Non-Conventional Approaches to Generating Lift.

General Physical Aspects
Mark Krinker1 City College of Technology, Brooklyn, NY, 11201 The paper considers mechanisms of developing lift, based on controlled molecular collisions of air-composing molecules. There are two groups of the related approaches: variation of number of collisions between molecules and a wall, and control of elasticity of molecular collisions with the wall. The first group realizes specific properties of air in that it pressure depends on temperature; as well as employing electric field-controlled pressure of polar vapor and introduction the conception of a wing-the-accelerator. Another group converts elastic collisions of molecules with the wall into inelastic ones by means of molecular-photon interaction.

Nomenclature A E C k = area = strength of electric field = specific heat = Boltzmann constant = mobility of ions = molecular mass = mass = concentration of molecules = Avogadro number = dipole momentum = pressure = density of gas = entropy = temperature = internal energy = velocity = volume = power = relative dielectric permittivity = dielectric permittivity of vacuum = free energy

M m n NA p P

S T U v V W

ε ε0 Ψ

_______________________ 1 Member of Advisory Board. Department of Electrical Engineering and Telecommunication Technology. 180 Jay Street, Brooklyn, NY, 11201, MB AIAA


I. Introduction Physical base of existing aerospace technology is considerably reduced to classical concepts of a lift theory and a jet propulsion. However, both the basics have their intrinsic limitations, which slow new qualitative achievements in the aerospace technology. Many new approaches in area of air- and spacecrafts propulsion were theoretically developed on a base of new concepts, which came to physics during past few decades. Some of them remain controversial, but arguments around them stimulate evolution of the technology. These are Energy of Vacuum, Electromagnetic Control of Gravitation 1 , Plasma Magneto Hydrodynamics Propulsion, Elecrtokinetic Propulsion 2,3 and others. This article deals with considering non-conventional ways of generating lift proposed by the author. Unlike recited above, it considers physical processes associated with lift rather than the thrust and is focused on physical processes of interacting gas molecules with a wall. II. Generating Lift Based on Controlled Molecular Collisions Physical processes described by Bernoulli’s equation, Eq.1, underlie the lift of a conventional airplane wing.

ρv 2

+ P = const ,


where ρ is a density of gas, v - velocity, and P is a static pressure. Traditional approach to understand generating lift can be complimented by analyzing processes of interaction of gas molecules with an arbitrary surface. Implying an airplane wing, the lift force is a result of difference of static pressures P between both sides of the wing. For the airplane wing said difference is achieved due to a total action of an air circulation around the wing superimposed on a counter flow. Generally, no mater how this difference is achieved. Technically, the lift can be stimulated by other means like spinning surface in a flow, -Magnus Effect in Flettner’s rotors, or something else. Actually, Bernoulli’s equation represents control of the static pressure by means of variation of acts of chaotic collisions between gas molecules and a wall (an airplane wing): the more horizontal component of velocities of the molecules, the less chances they have to experience collisions with a horizontal wall. Consequently, total momentum released by the collisions, will be reduced. So does the static pressure P.


Are there alternative ways to control a number of collisions between chaotic gas molecules and a wall, other than conventional varying horizontal velocity? In other words, we are dealing with controlling gas entropy and other thermodynamic potentials to control chaotic collision of molecules, having mass m and speed v, with a wall. Here, the various approaches can be offered. For instance, static pressure can be controlled by means of changing regular elastic collisions between the molecules and the wall, developing momentum ∆p = 2mv cos α , for the non-elastic process, releasing ∆p = mv cos α . If non-elastic collisions take place over an upper plane of a wing, and elastic collisions under the lower plane, the difference of the static pressures, as well as a lift origin. Therefore, there are two basic ways of controlling lift by means of molecular dynamics: 1. variation of number of collisions between molecules of gas and a wall, and; 2. control of elasticity of molecular collisions with the wall. III. Energy Pump
This approach can be referred to the first group. Generally, according to Dalton’s law for the mix of gases (air and others), total pressure is a sum of partial pressures P = P + P2 .... + Pn (2) 1 It can be shown that for the mix of gasses their total pressure is

 x P = kTρN A Σ i M  i

   


,where NA is Avogadro number, Mi is a molecular mass, kg/kmol and xi is a mole fraction of any individual gas component in a gas mixture Table 1 shows contribution of major components of air in the general mix. Components in Dry Air Oxygen Nitrogen Argon Molecular Mass M, (kg/kmol) 32.00 28.02 39.34 Molecular mass in Air, kg/kmole 6.704 21.88 0.013 Xi/M, kmol/kg 0.00723 0.0269 0.0003

Fig.1 shows dependence P(T) for air, calculated on a base of Eq. (3) and Table 1. As seen from the Fig.1, temperature range of 220-273 K is of prime interest for developing lift due to specificity of molecular kinetic of the components of air. The system utilizing these properties for developing lift is a platform having temperature 273 K from below and 223 K atop. Therefore, the pressure under the plane


exceeds that above. As follows from Fig.1, the difference of the pressures can reach as much as 3050 N / m 2 .

Figure 1. Pressure–Temperature diagram of air

Fig.2 shows a possible arrangement of the system using such the approach. There are two planes and an energy pumps between them. These heat machines transfer a heat from the upper plane to the lower one. Following from Eq.(3), static pressure P in immediate vicinity over the upper plane will be lower than that of the lower plane. It’s obviously that to make the process feasible, the power Wgen transferred by such an energy pump has to exceed that Wscatt of scattered energy picked by gone molecules and radiation as a mass and heat transfer, Wgen>Wscatt. The difference in temperatures needed to carry through the process will exist only in a limited layer adjoining the upper and lower planes. To make the process more efficient, there are heat exchangers on both planes (not shown in the picture).


Figure 2. The general concept of employing temperature difference for generating lift

Vertical speed of the system is limited by mass of the air involved in the process: the more speed, the more the mass and, consequently, power of the energy pump. The system operates pretty much like a refrigerator: the heat machine transfers energy from a cold portion to the hot one. The power consumption consists of at least two major processes: cooling air mass in a volume formed by the moving wing and a heat transfer along a normal to the surface of the wing. The efficiency of the heat machine also has to be taken into consideration ∂T (4) W = ρC p ∆TvA + k S ∂n where A is an area of the platform, and v is a velocity of vertical motion of the system. The additional power is needed to keep the energy balance within volume vA as the system lifts. For A = 1m 2 , v = 1m ⋅ s −1 and ∆T = 50 K , ∆W = 6.5 × 10 4 W . Taking for estimation total W = 100 × 10 3 W we have the lift-to-power ratio ~ 4 × 10 −2 N ⋅ W −1 . For comparison, a small helicopter has the trust-to-the-power ratio ~ 5 × 10 −2 N ⋅ W −1 .
Another way to keep the needed difference of temperatures is conducting endothermic chemical reactions with a heat-transport medium circulating through the heat-exchanger atop the wing.

IV. Electric Field Controlled Pressure
Electric field can be another agent to control the chaotic motion of molecules. By its nature, the electric field is what opposites to chaotic action of increasing temperature. The ability of a media to react on applying electric field is related to a dielectric permittivity ε . On the other hand, the ordering action of the field has to result in the entropy. As far as the entropy S is concerned, it’s known from Thermodynamics4,5,6 that in the electric field E



1 ∂ε ε 0 ∫ d ( E 2 ) + S0 2 ∂T


Here, S 0 is the initial entropy when no field is applied. Depending on the sign of ∂ε / ∂T , one can get either increasing or decreasing the entropy in electric field. This means that field can control chaotic collisions of the molecules with the wall. Therefore, it can control the pressure P. Finding P is possible from the major set of thermodynamic functions: the internal energy U and the free energy Ψ. Having regard to the field E:

 1 ∂ε ∂ε   d ( E 2 ) + U0 U = ε 0 ∫ ε + T + 2E 2  2 ∂T ∂( E 2 )    A=


 1 ∂ε  d ( E 2 ) + A0 ε 0 ∫  ε + 2E 2 (7)  2 ∂( E 2 )    Equations (5)-(7) characterize a unit of volume. Applying these functions is justified for equilibrium process only. From Eq. (5-7), P can be found as functions of the whole S, U or A of the system.  ∂U  P = − (8)   ∂V  S , N or
 ∂S  P=  ×T  ∂V U , N
or (9)

 ∂Ψ  P = −   ∂V T , N
The indexes at parentheses show constant parameters of the system.


All of these equations require invariance of number of particles N. This condition is difficult to achieve for open systems. However, if the speed of migration of energy ∆W / W >> ∆N / N , this approach is justified. In this case, variation of the pressure in the field is
∆P = 1 ∂ε ε0 TE 2 2 ∂T


For non-polarized molecules like those, which compose the air, ∂ε ∂T ≈ 0 in a wide range of the temperatures. For the gases composed of permanent dipole molecules like H 2 O , ∂ε ∂T <0, because the more temperature, the more chaos in orientation of the


dipoles. Equation (11) shows that applying the field reduces chaotic motions of molecules in such the gases, which will results in lowering P. Let’s estimate how efficient is this approach for the gases consisting of dipole molecules like H 2 O . If the concentration of the molecules is n and their dipole momentum is p , then the relative dielectric permittivity is (if an induced polarization is neglected): np 2 ε = 1+ (12) 3k B Tε 0 From here, ∂ε np 2 =− (13) ∂T 3k B ε 0T 2 For a saturated water steam at 373 K, ∂ε / ∂T ≈ 2 × 10 −5 K −1 . Taking Eq. (11) into consideration, for the field E = 10 6 V / m , applying this field reduces the pressure for ∆P ≈ 0.35 N / m 2 . Although this value does not look impressive for commercial applications, this approach can be fruitful for air–water vapor systems, having considerable developed multilayer surface in electric field, developed over upper sides of the layers. The efficiency of the process increases in ultra-linear way with the field strength. The electric breakdown is a major limiting factor here. For the air at normal conditions it takes place at E ≈ 3 × 10 6 V / m .

V. Electric-Field-Stimulated-Circulation. Wing the Electric Accelerator
This approach also refers to the first group. Technical realization of the method develops an artificial circulation of the air around the wing. The method was documented by the author in 90’s in Invention Work Book, Fig.3 and later deposited to Disclosure Document Program, USPTO7.


Figure 3. Documentation of conception of Wing-The-Accelerator, “Electric Wing”, 1996.

The artificial circulation is achieved by means of accelerating ions in a curved electric field, Fig.4. The field strength of the upper plate exceeds that of the lower plate. This is why the speed of molecules over the upper plan exceeds that of the lower plan and the lift origins. The apparatus can take off vertically without running start. Analysis of the process brings to the following formula for the lift:
  A (14)   Here: Cl – lift coefficient; ρ- gas density, µ -mobility of ions; E- field strength, Mi- mass of ions, M- mass of non-ionized gas, A – active area of the wing. Calculation for positive ions of nitrogen at E = 10 6 V / m (pre-breakdown field) and 1% of ionized molecules brings the difference of the pressures ∆P = 36.45 N / m 2 This value of the ionic wind matches that for the developed in the electrokinetic lifters experiments. They report velocity of the electric wind ~1m/s for the lifters supplied by 30kV generators.  M 1 F = C l ρ  µE i  2 Mt 


Figure 4. Wing the Accelerator. The curved electric field moves the ions and the associated gas around the wing.

VI. Controlling Pressure By Means of Elastic-into-Inelastic Collision Conversion
This approach refers to the second group. When inelastic collisions, the total kinetic energy of the process is decreased by the collision while some other form of energy is increased. In particular, this takes place due to transitions between atomic levels, when the kinetic energy of the collisions transfers electrons on more energetic level. The opposite can be supposed: the exited atoms and molecules are prone to inelastic collisions. The total number of types of inelastic collisions with participation of atomic particle and photon equals 26. This variety promises adaptation of some of these physical processes for controlling pressure. Two versions of this approach are possible: • excitation of the molecules prior to the act of collision, or, • resonance “pumping out” energy from the molecule, excited by the impact, during the act of the collision Changes between quantum states of atoms and molecules are seen as spectroscopic lines. To excite atom, and therefore create prerequisites for inelastic collisions, it has to be subject to electromagnetic radiation matching these lines. Therefore, one conception of apparatuses based on this principle includes the following: the upper surface of the wing has to comprise means for irradiating nitrogen and oxygen molecules at the frequencies of the spectral lines of these molecules. For developing a horizontal drag, kind of a sail, operating on the same principle, can be employed: the front surface of the sail comprises the means for irradiating these molecules at the specified frequencies. The irradiated energy absorbed by the molecules will be returned as a photon during the act of the collision.


Another conception of the inelastic-molecular-collision-based apparatus employs a wing covered with optic resonators. Then, at the collision of gas molecules with a wall, kinetic energy converts into energy of a photon, absorbed by the resonator. Therefore, the elastic collision transforms into inelastic one. In other words, instead of releasing momentum ∆p = 2mv cos α , the molecule-wall collision will release ∆p = mv cos α , that is the pressure will be reduced for 50%. What the range of wavelengths is expected for realization of inelastic collision? Nitrogen is a major pressure-contributing component in air. Molecular spectrum of the nitrogen has bands in UV-region, particularly 90 to 230 nm. Feasibility of the method implies the following: Employing sources of selected optical excitation over the upper plane, or/and; Development of a wing the optical resonator composed of multilayer structure on the upper plane. References Fran De Aquino, Gravitation and Electromagnetism; Correlation and Grand Unification, Physics Dept, Maranhao State University, S. Luis, MA, Brazil 2 Thomas T. Brown, A Method of and an Apparatus or Machine for Producing Force or Motion, USA Patent No. 300311, 1928. 3 Electric Propulsion Patents, 1928-1995, New Energy News, Vol.4, No.7, November 1996, pp.9-10 4 M.S. Longair, Theoretical Concepts In Physics, Cambridge University Press, 1984 5 Ryogo Kubo, Thermodynamics, North-Holland Company, Amsterdam, 1968 6 Y. Poplavko, Phyzika Dielectrikov, Kiev, 1980 (in Russian) 7 Mark Krinker, Method to Make Thrust and Apparatuses for That, Disclosure Document No. 515105, USPTO, 2002.


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