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2)

A theory of reality that purports to

show that

the

 

being encounters the real and the unreal, and that the experience is the real, and that all the rest, the unreal is agreement. In other words, that experience, the real, is pure cause, being created in the experiencing,

and that the unreal is pure effect, agreement, the out- come of experiencing.

3}

A dynamic theC:u::y

of the mind that claims it to be a

linear arrangement of multi-sensory total records of successive moments of now, whose dynamics leads to the survival of the being or what it takes itself to be. In this theory ego arises as p. way of mind funct.ioning when the being takes itself to be its mind and functions by re-living all the interconnected records (that have threatened survivial) whenever the circuriistances are isomorphic to those that gave origin to them.

4)

A theory

that

intends

to

show that

to

live

as

an

ego

is

to live

in

suffering and

frustrat:iJon

because

it

is

to

live

at every moment the emotions of past experiences

in

a

manner

that

always

hides

the present,

and

that

the

ego

disappears when

the

being

becomes

aware

of

the

past

event to

which

his

present emotions belong.

 

5}

Everything

takes

place

in

the

dynamics of

the

mind

in

a

mechanistic

way,

that is,

under

full

mechanicaI

determinism.

The

mind

is

a

recording machine con-

stituted by records that through its

operations on

its records secures the survival of the being;

and

when

the

mind operates

as

an

ego,

the

being

is

a

machine.

All

this

is embedded in a meta-theory

that is

also

being developed

along

the

training,

but which is

fully

expressed

in its

existence

is existence as a result that anything that is

namely,

that the only fundametal

for

is.

respect

without value

experience in the present, with experiential, actual or potential,

disolutions of the ego through the experience that anything that

is

the disappearance of value judgement as a feature of the experience in the present.

The

is,

training

as well as

culminates

mood

in

a

mood of

amorality

(mutual

judgement)

in

a

in which nothing matters outside

of

liberation of a

burden

the

through

After

this

culmination a

space

is open

for

creativity

and

social

harmony through the expression of the theory of reality in a dimension that includes the reality of others in the reality (experience) of

each individual as the reality of the others, and treats the acceptance

of the present as a moment.

starting

point moment after moment for

the

new

Comments:

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3

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1.

The

training

is

successful

in that

it operates:

 

a}

involving the trainee in a mood of amoral self-awareness as a member of a class of integrity failures,

b)

involving the trainee in the operation of self-awareness

 

of

his

particular failures

of

integrity and,

 
 

c)

involving the

trainee

in

the

acceptance of

the

power

of

logic of his common language as a

theoretical experiences when operating in

source of

compe'lling

integrity.

This

is

not obtained all

at once'.

It builds up along

the training starting from a basic truthfulness that is brought forth by the mood of self-awareness. How does this take place?,

Mimy of

the

trainees at the

them

by

the

very beginning trainer in the

accept verbal form of

takes place

characterizations of

otherwise would be considered verbal abuse.

either as a

applies to them, or their unwillingness to lose face in front of others that seem untouched, or as a result of their unwillingness

~rhat

This

result of their acceptance that the characterization

to

lose

their

invested money.

What

follows

is that they stay

and

accept a

course of

interactions

that leads them to

re!flect

upon

themselves,

either through reason or after

telling their own experiences in the attempt to

seeing others self-reflect,

with the outcome that the majority of the trainees eventually

reveal that they have discovered themselves as cheaters, deceivers, .,iiars, etc.

It seems that this cannot be avoided by the majority of the trainees revealing that cheating, deceiving, pretending, are as much part of our present social experinece as our continuous exposure to a social demand for truthfulness,

honesty, and respect.

or cheated other human beings or ourselves in

another of

of our lives denied to others or ourselves that we have done so,

justifying our denial with some reason,

truth on which the outcome of the training depends.

that we have

That we human beings have all

and

all

lied,

deceived

one moment or

our

lives,

in one moment or another

fundamental"

is the first

The

second

one

is

that our social dynamics operates with a

basic

of conduct such as

to others and ourselves, etc. and We live adult lives that validates a society that continuously negates the validityof such conducts.

AS a result of this permanent contradiction we live in pain and

are receptive for those accusations which, if they occur in an

amoral domain,

hypocricy,

namely,

that we teach our children basic ways

honesty,

tolerance,

respect

truthfulness,

trigger

in

us

self-reflection.

love,

Socialization,

living

that is

unqualified

in a linguistic

human

acceptance that permits

domain,

recurrent

requires

interactions

in

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4

the domain of

-

socialization.

Thisispur_oiQlogical

condition,

and

the

prerequisite of

love

for

socialzation

is-

satisfied

through our growth

in

social conditions.

2. $haring

implies the

equality is the third basic truth on which the effectiveness of the traInIfigrests. Amorality IS not ethical blindness of denial of ethics. Social ethics as the realization of the

leads

absence

to

of

an

experience of

judgement.

equality;

The

equality

of

value

amorality

social ethos,

is

in human societies

founded

on

love,

and

consists

in

living

in

a

linguistic dQmain in which one can

operate

in

language,

under conditions

of

unqualified mutual

respect. Morality operates as a superimposed linguistic construct that permits human coordinations of activities

under the negations of the ethical conditions in social life.

For

hence,

this

to

reason morality suffering.

leads to

inauthenticities,

and

Amorality

is

obtained

by

invitation under

condi~ions of

suffering that demand expression,

and

is

reinforced

by applause.

Applause

ment,

component of

forth

Without wi th it the

ethics

in

the

training

life

is presented as meaning only acknowledge-

it means approval.

yet,

the

in daily

the

emotion

the

This

approval

applause

as

a

conduct of

the

acknowledgement brings

conduct.

that carries

of approval to

the

amoral

self-deceipt

acceptance of

living

in a moral society,

in an

and the experienc(~ of

amoral

situation)

(unqualified acceptance

the

training

cannot work.

The

first

two days

are

crucial

for

this.

3.

The

recurrence of patterns

of

reactions under what

seem

to be-very different-rife conditIOns or circumstances;-constitutes

thefou:rtfl basic truth on which the success of the training rests. Living systems never participate in particular interactions,

they only participate

words,

perturbation what triggers

not the

appears embedded to an observer.

modes

acceptance

the

in

classes of interactions.

relation

state

given

In

in

other

any

it

of

is

the

configuration of

a

change of

in an organism,

predictio~s of

leading

to

recognition

observable circumstances

reaction which

of

the

amoral

impress

in which the perturbation

This permits

the

trainees

and

the

further

that

situation,

can be

pattern of reactions

disolved or greatly

weakened

through

self-awareness.

The

changes

of

state

triggered by any particular perturbation

are determined

the structure of the subject determines what structural config- uration of the medium constitute perturbations. Thus there are structural changes in the subject that either primarily

change

by

the

structure

of

the

subject;

furthermore,

trigger,

the

states

that a

given perturbation may

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or change

configurations of

its

domains

of

perturbations

so

that old

recur~ent

the medium do not perturb

it any more.

Self-reflection may lead to

either of these changes or to

both while it operates as an internal perturbation in the same domain of states as the recurrent feature of the medium. As a result of this self-reflection is always a source of structural, and hence behavioural change. What is remarkable in self-reflection as a source of change is its universality, its 'consequences do not depend on the perturbations that elicit it, and they can be emotional and reactional.

4.

escape in a social encounter whose continuance we have accepted. We concede power by submission, open up and accept a lead in the domain of submission. This takes place in the training, and is a condition that puts an absolute ethical demand on the training for not creating a new morality, allowing the trainees the freedom that comes with self-reflection.

We

concede

power

to

him or

her who appears

to block our

Self-reflection puts us

in

a

different domain of action

or

of

selection of our ongoing structural

change

than

the

one

to

which our

history

confines us

in

the

absence

of

it.

Freedom

is

realized

when

we

change

our usual

course

of

action

in

some

domain. Learning restricts freedom by stabilizing our course of

action, restricting our ability to see the unexpected, self-reflection frees us without negating learning. The danger for the trainees is that after conceding power they may find themselves learning

a

new morality

and

not

the

ability

of

self-reflection.

 

5.

The

theory

of knowledge expounded in the

training

is

complete

a

and

self-contained

oomplete

fully

on

in

the metaphorical

consistency,

Every

logical

or

or

domain.

logical

for

system

or logical notions which one accepts as a matter of preference,

desire, choice, just because one accepts them. Once these non-

rational notions are accepted the rational or logical construct

built upon them has

of

logical mistake,

As

theory

us

it

is

rests

it

has

and,

rational

hence,

compelling.

set

some

of explicit

implicit non-rational

When

the

listener

full compelling power.

disagreement

a

logical argument disagrees it

and

the

is either the result of a

is

trivial and can

be

corrected easily,

or

it

is

the

result of the

listener

having

different

non-explicit non-rational

starting

notions,

and

the

disagreement cannot be

about these non-rational basic notions. All serious disagreements

dissipated

until there

is agreement

are

of

this

latter kind,

and

cannot

be

dissipated

through

a

logical

argument

as

a

result of the logic.

They

can

only

be

dissipated through an emotional experience that triggers an epistemological change, a change of outlooking, in the listener

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6

-

or

points

in

the

speaker,

isomorphic.

or in both that makes their non-rational

starting

or

~his emotional experience

through_

rational

can

interactions

be obtained that trigger

through

some

non-rational

of

change

mood

and

hence

of outlooking.

When

the

interaction

is

rational,

the

compellingconsequesnces of

it

trigger a

change

of mood,

but the

change of mood

is

not

the

result of the

 

logic

of

the

argument.

During

the

first

two

days

of

the

training

a

mood

of

amorality

is obtained reinforced continuously through the ~cknowledging of the sharing. During these first two days a mood of pragmatic rationality is also obtained, greatly facilitated by the fact that the trainees live immersed in a society with a prevalent pragmatic rational mood, however inauthentically. The !ationality of rationality is the fifth basic truth on which the success of the training rests.

.

6.

Once

amorality

and

pragmatic

rationality

have

been

established

as

basic moods

in

the

training,

the

two

fundamental

agreements

as

starting non-rational basic

notions on which

the

success

of

the

traiinin

rests,

can

be

obtained,

namely:

the

agreement

that the mind is

.i:>eTng to ego, and-the undeniable nature of exIstence, what is is. These agreements (plus whatever mechanism operates in the working of the mind that results in the errasure of the records)

a

mechanistic

system that

may

reduce

the

are essential for

a mood of acceptance of the consequesnces that will necessarily follow. If the mechanistic nature of the mind and the undeniability

of existence are not accepted as agreements, that is, as starting

points

way the new outlooking, they are only rational or non-rational curiousities.

the

success of

the

training

through creating

in

a

non-rational

that fundamental as a matter of course

 

To

make

it

in

the

training

is

to

reach

this

point;

and

to

be

in

this point entails to

be

an

amoral

outlooking

of acceptance

of what is

as

is,

and

to

possess

a

pragmatic

rational mechanism

for

self-observation

in

the

domain of

the mind that

may

lead

to

the dissolution

of the

ego.

7.

Whatever else

comes

afterWards

in

relation

to

choice

does

not

have

the

same

strength or grounding.

The

being

has

lurked

during

the

training

as

a

background

for

the

mind.

Choice

is

there

in answer to an unformulated question about purpose or

significance.

Strictly it does not pertain

to

the

training.

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7

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Metacomments:

Its power

rests on its

not

a nows that encompas the whole universe. This assertion is not meta- phorical and demands an explanatory mechanism. Such mechanism is

cannot

of flaw which is

1.

The

theory of

the operatio of

the mind is

respect to

Yet,

complete.

processes

there

total

and

an

being metaphorical with

to

be

disclosed

the

that

do

require

or described.

is one point

record

of

attempt

assertion

that the mind is

not provided in the training,

to provide

a nal experiences on which the

that which makes it

which will constitute the rational machinery for further self re-.

ratio-

emotions

flections,

metaphorical in

be provided,

it would push the training in a different direction than

must

be

a

the

success.

The

theory

ride

that provides

the

in

the

training,

and

theory of

relations,

hence;

context of the

training.

it must remain

For

the

training

to operate total

record

is not necessary.

To-

tal record

seems

necessary

to

provide

fundament

for

unexpected

ex-

periences of

social or cosmic unity.

Yet,

unless

one

wants

to

talk

about an absolute,

a

metaphorical

rational

theory

is

adequate

in

dealing with experiences.

If one wants to deal with the absolute,

then

one must

fall

into morality and

foul

the

training.

What

the

training needs

is

that the mind should make a

complete

record

of

all the moments of now in all the domains of interactions in which

the

being operates " whichever

these may be.

 

2.

Whether

the

mind does

in

fact

operates as a

string of records

of the

ner, is irrelevant with respect to what takes place in the training.

What

menon of

successive moments of now of the

relevant

in

this

respect

is

mind distinguished

in the

being or

in

some

other man-

is

that the dynamics of the pheno-

training

should

involve

serial-

ity and recurrence of states.

The

training

is concerned with experience,

and

not

with

the

is

of what is.

 

3.

Ihave

not

talked

about the

processes

practiced

during

the

training. Some of them are auxiliary and operate in support of dif- ferent theoretical points. They support them through the experiences that they generate; they are complementary, not central. Others are central in the sense that they form part of the set of experiences that generates the fundamental mood of amorality that is at the core of the training, or contribute to its maintenance. Dissappearing through awareness belongs to the former, being in the presence of

the

other without adding or

substracting anything belong to

the

latter.

 

4.

The

question

of choice

is not central to

the

training,

yet,

it is necessary for overcoming the bewilderment of the trainees.

Life

in

seems

to

require

purpose,

seems

freedom,

a

choice.

To

live

a

full

life

the absence of

choice

contradiction.

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8

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Choice

requires an

independency between he

who

choses

and

the

taken in the choice. It seems that if the being were-deterministic and mechanistic this could not take place. Since the being is a background in the training, nothing is sad in the training about whether it is or it is not mechanistic and deterministic. Since the actions spring through or in from the mind, and the mind is mechan- istic, it is only in the interstices between the actions that choice can be exerted. This is the answer guiven to the question of choice after the culmination of the training. This is a weak answer in the

context of the complete internal consistency of the training~

domain of

alternatives

from

which

one element

is

intentionally

actions

after the dissolution of the ego: existence takes: .place in the pre''':'' sent and everything is what it is. At the same time, whatever takes

place ~n the

with

related

The

its

experience

being

is

can

that one cannot predict one's

be

seen

by the

being

not as

being

a

future

as

them,

posteriori

by

past experiences,

determined

but

entailing them. So,

the

being appears

as

a

source

that

takes

into

account at

every moment many

(or all)

of

its

experiences without

being

no place. If whatever the human being does recursively triggers in it

a structural change,

different courses of action would lead to

structural change in it, the human being will be deterministic yet

unpredictable

himself as making choices,

dissolved, he will appear as a source to others that would generally

be

bound

by them.

In

fact,

if the being is a deterministic human

the

situation would appear the

indicated above would have

taken

is apparent to an observer that two

two

different

paths

of

He

would

And,

if

appear to

his

ego

has

being

same

that operates in

and

choice

in

the

so

(language)

to

language,

sense

that

in

it

self reflection.

as

being a

source.

his

unable

predict anything more than

trivial conduct.

5.

At

the

end of

the

last night of the training there

is

a

cele-

bration:

the

graduation.

Many previous

trainees,

graduates

as

they

are

celebration

the distinction of a boundary: the having accomplished the est train- ing.

called,

come

and make

the

a

big event of

of

brotherhood.

In

fact,

this

defines

brotherhood

the

trainees by specifying

This

phenomenon

has

the

consequences that

every membership in

a brtherhood

has:

it defines the nonbrothers and triggers a discri-

minatory conduct

between brothers

and

nonbrothers.

Much

of

the mis-

conceptions

about

est arise

from

this.

Brotherhoods are

dangerous

for

nonbrothers

as

a

rsult of the behavioural Cleavage that arises

from

brotherhoods define

membership

the

an domains of morality

in

exclusive

consensual

domain.

and may defeat

Furthermore,

or

greatly

endanger

the

dissolution

of

the

ego.

6.

The

training

is thoroughly western,

it

is

founded

upon

reason

as

a

basic

and

legitimate

source

of

experience.

At

the

same

time

it is western in its adress to the main source of western inauthen-

ticity,

that

is what in the training is called reasonableness.

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9

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Reason

without

ego

is

a

source

of

experiential openness,

rea-

'son with ego is

a

source of experiential blindness.

No one

operates

exclusively

ego dissolution.

in ego,

In

this how every person can enter into a path of

this context,

the

training by being western

provides a

western

human

being

with a

western

instrument

for

ego

dissolution

in action.

 

7.

The

notion

of

integrity

is a universal notion that has to do

. with

the

basic phenomenon of

socialization and,

therefore,

is

in-

dependent of

culture.

Integrity means,

and

is

made

to

mean

in

the

training,

respect with no value

truthfulness and confiability,

authentic

socialization.

judgement,

Socialization rests

on mutual

and mutual

respect entails

As

a

honesty,

that is

integrity.

result,

authentic

socialization

lasts only as

long

as

integrity

lasts.

By

making

integrity

the central emotional and rational

reference,

the

training calls upon the

child that did not suffered mother deprivation must have had,

basic

experience of

socialization that every

and

succeeds

in

orienting the trainee

to

the

center of

his

suffering,

namely,

social inauthenticity.

In

this the training

is also essen-

tially western,

and

provides

the

trainee with a

permanent

reference

for

self reflection

in

his dayly life

as an on going

process.

This

and

the

use

of

reason

as

a

source of

experience,

constitute

the

greatests assets of

the

training.

Humberto

R.

Maturana