when the piston is almost at top dead centre. 3. FOUR-STROKE COMPRESSION IGNITION (CI) ENGINES The four-stroke CI engine is similar to four-stroke SI engine except that high compression ratio is used in the former. are not required in the CI engine. In the CI engine a high pressure fuel pump and an injector is provided to inject fuel into combustion chamber. The carburettor and ignition system. the temperature at the end of compression stroke is sufficient to ignite the fuel which is injected into the combustion chamber. Suction stroke. Just before the end of the compression stroke the mixture is ignited with the help of an electric spark between the electrodes of the spark plug located in combustion chamber wall. producing a temperature rise of about 2000°C. At the end of the Suction stroke the inlet valve closes. Suction stroke. Due to the suction created by the motion of the piston towards bottom dead centre. stroke. During the burning process the chemical energy of the fuel is converted into sensible energy. Compression stroke.

The top of the piston sometimes has a .. During the expansion stroke the air in the crankcase is compressed. Fuel is injected in the beginning of the expansion stroke. Exhaust stroke. i. Only two piston strokes are required to complete the cycle. In a four-stroke engine the operations are performed by the engine piston during the suction and exhaust strokes. respectively. Near the end of expansion stroke piston uncovers the exhaust ports. Both valves remain closed during expansion stroke. Suction stroke. The difference between two-stroke and four-stroke engines is in the method of filling the cylinder with the fresh charge and removing the burned gases from the cylinder.e. Only air is inducted during the suction stroke. Therefore no piston strokes are required for suction and exhaust operations.60 The ideal sequence of operation for the four-stroke CI engine is as follows: 1. The air or charge is sucked through spring-loaded inlet valve when the pressure in the crankcase reduces due to upward motion of the piston during compression stroke. TWO-STROKE ENGINE In two-stroke engines the cycle is completed in two stroke. 2. Further motion of the piston uncovers transfer ports. The exhaust valve is open and the intake valve remains closed in the exhaust stroke. Figure shows the simplest type of two-stroke engine. In a two stroke engine suction is accomplished by air compressed in crankcase or by a blower. 4. after fuel cut off) the products of combustion expand. one for compressing the fresh charge and the other for expansion or power stroke. During this stroke intake valve is open and exhaust valve is closed. After the compression. 3. The rate of injection is such that the combustion maintains the pressure constant. The induction of compressed air removes the products of combustion through exhaust ports. permitting the slightly compressed air or mixture in the crankcase to enter the engine cylinder.e. Both valves remain closed during compression stroke. ignition and expansion takes place in the usual way. Compression stroke. one resolution of the crankshaft as against two revolutions of four-stroke cycle. and the cylinder pressure drops to atmospheric as the combustion products leave the cylinder. Expansion or power stroke. After the injection of fuel is over (i.

m. 14 to 22.61 projection to deflect the fresh air to sweep up to the top of the cylinder before flowing to the exhaust ports. Heavier due to higher pressures.5. caused by with spark plug in the com. Lighter. Ignition Fuel is injected directly into combustion chamber at high pressure at the end of compression stroke. lower. compression ratio. COMPARISON OF SI AND CI ENGINES Description 1. The same objective can be achieved without piston deflector by proper shaping of the transfer port. 5. 4. This serves the double purpose of scavenging the upper part of the cylinder of combustion products and preventing the fresh charge from flowing directly to the exhaust ports. 7 Efficiency 8. 3. Low self-ignition temperature Petrol (Gasoline). the transfer ports and then the exhaust port close and compression of the charge begins and the cycle is repeated. High self Diesel oil. Maximum efficiency lower Higher maximum efficiency due to higher due to low compression ratio.R. bustion chamber. Introduction of fuel Fuel and air introduced as a gaseous mixture in the suction stroke. per minute due to lighter weight. During the Upward motion of the piston from bottom dead centre. Compression ratio 6 to 10. Fuel SI Engine Based on Otto cycle. Carburetor necessary to provide the mixture Throttle controls the quantity of mixture introduced. Ignition system and spark plug is eliminated. 6. is limited by the range fixed by antiknock quality of rapidly increasing weight of the engine structure fuel.p.R. Upper limit of C. Requires an ignition system Self ignition due to high temperature. Quantity of fuel regulated in pump. CI Engine Based on Diesel cycle. ignition temperature desirable. Weight . desirable. Carburetor is eliminated but a high pressure fuel pump and injector necessary.high compression of air. as the compression ratio is further increased. Upper limit of C. Basic cycle 2. when fuel is injected. Speed Higher maximum revolution Maximum r.

or for the same power the engine is heavy and bulky. Thermal efficiency higher. 3 4 Because of one power stroke in two Because of one power stroke in one revolution revolutions lesser cooling and greater cooling and lubrication requirement. engine. . ports (some two-stroke engines are fitted with conventional exhaust valve or reed valve). In two-stroke petrol engines some fuel is exhausted during scavenging. wear and tear The four-stroke engine contains valves Two-stroke engines have no valves but only and valve mechanism. Because of one power stroke for one revolution. part load efficiency efficiency better than two-stroke cycle lesser than four-stroke cycle engine.62 COMPARISON OF FOUR-STROKE AND TWO-STROKE CYCLE ENGINES Four-stroke cycle 1 The cycle is completed in four strokes of the piston or in two revolutions of the crankshaft. 5 6 7 8 Volumetric efficiency more due to Volumetric efficiency less due to lesser time for greater time of induction. Lesser rate of Greater rate of wear and tear. Thus one power stroke is obtained in every two revolutions of the crankshaft Two-stroke cycle The cycle is completed in two-strokes of the piston or in one revolution of the crankshaft. or for the same power the engine is light and compact. initial cost. actually about 1. turning movement More uniform turning movement and hence is not so uniform and hence heavier lighter flywheel is needed. Thus one power stroke is obtained in each revolution of the crankshaft. flywheel is needed Again. Because of the heavy weight and Because of light weight and simplicity due to complication of valve mechanism. 2 Because of the above. the absence of valve mechanism. lubrication requirements. part load Thermal efficiency lower. cheaper in higher in initial cost. induction. power produced for same size of engine is more (theoretically twice. power produced for same size of engine is small. because of one power stroke for two revolutions.3 times).

due to this the life of engine components is improved. mopeds etc. Two-stroke diesel engines used in very large sizes. power generation. In this system each cylinder has number of injectors to supply/spray fuel in the cylinders as compared to one injector located centrally to supply/spray fuel in case of single point injection system.P. . buses. more than 60 cm bore. Two-stroke (aircooled) petrol engines used in very small sizes only: lawn mowers. Vibration from the engine equipped with this system is less. in cars.I. (Lubricating oil mixed with petrol). Advantage of M. tractors. etc Used were (a) low cost.F. industrial engines. for ship propulsion because of low weight and compactness. P.  More uniform A/F mixture will be supplied to each cylinder.  Immediate response. aeroplanes.63 9 Used where efficiency is important. motor cycles. scooters. MULTI POINT FUEL INJECTION (MPFI) ENGINES M. This is used in petrol powered vehicle as well as in diesel powered vehicles. hence the difference in power developed in each cylinder is minimum. and (b) compactness and light weight important. in case of sudden acceleration / deceleration. trucks.  No need to crank the engine twice or thrice in case of cold starting as happens in the carburetor system. F. I. means Multi Point Fuel Injection system.

PCSV. Case II: If ECM fails to service from all sensors then also the engine won't get started COMMON RAIL DIRECT INJECTION (CRDI) ENGINES CRDI has also provided a tremendous boost in diesel-engine performance. manipulate the signals and send control signals to the actuators. This leads to effective utilization of fuel supplied and hence low emission level. with much less waste fuel escaping the system unused. These injectors are based on the direct-injection concept. as was the case in the past. Engine Speed etc. But the common-rail design was quite a step forward.) of the engine and send signal to ECM. Injectors. This allows the fuel to combine with the air much more efficiently. more accurate amount of A/F mixture will be supplied and as a result complete combustion will take place.  The mileage of the vehicle will be improved. Power Transistor etc. The function of ECM is to receive signal from various sensors.64  Since the engine is controlled by ECM (Engine Control Module). The newest electronic technology has also allowed CRDI engines to better control the amount of fuel used. Receives control signal from ECM and does function accordingly (ISCA. Fuel in the common tube or ―rail‖ is under a set amount of pressure which causes the fuel to be ―atomized‖ or broken down to its smallest particles. fuel use is highly efficient. Sensors.) Case I: If ECM fails to send control signal to all actuators then the engine won't get started. Pressure. The improvement is mainly due to the common-rail design. Actuators. ECM ( Engine Control Module) and its function. With proper direct injection. Sensing different parameters (Temperature. which has tubes that connect all the injectors. . the pressure within the system and the timing of both the injection of fuel and the electronic charge applied to make the fuel burn.

however. and the higher its dynamic pressure. allows the engine and vehicle to run more quietly and reduces the cost of operation significantly. inertia. these engines also come at a price. determines the amount of fuel drawn into the airstream. and centrifugal forces: . require a great deal of complexity to compensate for exceptionally high or low engine speeds. a tube or a common rail connects all the injectors and contains fuel at a constant high pressure. This high pressure in the common rail ensures that when injected. their deviations from ideal behavior due to viscosity. Instead.  CRDI engine fitted cars offer 25% more power than the normal direct injection engine with a superior pickup and torque offering sometimes up to 70% more power than the conventional diesel engines. and therefore its pressure. thereby leaving little unburnt fuel thus reducing pollution. The carburetor works on Bernoulli's principle: the faster air moves. A carburetor must provide the proper fuel/air mixture across a wide range of ambient temperatures. the lower its static pressure. atmospheric pressures.  They are smooth less noisy and immensely fuel efficient giving around 24 kilometers to a liter of Diesel. in practice. The fact that Diesel is cheaper than petrol in India further attributes greatness to the engine. engine speeds and loads. it actuates carburetor mechanisms which meter the flow of air being pulled into the engine. They also require a higher degree of maintenance and spares are not cheap also. CARBURETOR Carburetor is a device that blends air and fuel for petrol engine.65 Injectors in the common rail direct injection engine have controls on the injector heads that allow slight variances in the amount of fuel put into the cylinders Disadvantages Like all good things in life. they are at least 25% more costly than the conventional engines.  In a CRDI engine. The throttle (accelerator) linkage does not directly control the flow of liquid fuel. Under all engine operating conditions. etc. the carburetor must:    Measure the airflow of the engine Deliver the correct amount of fuel to keep the fuel/air mixture in the proper range Mix the two finely and evenly This job would be simple if air and gasoline (petrol) were ideal fluids. fluid drag. The speed of this flow. Advantages  CRDI method greatly reduces engine and vehicle vibration. the fuel breaks up into small particles and mixes evenly with the air.

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In addition, modern carburetors are required to do:
    

Hot start Idling or slow-running Acceleration

High speed / high power at full throttle Cruising at part throttle (light load)

To function correctly under all these conditions, most carburetors contain a complex set of mechanisms to support several different operating modes, called circuits. Working

A carburetor basically consists of an open pipe through which the air passes into the inlet manifold of the engine. The pipe is in the form of a venturi: it narrows in section and then widens again, causing the airflow to increase in speed in the narrowest part. Below the venturi is a butterfly valve called the throttle valve a rotating disc that can be turned end-on to the airflow, so as to hardly restrict the flow at all, or can be rotated so that it (almost) completely blocks the flow of air. This valve controls the flow of air through the carburetor throat and thus the quantity of air/fuel mixture the system will deliver, thereby regulating engine power and speed. The throttle is connected, usually through a cable or a mechanical linkage of rods and joints or rarely

67

by pneumatic link, to the accelerator pedal on a car or the equivalent control on other vehicles or equipment.Fuel is introduced into the air stream through small holes at the narrowest part of the venturi and at other places where pressure will be lowered when not running on full throttle. Fuel flow is adjusted by means of precisely-calibrated orifices, referred to as jets, in the fuel path.

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6.PROPERTIES OF FUELS
INTRODUCTION TO FUELS The various types of fuels like liquid, solid and gaseous fuels are available for firing in boilers, furnaces and other combustion equipments. The selection of right type of fuel depends on various factors such as availability, storage, handling, pollution and landed cost of fuel. The knowledge of the fuel properties helps in selecting the right fuel for the right purpose and efficient use of the fuel. The following characteristics, determined by laboratory tests, are generally used for assessing the nature and quality of fuels. PROPERTIES OF LIQUID FUELS Liquid fuels like furnace oil and LSHS are predominantly used in industrial application. The various properties of liquid fuels are given below. 1. Density This is defined as the ratio of the mass of the fuel to the volume of the fuel at a reference temperature of 15°C. Density is measured by an instrument called hydrometer. The knowledge of density is useful for quantity calculations and assessing ignition quality. The unit of density is kg/m3. 2. Specific gravity This is defined as the ratio of the weight of a given volume of oil to the weight of the same volume of water at a given temperature. The density of fuel, relative to water, is called specific gravity. The specific gravity of water is defined as 1. Since specific gravity is a ratio, it has no units. The measurement of specific gravity is generally made by a hydrometer. 3. Viscosity The viscosity of a fluid is a measure of its internal resistance to flow. Viscosity depends on temperature and decreases as the temperature increases. Any numerical value for viscosity has no meaning unless the temperature is also specified. The measurement of viscosity is made with an instrument called Viscometer. Viscosity is the most important characteristic in the storage and use of fuel oil. It influences the degree of pre-heat required for handling, storage and satisfactory atomization. If the oil is too viscous, it may become difficult to pump, hard to light the burner, and tough to operate. Poor atomization may result in the formation of carbon deposits on the burner tips or on the walls. Therefore pre-heating is necessary for proper atomization. 4. Flash Point The flash point of a fuel is the lowest temperature at which the fuel can be heated so that the vapour gives off flashes momentarily when an open flame is passed over it. Flash point for furnace oil is 66oC.

such as a burner or injection nozzle. Calorific Value The calorific value is the measurement of heat or energy produced. magnesium. Light oils have a low specific heat. 10. and condensing in cool parts of the chimney or stack. The unit of specific heat is kcal/kgoC. aluminum. Net calorific value (NCV) assumes the water leaves with the combustion products without fully being condensed. Excessive ash in liquid fuels can cause fouling deposits in the combustion equipment. 8.28 depending on the oil specific gravity. whereas heavier oils have a higher specific heat.69 5. Typically. moisture content and the type of coal while calorific value of fuel oils are much more consistent. The difference being the latent heat of condensation of the water vapour produced during the combustion process. 7. The specific heat determines how much steam or electrical energy it takes to heat oil to a desired temperature. and is measured either as gross calorific value or net calorific value. . The normal sulfur content for the residual fuel oil (furnace oil) is in the order of 2-4 %.03-0. air pre heater and economiser. 9.07 %. Gross calorific value (GCV) assumes all vapour produced during the combustion process is fully condensed.22 to 0. Ash has erosive effect on the burner tips. silicon. Carbon Residue Carbon residue indicates the tendency of oil to deposit a carbonaceous solid residue on a hot surface. The main disadvantage of sulphur is the risk of corrosion by sulphuric acid formed during and after combustion. Residual oil contains carbon residue ranging from 1 percent or more. iron. etc. calcium. It varies from 0. Fuels should be compared based on the net calorific value. Ash Content The ash value is related to the inorganic material in the fuel oil. Specific Heat Specific heat is the amount of kcals needed to raise the temperature of 1 kg of oil by 1 oC. the ash value is in the range 0. These salts may be compounds of sodium. vanadium. It is a very rough indication of the lowest temperature at which fuel oil is readily pumpable 6. nickel. when its vaporisable constituents evaporate. The ash levels of distillate fuels are negligible. Residual fuels have more of the ash-forming constituents. causes damage to the refractories at high temperatures and gives rise to high temperature corrosion and fouling of equipments. The calorific value of coal varies considerably depending on the ash. Sulphur The amount of sulphur in the fuel oil depends mainly on the source of the crude oil and to a lesser extent on the refining process. Pour Point The pour point of a fuel is the lowest temperature at which it will pour or flow when cooled under prescribed conditions.

Fixed carbon gives a rough estimate of heating value of coal b) Volatile Matter: Volatile matters are the methane. Normally D. not combined with other elements. PROPERTIES OF COAL CLASSIFICATION Coal is classified into three major types namely anthracite. sulphur and nitrogen not driven off with the gases. Anthracite is the oldest coal from geological perspective. Water Content Water content of furnace oil when supplied is normally very low as the product at refinery site is handled hot and maximum limit of 1% is specified in the standard. and helps in easier ignition of coal. Sets minimum limit on the furnace height and volume. It can also cause spluttering of the flame at the burner tip. Fixed carbon refers to carbon in its free state. It is a hard coal composed mainly of carbon with little volatile content and practically no moisture. and sub-bituminous. and incombustible gases like carbon dioxide and nitrogen found in coal. hydrogen and carbon monoxide. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES a) Fixed Carbon Fixed carbon is the solid fuel left in the furnace after volatile matter is distilled off. It consists mostly of carbon but also contains some hydrogen. Influences secondary oil support c) Ash Content: Ash is an impurity that will not burn. However there is no clear demarcation between them and coal is also further classified as semianthracite. Thus the volatile matter is an index of the gaseous fuels present. Water may be present in free or emulsified form and can cause damage to the inside furnace surfaces during combustion especially if it contains dissolved salts. Volatile matter refers to those combustible constituents of coal that vaporize when coal is heated. Volatile Matter • • • • Proportionately increases flame length. bituminous. Lignite is the youngest coal from geological perspective. The common coals used in Indian industry are bituminous and sub-bituminous coal. It is a soft coal composed mainly of volatile matter and moisture content with low fixed carbon. hydrocarbons. Typical range is 5 to 40% .70 11. and lignite. semi-bituminous. Influences secondary air requirement and distribution aspects.E and F coal grades are available to Indian Industry. possibly extinguishing the flame and reducing the flame temperature or lengthening the flame. Typical range of volatile matter is 20 to 35%. oxygen.

Aids radiation heat transfer.5 to 0. reduced ash losses and better combustion efficiency. to a limit. 3. Affects combustion efficiency and boiler efficiency Causes clinkering and slagging. Since it replaces combustible matter. Low thermal efficiency. Sulphur • • • Affects clinkering and slagging tendencies Corrodes chimney and other equipment such as air heaters and economisers Limits exit flue gas temperature. Poor combustion conditions and inadequate furnace temperature. crushing is limited to a top size of 6 or 4mm.5 to 10% Moisture • • • Increases heat loss. especially those which are stoker fired. helps towards even burning. d) Moisture Content: Moisture in coal must be transported.8% normally. Coal is reduced in size by crushing and pulverizing. the roll crusher and the hammer mill. it decreases the heat content per kg of coal. with specific relevance to the type of firing system. due to evaporation and superheating of vapour Helps. Proper coal sizing. Higher excess air resulting in higher stack loss. Typical range is 0. handled and stored. . Preparation of Coal Preparation of coal prior to feeding into the boiler is an important step for achieving good combustion. in binding fines.71 Ash • • • • Reduces handling and burning capacity. 4. (a) Sizing of Coal Proper coal sizing is one of the key measures to ensure efficient combustion. e) Sulphur Content: Typical range is 0. Increase of unburnts in the ash. 2. The devices most commonly used for crushing are the rotary breaker. Pre-crushed coal can be economical for smaller units. Increases handling costs. Large and irregular lumps of coal may cause the following problems: 1. In a coal handling system.

The calorific value of gaseous fuel is expressed in Kilocalories per normal cubic meter (kCal/Nm3) i. Fuel should be compared based on the net calorific value. at normal temperature (20oC) and pressure (760 mm Hg) Calorific Value Since most gas combustion appliances cannot utlilize the heat content of the water vapour. Incorporation of a magnetic separator to separate iron pieces in coal. but may be condensed to the liquid state at normal temperature. This helps to reduce power consumption in the crusher. producer gas. There should be adequate ground level ventilation where LPG is stored. Propylene(C3H6). gross calorific value is of little interest. they are stored and transported as liquids under pressure for convenience and ease of handling. In still air vapour will disperse slowly. Recommended practices in coal crushing are: 1. PROPERTIES OF GASEOUS FUELS Gaseous fuels in common use are liquefied petroleum gases (LPG). Consequently. . Natural gas. the vapour may flow along the ground and into drains sinking to the lowest level of the surroundings and be ignited at a considerable distance from the source of leakage. LPG vapour is denser than air: butane is about twice as heavy as air and propane about one and a half times as heavy as air. Although they are normally used as gases. This is especially true for natural gas. normal and iso-butane (C4H10) and Butylene(C4H8). coke oven gas etc. blast furnace gas. which are gaseous at normal atmospheric pressure. all LPG's are required to be odorized. Included in the LPG range are propane (C3H8). Liquid LPG evaporates to produce about 250 times volume of gas.72 It is necessary to screen the coal before crushing. so that only oversized coal is fed to the crusher. To aid in the detection of atmospheric leaks.e. since increased hydrogen content results in high water formation during combustion. Escape of even small quantities of the liquefied gas can give rise to large volumes of vapour / air mixture and thus cause considerable hazard. LPG LPG is a predominant mixture of propane and Butane with a small percentage of unsaturates (Propylene and Butylene) and some lighter C2 as well as heavier C5 fractions. which have no ventilation at ground level. LPG may be defined as those hydrocarbons. by the application of moderate pressures. Incorporation of a screen to separate fines and small particles to avoid extra fine generation in crushing. which may damage the crusher. 2. For this very reason LPG cylinders should not be stored in cellars or basements.

oxygen. generally properties of methane are used when comparing the properties of natural gas to other fuels. TYPES OF LIQUID FUELS 1. colorless.  Ingestion may cause spontaneous vomiting. and some sulfur compounds are . During this process. LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS (LNG) Liquefied natural gas. This fuel is used in the same applications where furnace oil is suitable. LOW SULPHUR HEAVY STOCK (LSHS) It is a residual fuel processed from indigenous crude. Natural gas is a high calorific value fuel requiring no storage facilities. irritation of mouth throat and gastro intestinal tract. and non-toxic. Nitrogen. water.  Low sulphur content is its main advantage. Pentane. It is lighter than air and disperses into air easily in case of leak. short residue and clarified oil from fluidized catalytic cracker unit. odorless. It is a dark viscous residual fuel obtained by blending mainly heavier components from crude distillation unit. non-corrosive. It has no sulphur content. Fuel Oil is used as an industrial fuel. Carbon Dioxide. Butane. is cooled below its boiling point. and traces of other gases. It mixes with air readily and does not produce smoke or soot. carbon dioxide.  It is a low viscosity fuel oil. LNG is produced when natural gas is cooled to minus 259 degrees Fahrenheit through a process known as liquefaction. the natural gas. 2.  Chemically stable and incompatible with strong oxidizers. is natural gas in a liquid form that is clear. Its key features include the following:  Has higher pour point than that of fo and hence to be maintained at 75oC at all times.73 NATURAL GAS Methane is the main constituent of Natural gas and accounting for about 95% of the total volume. Since methane is the largest component of natural gas. Other components are: Ethane. whereby certain concentrations of hydrocarbons. FURNACE OIL / FUEL OIL (FO) Internationally Furnace oil is known as Fuel oil and is traded in many varieties based on its specifications of viscosity and sulfur percentage. or LNG.  Emits lesser quantity of sulphur dioxide. which is primarily methane.  Gross calorific value of LSHS is more than that of furnace oil hence consumption of fuel oil will be reduced. Very small amounts of sulphur compounds are also present. Propane. 3.

Two main grades of diesel fuel are marketed in India. the higher the cetane number the higher the ignition quality. HSD is normally used as a fuel for high speed diesel engines operating above 750 rpm i. which is equivalent in ignition quality to that of the test fuel. If the delay is too long. so it will float if spilled on water. A spark ignition engine on the other hand. LDO is used for diesel engines. finely atomized fuel is injected at a very high pressure. locomotives. In a compression ignition engine. viz. the rate of pressure rise may be so great that it causes roughness or diesel knock. 4.74 either reduced or removed. relies upon a carburetor to supply into the cylinder a mixture of gasoline vapour and air. lorries.I. Petroleum diesel fuels may be distillates or blends of distillates and residual fuels. arbitrarily given a cetane number of 100. The effects of diesel knock are similar to the effects of knocking in gasoline engines. loss of efficiency and power output and a possibility of mechanical damage to the engine if the knocking is prolonged.e. pumping sets etc. At this stage. generating sets. the engine design. DISEL FUELS(HSD/LDO) A diesel fuel is any fuel suitable for burning in diesel or compression ignition engines. LNG is also less than half the weight of water. air alone is drawn into cylinder and compressed until it is very hot (about 500 deg C). This delay period depends on the nature of the fuel. Gas turbine requiring distillate fuels normally make use of HSD as fuel. and on the operating conditions. High Speed Diesel (HSD) and Light diesel oil (LDO). . The average compression ratio of a diesel engine is much higher (about 15:1) than that of a gasoline engine (about 8:1) and this is the reason for the higher thermal efficiency of the diesel engine (about 33% as compared to about 25% of the gasoline engine) which makes for economy in operation. CETANE NUMBER The most accurate method of assessing the ignition quality of a diesel fuel is by measuring its cetane number in a test engine. which is ignited by the heat of compression and hence the term compression ignition (C.). in a blend with alphamethyl-naphthaline (cetane number -0 ). the engine may be hard to start and when the accumulated fuel does ignite. The cetane number of a fuel is defined as the percentage of cetane. buses. generally of the stationery type operating below 750 rpm When fuel is injected into the combustion chamber of a diesel engine. The interval between the commencement of fuel injection and the commencement of combustion is known as the " ignition delay" and is a measure of the ignition quality of the fuel. The former is a 100% distillate fuel while the latter is a blend of distillate fuel with a small proportion of residual fuel. ignition does not occur immediately. is ignited by a spark. which after compression.

Also called Octane rating. In the older vehicles. enriched manure to improve soil fertility. The biogas consists of 60% methane with rest mainly carbon-di-oxide. where the spent slurry is stored.for mixing the feed and letting it into the digester. improving the hygienic conditions. Biogas is a safe fuel for cooking and lighting. and a manure pit.75 OCTANE NUMBER Measure of the ignition quality of gas (gasoline or petrol). lighting and for power generation. the less susceptible is the gas to 'knocking' (explosion caused by its premature burning in the combustion chamber) when burnt in a standard (spark-ignition internal combustion) engine. human waste or any kind of biological materials derived through anaerobic fermentation process. high octane numbers were achieved by adding lead tetraethyl to the gas (the 'leaded gas'). an inlet tank . In the newer vehicles. Advantages of Bio Gas technology  It provides a better and cheaper fuel cooking. . distribution pipeline(s) to transport the gas into the kitchen. Higher this number. BIO GAS Biogas is a clean and efficient fuel. outlet tank to remove the spent slurry. generated from cow-dung. A typical biogas plant has the following components: A digester in which the slurry (dung mixed with water) is fermented. By-product is usable as high-grade manure. Octane number denotes the percentage of volume of iso-octane in a combustible mixture (containing iso-octane and normal-heptane) whose 'anti-knocking' characteristics match those of the gas being tested.  It produces good quality. gas holder/dome in which the generated gas is collected.  It proves an effective and convenient way for sanitary disposal of human excreta. the same result is achieved by the engine design that increases turbulence in the combustion chamber or by adding aromatic hydrocarbons such as xylenes and oxygenates (oxygen-containing compounds such as alcohols) to the gas. a pollutant that contributes to lead poisoning.

Ethanol can be used as a fuel for vehicles in its pure form. animal fats or recycled greases. Biodiesel is produced from oils or fats using transesterification and is the most common biofuel in Europe. Bioethanol is an alcohol made by fermenting the sugar components of plant materials and it is made mostly from sugar and starch crops.  As a smokeless domestic fuel. it reduces the incidence of eye and lung diseases. Biodiesel can be used as a fuel for vehicles in its pure form. are also used as feedstocks for ethanol production. and hydrocarbons from diesel-powered vehicles.8% of the world's transport fuel in 2008. Biodiesel is made from vegetable oils. Liquid biofuel is usually either bioalcohol such as bioethanol or an oil such as biodiesel. With advanced technology being developed. carbon monoxide. such as trees and grasses. Bioethanol is widely used in the USA and in Brazil. reduction in the drudgery of women and children etc. cellulosic biomass. but it is usually used as a gasoline additive to increase octane and improve vehicle emissions. but it is usually used as a diesel additive to reduce levels of particulates.76  It generates social benefits such as reducing burden on forest for meeting cooking fuel by cutting of tree for fuel wood. .  It also helps in generation of productive employment BIOFUEL Biofuels provided 1.

1 INTRODUCTION Power plays a greater role wherever man lives and works. The amount of energy released by burning one kilogram of uranium is equivalent to the energy obtained by burning 4500tonnes of high-grade coal. In the above said power plants. 2. 7. Electricity is the only form of energy which is easy to produce. then the amount of heat equivalent is more than 200MW per square kilometer. the thermal power plants generate more than 80% of the total electricity produced in the world.Gas power plants. transport and easy to control. stations are very much suitable where coal is available in abundance. .OTEC Power Plants. Hydraulic power plants are essentially multi purpose. hydraulic. nuclear. 5. Working principle: Steam or thermal power plant is using steam as working fluid. fuel oil and natural gas are the energy sources and steam is the working fluid.2 STEAM POWER PLANT Steam is an important medium for producing mechanical energy. A steam power plant continuously converts the energy stored in fossil fuels (coal. oil and natural gas). The steam power. The availability of electrical energy and its per capita consumption is regarded as an index of national standard of living in the present day civilization. This numerical figure shows that enormous potential' is available for developing solar thermal power plants. The renewable energy source like solar energy in India has ideal1 geographical situations. 6. If the sunshine is bright for an average for 8hours/day. Wind Power Plants 8.Diesel power plant.Tidal Power Plants 7.77 7.Geothermal Power Plants 9. They are 1. It is used for power generation as well as irrigation. 4. Steam has the advantage that it can be raised from water which is available in abundance.Steam or thermal power plant.Nuclear power plants. Nuclear energy has enlarged the world's power resources. Fossil fuel like coal. 3. The pressure range is from I0kg/cm2 to super critical pressure and temperature varies from 250°C to 650°C. LAYOUT OF POWER PLANT 7. the various layouts of power plant are discussed. gas turbine and geothermal. Thermal power production cost in India is more when compared to nuclear power due to rise in oil prizes. In this unit. Steam is produced in a boiler using coal as fuel and used to drive the prime mover (Steam turbine).Hyde power plant. The types of power plants which is used to produce the electricity are thermal.

The handling system consists of belt conveyor screw conveyors etc. Air and flue gas circuit 4. By using the waste heat of the flue gas which is passing to the chimney. 1. The Indian coal contains 30 to 40% of ash and a power plant 100MW produces normally 20 to 25 tones of hot ash per hour. air preheater. ash storage. coal from the storage yard is transferred to the boiler furnace by means of coal handling equipment. This circuit consists of air filter. 2. Coal and ash circuit. The layout of the steam power plant consists of four main circuits. 3. Air and Flue gas circuit. These are 1. coal handling and ash handling systems. Water and steam circuit. Coal and Ash circuit: This circuit consists of coal storage. the air is preheated in the preheater. dust collector chimney.78 The heat energy is converted into mechanical energy by die steam turbine and that mechanical energy is used for generating power with the help of generator. . Air is taken from the atmosphere to the air preheater. the dust from the air is removed by means of using air filter. Ash resulting from the combustion of coal in the boiler furnace is removed to ash storage through ash handling. Cooling water circuit. 2.

feed water is supplied from the external source to compensate losses. cooling water pumps and cooling tower. boiler. If adequate quantity of water is not available at plant sites. Reduced water requirement. and feed heaters. Adequate water supply is available from various sources like river or lake. The power production does not depend on nature mercy. Part of the steam and water are lost while passing through different components of the system.Cooling water circuit: This circuit consists of circulating water pump. The condensate is heated in the HP and LP heaters using the steam tapped from different points of the turbine. 4. the flue gas which has sufficient quantity of heat is passed around the boiler tubes. Characteristics of steam power plant: 1. 3. The power plant can be located near load center. Disadvantages of steam power plant: 1. where it is further heated by means of flue gases. Using the economizer. 4. so the transmission cost and losses are considerably reduced. Abundant quantity of water is required for condensing the steam in the condenser. Higher reliability and availability.Feed water and steam circuit. 4. life and efficiency are less. 3. The feed water is passing through the economiser. turbine. The steam is expanded in the steam turbine then passed to the condenser where it is condensed. This circuit consists of boiler feed pump. Initial investment is low. . 2. Reduced environmental impact in terms of air pollution. the feed water is heated by the feed water heaters and then it is fed into the boiler. dust collector. Advantages of steam power plant: 1. 5. economiser and preheater before being exhausted to the atmosphere through the chimney. The steam generated in die boiler passes through super heater and is supplied to the steam turbine. the water and air are preheated before going to the boiler. So. 2. 2. condenser. the warm water coming out from the condenser is cooled in cooling tower and it is recirculated again and again. Low cost compared with hydro power plant. 3. As compared to hydro powerplant. Transportation of fuel is a major problem in this type of power plant. By passing the flue gas around the economiser and air preheater. High efficiency.79 After combustion in the furnace. The time requirement for construction and commissioning of thermal power plant require less period of time.

The coal (fuel) needed may be exhausted by gradual use. the energy of water is utilized to drive the turbine hydro or waterpower is important only next to the thermal: power. The arrangement of different components used in hydraulic power plants is discussed below. Water reservoir: Continuously availability of water is the basic necessity for a hydroelectric plant. The dam also helps to increase the working head of the power plant. 2. Hydroelectric power was initiated in India in 1987 near Darjeeling. The main purpose of the reservoir is to store the water during rainy season and supplied the same to the turbine continuously throughout the year. HYDEL POWER PLANT Water is the cheapest source of power. 4.3. . Power generation cost is considerably high when compared to hydro plant. 5. In hydroelectric power plants. It cannot be used as peak load plant. Air pollution is the major problem calling for additional investment. Dam: The dam is used in hydro power plants to increase the height of water level and thereby it increases the capacity of reservoir. A hydroelectric power plant is aimed at harnessing from water flowing under pressure. Water surface in the storage reservoir is known as headrace. 6. 7.80 3. COMPONENTS OF HYDROELECTRIC POWER PLANT: I .

Spillway is acting as a safety valve for the dam. The water turbine converts kinetic energy of water into mechanical energy to produce electrical energy. It must have the capacity to discharge major floods without damage to the dam. Surge Tank: There is sudden increase in pressure of the penstock due to sudden backflow of water as load on the turbine is reduced. . Forebay: It serves as a regulating reservoir. 9. Transformer: The transformer is to raise the voltage generated at the generator terminal before transmitting the power to consumers and workstation. Francis turbine and Kaplan turbine. It is used to tap the remaining kinetic energy of water coming out of the turbine. 11. 7. 6.Draft Tube The draft tube is connected at the outlet of the water turbine. Prime mover which is in common use such as Pelton turbine. Penstock: A pipeline fixed between the surge tank and prime mover is known I as penstock. It stores the water temporarily I when the load on the plant reduces and provides water for initial I increment of an increasing load. The mechanical energy available at the turbine shaft is used to run the electric generator. 8. 12. Pressure tunnel: Pressure tunnel carries water from the reservoir to surge tank.81 3. Tailrace: It is a waterway to lead the water discharged from the turbine to the river. 10. Trash rack: ■ water is taken from the dam or from the forebay is provided with trash rack. The 5. The surge tank is introduced between the dam and powerhouse to keep in reducing the sudden rise the penstock. 4. Water turbine: Water through the penstock enters into the turbine through the inlet valve. It allows the turbine to be placed over tailrace level. This sudden arise pressure in the penstock above normal due to reduce in load the generator is known as water hammer. It is commonly made of reinforced concrete or steel. Spillway: Water after certain level in the reservoir overflows through spillway without allowing the increase in water level in the reservoir during rainy conditions.

6. 8. 10. 2. The operating head of water ranges from 15 to 70meters then the power plant is known as medium head power plant. 9. The operating head of water is less than 15meters that power plant is known as low head power plant. Hydro-plants provide auxiliary benefits like irrigation. Pelton turbine is used as prime mover in this type of power plants. The water is first passed through the penstock to the turbine from the dam. The running cost of hydropower installation is very low as compared to thermal or nuclear power stations. The operating head of water exceeds 70meters. 5. It requires less supervising staff for the operation of the plant. . Modem hydropower equipment has greater life expectancy and can easily last 50 years or more. 12. Water is the renewable source of energy. No nuisance of smoker exhaust gases and soot's and no health hazards due to air pollution. diesel and nuclear plants are exhaustive and expansive. the plat is known | as "high head power plant". The efficiency does not change with age. 3. Maintenance cost is low. the potential energy of water is converted into kinetic energy. Hydropower projects are capital-intensive with a low rate of return. which may vary seasonto-season and year-to-year. flood control. The fuel cost is totally absent. There is no problem of handling the fuel and ash.82 WORKING PRINCIPLE: In the hydroelectric power plants. Variable load does not affect the efficiency in the case of a hydro-plant. Initial cost of the plant is high. Power generation is dependent on die quantity of water available. Disadvantages of hydroelectric power plant: 1. The hydraulic power plant is relatively simple in concept and self-contained in operation. 7. The mechanical available at the shaft of the turbine is converted into electrical energy through a generator or alternator. 2. Water is the cheapest source of energy. The fuels needed for die thermal. 4. It is neither consumed nor converted into something else. The potential energy of water is used to run water turbine to which the electric generator is coupled. 3. Advantages of hydroelectric power plant: 1. 11. CLASSIFICATION OF HYDROPOWER PLANTS: The hydropower plants are classified according to the head of water.

the burned gases are exhausted to the atmosphere. by way of deforestation.83 4. piston. destroying vegetarian and uprooting people. 5. fuel pump.4. 7. The engines are classified as twostroke engine and four stroke engines. 5. the compression ratio being 12 to 20. DIESEL POWER PLANT Diesel power plant is suitable for small and medium outputs. Large hydro-plants disturb the ecology of the area. The fuel is supplied to the engine according to the load variation. 3. To maintain the temperature as reasonable level. Diesel engine: This is the main component of a diesel power plant. Engine starting system: This includes air compressor and starting air tank. The fuel is burned and the burning gases expand and do work on the piston. It takes considerably longer time for its installation. filters. compared with thermal power plants. Hot water leaving the jacket is sent to heat exchanger. . 6. At the end of compression stroke. Lubrication system: It includes oil pumps. 2. air admitted into the cylinder is compressed. combustion chamber. fuel transfer pump. In diesel engine. strainers and heaters. fuel is injected. water is circulated around the engine in water jackets which is passed through the cylinder. Engine is generally directly coupled to the generator for developing power. Cooling system: The temperature of burning fuel inside the combustion chamber is 1500°C to 2000°C. This is used to start the engine in cold conditions by supplying the air. Diesel electric plants in the range of 2 to 50MW capacity are used as central stations. After the combustion. The diesel power plants are commonly used where fuel prices or reliability of supply favour oil over coal. It is used to reduce the friction of moving parts and reduce wear and tear of the engine. Air fiber and super charger: The air filter is used to remove the dust from the air which is taken by the engine. COMPONENTS OF DIESEL POWER PLANT: 1. where water supply is limited where loads are relatively small. The function of the supercharger is to increase the pressure of the air supplied to the engine and thereby the power of the engine is increased. 7. coolers and pipes. Fuel system: It includes the storage tank. The hydel power plants are often far away from the load center and require long transmission lines to deliver power. 6. oil tanks. The shaft of the engine is directly coupled to the generator.

This is done by varying the fuel supply according to the engine load. Applications of diesel power plant 1. . Used as peak load plants in combined with thermal or hydro plants. Governing system: It is used to regulate the speed of the engine. The air and fuel is mixed inside the engine and the charge is ignited due to high compression inside the engine cylinder. 9. Exhaust system: It includes silencers and connecting ducts.84 8. Quite suitable for mobile power generation. The exhaust gas has high temperature and so it is used to preheat the oil and air. 3. WORKING PRINCIPLE: The air and fuel mixture are working medium in diesel engine power plant. The basic principle in diesel engine is the thermal energy which is converted into mechanical energy and this mechanical energy is converted into electrical energy to produce the power by using generator or alternator. Used as stand by plants for emergency service. 2. The atmosphere air is coming inside the combustion chamber during the suction stroke and die fuel is injected through the injection pump.

Quick starting and easy pick-up of loads. One kilogram of U can produce as much energy as possible by burning 4500tonnes of high-grade coal. Efficiency does not fall so much as that of a steam plant during pans loads 10. Plant layout is simple. 5. 8.5 > 107 m/sec and producing energy at 200million-electron volts. NUCLEAR POWER PLANT The nuclear power plants are now comparable to or even lower than the unit cost in coal fired power plants. Chain reaction: The neurons released during the fission can be made to fission and the other nuclei of U23 causing a "Chain Reaction". 6. Skilled manpower is not required.5 neutrons are released. which is easily fissionable. 2. Location of the plant is near the load center. 9. If". 2. 4. Life of the diesel plants is low when compared to thermal plants. Fuel handling is easier and no problem of ash disposed. The isotopes of Uranium are U"". when a neutron is captured by the nuclear of an atom U235.5 fast moving neutrons with a velocity of 1. 4. the nuclear is splitted into two equal fragments and also releases 2. Plant capacity is limited to about 5QMW of power. Diesel fuel is much more expansive. IT" are the most unstable topic. The repair and maintenance cost are high. Diesel plants operate at high overall efficiency than steam plants. . 3. When a neutron enters the nuclear of U235. 5.It has no stand by losses Disadvantages: 1.5. Time schedule for manufacturing are shorter. The efficiency of the diesel engine is about 33% only. The heat produced due to fission of U and Pu is used to heat water to generate steam which is used for running turbo generator. During the fission process. The nuclear energy is derived from splitting or by the fission of the nuclear of fissionable atom. Nuclear power utilization can help to save a considerable amount of fossil fuels which can be used in other areas. 7. 7. 3.85 Advantages: 1 Diesel power plants are cheaper. Nuclear fission: Uranium exists in the isotopic form of U which is unstable. the atom is splitted into two fragments of more or less of equal mass and about 2.

9 neutron is converted into fissionable material pU239 and 0. MAIN COMPONENTS OF NUCLEAR POWERPLANTS 1. 0. This large amount of heat is absorbed by the coolant and it is circulated through the core. Heavy Water-cooled reactor. pU239 and U233 2. 3.5 neutrons are released out of which one neutron is used to sustain the chain reaction. We know in fission process. It may be regarded as a substitute for the boiler fire box of a steam power plant. Fuel: The fuel which is used in the nuclear reactors are U235.6 neutron is absorbed by control rod and moderator. Moderator: It is used to the Kinetic energy of fast neutrons into slow neutrons and to increase the probability of chain reaction. Steam generator: It is fed with feed water and the feed water is converted into steam by the heat of the hot coolant. Pressurised water reactor 3.86 The atomic explosion is caused by the under controlled chain reaction. The various types of reactors used in nuclear power plant is 1. reflector. about 2. During the fission the large amount of heat is liberated by U235. shield etc. .Nuclear reactor: It consists of reactor cone. The moderator function is to reduce the energy of neutrons and to maintain the chain reaction. Boiling water reactor 2. The coolant is used to transfer the heat from the reactor core to the steam generator. 4.

These radiations are very harmful. . WORKING PRINCIPLE OF NUCLEAR POWER PLANT: The fission reaction of Uranium fuel takes places in the reactor and large amount of heat is released. The ordinary water or heavy water is a common coolant. 9. Shielding: The reactor is a source of intense radioactivity. Coolant pump and feed pump: It is used to maintain the flow of coolant and feed water in the power plant. 7. A thick concrete shielding and a pressure vessel are provided to prevent the radiations escaped to atmosphere. 8. Reflector: It is used in the reactor to conscience the neutrons in order to reduce the consumption of fissile material. This reaction is controlled by moderators.87 5 .Turbine: The steam produced by the steam generator is passed to the turbine and it is connected to the generator. shielding is provided to absorb the radioactive rays. Control Rods It is used to control the nuclear chain reaction and functions of the nuclear reactor. 6.

7. It requires well-trained personnel.88 The large amount of heat produced in the reactor is absorbed by the coolant which is circulated through the reactor core. No ash handling. 2. The size of gas turbine plants used varies from 10MW to 50MW and the thermal efficiency of about 22% to 25%. 8. It is very much useful in peak load. Space for fuel storage is not needed. Gas turbine installations require only a fraction of water used by their steam turbine counter-parts. 4. 3. The classification of gas turbine plants are 1. c. 4. 9. Nuclear power plants are well suited to meet large power demands.6. b. There is increased reliability of operation. Aircraft Marine Locomotive Transport 3. 7. The gas turbine plant requires less space only. It is not affected by adverse whether conditions. The mechanical energy of the steam turbine is converted into electrical energy by an electric generator. It is easily adopted where water and coal resources are not available. b. It requires high initial cost. According to the application a. The used steam is condensed and it is reused in the boiler. 6. Radioactive wastes may affect the health of workers and other population. a. Peak load Stand by Base load Liquid Gas Solid 2. b. 2. c. Space requirement of a nuclear power plant is less. c. It is hot suitable for variable load conditions. 3. According to fuel . According to type of load a. d. GAS TURBINE POWER PLANT The gas turbine power plant has relatively low cost and can be quickly put into commission. Advantages of nuclear power plant: 1. Disadvantages: 1. Nuclear power plant consumes very small quantity of fuel. 5. The hot coolant goes to the steam generator where the feed water is absorbed the heat from the coolant and converted into steam. This steam is used to run the steam turbine and it is connected to the steam generator. It does not require large quantity of water.

natural gas or kerosene are injected into the combustion chamber. These high-pressure. Closed cycle gas turbine 4. the axial and centrifugal flow compressors are used. high. One is low-pressure compressor and the other is high-pressure compressor. 5. 2. This low-pressure air goes to the high-pressure compressor through the intercooler. b.Single shaft b. Due to the expansion taking place in the gas turbine. the combustion takes place. Open cycle gas turbine: 2. Then the high-pressure air goes into the regenerator. Regenerator 1. The major part of the power developed by the turbine (about 66%) is used to run the compressor. Intercoolers 3. 3.Regenerator: Regenerators are used to preheat the air which is entering into the combustion chamber to reduce the fuel consumption and to increase the efficiency. According to number of shafts a. the atmospheric air is drawn into the compressor through the filter. Compressor 2. Intercooler: The intercooler is used to reduce the work of the compressor and it is placed in between the high pressure and low-pressure compressor. 2. The gas turbine classification is 1.temperature products of combustion are passed through the turbine. After the fuel injection. Open cycle Closed cycle 5. Combustion chambers: Hot air from regenerator flows to the combustion chambers and the fuel like coal. Intercoolers are generally used when the pressure ratio is very high. In low-pressure compressor. the heat is converted into mechanical work. The cooling of compressed air in intercooler is generally done by water. The energy required to compress the air is proportional to the air temperature at inlet. two compressors are used. Gas turbine 6. 4. In most of the gas turbine power plant. Combustion chambers 5. According to cycle of operation a. Multi shaft ELEMENTS OF A GAS TURBINE PLANT 1. Compressor: In gas turbine plant. The combustion products from the combustion chamber are first expanded in high-pressure turbine and then it expands in low-pressure turbine. Reheating unit . Gas turbine: Two types of gas turbines are used in gas turbine plant 1. Low pressure turbine. This is done by the heat of the hot exhaust gases coming out of the turbine. High pressure turbine.89 4.

90 In open cycle gas turbine plant. Natural gas is a very suitable fuel. The gas turbine plants are subjected to less vibration. . the fuel is added to the compressed air and the combustion of the fuel takes place. The working fluid is continuously used in the system without change of phase. Then the high-pressure compressed air is goes into the combustion chamber through the regenerator. After that. In the combustion chamber. In closed cycle gas turbine plant. Here. The compressed low-pressure air goes into the high pressure compressor through the inter cooler. Reheating unit: In this unit. WORKING OF GAS TURBINE PLANT: The working of gas turbine plant is shown in fig. 2. Smaller in size and weight as compared to an equivalent steam power plant. the heat of the compressed air is removed. the exhaust goes to the atmosphere. The exhaust of the high pressure turbine goes to the another combustion chamber and the additional fuel is added the exhaust and it goes to the low pressure turbine. The atmosphere air is drawn into the low-pressure compressor through the air filter and it is compressed. the exhaust is used to heat the highpressure air coming to the combustion chamber through the regenerator. 6. 3. The product of the combustion goes into the high-pressure turbine. the air (or) gases coming out from the gas turbine are exhausted to the atmosphere. the additional fuel is added to the exhaust gases coming out from the high pressure turbine. After the expansion in the low-pressure turbine. and the reheated combustion products goes into the low pressure turbine. the air (or) gases coming out from the gas turbine plant are cooled in the cooler and it is again recirculated. Advantages of gas turbine plant: 1.

so special metals are required to maintain the unit. 7. Gas turbines can be built relatively quicker and requires less space. Fuel transportation is difficult. The exhaust of the gas turbine is free from smoke. The installation and maintenance costs are less than thermal plants. Not suitable for peak load plant. Life of the plant is less. No air pollution. Transmission losses are less. 2. on Hydro power plant Initial cost is high. 11. 7. The initial cost is lower than an equivalent steam plant. 4. 4. (about 66%) developed in the turbine is used to drive the compressor. 10. 3. Not like that. Any quantity of fuels can be used in gas turbine plants. Located near to load center. Thermal power plant Vs Hydro-plant: No. 9. 6. Air pollution is more. Initial construction requires long time. Efficiency of the plant is high. 1. Part load efficiency is poor. Power production is not dependent nature's mercy. Power generation cost is less.91 4. 6. Construction time is less. 8. Major past of the work. Thermal power plant Initial cost is low. 10. 5. The devices that are operated at high temperature are complicated. 3. 7. Efficiency of the plant is less. It is suitable. COMPARISON AND SELECTION 1 . Disadvantages: 1. 9. 8. No fuel transportable Life of the plant is high. The unit is operated at high temperature and pressure. There are no standby losses in gas turbine plants. Transmission losses are high. It requires less water as compared to a steam plant. 11.7. 5. It is Only dependent on nature's mercy. Power generation cost is high. It can be started quickly. 2. .

3. Steam power plant Vs Nuclear power No. Capital cost is high. 1. 6. Steam power plant Nuclear power plant It is not suitable wherever water and It is suitable for (hat. Space requirement is high No fuel storage space. Lubrication cost is high. Radioactive wastes. Life of the plant is less. No lubrication cost. 1. Cost of the plant is less. The varying fuel quality also used in this plant The network output is less. Capacity of the plant is higher than diesel power plant. 8.92 2. 10. . Gas turbine cost is high. The work output is high. Life of the plant is high compared with diesel power plant. Workmen required is very high. 6. 9. Fuel storage space is required. No radioactive material. 5. Space requirement is less. Limited plant capacity. 4. 3. loads. coal resources are not available. Particular fuel should be used in this power plant. The unit is operated at high temperature and pressure so special metals are required. 4 It is not require special metals.Diesel power plant Vs Gas turbine power No. 5. Capital cost is less when size of plant is increased. 3. Very less number of workmen is required. Diesel power plant Gas turbine power plant The efficiency of the diesel power The efficiency of the simple gas turbine power plant plant is about 35 to42%. 7. 2. = 20to 25%. 2. Not suitable for continuous over It can be work on over loads. Ash handling problem is there. No ash-handling problem.

32%. . it is called ebb tide. In addition to this. When the water is above the mean sea level. the site selected should be well protected from waves action. Less quantity of fuel required. Operating cost is less. 12. conditions. 1. Maintenance cost is high. The constructed basin is filled during high tide and emptied during low tide passing through sluices and turbine respectively. Tides occur due to the attraction of seawater by the moon. Large quantity of fuel is required. The power produced by a tidal plant depends mainly on the range of tide and the cubature of the tidal flow occurring in the estuary during a tidal cycle which can be stored and utilized for power generation.93 7.8 TIDAL POWER PLANTS Tide is periodic rise and fall of the water level of the sea. Steam power plants are affected by Not affected whether conditions. Operating cost is high. The site should not create interruption to the shipping traffic running through the estuary other wise the cost of the plant will increase as locks are to be provided. The site should be such that with a minimum cost of barrage it should be possible to create maximum storage volume. by adverse weather It does not require large quantity of water. 4. Factors affecting the suitability of the site for tidal power plant The feasibility and economic vulnerability of a tidal power depends upon the following factors. Steam power plant efficiency = 20 to Nuclear power plant efficiency = 30 to 30%. 7. The cubature of the tidal flow not only depends on the tidal range but on the width of estuary mouth. 11. The minimum average tide range required for economical power production is more. 2. 8. It requires large quantity of water. The Potential energy of the water stored in the basin is used to drive the turbine which in turn generates electricity as it is directly coupled to an alternator. 9. 10. These tides can be used to produce electrical power which is known as tidal power. Maintenance cost is less. 3. A dam is constructed in such a away that a basin gets separated from the sea and a difference in the water level is obtained between the basin and sea. it is called flood tide and when the level is below the mean level.

the pumping operation can be taken over at any time by the same machine. Silt index of the water of the estuary should be as small as possible to avoid the siltation troubles. as per operational requirement. The fresh water prism that falls into the reservoir of the tidal plant (due to the surface flows in the streams having out fall in the estuary) eats away the valuable storage created for storing the tidal prism. The function of dam to form a barrier between the sea and the basin or between one basin and the other in case of multiple basins.94 5. Therefore. These are gate controlled devices. the tubular passages can . (i) The Power house (ii) The dam or barrage (iii) Sluice-ways from the basins to the sea and vice versa. The design cycle may also provide for pumping between the basin and the sea in either direction. i. They are further subdivided as one-way or two-way system as per the cycle of operation for power generation. It is generally convenient to have the power house as well as the sluice-ways in alignment with the dam. The classification is represented with the help of a line diagram as given below COMPONENTS OF TIDAL POWER PLANTS There are three main Components of a tidal Power plant. The turbines.e. In addition. The sluice ways are used either to fill the basin during the high tide or empty the basin during the low tide. CLASSIFICATION OF TIDAL POWER PLANTS The tidal power plants are generally classified on the basis of the number of basins used for the power generation. electric generators and other auxiliary equipment's are the main equipments of a power house. The effective and cheaper will be the power production with decreasing the ratio mentioned above. The modern tubular turbines are so versatile that they can be used either as turbines or as pumps in either direction of flow. If reversible pump turbines are provided. 6. the ratio of fresh water prism to tidal water prism becomes an important index in determining the economic feasibility of a tidal scheme. The siltation leads to reduction of the range of tides and reduces the power potential of the plant.

Hence. 1. Gates are opened regularly and frequently but heads very in height and on the side where they occur. Tidal power barrages have to resist waves whose shock can be severe and where pressure changes sides continuously. The gates must be opened and closed rapidly and this operation should use a minimum of power. Barrage has been suggested as a more accurate term for tidal power scheme. the larger the basin. Tidal barrages require sites where there is a sufficiently high tidal range to give a good head of water . vertical lift gates have been used. but the smaller the tidal range. they have been very successfully solved by the catholic protection and where not possible by paint.95 also be used as sluice-ways by locking the machine in to a stand still. The technology is about ready to substitute a series of flap gates that operates by water pressure. which is not the case with conventional river projects. and sink them into place. but it is now possible to built them on land. the literature does not always make the distinction. 2. Dam (Barrage) Dam and barrage are synonymous terms. imposes a great number of operations in tidal power plants. For instance. the periodic opening and closing of the sluice-way of a tidal plant are about 730 times in a year. Gates and Locks Tidal power basins have to be filled and emptied. The best sites are bays and estuaries. but water. However. The flap gates allow only in the direction of the sea to basin.the minimum useful range is around three meters. this. because it has only to with stand heads a fraction of the structure's height. A balance must also be struck between increased out put and increased material requirements and construction costs. As compared to conventional plants. corrosion problems are actuate. the basin level rises well above to sea level as ebb flow area is far less than flood flow area. float them to the site. is tolerable for gates and barrages. The location of the barrage is important. . can also be impounded behind bounded reservoir built between two points on the same shore line. To build these channels a temporary coffer dam in necessary. and stability problems are far more modest. even though heads are small with tidal power cutoffs. Flap gates are gates that are positioned so as to allow water in to the holding basin and require no mechanical means of operation. because the energy available is related to the size of trapped basin and to the square of the tidal range. Leakage. Since we are dealing with seawater. Though. in existing plants. Gate structures can be floated as modular units into place. The barrage needs to provide channels for the turbines in reinforced concrete. however. The nearer it is built to the mouth of bay.

and perhaps larger turbines might be installed in a future major tidal power plant. The water flows from the basin to the sea passing through the turbine and generates power. 1 Single basin Tidal Power Plant Fig shows a single tide basin before the construction of dam. at the mouth of the basin and power generation during the falling tide. a basin is allowed to get filled during flood tide and during the ebb tide. hence. large size turbines are needed. The power is available for a short duration during ebb tide. In this system. with revisable blades. bulbs have horizontal shafts coupled to a single generator.96 3. The arrangement of the basin and the power cycle is shown in fig . The cost per installed kilowatt drops with turbine size. However the peak power obtained is less than the one-way cycle. the power house is also a large structure. Single-basin two-way cycle In this arrangement power is generated both during flood tide as well as ebb tide also. WORKING 1. The power generation is also intermittent but generation period is increased compared with one-way cycle. Both the French and Soviet operating plants use the bulb type of turbine of the propeller type. Single basin-One-way cycle This is the simplest form of tidal power plant. 2. Power house Because small heads only are available.

The cycle of operation is shown in Fig 4. the turbine is set up between the two basins as shown in Fig 5.5. In this system. Variable pitch turbine and dual rotation generator are used for such schemes.97 The main difficulty with this arrangement. the same turbine must be used as Prime mover as ebb and tide flows pass through the turbine in opposite directions. power is generated both during flood and ebb tides. The period of power production with this system is much longer than the other two described earlier. Single-basin two-way cycle with pump storage The Range tidal power plant in France uses this type of arrangement. .5. Therefore a small capacity but continuos power is made available with this system as shown in Fig5. 3. Double basin type In this arrangement. A part of the energy produced is used for introducing the difference in the water levels between the basin and the sea at any time of the tide and this is done by pumping water into the basin up or down. Complex machines capable of generation Power and Pumping the water in either directions are used. one basin is intermittently filled by the flood tide and other is intermittently drained by the ebb tide. The main disadvantage of this system is that 50% of the Potential energy is sacrificed in introducing the variation in the water levels of the two basins.

Net energy gain is possible with such a system if the pumping head is lower than the basin-to-basin turbine generating head. Exploitation of tidal energy will in no case make demand for large area of valuable land because they are on bays. off peak power from the base load plant in a interconnected transmission system is used either to pump the water up the high basin. 2. . It is free from pollution as it does not use any fuel. General Layout of Tidal Powerplant Advantages 1. Double basin with Pumping In this case.98 5.

. atomic refuse which entails heavy removal costs. because the moon largely influences the tidal rhythm. thermal) 5. The tides are totally independent on nature's cycle of rainfall. 4. in addition to the possibility of fish forming in the tidal basins. It can provide better recreational facilities to visitors and holiday makers. 3. It is much superior to hydro-power plant as it is totally independent of rain which always fluctuates year to year. This also further increases the capital cost of the plant. which is not the case with tidal as monthly certain power is assured. Another notable advantage of tidal power is that it has a unique capacity to meet the peak power demand effectively when it works in combinatiion with thermal or hydroelectric system. 7.99 3. Tidal Power is superior to conventional hydro power as the hydro plants are know for their large seasonal and yearly fluctuations in the output of energy because they are entirely dependent upon the nature's cycle of rainfall. Sedimentation and siltration of the basins are some of the added problems with tidal power plants. As in every form of water power.5000/kw) is considerably large compared with conventionalpower plants (hydro. The supply of power is not continuous as it depends upon the timing of tides. Therefore. 7. These Power plants can be developed only if natural sites are available. As the sites are available on the bay which will be always far away from the load centers. The capital cost of the plant (Rs. 7. ash. The navigation is obstructed. 4. 2. Disadvantages 1. (2) The rotation of the earth about its axis and its motion around the sun. It is interesting to note that the output of power from tidal power plant varies with lunar cycle. The power generated must be transported to long distances. (1) The absorption of solar energy on the earth's surface and in the atmosphere. 6. this will also not produce any unhealthy waste like gases. where as our daily power requirement is directly related to solar cycle.9 WIND POWER PLANTS Winds are caused because of two factors. This increases the transportation cost. 5. Therefore some arrangements (double basin or double basin with pump storage) must be made to supply the continuous power. 6. there is certainty of power supply a the tide cycle is very definite.

For this reason some Means of storage have to be devised if a continuous supply of power is required. Large blade root bending moments can occur due to tower shadow. The relatively simple rotor hub consists of a Universal Joint between the rotor shaft and blade allowing for blade. use of single long blade centrifugally balanced by a low cost counter Weight as shown in fig.100 Because of these factors. differences in pressure are obtained. Horizontal Axis single blade Wind mills If extremely long blades are mounted on rigid hub. gravity and sudden shifts in wind directions on a 200ft long blade. and the air is caused to move. because of this conversion machines have to be necessarily large. This type of hub design contains fewer parts and costs less. The potential of Wind energy as a source of power is large. A wind mill converts the kinetic energy of moving air into mechanical energy that can be either used directly to run the machine or to run the generator to Produce electricity.6x107 K. Fatigue load may be enough to cause blade root failure. Single blade wind mill . The problems associated with Utilizing wind energy are that: (i) The energy is available in dilute form. This can be judged from the fact that energy available in the wind over the earth's surface is estimated to be 1. (ii) The availability of the energy varies considerably over a day and with the seasons. alternate heating and cooling cycles occur.W Besides the energy available is free and clean. CLASSIFICATION OF WIND MILLS (a) Horizontal Wind mills i. To reduce rotor cost.

The wire spokes support light weight aluminum blades. The rotors of this design have high strength to weight ratios and have been known to survive hours of free wheeling operation in 100kmph winds. they need not to be turned to Force the wind. https://sites. They Fig Multi bladed wind mill have good power Co-efficient.com/site/mubarakmes . This type of wheel have narrow rims and Wire spokes. gravitational and inertial loads.two bladed wind mills In this arrangement rotor drives generator through a step-up gear box. flexing reduces their fatigue life. Horizontal Axis .101 (ii) Horizontal axis .google. The arrangement of all the Components used in horizontal axis wind mill is shown in fig When the machine is operating its rotor blades are continuously flexed by Unsteady aerodynamic. The tower is also subjected to unsteady load and dynamic interactions between the components of the machine-tower system can cause serious damage. The two blade rotor is Usually designed to be oriented down wind of the tower. high starting torque ad added advantage of simplicity and low cost. The components are mounted on a bed plate which is mounted on a pinttle at the Top of the tower.Multi bladed Wind Mills (b) Vertical Wind Mills Wind turbines mounted with the axis of rotation in a vertical Position have advantage that they are omni-directional that is. Double blade wind mill If the blades are metal. The Vertical mounted Wind Machines eliminates the need for some of the complex mechanical devices and control systems necessary for horizontal mounted wind Machines.

The rotor assembly is held in position by guy wires running from the top of the rotor to the ground. Disadvantage of Wind energy (1) Wind power is not consistent and steady. More over the pollution hazards arising out of fossil fuel burning has become quite significant in recent years. the nuclear fuels have posed a number of problem Thus. mounted on a Central shaft which is supported by bearings at the top and bottom. inexhaustible and does not need transportation. (2) Wind mills will be highly desirable and economical to the rural areas which are far from existing grids. Special and costly designs and controls are always required. Such that the water level in the reservoir can be maintained for longer periods. wind and sun. which makes the complications in designing the whole plant. The Darrievs rotor consists of two or three convex metal blades with an air foil cross section. (4) It has low power coefficient. there a need for tapping new unconventional.The savonius rotor consists of a long solid's. It is also hoped that these alternative energy sources will be https://sites. (3) The cost factor. ocean tide. Advantages of Wind energy (1) The wind energy is free.shaped surface mounted to turn at the center of 's' the savonius rotor is self starting and has an efficiency of about 31% while the Darrievs rotor has a slightly higher efficiency of 35% but is not self starting. sources of energy such as geothermal ocean thermal. (3) Wind power can be used in combination with hydroelectric plants.google.com/site/mubarakmes .10 GEOTHERMAL POWER It has been estimated that the growing need for energy will exhaust all fossil fuels within a few decades. Also. (5) Careful survey is necessary for plant location. Fig (a) Savonius rotor 7. (2) The wind is a very hazard one.102 Two types of vertical axis Wind Machines have received attention. which has restricted the development of wind power in large scale for feeding to the existing grid .

The reservoir is generally located in highly fractured rocks. Vapour dominated system 2. USA and Japan. https://sites. As t crust of the earth is an excellent insulator. Leaks from the reservoir to the surface are manifested by steam vents or hot springs. geothermal energy has a great potential and is already being commercially utilised in some of the developed countries. divided into two general classes: 1. This part of the system constitutes the reservoir. According to various theories. From these heat sources geothermal systems developed. there is transfer of heat from the mantle to the shallower levels of the earth crust by some geothermal fluid.103 able to meet considerable part of the energy sources will be able to meet considerable part of the energy demand in coming future.google. which is 2900 km thick . It is estimated that the temperature at the centre of the earth is around 3000°C while the temperature towards the outer layer approaches to about 1200°C. The arrangement of the components of the system used is shown in fig. water gets heated from the magmas and becomes less dense which creates a convection cell or system under some covering rocks. it allows only very little heat to enter the surface But at some locations.000 kg of Italy. from the wells drilled in the geothermal reservoir. Out of all these sources. The first electric power generating station using the natural dry steam was built in Italy. Liquid dominated system. The geothermal fluid is nothing but water containing dissolved minerals and salt. with temperatures around 250° C and pressures of 30 to 35 bars. 95 % of the earth is molten. Under the earths crust lies the mantle.com/site/mubarakmes . A vapour dominated system (also called dry steam system) liberates saturated to slightly superheated steam. The geothermal system utilising the geothermal fluid are. a. Only a thin outer layer (ranging from 15 to 150 km) is in the solid form. and the well flows may range from a few thousand to cover 250.

Wells drilled into mis type of reservoir liberate the hot brine solution. Under this situation. The temperature of the solution available in such fields ranges from200 to 350°C.google. out from the hot well is flashed in a flash chamber to produce steam. A high enthalpy system is employed in the geothermal zone where water with highly dissolved solids (Brine solution) is available. These turbines are coupled with electric generators for generating electricity. after expansion in the turbine are send to the condenser.104 The dry steam coming out of the reservoir through the drilled wells is directly fed to the turbines. The condensate from the condenser along with the brine separated in the flash chamber is again pumped back to the geothermal field. The steam. b Brine solution lat high temperature coming. The steam produced is then passed through the turbine and then passed to the condenser. In this system a low boiling organic fluid is used as the working fluid which is continuously recirculated. the heat in the geothermal fluid (hot brine) is utilised in a closed system as shown in fig. The condensate coming out of the condenser is fed back to the hot reservoir with the help of a pump. (b) https://sites. (a) A typical arrangement used in Japan for power generation using a high enthalpy system is shown in fig.com/site/mubarakmes . Low enthalpy system is used in places where the temperature of the geothermal fluid is not sufficient to produce the flash steam. c.

OTEC offers total available energy that is one or two orders of magnitude higher than other ocean energy options such as wave power.11 OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION (OTEC OR OTE) Ocean thermal energy conversion uses the difference between cooler deep and warmer shallow waters to run a heat engine. The energy carrier. and returns on investment. development and installation of geothermal system have tendency to discourage their use for power generation. after giving up its heat to the working fluid. This vapour is passed through the turbine for generating power. seawater. The capital costs of discovery. due to low thermal efficiency. In order to utilise this form of energy heat will have to be transferred to the surface by means of artificially injected water through specially constructed pathways in the rock. As with any heat engine. Historically. geothermal energy can also be found in the form of the heat content of hot dry rock. The exceptions are the areas where the geothermal resource was found by chance. Accurate cost-benefit analyses include these factors to assess performance. Expense comes from the pumps and pump energy costs.Current designs are expected closer to the maximum. Earlier OTEC systems were 1 to 3% efficiency. construction costs.e. For the production of electric power from geothermal source. in the tropics. well below the theoretical maximum of between 6 and 7%. efficiency. In addition to the geothermal reservoirs. is fed back to the geothermal field. https://sites. It is then condensed in a condenser and then recirculated. (c) 7.google.105 The fluid gets heat from the geothermal fluid and vapourises. i. This temperature difference generally increases with decreasing latitude. Modern designs allow performance approaching the theoretical maximum Carnot efficiency.com/site/mubarakmes . OTEC plants can operate continuously as a base load power generation system. the main technical challenge of OTEC was to generate significant amounts of power efficiently from small temperature ratios.[ but the small temperature difference makes energy extraction comparatively difficult and expensive. however. greater efficiency and power comes from larger temperature differences. the costs are lower than those of all other sources except hydel power. The geothermal fluid. near the equator. operational.

google. which causes it to rise to the surface.com/site/mubarakmes . Systems may be either closed-cycle or open-cycle. Cycle types Cold seawater is an integral part of each of the three types of OTEC systems: closedcycle. Much of the energy used by humans passes through a heat engine. As heat flows from one to the other.[ 1. The alternative to costly pipes to bring condensing cold water to the surface is to pump vaporized low boiling point fluid into the depths to be condensed. OTEC power draws on temperature differences caused by the sun's warming of the ocean surface. The only heat cycle suitable for OTEC is the Rankine cycle using a low-pressure turbine. thus reducing pumping volumes and reducing technical and environmental problems and lowering costs. Open-cycle engines use the water heat source as the working fluid. Closed-cycle engines use working fluids that are typically thought of as refrigerants such as ammonia or R-134a. and hybrid. Closed Diagram of a closed cycle OTEC plant https://sites. while refrigerators reverse the direction of flow of both the heat and work energy. Desalinating seawater near the sea floor lowers its density. the engine converts some of the heat energy to work energy. This principle is used in steam turbines and internal combustion engines.106 A heat engine is a thermodynamic device placed between a high temperature reservoir and a low temperature reservoir. To operate. the cold seawater must be brought to the surface. open-cycle. Rather than using heat energy from the burning of fuel. The primary approaches are active pumping and desalination.

The steam. such as ammonia. The steam vaporizes the ammonia working fluid of a closed-cycle loop on the other side of an ammonia vaporizer.google. which left its salt and other contaminants in the low-pressure container. The steam condenses within the heat exchanger and provides desalinated water. The vaporized fluid then drives a turbine to produce electricity. Cold water. https://sites. condenses the vapor into a liquid. This method produces desalinized fresh water. is pure fresh water. to power a turbine to generate electricity. which is then recycled through the system. similar to the open-cycle evaporation process. The expanding steam drives a low-pressure turbine attached to an electrical generator. The expanding vapor turns the turbo-generator. 3. warm seawater enters a vacuum chamber and is flash-evaporated.and open-cycle systems. Hybrid A hybrid cycle combines the features of the closed. Open Open-cycle OTEC uses warm surface water to make electricity. 2.com/site/mubarakmes . Warm surface seawater is pumped through a heat exchanger to vaporize the fluid.107 Closed-cycle systems use fluid with a low boiling point. It is condensed into a liquid by exposure to cold temperatures from deep-ocean water. pumped through a second heat exchanger. Placing warm seawater in a low-pressure container causes it to boil. suitable for drinking water or irrigation. In a hybrid.

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