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BT Telephone RJ11 BNC Copper wire Copper mesh Outside insulation Parts Pvc Material Fire resistant plastic

Shielding High resistance to noise Insulation Plastic material Teflon Electromagentic signal PVC

Carries signals further than twisted pair Internet broadband carrier (melita) F-type connector High resistance to noise More expensive than twisted pair 10mbps 10Base5 Thicknet RG-6 Satellite dish Type Flexible 10mbps Thinnet RG-59 10Base2 200m Transmits power signals RJ45 Filters external electromagnetic forces Can be grounded No shielding Less expensive 4 wire pairs 10mbps Cat3 Bandwidth Up to 16mhz 10mbps ethernet Usage 4mbps token ring network 4 wire pairs Throughput Cat4 Bandwidth 16mbps Up to 20mhz 16mbps token ring Usage Cable tv 500m

Radio guide Coaxial



Shielded twisted pair (STP)


Throughput Cat5 Signal rate As cat 5 Unshielded twisted pair (UTP) Types Cat5e

10mbps ethernet network 1000mbps 100mhz High quality copper

High twist ratio Advsnced crosstalk reduction methods Signal rate 4 wire pairs Cat6 Foil insulation Signal rate Additional foil covers wire pairs 250mhz Attenuation Covered by plastic sheath Fire resistant 100mhz

Twisted pair

High grade cat6 Cat6e Signal rate

Reduction Crosstalk

550mhz Each surrounded by its own shieldi ng beneath the sheath


Time for packet to get frok sender to receiver and back

RTT Round Trip Time Cable length

Measurement Latency Cat7

Multiple wire pairs Signal rates

1ghz Isolated wired pairs Prevent crasstalk

Causes Router Intervening connectivity device Further away from source


Different connection

Loss of signal Amplifiers Repeaters Attenuation Colour coded TIA/EIA 568 Insulated Copper wire UTP

Less flexible compared to others Twisted around each other CAT3/4/5/5e/6/6e7

Wire categories Inexpensive Flexible

Signal from one wire infringes signal travelling on adjacent wire Affects signals much less Result Incorrect transmission of data Broadcast signals from tv or radio Sources Electrical devices Origin Cables carrying electricity Motors Power lines Tv Sources Copiers Manufacturing machinery Thunderstorms RFI Radio Frequency Interference




Easy to install Can span significant distance


Accomodates different topologies 10mbps

EMI electro magnetic interference

STP Noise Degredation

100mbps 1000mbps

Throughput 10mbps UDP Comparing STP Cost UDP Degrade Signal Distort Varies over time Noise immunity Udp No shieoding Less resistance to noise Both 100m Stp High grade Can be expensive More resistant to noise 100mbps 1000mbps More expensive More material



Wiring standards


Maximum segment length

Nearly unlimited throughput Height of wave at point in time Number of cycles Distance between corresponding points in wave Amplitude Frequency Wavelength Voltage Characteristics Analog Type of signal Benefits Over copper Excellent security Much longer dostance Industry standard for high speed networking Convey greater subtleties with less energy Represents 1 Represents 0 Positive Voltages Zero Data transmitted during given period Signalling and multiplexing techniques in a given transmission Limitations Noise Connected devices 1310nm Pulses Sent through direct current (DC) One signal or one channel at a time Digital signals Baseband Parts Buffer 9um Singlemode Wavelength 1550nm Plastic coating 50um Multimode Wavelength 1300nm Measurement Precise Pulses Digital Fibre Glass 850nm 62.5um Throughput Core 850nm Multimode Wavelength 1300nm Variable wave Benefits Standard connector (SC) Straight tip connector (ST) High resistance to noise

Ethernet Long distance Transmitted over common channel


PVC Plenum Jacket Orange Broadband Yellow Aramid fibers

Flame retardant

Communication Multiple signals Example Expensive Cladding

Multimode Singlemode

Cable TV More hardware

Outer diameter

125um Multiple paths of light Wide core



Short distances LAN Low costs Single path of light

Light source

Narrow core Long distance Single mode Laser Man Wan High costs Vscel Vertical cavity surface emitting laser 50um 10 mbps 10Base-FL Ethernet Multimode 2km 50um 100mbps 100Base-FX Fast ethernet Multimode 2km 50um 100mbps 100Base-SX Fast ethernet Multimode 300m 1000mbps Wavelength 1000Base-SX Multimode 50um 850nm Wavelength 62.5um 850nm Wavelength 62.5um 1300nm Wavelength 62.5um 850nm Multimode usage

Fibre optic

Standards 550m 1000mbps Wavelength 1000Base-SX Multimode 220m 50um 1000mbps 62.5um Gigabit ethernet 1000Base-LX Wavelength Multimode 550m 1000mbps Wavelength 1000Base-LX Singlemode 5km 1000mbps Wavelength 1000Base-LH Singlemode 70km 9um 1550nm 9um 1310nm 1300nm 62.5 850nm