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Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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Goals

Extraction of clinically valuable information. Facilitating visual inspection. Extracting relevant features for classication tasks. Automation of standard analysis. Artifact removal. Understand the underlying mechanism.

Content

Modeling EEG Signals Stochastic vs. Deterministic Gaussianity Stationarity Linear Models Nonlinear Model Artifact Removal Dierent Types

Depends on the level of modeling. Even if the pure biological EEG source is deterministic, Amplier, Digitalization add noise. Finding a quantitative answer to the question (DVV), but issue is not settled. Similar concepts. Seizure studies with nonlinear dynamic systems assumption and descriptors measuring chaoticness.

Stochastic Models

Of which form is the joint distribution p(x; ) = p(x(0), , x(N 1); ) ? Nonparametric Approach: Compute Amplitude histrogram Problem: one realization stationarity, ergodicity: (ensemble mean = sample mean) Guess the structure Parametric Approach: Assume a parametric Form a priori possibly based on physiological insights. Use data to estimate parameter . Ever-changing properties of the EEG require a highly complex PDF to account for dierent brain states

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0 2 4 sec 6 8 10

Using Gaussian PDF as model is from an engeneering point attractive. 1 N (x; , C) = (2)N/2 |C|1 exp (x mx )T C1 (x mx ) 2 mx = E [x] Cx = E (x mx )(x mx )T

Plausibility: EEG results form summation of a large number of individual oscillators allows Central limit theorem But they are not independent as required of CLT Gaussian synchronized activities alpha rhythm, deep sleep non Gaussian asynchronous ring mental tasks, REM

Statistical tests for Gaussianity rely on strong assumptions themself. 90% of all one second intervals could be concidered Gaussian

Covariance matrix

Correlation function: rx (n2 , n1 ) = rx (n1 , n2 ) = E [x(n1 )x(n2 )] Correlation matrix:

Rx = E xxT rx (0, 0) rx (1, 0) . . . rx (N 1, 0)

rx (0, 1) rx (1, 1) . . . rx (N 1, 1)

.. .

rx (0, N 1) rx (1, N 1) . . . rx (N 1, N 1)

Covariance matrix: Cx = E (x mx )(x mx )T = Rx mx mT x In the Gaussian model the covariance matrix contains the essential information on the signal properties. Cx is without assumptions on its form dicult to estimate form one signal realization stationary process, slowly changing correlation

Stationarity

Statistical properties are time invariant. strictly stationary: h : p(x(0), . . . , x(N 1)) = p(x(0 + h), . . . , x(N 1 + h))

wide-sense stationary: mx (n) = mx and rx (k) = E [x(n)x(n k)] strict stationary = wide-sense stationarity For Gaussian: wide-sense stationarity = strict stationary rx (0) rx (1) rx ((N 1)) . .. . . rx (1) rx (0) . Rx = . .. .. . . . rx (1) . rx (N 1) rx (1) rx (0) is symmetric (rx (1) = rx (1)) and Toeplitz

Sx (e ) =

k=

rx (k)ek

Related to Gaussian distribution: Sx (e ) relies only on rx (k) Assumes stationarity. Used for normal spontaneous activity, but only for short intervals. Can be eciently estimated via FFT: Sx (e ) =

1 |X(e )|2 N

Non-stationarity

Mean, correlation function and higher-order moments are time varying. Major EEG non-stationarities: 1. Slow time-varying properties: e.g.: gradually changing wakefulness -rhythm varies slowly - Apply analysis to consecutive overlapping, sliding windows (stFFT) - Use parametric approaches and adaptive lter 2. Abruptly changing activity: e.g.: closing eyes - Decompose signal into variable length, quasistationary segments Spectral analysis of these segments 3. Transient waveforms: e.g.: K-complex, vertex waves, spikes - Event detection - No spectral analysis but characterized by wavefrom parameter (amplitude & duration) - Wavelet analysis (convolute parameterized carrier wave with signel)

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Non-Gaussian signals

Study higher-order moments of the univariate amplitude distribution E (x(n) mx )k , k = 3, 4, skewness (k=3): degree of deviation from symmetry of a Gaussian PDF kurtosis (k=4): peakedness of PDF near mx dicult to estimate because prone to outlier Bispectrum: two-dimensional Fourier transform of cx (k1 , k2 ) = E [x(n)x(n k1 )x(n k2 )] Displays PSD as function of two frequencies (interrelations between frequencies) Degree of Gaussianity

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Phenomenological model since no prior anatomical or physiological information is incorporated. x(n) v(n) H(z) X(z) V (z) 2 2 Sx (z) = H(z)H(z 1 )v v

Not explaining the underlying EEG as the output of a linear sysmechanisms. tem driven by (Gaussian) white Clinically useful model paramenoise. ters. The lter H(z) spectrally shapes Signal is composed of dierent the noise. narrow-band components. System parameter estimated by Computationally ecient. tting model to signal using (MSE). Deviation between AR model and signal epilepsy. Parameter are useful features for EEG simulator. classication.

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ARMA

p q

x(n) =

k=1

l=1

bl v(n l) MA

AR z-Transfrom:

2 |H(e )|2 v

b0 + b1 e + + bq eq 1 + a1 e + + aq ep

2 2 v

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q = 0, b0 = 1

p

x(n) =

k=1

ak x(n k) + v(n)

0 2 4 sec 6 8 10

2 1 )| v |A(e

1200 1000 800 600

ak are compact description of eeg stages; contain spectral information. p determines number of peaks presented in ARPSD. ak are obtained by solving linear matrix equation Xi a = xo . MSE solution is a = (XT Xi )1 XT xo . i i Less computation then general ARMA.

10

20 30 freq/Hz

40

50

400 200 0 0

10

20 30 freq/Hz

40

50

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AR

Time-varying AR modeling for nonstationary signals:

p

x(n) =

k=1

ak (n)x(n k) + v(n)

ak (n) have to be estimated by an adaptive algorithm. Poisson distributed -impulse as input to model transient events. Multivariate AR models: Study spatial interaction between dierent regions of the brain.

p

x(n) =

k=1

ak2

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Goal: Understanding the underlying generation process. Either strong regularization or based on neurophysiological facts, reecting how dierent neuron populations interact Nonlinear Model of one cortical neuron population in early 1970s. Later extended to multiple coupled populations for the purpose of seizure detection. Usefulness for the design of signal processing methods yet to be demonstrated.

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Two interacting subpopulations: phyramidal cells & positive and negetive feedback interneurons. Average pulse density LTI systems: he (t) = Aateat u(t), hi (t) = Bbtebt u(t) A, B: max amplitude; a, b lumped-parameter (dendrite average time delay) : cell soma/axon hilloc; Ck : av. number of synaptic contacts p(t) neighboring populatoins (stochastic process) av. post.-potential pulse density Static nonlinearity: 2e f (v) = 1+er(v0 v) 0

10

6 5 4

6 h(t)

f(v) 3 2

1 0 5

0 0

20

40 t

60

80

100

5 v

10

15

20

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Artifacts in EEG

Can be of physiological or of technical origin. Easier to deal with because of there dierent nature. 50Hz alternating current; digitalization. Eye movement & blinks; cardiac activity; muscle activity; respiration; skin potential.

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Eye movements

EOG: potential dierence between cornea and retina. Voltage amplitude proportional to angle of gaze. Proximity of sensor to the eyes. Direction of the movement. Can be mixed with slow EEG. Prominent in REM sleep. Eyelid blinks abruptly changeling waves (high frequency), substantially larger than background. Pure EOG reference for artifact cancellation.

s(t) = x(t) n(t) = s(t) + (n(t) n(t))

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Muscle activity

Measured with EMG. Recordings during wakefulness. Tongue movement; chewing, swallowing, grimacing,

Shape depends on the degree of muscle contraction: weak contraction low-amplitude spike train. increasing contraction decrease in interspike distance (colored noise) Occurs less in sleep Contrast to eye movements, the spectral properties overlap with beta band (15-30Hz). Dicult to get pure reference signal.

20

4 sec

10

0 3 2 1 0 0

4 sec

10

10

20 freq/Hz

30

40

50

Cardiac activity

The Amplitude is usually low on the scalp (1-2 V ) compared to EEG (20 100V ). Still hampers certain electrodes. Eect depends on the probands anatomy. Regular pattern of heart beat helps revealing it. (Arrhythmias) Can be mistaken for epileptic waveforms. Reference ECG for cancellation.

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Moving electrodes change DC contact potential (electrode-pop). Abrupt change of base line level, followed by gradual return to original baseline. Misinterpreted as sharp waves. Amplier noise Amplitude clipping by A/D converter Insucient isolation 50/60Hz power line.

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Artifact Processing

Rejection or Cancellation. x(t) = s(t) + n(t) vs. x(t) = s(t)n(t) Additive noise is preferred due to simplicity and optimal estimation techniques. Linear ltering e.g.: low-pass lter for EMG activity but bursts of EMG spikes could be smoothed into alpha waves sharp waves get distorted

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