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# CHAPTER 6 MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF METALS PROBLEM SOLUTIONS

**Concepts of Stress and Strain
**

6.1 Using mechanics of materials principles (i.e., equations of mechanical equilibrium applied to a freebody diagram), derive Equations 6.4a and 6.4b. Solution This problem asks that we derive Equations 6.4a and 6.4b, using mechanics of materials principles. In Figure (a) below is shown a block element of material of cross-sectional area A that is subjected to a tensile force P. Also represented is a plane that is oriented at an angle θ referenced to the plane perpendicular to the tensile axis; the area of this plane is A' = A/cos θ. In addition, and the forces normal and parallel to this plane are labeled as P' and V', respectively. Furthermore, on the left-hand side of this block element are shown force components that are tangential and perpendicular to the inclined plane. In Figure (b) are shown the orientations of the applied stress σ, the normal stress to this plane σ', as well as the shear stress τ' taken parallel to this inclined plane. In addition, two coordinate axis systems in represented in Figure (c): the primed x and y axes are referenced to the inclined plane, whereas the unprimed x axis is taken parallel to the applied stress.

Normal and shear stresses are defined by Equations 6.1 and 6.3, respectively. However, we now chose to express these stresses in terms (i.e., general terms) of normal and shear forces (P and V) as

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σ=

Π Α

τ=

ς Α

For static equilibrium in the x' direction the following condition must be met:

∑ Φ ξ∋

which means that

= 0

Π∏ Π χοσθ = 0 −

Or that

Π∋ = Π χοσθ

Now it is possible to write an expression for the stress the relationship between A and A' [Figure (a)]:

σ'

in terms of P' and A' using the above expression and

σ∋ =

Π∏ Α∏

=

Πcosq P = cos2q A A cosq

However, it is the case that P/A = σ; and, after making this substitution into the above expression, we have Equation 6.4a--that is

σ ∋= σ χ 2θ οσ

Now, for static equilibrium in the y' direction, it is necessary that

∑ Φψ∏=

0

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= − ς∏ + Πσινθ

Or

ς∋ = Πσινθ

We now write an expression for τ' as

τ∏ =

ς∏ Α∏

And, substitution of the above equation for V' and also the expression for A' gives

τ∋ =

ς∏ Α∏

=

Πsin q A cos q

=

Π σινθ χοσθ Α

= σ σινθ χοσθ

which is just Equation 6.4b.

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6.2 (a) Equations 6.4a and 6.4b are expressions for normal (σ′) and shear (τ′) stresses, respectively, as a function of the applied tensile stress (σ) and the inclination angle of the plane on which these stresses are taken (θ of Figure 6.4). Make a plot on which is presented the orientation parameters of these expressions (i.e., cos 2 θ and sin θ cos θ) versus θ. (b) From this plot, at what angle of inclination is the normal stress a maximum? (c) Also, at what inclination angle is the shear stress a maximum? Solution (a) Below are plotted curves of cos2θ (for

σ' ) and sin θ

cos θ (for τ') versus θ.

(b) The maximum normal stress occurs at an inclination angle of 0°. (c) The maximum shear stress occurs at an inclination angle of 45°.

500 N = 4.1 and 6.7 mm (0.5 in.1 ´ 10-3 9 N/m2 ) )(69 ´ 10 Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. producing only elastic deformation.Stress-Strain Behavior 6.500 N (8000 lbf) force.3 A specimen of aluminum having a rectangular cross section 10 mm × 12.4 m2 35.2).27 × 10-4 m2 = 0. × 0.20 in.) is pulled in tension with 35. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. the elastic modulus for Al is given in Table 6. The cross-sectional area is just (10 mm) × (12.27 ´ 10. Solution This problem calls for us to calculate the elastic strain that results for an aluminum specimen stressed in tension. .1 as 69 GPa (or 69 × 109 N/m ).4 in. also.7 mm) = 127 mm2 (= 1.5 and solving for the strain yields 2 ε = s F = = E A0 E (1. Combining Equations 6. Calculate the resulting strain.

) will experience only elastic deformation when a tensile load of 2000 N (450 lbf) is applied. and 6.6.255 m = 255 mm (10.5 and solving for l0 leads to æd ö2 Dl Ep ç 0 ÷ 2 Dl Ep d0 ∆λ ∆λ Dl E è2 ø λ = = ⊇ = Ê= = 0 σ F ε F 4F Ε A0 = (0.8 ´ 10.42 ´ 10.0165 in.3 m)(107 ´ 10 9 N / m2 ) (p) ( 3.42 mm (0.3 m) 2 (4)(2000 N) = 0.4 A cylindrical specimen of a titanium alloy having an elastic modulus of 107 GPa (15.1. 6. Combining Equations 6.8 mm (0. Solution We are asked to compute the maximum length of a cylindrical titanium alloy specimen (before deformation) that is deformed elastically in tension.15 in. .2.).) Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Compute the maximum length of the specimen before deformation if the maximum allowable elongation is 0. For a cylindrical specimen δ 2 Α0 = π 0 2 where d0 is the original diameter. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.0 in.5 × 106 psi) and an original diameter of 3.

For a square cross-section.) long and having a square cross section 20 mm (0.1. and experiences an elongation of 0. A0 = β2 .0 × 10-3 in.5 A steel bar 100 mm (4.3 m) = 223 × 109 N/m2 = 223 GPa (31.000 N (20. 000 N) (100 ´ 10.10 mm (4. Combining Equations 6.3 m) 2 ( 0.2.000 lb f).3 × 106 psi) Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. 6. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.3 m) (20 ´ 10. leads to F s A Fl Ε = = 0 = 20 Dl e b 0 Dl l0 = (89.8 in. calculate the elastic modulus of the steel.5 and solving for E. Solution This problem asks us to compute the elastic modulus of steel. Assuming that the deformation is entirely elastic.0 in. . and 6. 0 where b0 is the edge length.10 ´ 10.) on an edge is pulled in tension with a load of 89.6.).

5 × 104 mm (1000 in. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.3 m) 2 Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted.6 Consider a cylindrical titanium wire 3.1).) long.) (107 ´ 10 9 N/m 2 )(p )(3 ´ 10. λΦ σ ∆λ = λ ε = λ = 0 = 0 0Ε ΕΑ0 λΦ 0 δ Επ 0 2 2 = 2 Επδ0 4λ Φ 0 = (4)(25 m)(500 N) = 0. 6.0 mm (0. and 6.1. E = 107 GPa (15. Solving for ∆l and realizing that for Ti.5 mm (0. Solution In order to compute the elongation of the Ti wire when the 500 N load is applied we must employ Equations 6.5.5 × 106 psi) (Table 6.12 in. Assume that the deformation is totally elastic.6.2.0165 m = 16.65 in.) in diameter and 2. . Calculate its elongation when a load of 500 N (112 lbf) is applied.

the stress at which plastic deformation begins is 275 MPa (40. what is the maximum length to which it may be stretched without causing plastic deformation? Solution (a) This portion of the problem calls for a determination of the maximum load that can be applied without plastic deformation (Fy). . and employment of Equation 6.7 For a bronze alloy.7 × 106 psi).2 and 6. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.).000 psi).28 mm 115 ´ 10 3 MPa û ë (4.5 in.51 in. (a) What is the maximum load that may be applied to a specimen with a cross-sectional area of 325 mm 2 (0.5 as æ s ö λ = l0 ç1 + ÷ ι è Eø é 275 MPa ù = (115 mm) ê1 + ú = 115.6. and the modulus of elasticity is 115 GPa (16.2) without plastic deformation? (b) If the original specimen length is 115 mm (4.1 leads to Φψ = s y A0 = (275 ´ 10 6 N/m2 )(325 ´ 10 -6 m2 ) = 89.) Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted.5 in.000 lbf) (b) The maximum length to which the sample may be deformed without plastic deformation is determined from Equations 6. Taking the yield strength to be 275 MPa.375 N (20.

50 ´ 10. 16 × 106 psi) having a yield strength of 240 MPa (35. what must be the diameter to allow an elongation of 0.) Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted.30 in. Employing Equations 6.)? Solution This problem asks us to compute the diameter of a cylindrical specimen of copper in order to allow an elongation of 0.). solving for d0 δ0 = 4 l0F p E Dl = (4) (380 ´ 10. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. assuming that deformation is entirely elastic σ = Φ = Α0 Φ ∆λ = Ε δ 2 λ 0 π 0 4 Or. .000 psi) is to be subjected to a load of 6660 N (1500 lbf).65 × 10-3 m = 7.3 m) = 7.3 m) (6660 N) (p) (110 ´ 10 9 N / m2 )(0.1.2.8 A cylindrical rod of copper (E = 110 GPa.50 mm. If the length of the rod is 380 mm (15.65 mm (0.50 mm (0.020 in. 6.0 in. and 6.5.6.

.0038 . Ε = σ2 .2 M Pa .e1 0. Therefore.0 M Pa = = 204.400 M Pa = 106. How do these values compare with those presented in Table 6. (b) tempered steel.0038. (b) For the tempered steel. Therefore.1 for the same metals? Solution The elastic modulus is the slope in the linear elastic region (Equation 6.e1 0.2 M Pa . (c) aluminum. whose stress-strain behaviors may be observed in the “Tensile Tests” module of Virtual Materials Science and Engineering (VMSE): (a) titanium.e1 Since stress-strain curves for all of the metals/alloys pass through the origin.0047 .9 Compute the elastic moduli for the following metal alloys.0 Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.s 1 962.7 G Pa e2 . (a) For the titanium alloy. we make take σ1 = 0 and ε 1 = 0.s 1 = ∆ε e2 .10) as Ε = ∆ σ σ2 .2 MPa with its corresponding ε 2 = 0.1 is 107 GPa. Determinations of σ2 and ε 2 are possible by moving the cursor to some arbitrary point in the linear region of the curve and then reading corresponding values in the “Stress” and “Strain” windows that are located below the plot. Ε = σ2 .6.0047.0 M Pa = = 106.700 M Pa = 204.4 G Pa e2 . and (d) carbon steel. we selected σ2 = 404.0 The elastic modulus for titanium given in Table 6.s 1 404. which is in very good agreement with this value.2 MPa with its corresponding ε 2 = 0. we selected σ2 = 962.

(c) For the aluminum.s 1 129 M Pa.0006.100 M Pa = 69. we selected σ2 = 129 MPa with its corresponding ε 2 = 0.0021 .1 is 69 GPa.0021.s 1 145.0 M Pa = = 215 . which is in excellent agreement with this value. Therefore. Therefore.0 M Pa = = 69. which is in reasonably good agreement with this value.1 MPa with its corresponding ε 2 = 0. Ε = σ2 .1 M Pa .1 is 207 GPa. (d) For the carbon steel.0 The elastic modulus for steel given in Table 6.1 G Pa e2 .0 The elastic modulus for aluminum given in Table 6. we selected σ2 = 145. Ε = σ2 . .0006 . Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.000 M Pa = 215 G Pa e2 .e1 0.The elastic modulus for steel given in Table 6.e1 0. Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. which is in reasonable agreement with this value.1 is 207 GPa.

000 N 2 æ 10. Solution This problem asks that we calculate the elongation ∆l of a specimen of steel the stress-strain behavior of which is shown in Figure 6.0012)(75 mm) = 0. Determine its elongation when a load of 20.3 m ö pç ÷ 2 è ø = 255 MPa (37.) in diameter and 75 mm (3.0 ´ 10.2 to compute the value of ∆l ∆ λ = e l0 = (0.6.21.1 as σ = F = A0 F æd ö pç 0 ÷ è2ø 2 = 20.39 in.000 N is applied using Equation 6. First it becomes necessary to compute the stress when a load of 20.000 N (4.0 in.0 mm (0.090 mm (0. Now.) long that is pulled in tension. utilization of Equation 6. .0036 in.21.500 lb f) is applied.21) 10. which corresponds to a strain of 0. 700 psi) Referring to Figure 6.10 Consider a cylindrical specimen of a steel alloy (Figure 6.) Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. at this stress level we are in the elastic region on the stress-strain curve.0012.

the tangent modulus. Determine (a) the tangent modulus at 10. . ∆σ/∆ε).9 MPa (1000 psi).3 MPa (1500 psi). for a gray cast iron.0003 (b) The secant modulus taken from the origin is calculated by taking the slope of a secant drawn from the origin through the stress-strain curve at 6.0.22 shows.5 MPa = = 1410 MPa = 1.9 MPa (1. is computed as follows: ∆σ 15 MPa .e.3 MPa (1500 psi).0074 .04 ´ 10 5 psi) ∆ε 0. and (b) the secant modulus taken to 6.. Solution (a) This portion of the problem asks that the tangent modulus be determined for the gray cast iron. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.6.000 psi).22. The slope of this line (i. This secant is drawn on the curve shown below: Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted.41 GPa (2. the tensile engineering stress–strain curve in the elastic region. In the figure below is shown a tangent draw on the curve at a stress of 10.11 Figure 6. the stress-strain behavior of which is shown in Figure 6.

.19 GPa (4.e.0 MPa = = 3190 MPa = 3. is computed as follows: ∆σ 15 MPa . the secant modulus.0047 . Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. .0 Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted.63 ´ 10 5 psi) ∆ε 0. ∆σ/∆ε).The slope of this line (i.

respectively. . 0.3 for aluminum. 45°.6. Since these angles are 45°. respectively. One such property is the modulus of elasticity.707. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.7 )72(0)2 +(0)72(0.7 ] Ε<1 > 0 Ε<10 > 0Ε<1 >0 1 1 Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. and γ are 0. and γ parameters in the equation correspond. for single crystals of some substances.7 )2 7+(0 0. β. respectively. the modulus of elasticity in a general [uvw] direction. that is. the physical properties are anisotropic. they are dependent on crystallographic direction. [010] and [001] directions. and iron in Table 3. Solution We are asked.15. [010]. is described by the relationship æ 1 . Verify that the Ε〈110 ñ values for aluminum.3ç çE è 100 ö ÷ a 2b 2 + b 2 g2 + g2a 2 ) ( ÷ ø 1 Euvw = 1 E 100 - 1 E 111 where E 100 and E 11 1 are the moduli of elasticity in [100] and [111] directions. β. Thus.3 are correct. β.707. copper. and 90°. and [001] directions.7 )2 0 7 = − 3 − [(0. and iron are correct. α. Euvw. the values of α. to verify that the modulus of elasticity values along [110] directions given in Table 3. to the cosines of the angles between the [110] direction and [100].12 As noted in Section 3. using the equation given in the problem statement. the given equation takes the form 1 Ε<110> 1 1 1 2) (0. The α. and γ are the cosines of the angles between [uvw] and the respective [100]. For cubic single crystals. copper. and 0.

which is also the value cited in the table. the value cited in the table. 1 Ε<110> Thus.1 1 1 = − ( 0 − .(0.3 for Al 1 Ε<110> Which leads to.0 .7 ë1 2 5 G P a 2 7 2 G P aû = 210.7 G P a ë66. Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted.5 GPa.7 G P a ë63.7 G Pa 191. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.(0.75) ê ú 63.(0 .7 5) ê ú 12 5. E <110> = é 1 1 1 ù . For Cu.3 GPa.1 G P aû = 130.0 G P a . Similarly.6 GPa. .7 G P a 76. which is also the value given in the table.75) ê ú 66. 7 5 ) Ε<1 > 0 Ε<01 > Ε0<1 > 01 1 Utilizing the values of E <100> and E <111> from Table 3. E <110> = é 1 ù 1 1 . for Fe 1 Ε<11 0> And E <110> = é ù 1 1 1 .1 G P aû = 72.

E. Develop an expression for r0.25) where A. Solution This problem asks that we derive an expression for the dependence of the modulus of elasticity. B. the equilibrium separation. 4. B. and n parameters (for the twoion system) using the following procedure: 1.25 is also valid for the bonding energy between adjacent ions in solid materials. on the parameters A. and solve for r.6 it was noted that the net bonding energy E N between two isolated positive and negative ions is a function of interionic distance r as follows: EN = - A B + r rn (6.8b). set it equal to zero. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. take the derivative dE N/dr. and n are constants for the particular ion pair.6. B. Equation 6. substitute this expression for r0 into the relationship obtained by taking dF/dr. Now take the derivative dF/dr. that is. Finally. The modulus of elasticity E is proportional to the slope of the interionic force–separation curve at the equilibrium interionic separation. . Since r0 corresponds to the value of r at the minimum of the EN-versus-r curve (Figure 2.25. ædF ö Eµ ç ÷ è dr ør o Derive an expression for the dependence of the modulus of elasticity on these A. dEN dr 3. It is first necessary to take dEN/dr in order to obtain an expression for the force F. this is accomplished as follows: Α δ − δΕ Ν ρ Φ= = + δρ δρ Β δ ρν δρ = ρ2 Α − νΒ ρ(n+1) Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. and n in Equation 6. realizing that F= 2.13 In Section 2. Establish a relationship for the force F as a function of r. which corresponds to r0.

14. The algebra for this N procedure is carried out in Problem 2.n) 0 ç ÷ νΒ è nB ø which is the expression to which the modulus of elasticity is proportional. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.n) æ A ö(n+2) /(1. with the result that Α 1/(1 − ν) ρ = 0 νΒ Next it becomes necessary to take the derivative of the force (dF/dr). which is accomplished as follows: Α æ νΒ ö δ δ ç− ÷ δΦ ρ2 è ρ(n+1) ø = + δρ δρ dr =− 2Α ρ3 + (n)(n + 1)B r (n + 2) Now. Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted.The second step is to set this dE /dr expression equal to zero and then solve for r (= r0). . substitution of the above expression for r0 into this equation yields δΦ 2Α (n)(n + 1) B + =− δρ ρ Α 3/(1.

5 ) é ù(8 + 2) /(1 2.5 + 2) /(1 2.5. A = 2.3) é ê ê (10.5 ) û 8) = 1097 For metal Y. A = 2.5 ) ú û 3/(1 . and Z materials from the greatest to the least.25) for these three materials are tabulated below. and n = 10.25.8) + (8)(8 +1) (2 ´ 10.13. The appropriate A. B.0 × 10–6 1.6 ) û 10.5) é ê ê (8) ë ù 2. Ε µ - (2)(2.6.10. From Problem 6.3 ê ú ë (10. Y.5)(10.3.5 ú (2 ´ 10.n) ç ÷ è nB ø For metal X. and n = 8. rank the magnitudes of the moduli of elasticity for the following hypothetical X. B = 8 × 10-6.5) ë ù 2. Hence Ε µ - (2)(2.6 ) é ù(10. they yield EN in units of electron volts and r in nanometers: Material X Y Z A 2. Therefore. that the modulus of elasticity E is proportional to B 2.5) (8 ´ 10. it was shown for materials in which the bonding energy is dependent on the interatomic distance r according to Equation 6.5.14 Using the solution to Problem 6.5 2. Y. . Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.3 ú (8 ´ 10.5 9 Ε ∝− Α 3/(1. B = 2.n) νΒ 2Α + (n)(n + 1) B æ A ö(n +2)/(1.3 3.5 ê ú ë (8) (2 ´ 10.5) + (10.0 Solution This problem asks that we rank the magnitudes of the moduli of elasticity of the three hypothetical metals X. and n parameters (Equation 6.5) = 551 Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted.5 + 1) (8 ´ 10.13.6 ) ú û 3/(1 . and Z.0 × 10-5.0 × 10–5 8.5 × 10–5 n 8 10.

0. and n = 9. for metal Z. Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted.9) + (9)(9 + 1) (1.5 ) û 9) = 1024 Therefore. Thus Ε µ - (2)(3.5 ) ú û 3/(1 .0 ú (1.5 ´ 10. B = 1.5 ´ 10.0 ê ú ë (9) (1.0) é ê ê (9) ë ù 3.5 ) é ù(9 + 2) /(1 3.And. . A = 3. metal X has the highest modulus of elasticity.5 ´ 10.5 × 10-5. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

6. and 6. ∆d. Now.3 m)2 (69 ´ 109 N / m2 ) (p) (19 ´ 10 (b) We are now called upon to determine the change in diameter.8 ε ∆δ / d0 ν = − ξ = − εζ Dl / l0 From Table 6.) is deformed elastically in tension with a force of 48.1). in this portion of the problem. Combining Equations 6.) and length of 200 mm (8.Elastic Properties of Materials 6. solving the above expression for ∆d yields ∆δ = - n Dl d0 (0.50 mm (0.5.800 N) (200 ´ 10.50 mm)(19 mm) = l0 200 mm Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted.800 N (11.75 in. leads to σ = Εε Φ ∆λ = Ε δ2 λ 0 π 0 4 Or.000 lbf).3 m) = 5 ´ 10-4 m = 0.1. Using Equation 6. yields ∆λ = 2 π δ0 Ε 4 Φλ 0 = (4)(48. solving for ∆l (and realizing that E = 69 GPa.) .1. to determine the elongation of a cylindrical specimen of aluminum. Table 6. (b) The change in diameter of the specimen. determine the following: (a) The amount by which this specimen will elongate in the direction of the applied stress.1. . ν = 0. Using the data contained in Table 6.33)(0.02 in. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.15 A cylindrical specimen of aluminum having a diameter of 19 mm (0.0 in.33. for aluminum.2. Will the diameter increase or decrease? Solution (a) We are asked.

Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted.2 × 10-4 in. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. .6 × 10-2 mm (–6.= –1.) The diameter will decrease.

since from Equation 6. determine the force that will produce an elastic reduction of 3 × 10-3 mm (1. Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. ν = 0. the cross-sectional area is equal to Α0 = Now.6. . for steel.16 A cylindrical bar of steel 10 mm (0. Solution This problem asks that we calculate the force necessary to produce a reduction in diameter of 3 × 10-3 mm for a cylindrical bar of steel. combining Equations 6.1 and 6.5 leads to 2 π δ0 4 σ = Φ Φ = = Εε ζ Α0 πδ 2 0 4 And.4 in.2 × 10-4 in. solving for F leads to δ ∆δ π Ε Φ= − 0 4ν From Table 6.30 and E = 207 GPa.) in the diameter. Using the data in Table 6. For a cylindrical specimen.1.1. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.8 ε ∆δ εζ = − ξ = − =− ν ν νδ0 Substitution of this equation into the above expression gives ∆δ δ0 ∆δ = Ε − νδ 2 πδ0 0 4 Φ And.) in diameter is to be deformed elastically by application of a force along the bar axis. Thus.

3 m)(.6 m) (p) (207 ´ 10 9 N / m2 ) (4)(0. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.30) = 16. .0 ´ 10.3.Φ= - (10 ´ 10.250 N (3770 lbf) Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted.

6 m) (p) (140 ´ 10 9 N / m2 ) = 0. From Equations 6.0 æ ö εζ 4F ç 4F ÷ ç p d 2E ÷ è 0 ø = - (8 ´ 10.280 (4)(15. 700 N) Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.8.1 εζ = σ Φ = = Ε Α0 Ε Φ δ π 0 Ε 2 2 = 2 π δ0 Ε 4Φ Since the transverse strain ε x is just εξ = ∆δ δ0 and Poisson's ratio is defined by Equation 6.) in diameter is stressed elastically in tension. then ε ∆δ / d0 d Dd p E ν = − ξ = − = . Compute Poisson's ratio for this material if its modulus of elasticity is 140 GPa (20.3 × 106 psi).).700 N (3530 lbf) produces a reduction in specimen diameter of 5 × 10-3 mm (2 × 10-4 in.6.31 in. Solution This problem asks that we compute Poisson's ratio for the metal alloy.3 m)(.17 A cylindrical specimen of some alloy 8 mm (0.5 and 6. .5 ´ 10. A force of 15.

solving for ν yields ν = E 105 ´ 10 3 MPa . respectively.3 = = .25 ´ 10.000 mm In order to determine the longitudinal strain ε z we need Poisson's ratio.000 and 20.18 A cylindrical specimen of a hypothetical metal alloy is stressed in compression. The elastic and shear moduli for this alloy are 105 GPa and 39.1 = .7 ´ 10 3 MPa) Now ε z may be computed from Equation 6.1 = 0.322 2G (2) (39.96 mm = 75. respectively.20.000 mm = = 1.8 as εζ = Now solving for l0 using Equation 6. which may be computed using Equation 6. .025 mm. compute its original length if the deformation is totally elastic.96 mm. Solution This problem asks that we compute the original length of a cylindrical specimen that is stressed in compression.7 GPa.025 mm .3 Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. If its original and final diameters are 20.25 ´ 10 -3 d0 20.6.25 mm 1 .3.322 λ = 0 1 + εζ λ ι = 74.9. It is first convenient to compute the lateral strain ε x as εξ = Dd 20.2 ex 1. and its final length is 74. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.3.88 ´ 10.88 ´ 10-3 n 0.

Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.6.8) and realizing that for the transverse strain.8 × 10-4 mm (1.5 GPa (24.7 m) p (8 ´ 10 Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted.3 m)(2.).705ÊÊÊ10 Pa = 170. Compute the modulus of elasticity for this alloy.30. substitution of this expression for ε z into the above equation yields Ε = 2 ε ζ π δ0 4Φ = 4Φν π δ0 ∆δ = (4)(1000 N )(0.1 leads to Ε = s F = = ez A0ez F æd ö2 ez p ç 0 ÷ è2ø = 4F 2 e z p d0 From the definition of Poisson's ratio. given that Poisson's ratio is 0.10 × 10-5 in.31 in.).7 ´ 10 6 psi) ´ .19 Consider a cylindrical specimen of some hypothetical metal alloy that has a diameter of 8. ε x= δ0 ∆δ ε ∆δ εζ = − ξ = − ν δ0 ν Therefore. (Equation 6.0 mm (0. A tensile force of 1000 N (225 lb f) produces an elastic reduction in diameter of 2. Solution This problem asks that we calculate the modulus of elasticity of a metal that is stressed in tension.30) 11 = 1. .8 ´ 10 .5 and 6. Combining Equations 6.

Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. for brass.1 and 6. Then.0 in.5. if ε(test) > ε(yield) computation of the load is not possible inasmuch as deformation is plastic and we have neither a stress-strain plot nor a mathematical expression relating plastic stress and strain.6 mm (0. A cylindrical specimen of this alloy 12. if ε(test) < ε(yield) deformation is elastic.) in diameter and 250 mm (10.0027 103 ´ 10 3 MPa Therefore.).20 A brass alloy is known to have a yield strength of 275 MPa (40.000 psi). .000 psi). calculate the load. On the basis of the information given. a tensile strength of 380 MPa (55. If not.6. However. explain why. computation of the load is not possible since ε(test) > ε(yield).6 mm = = 0. Solution We are asked to ascertain whether or not it is possible to compute.) long is stressed in tension and found to elongate 7.03 l0 250 mm and ε(yield) = s y E = 275 MPa = 0. is it possible to compute the magnitude of the load that is necessary to produce this change in length? If so.30 in. and then the strain experienced by the test specimen.50 in.6 mm (0.). It is first necessary to compute the strain at yielding from the yield strength and the elastic modulus.7 mm (0. and the load may be computed using Equations 6.0 × 106 psi). and an elastic modulus of 103 GPa (15. the magnitude of the load necessary to produce an elongation of 7.30 in. We compute these two strain values as ε(test) = Dl 7.

2 ´ 10 -4 l0 250 mm Since the stress level is given (50 MPa).1 are suitable candidates? Why? (b) If. δ0 . The maximum strain that may be sustained. since the specimen contracts in this lateral direction.) long is to be subjected to a tensile stress of 28 MPa (4000 psi). then the criterion for this part of the problem may be stipulated as − Now.2) is just ε = Dl 0. Ti and W.2 ´ 10.080 mm (3.5 it is possible to compute the minimum modulus of elasticity which is required to yield this minimum strain. Cu.080 mm = = 3. steel.1. the maximum permissible diameter decrease is 1.) in diameter and 250 mm (10 in. which of the metals in Table 6. Poisson’s ratio is defined by Equation 6.7 mm But. Ni. using Equation 6.080 mm when subjected to a tensile stress of 28 MPa. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.) when the tensile stress of 28 MPa is applied. This translates into a maximum lateral strain ε x(max) as εξ (max) = Dd .4 Which means that those metals with moduli of elasticity greater than this value are acceptable candidates— namely.2 ´ 10.6.5 in.45 ´ 10 -5.2 × 10 -3 mm when the tensile stress of 28 MPa is applied.5 GPa e 3.7 mm (0. Hence Ε = s 28 MPa = = 87.9.7 × 10-5 in. which of the metals that satisfy the criterion in part (a) are suitable candidates? Why? Solution (a) This part of the problem asks that we ascertain which of the metals in Table 6. in addition.21 A cylindrical metal specimen 12.). (b) This portion of the problem further stipulates that the maximum permissible diameter decrease is 1.45 ´ 10 -5 d0 12.45 × 10-5.3 mm = = . ∆δ < 9. brass. at this stress level the resulting deformation will be totally elastic. and we are concerned that this strain be less than 9. (a) If the elongation must be less than 0.1 experience an elongation of less than 0.8 as Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted.2 × 10-3 in. (using Equation 6.2 × 10-3 mm (4.

the longitudinal strain. since the δ0 deformation is elastic. Furthermore.65 ´ 10.1 for the six metal alloys that satisfy the criterion for part (a).5.81 ´ 10. and for σ = 28 MPa.34)(28 ´ 10 6 N / m2 ) (copper) = = 8.ε ν=− ξ εζ For each of the metal alloys let us consider a possible lateral strain. then. . from Equation 6. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. ε z is equal to ∆δ εζ = σ Ε Substituting these expressions for ε x and ε z into the definition of Poisson’s ratio we have ∆δ ε δ ν = − ξ =− 0 σ εζ Ε which leads to the following: − ∆δ νσ = δ0 Ε Using values for ν and E found in Table 6.5 9 N / m2 δ0 107 ´ 10 Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted.5 δ0 110 ´ 10 9 N / m2 − ∆δ (0.34)(28 ´ 10 6 N / m2 ) (titanium) = = 8. we are able to compute a − ∆δ δ0 for each alloy as follows: − ∆δ (0.5 δ0 97 ´ 10 9 N / m2 − ∆δ (0. ε ξ = .34)(28 ´ 10 6 N / m2 ) (brass) = = 9.90 ´ 10.

45 × 10-5. steel. Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. This means that the following alloys satisfy the criteria for both parts (a) and (b) of the problem: copper.5 δ0 407 ´ 10 9 N / m2 Thus. only brass will have a negative transverse strain that is greater than 9.30)(28 ´ 10 6 N / m2 ) (steel) = = 4.93 ´ 10. and tungsten. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.− ∆δ (0. of the above six alloys.5 9 N / m2 δ0 207 ´ 10 ∆δ (0.5 9 N / m2 δ0 207 ´ 10 − − ∆δ (0. nickel. titanium.28)(28 ´ 10 6 N / m2 ) (tungsten) = = 1.31)(28 ´ 10 6 N / m2 ) (nickel) = = 4.06 ´ 10. .19 ´ 10.

e..2 ∆λ = el0 = (2. From the definition of strain.24 in.6 × 10-3 mm (–1. compute: (a) the specimen elongation.0 × 10-3.10 mm (4 ´ 10-3 in.1.8 and the definition of lateral strain (i.30.12. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. this stress corresponds to a strain of about 2.d0 n e z = .6.12.) (b) In order to determine the reduction in diameter ∆d. ε = ∆d/d ) as follows 0 x ∆δ = d0ex = .(6 mm)(0.) in diameter and 50 mm (2 in.3 m ö2 pç ÷ 2 è ø 6 = 177Ê Ê10 N/m 2 = 177ÊMPa (25.30) (2.0 ´ 10-3 ) = –3.) long is pulled in tension with a force of 5000 N (1125 lb f). If it is known that this alloy has a Poisson's ratio of 0.) Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Equation 6. . it is necessary to use Equation 6. The first calculation necessary is that of the applied stress using Equation 6. A cylindrical specimen of this material 6 mm (0. 000 psi) ´ From the stress-strain plot in Figure 6.4 × 10-4 in. Solution (a) This portion of the problem asks that we compute the elongation of the brass specimen. as σ = F = A0 F æd ö pç 0÷ è2ø 2 = 5000 N æ6 ´ 10. and (b) the reduction in specimen diameter.22 Consider the brass alloy for which the stress-strain behavior is shown in Figure 6.0 ´ 10-3 ) (50 mm) = 0.

.3 m ö2 10 pç ÷ 2 è ø = 350 ´ 10 6 N/m2 = 350 MPa Of the alloys listed.23 A cylindrical rod 100 mm long and having a diameter of 10.0 mm is to be deformed using a tensile load of 27.500 N is applied.34 This problem asks that we assess the four alloys relative to the two criteria presented.5 × 10-3 mm. it is necessary to calculate the change in diameter ∆d for these three alloys. Relative to the second criterion (i. which are possible candidates? Justify your choice(s). ∆δ = − ν σ δ0 Ε Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. It must not experience either plastic deformation or a diameter reduction of more than 7. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.500 N.8 ∆δ ε δ Ε ∆δ ν = − ξ = − 0 =− σ εζ σ δ0 Ε Now.e.34 0. Upon computing the stress σ = F = A0 F æd ö pç 0÷ è2ø 2 = 27. The first criterion is that the material not experience plastic deformation when the tensile load of 27. the Ti and steel alloys have yield strengths greater than 350 MPa. solving for ∆d from this expression. From Equation 6.500 N æ ´ 10.6. this means that the stress corresponding to this load not exceed the yield strength of the material.30 0.33 0. Material Aluminum alloy Brass alloy Steel alloy Titanium alloy Solution Modulus of Elasticity (GPa) 70 101 207 107 Yield Strength (MPa) 200 300 400 650 Poisson’s Ratio 0.5 × 10-3 mm). Of the materials listed as follows. that ∆d be less than 7. .

For the steel alloy ∆δ = - (0. For the Ti alloy ∆δ = - (0. the titanium alloy is not a candidate. the steel is a candidate.34)(350 MPa )(10 mm) = .11. Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. .30)(350 MPa )(10 mm) = .5. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.1 ´ 10 -3 mm 3 MPa 107 ´ 10 Hence.1 ´ 10 -3 mm 207 ´ 10 3 MPa Therefore.

However.40 in. It is first necessary to compute the stress using Equation 6.2 and 6.24 A cylindrical rod 380 mm (15.6. For brass ∆λ = s l0 (312 MPa)(380 mm) = = 1. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. Next. Modulus of Elasticity (GPa) 70 100 110 207 Solution This problem asks that we ascertain which of four metal alloys will not (1) experience plastic deformation.57 mm E 207 ´ 10 3 MPa Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. If the rod is to experience neither plastic deformation nor an elongation of more than 0.3 m ö pç ÷ 2 è ø = 312 MPa Of the metal alloys listed. . a material to be used for this application must necessarily have a yield strength greater than this value.) when the applied load is 24. we must compute the elongation produced in both brass and steel using Equations 6. for steel ∆λ = s l0 (312 MPa)(380 mm) = = 0. having a diameter of 10.) long.0 mm (0. only brass and steel have yield strengths greater than this stress. brass is not a candidate.035 in.0 in.).500 N 2 æ 10.9 mm. which of the four metals or alloys listed below are possible candidates? Justify your choice(s).500 N (5500 lb f).5 in order to determine whether or not this elongation is less than 0. is to be subjected to a tensile load. Yield Strength (MPa) 255 345 250 450 Tensile Strength (MPa) 420 420 290 550 Material Aluminum alloy Brass alloy Copper Steel alloy σ = F = A0 24.9 mm (0. and (2) elongate more than 0.1.19 mm E 100 ´ 103 MPa Thus. Thus.500 N is applied.0 ´ 10.9 mm when a tensile load of 24.

Therefore, of these four alloys, only steel satisfies the stipulated criteria.

Tensile Properties

6.25 Figure 6.21 shows the tensile engineering stress–strain behavior for a steel alloy. (a) What is the modulus of elasticity? (b) What is the proportional limit? (c) What is the yield strength at a strain offset of 0.002? (d) What is the tensile strength? Solution Using the stress-strain plot for a steel alloy (Figure 6.21), we are asked to determine several of its mechanical characteristics. (a) The elastic modulus is just the slope of the initial linear portion of the curve; or, from the inset and using Equation 6.10

Ε =

s2e2 -

s 1 (200 - 0) M Pa = = 200 ´ 103 M Pa = 200 G Pa (29 ´ 106 psi) e1 (0.0010- 0)

The value given in Table 6.1 is 207 GPa. (b) The proportional limit is the stress level at which linearity of the stress-strain curve ends, which is approximately 300 MPa (43,500 psi). (c) The 0.002 strain offset line intersects the stress-strain curve at approximately 400 MPa (58,000 psi). (d) The tensile strength (the maximum on the curve) is approximately 515 MPa (74,700 psi).

6.26 A cylindrical specimen of a brass alloy having a length of 60 mm (2.36 in.) must elongate only 10.8 mm (0.425 in.) when a tensile load of 50,000 N (11,240 lbf) is applied. Under these circumstances, what must be the radius of the specimen? Consider this brass alloy to have the stress-strain behavior shown in Figure 6.12. Solution We are asked to calculate the radius of a cylindrical brass specimen in order to produce an elongation of 10.8 mm when a load of 50,000 N is applied. It first becomes necessary to compute the strain corresponding to this elongation using Equation 6.2 as

ε =

Dl 10.8 mm = = 0.18 l0 60 mm

From Figure 6.12, a stress of 420 MPa (61,000 psi) corresponds to this strain. Since for a cylindrical specimen, stress, force, and initial radius r0 are related as

σ =

π ρ2 0

Φ

then

ρ = 0

F = ps

50,000 N = 0.0062 m = 6.2 mm (0.24 in.) p (420 ´ 10 6 N / m2 )

6.27 A load of 85,000 N (19,100 lbf) is applied to a cylindrical specimen of a steel alloy (displaying the stress–strain behavior shown in Figure 6.21) that has a cross-sectional diameter of 15 mm (0.59 in.). (a) Will the specimen experience elastic and/or plastic deformation? Why? (b) If the original specimen length is 250 mm (10 in.), how much will it increase in length when this load is applied? Solution This problem asks us to determine the deformation characteristics of a steel specimen, the stress-strain behavior for which is shown in Figure 6.21. (a) In order to ascertain whether the deformation is elastic or plastic, we must first compute the stress, then locate it on the stress-strain curve, and, finally, note whether this point is on the elastic or plastic region. Thus, from Equation 6.1

σ =

F = A0

85, 000 N æ ´ 10 - 3 m ö2 15 pç ÷ 2 è ø

= 481Ê 10 6 ÊN/m2 Ê=481ÊMPa (69, 900 psi) ´

The 481 MPa point is beyond the linear portion of the curve, and, therefore, the deformation will be both elastic and plastic. (b) This portion of the problem asks us to compute the increase in specimen length. From the stressstrain curve, the strain at 481 MPa is approximately 0.0135. Thus, from Equation 6.2

∆λ = e l0 = (0.0135)(250 mm) = 3.4 mm (0.135 in.)

6.1 Φ = σΑ0 = σβ2 in which b is the cross-section side length.21 is subjected to a tensile load.3 l0 300 mm This is near the end of the elastic region. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.21. this corresponds to a stress of about 300 MPa (43.018 in. .) on a side. the specimen is 300 mm (12 in. and of square cross section 4. Φ = (300 ´ 106 N/m2 ) (4.175 in. Thus. Now.500 psi). and then the corresponding stress from the plot.).5 mm (0.21.45 mm for the steel displaying the stress-strain behavior shown in Figure 6. ε = Dl 0. (a) Compute the magnitude of the load necessary to produce an elongation of 0. (b) What will be the deformation after the load has been released? Solution (a) We are asked to compute the magnitude of the load necessary to produce an elongation of 0.) long. calculate the strain.5 ´ 10-3 m) 2 = 6075 N (1366 lb f ) (b) elastically. from Equation 6.45 mm (0.28 A bar of a steel alloy that exhibits the stress-strain behavior shown in Figure 6. After the load is released there will be no deformation since the material was strained only Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted.45 mm = =1. from the inset of Figure 6.5 ´ 10. First.

300 44. Solution mm 50. (b) Compute the modulus of elasticity.000 in.8 mm) and a gauge length of 2.182 Length in. (50.080 2. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.650 3.054 51.600 36.500 46.002 2.100 23. (e) What is the approximate ductility.800 42.200 6.100 44.200 47.850 7.750 8.6.010 2.650 9.400 10.100 30.848 54.952 51.040 2.864 55. (c) Determine the yield strength at a strain offset of 0.800 46.100 9.002.240 2.400 41.160 2.420 59.816 52.400 lbf 0 1.008 2.120 2. given its tensile load-length data. 2.100 10. Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted.800 50.200 2.902 50.000 2.600 8. in percent elongation? (f) Compute the modulus of resilience.851 50.880 56.400 38.006 2.658 58.800 mm) is pulled in tension.400 5. complete parts (a) through (f).330 This problem calls for us to make a stress-strain plot for aluminum.004 2. (d) Determine the tensile strength of this alloy.300 2.300 47.330 15.29 A cylindrical specimen of aluminum having a diameter of 0.400 10.020 2. (12.003 51. and then to determine some of its mechanical characteristics.308 51.896 57. .200 Fracture (a) Plot the data as engineering stress versus engineering strain. Use the load–elongation characteristics tabulated below to Load N 0 7.400 34.650 10.505 in.270 2.300 10.832 53.700 10.

0032 .5 GPa De 0.5 ´ 10 3 MPa = 62.0 MPa = = 62.(a) The data are plotted below on two plots: the first corresponds to the entire stress-strain curve.10) as Ε = Ds 200 MPa .0 (9. the curve extends to just beyond the elastic region of deformation. while for the second. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. (b) The elastic modulus is the slope in the linear elastic region (Equation 6. .1 ´ 10 6 psi) Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted.

using data computed above gives a value of σ2 ψ 2Ε Υρ = (285 MPa) 2 = 0. The total fracture strain at fracture is 0. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. corresponding to the maximum stress on the complete stress-strain plot. It intersects the stress-strain curve at approximately 285 MPa (41. Thus. the ductility is about 16%EL.002 strain offset line is drawn dashed. is just the plastic strain at fracture.005) leaves a plastic strain of 0.160.8 in.3 ) Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted.(c) For the yield strength.000 psi ). the modulus of resilience is just Υρ = which. (e) The ductility. in percent elongation.5 ´ 10 5 J/m 3 (2) (62.lb f /in. multiplied by one-hundred.65 ´ 10 6 N/m2 = 6.. (d) The tensile strength is approximately 370 MPa (54.000 psi). .165.5 ´ 10 3 MPa) (93.14.65 MN/m 2 = 0. the 0. (f) From Equation 6. subtracting out the elastic strain (which is about 0.

982 3.8 mm × 15.110 5.366 3.955 2.560 6.525 75.970 lbf 0 1.140 12. Using the load-elongation data tabulated below.000 75.30 A specimen of ductile cast iron having a rectangular cross section of dimensions 4.000 82.430 4.493 (a) Plot the data as engineering stress versus engineering strain.957 2.240 31.720 4.725 Length in.530 5.190 24.500 84. in percent elongation? Solution Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted.025 6.962 2.265 Fracture mm 75.012 3. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.6.189 3.930 6.225 75.9 mm (3/16 in.500 78.145 5.300 20.002.800 28.750 76.954 2.030 6.180 27.130 3.110 4.075 75.248 3.280 30.500 87.640 30.000 79.170 22. complete problems (a) through (f).150 75.050 75.820 29. × 5/8 in.900 3.973 2. (c) Determine the yield strength at a strain offset of 0.740 9.025 75.968 2.920 16.440 6. (b) Compute the modulus of elasticity. Load N 0 4.000 7. (d) Determine the tensile strength of this alloy.953 2.956 2. 2.540 18.000 85. .071 3.113 75.070 26.500 81.307 3.) is deformed in tension.100 31.375 75. (e) Compute the modulus of resilience.065 2.055 2.635 6.800 7. (f) What is the ductility.900 25.000 88.425 3.959 2.140 18.

given its tensile load-length data. and then to determine some of its mechanical characteristics. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. . the curve extends just beyond the elastic region of deformation. (b) The elastic modulus is the slope in the linear elastic region (Equation 6.This problem calls for us to make a stress-strain plot for a ductile cast iron.10) as Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. while for the second. (a) The data are plotted below on two plots: the first corresponds to the entire stress-strain curve.

0 MPa = = 200 ´ 10 3 MPa = 200 GPa De 0. Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted.3) (f) The ductility. multiplied by one-hundred. . using data computed above. is just the plastic strain at fracture. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. the modulus of resilience is just σ2 ψ 2Ε Υρ = which.Ε = Ds 100 MPa .001) leaves a plastic strain of 0.96 ´ 10 5 J/m3 (28. The total fracture strain at fracture is 0.4%EL.184. (e) From Equation 6. in percent elongation. the ductility is about 18.002 strain offset line is drawn dashed. (d) The tensile strength is approximately 410 MPa (59.. It intersects the stress-strain curve at approximately 280 MPa (40. Thus.14. subtracting out the elastic strain (which is about 0.0 (29 ´ 10 6 psi) (c) For the yield strength. yields a value of Υρ = (280 ´ 10 6 N / m2 ) 2 (2) (200 ´ 10 9 N / m2 ) = 1.0005 . the 0.lb f /in.3 in. corresponding to the maximum stress on the complete stress-strain plot.500 psi).500 psi).185.

Thus. 14 %EL).. (b) the tensile strength. 12%) minus the maximum elastic strain (i. and percent elongation values for the anneal Ti-6Al-4V are 830 MPa. and 14%EL. while for the solution heat treated and aged alloy.5 vs. this gives a value of about 11.e. How do these values compare with those for the two Ti-6Al-4V alloys presented in Table B.e. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. 900 MPa). yield strength. tensile strength and percent elongation values for the VMSE alloy are slightly lower than for the annealed material in Table B.4 (720 vs 830 MPa. whereas the tensile strength is slightly higher (1000 vs. tensile strength. The intersection of a straight line parallel to the initial linear region of the curve and offset at a strain of 0. Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. From Table B.4 in Appendix B. in percent elongation.4 of Appendix B? Solution (a) It is possible to do a screen capture and then print out the entire stress-strain curve for the Ti alloy.002 with this curve is at approximately 720 MPa.5%). value of strain at which the linearity of the curve ends multiplied by 100— in this case about 0. and (c) the approximate ductility. (b) The maximum reading in the stress window located below the plot as the curser point is dragged along the stress-strain curve is 1000 MPa.5%EL.31 For the titanium alloy. and 10%EL.002 strain offset). . and 11. the corresponding values are 1103 MPa. whose stress strain behavior may be observed in the “Tensile Tests” module of Virtual Materials Science and Engineering (VMSE). the value of the tensile strength. 900 MPa. 1172 MPa.6.. (c) The approximate percent elongation corresponds to the strain at fracture multiplied by 100 (i. determine the following: (a) the approximate yield strength (0.

. respectively.. value of strain at which the linearity of the curve ends multiplied by 100—in this case about 0.e.4 of Appendix B? Solution (a) It is possible to do a screen capture and then print out the entire stress-strain curve for the tempered steel alloy.8%). Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. For the oil-quenched and tempered 4140 and 4340 steel alloys. finally. (b) the tensile strength. this gives a value of about 14.4 of Appendix B are 1570 MPa and 1620 MPa. The intersection of a straight line parallel to the initial linear region of the curve and offset at a strain of 0. in percent elongation. and (c) the approximate ductility. And.002 strain offset). the value of the tensile strength..8%) minus the maximum elastic strain (i. which are slightly lower than the 14%EL value for the VMSE steel. the respective ductilities for the 4140 and 4340 alloys are 11.002 with this curve is at approximately 1430 MPa. yield strength values presented in Table B. How do these values compare with those for the oil-quenched and tempered 4140 and 4340 steel alloys presented in Table B. 14. Tensile strength values for these 4140 and 4340 alloys are.0%EL.e. whose stress strain behavior may be observed in the “Tensile Tests” module of Virtual Materials Science and Engineering (VMSE). determine the following: (a) the approximate yield strength (0. (b) The maximum reading in the stress window located below the plot as the curser point is dragged along the stress-strain curve is 1656 MPa.6. (c) The approximate percent elongation corresponds to the strain at fracture multiplied by 100 (i. respectively 1720 MPa and 1760 MPa (compared to 1656 MPa for the VMSE steel).32 For the tempered steel alloy.5%EL and 12%EL. these values are somewhat larger than the 1430 MPa for the tempered steel alloy of VMSE. Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted.

4%) minus the maximum elastic strain (i.9%EL).e. in percent elongation. 22. the yield strength value presented in Table B.5%). the ductility for 2024T351 is 20%EL. determine the following: (a) the approximate yield strength (0. and (c) the approximate ductility.4 of Appendix B is 325. (b) The maximum reading in the stress window located below the plot as the curser point is dragged along the stress-strain curve is 484 MPa. . the value of the tensile strength..002 with this curve is at approximately 300 MPa. (b) the tensile strength.002 strain offset). this gives a value of about 21. And. The tensile strength value for the 2024-T351 is 470 MPa (compared to 484 MPa for the VMSE alloy). For the 2024 aluminum alloy (T351 temper).33 For the aluminum alloy.e. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. whose stress strain behavior may be observed in the “Tensile Tests” module of Virtual Materials Science and Engineering (VMSE).4 of Appendix B? Solution (a) It is possible to do a screen capture and then print out the entire stress-strain curve for the aluminum alloy.6. which is slightly larger than the 300 MPa for the aluminum alloy of VMSE. finally.. which is about the same as for the VMSE aluminum (21. (c) The approximate percent elongation corresponds to the strain at fracture multiplied by 100 (i. The intersection of a straight line parallel to the initial linear region of the curve and offset at a strain of 0. How do these values compare with those for the 2024 aluminum alloy (T351 temper) presented in Table B. value of strain at which the linearity of the curve ends multiplied by 100—in this case about 0. Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted.9%EL.

(c) The approximate percent elongation corresponds to the strain at fracture multiplied by 100 (i. . for this steel.0%) minus the maximum elastic strain (i.6. and (c) the approximate ductility.. (b) The maximum reading in the stress window located below the plot as the curser point is dragged along the stress-strain curve is 274 MPa. the value of the tensile strength. which. Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted.4%EL. this gives a value of about 42. is about 225 MPa. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. in percent elongation.6%).e.. (b) the tensile strength. we take the yield strength as the lower yield point.34 For the (plain) carbon steel alloy. determine the following: (a) the approximate yield strength. 43. Solution (a) It is possible to do a screen capture and then print out the entire stress-strain curve for the plain carbon steel alloy. Inasmuch as the stress-strain curve displays the yield point phenomenon.e. value of strain at which the linearity of the curve ends multiplied by 100—in this case about 0. whose stress strain behavior may be observed in the “Tensile Tests” module of Virtual Materials Science and Engineering (VMSE).

8 mm ö pç ÷ è ø 2 While.l0 ö % EL = ç ÷ ´ 100 è l0 ø = 72.35 A cylindrical metal specimen having an original diameter of 12.8 mm ö pç ÷ .505 in.8 mm (0. we use Equation 6.80 mm (2. for percent elongation.840 in.80 mm ´ 100 = 42% 50.pç ÷ è ø è ø 2 2 %RA = ´ 100 = 73.6.14 mm .60 mm (0.4% 2 æ 12. Percent reduction in area is computed using Equation 6. and the fractured gauge length is 72. . respectively. Calculate the ductility in terms of percent reduction in area and percent elongation.12 as æd f ö2 æd ö2 pç 0÷ .260 in. The diameter at the point of fracture is 6.pç ÷ è2ø è2 ø %RA = ´ 100 2 æd0 ö pç ÷ è2ø in which d0 and df are.80 mm Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted.) is pulled in tension until fracture occurs.000 in. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.). the original and fracture cross-sectional areas. Solution This problem calls for the computation of ductility in both percent reduction in area and percent elongation.) and gauge length of 50. 2 æ æ6.60 mm ö2 12.).14 mm (2.11 as æl f .50. Thus.

12 are determined in Example Problem 6.000 y psi) and 93.21) are determined in Problem 6. .36 Calculate the moduli of resilience for the materials having the stress–strain behaviors shown in Figures 6.21. and therefore Υρ = MPa) 2 = 4.6 × 106 psi).lb f /in.25 as 400 MPa (58. According to Equation 6.21. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.14. Solution This problem asks us to calculate the moduli of resilience for the materials having the stress-strain behaviors shown in Figures 6.3 as 250 MPa (36.lb f /in. the modulus of resilience Ur is a function of the yield strength and the modulus of elasticity as σ2 ψ 2Ε Υρ = The values for σ and E for the brass in Figure 6. respectively. .12 and 6.3 ) 3 MPa) (2) (200 ´ 10 ( 400 Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted.8 GPa (13.0 ´ 10 5 J/m 3 Ê(58 in.32 ´ 10 5 J/m 3 (2) (93.3) Values of the corresponding parameters for the steel alloy (Figure 6. respectively.12 and 6.8 ´ 10 3 MPa) (48.2 in.000 psi) and 200 GPa (29 × 106 psi). Thus Υρ = (250 MPa) 2 = 3.6. .

3) For the brass Υρ = (350 ´ 10 6 N / m2 ) 2 (2) (97 ´ 10 9 N / m2 ) = 6.14. whereas the elastic moduli are tabulated in Table 6.3 ) And. For steel σ2 ψ 2Ε Υρ = = (550 ´ 106 N / m2 ) 2 (2) (207 ´ 109 N / m2 ) = 7. Solution The moduli of resilience of the alloys listed in the table may be determined using Equation 6..31 ´ 105 J/m3 (92. for the titanium alloy Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted.. Yield strength values are provided in this table.lb f /in.000 50..7 in.750 36.lb f /in.6.53 ´ 105 J/m3 (65.37 Determine the modulus of resilience for each of the following alloys: Yield Strength Material Steel alloy Brass alloy Aluminum alloy Titanium alloy MPa 550 350 250 800 psi 80.31 ´ 105 J/m3 (107 in. .0 in. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.1.3) For the aluminum alloy Υρ = (250 ´ 106 N / m2 ) 2 (2) (69 ´ 10 9 N / m2 ) = 4.lbf /in.1.250 116.000 Use modulus of elasticity values in Table 6.

3) Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.Υρ = (800 ´ 106 N / m2 ) 2 (2) (107 ´ 10 9 N / m2 ) = 30.0 ´ 105 J/m3 (434 in.. .lb f /in.

Solving for σy from this expression yields σψ = 2U r E = (2) (0. and elastic modulus of elasticity are related to one another through Equation 6.500 psi) Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. yield strength. the value of E for brass given in Table 6.1 is 97 GPa.75 MPa (110 psi).75 MPa) (97 ´ 10 3 MPa) = 381 MPa (55.6.14. What must be its minimum yield strength? Solution The modulus of resilience. . Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.38 A brass alloy to be used for a spring application must have a modulus of resilience of at least 0.

15 yields σΤ = F F æli ö = ç ÷= s Ai A0 è l0 ø æl ö ç i÷ è l0 ø But. Solution To show that Equation 6.2 λ ε = ι − 1 λ 0 Or λ 0 Thus.18a and 6. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.17 as Show that Equations 6. . from Equation 6.16 Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. we must first rearrange Equation 6. from Equation 6.18b are valid when there is no volume change during Α = ι Α0 λ 0 λ ι Substituting this expression into Equation 6.18a is valid. λ ι = ε + 1 λ σΤ = σ ι = σ (ε + 1) λ 0 For Equation 6.True Stress and Strain 6.39 deformation.18b εΤ = λν(1 + ε) is valid since.

Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. .æl ö εΤ = ln ç i ÷ è l0 ø and λ 0 from above. λ ι =ε + 1 Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted.

17 leads to λ 0 Thus.40 Demonstrate that Equation 6. Equation 6. .6. è Ai ø Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. the expression defining true strain. may also be represented by A ∈T = ln ç 0 ÷ è Ai ø when specimen volume remains constant during deformation.16 takes the form λ ι = Α0 Α ι l A ∈T = ln ç i ÷ = ln ç 0 ÷ è l0 ø è Ai ø æ ö æ ö The expression ∈T = ln ç æA ö 0 ÷ is more valid during necking because Ai is taken as the area of the neck. Which of these two expressions is more valid during necking? Why? Solution This problem asks us to demonstrate that true strain may also be represented by æ ö A ∈T = ln ç 0 ÷ è Ai ø æ ö Rearrangement of Equation 6.16.

28 and Equations 6.896 57.600 8. 6.15. measured diameters are given below for the last four data points.41 Using the data in Problem 6.6.270 2. mm 56. 2.600 36.461 0.400 10. .300 2. therefore. Load N 46.182 Length in.658 58.18a becomes invalid past the point at which necking begins. 0.400 42.330 Diameter mm 11.431 0.200 Solution These true stress-strain data are plotted below.18a.418 0.100 42.240 2. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.370 Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted.100 9. which should be used in true stress computations. generate a true stress–true strain plot for aluminum.40 in.420 59.62 9. and 6.16.95 10.71 10. Equation 6.400 lbf 10.

000 psi).19. for the same metal.19 is 860 MPa (125.42 A tensile test is performed on a metal specimen. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. leads to æs T ö1/n æ600 MPaö1/0.237 ÷ èK ø è 860 MPaø Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. .000 psi).250 log (0.log K log eT And.6. incorporating values of the parameters provided in the problem statement leads to n= log (575 MPa ) . Calculate the true strain that results from the application of a true stress of 600 MPa (87. Solution It first becomes necessary to solve for n in Equation 6.log (860 MPa ) = 0. and it is found that a true plastic strain of 0.20) Expressing ε T as the dependent variable (Equation 6.20 is produced when a true stress of 575 MPa (83.19). Taking logarithms of this expression and after rearrangement we have ν = log s T . and then solving for its value from the data stipulated in the problem statement.500 psi) is applied. the value of K in Equation 6.250 εΤ = ç ÷ = ç = 0.

the elongation ∆l is just ∆λ = li . .179 = ln ç i ÷ ÷ èK ø è 500 M Pa ø è l0 ø Now.8 mm.300 mm = 58.8 in. Thus æl ö æs ö1/n æ325 M Pa 1/0. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.)? Assume a value of 0. How much will a specimen of this material elongate when a true stress of 325 MPa (46.25 for the strain-hardening exponent n.19.25 Next we must solve for the true strain produced when a true stress of 325 MPa is applied. solving for li gives λ = l0 e 0. Solution Solution of this problem requires that we utilize Equation 6.500 psi) (eT ) n (0.31 in.25 ö εΤ = ç T ÷ = ç = 0.475.125 psi) is applied if the original length is 300 mm (11.475) 0.43 For some metal alloy.179 = 358. It is first necessary to solve for K from the given true stress and strain.l0 = 358. a true stress of 415 MPa (60.6.8 mm (14. also using Equation 6. Rearrangement of this equation yields Κ = sT 415 M Pa = = 500 M Pa (72.19.179 = (300 mm) e 0.) Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted.8 mm (2.) ι And finally.11 in.175 psi) produces a plastic true strain of 0.

20) Solving for n from these two expressions yields ν= log (50.44 The following true stresses produce the corresponding true plastic strains for a brass alloy: True Stress (psi) 50.000 psi) = log K + n log (0.19. 000) .000 True Strain 0.10 0. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. we may set up two simultaneous equations with two unknowns (the unknowns being K and n).263 = 63.25? Solution For this problem.25)0. for ε T = 0.10) log (60. as log (50.623 psi)(0.log (0.700 psi (440 MPa) Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted.25 σ Τ = K (eT ) n = (91. Employing Equation 6.000 60. we are given two values of ε T and σT.20) and for K log K = 4.263 log (0. 000 psi) = log K + n log (0.20 What true stress is necessary to produce a true plastic strain of 0. .6.log (60.25.10 ) .96 = 91. 000) = 0. from which we are asked to calculate the true stress which produces a true plastic strain of 0.623 psi Thus.96 or K = 104.

45 For a brass alloy.1 9 4 ) 0 . since ε T = ln(1 + ε) then εΤ 1 = ln (1 + 0 .2 9 6 = 0 . with K and n as unknowns. compute the engineering stress necessary to produce an engineering strain of 0.1 9 4 )= 2 8 0 M P a + σ Τ 2 = (2 5 0 M P a)(1 0 .19. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.25.177) log (324) = log K + n log (0.19 may be determined.2 96 )= 3 2 4 M P a + Similarly for strains.2 5 9 ) Taking logarithms of Equation 6. the following engineering stresses produce the corresponding plastic engineering strains. Solution For this problem we first need to convert engineering stresses and strains to true stresses and strains so that the constants K and n in Equation 6. .296 On the basis of this information. Since σT = σ(1 + ε) then σ Τ 1 = (2 3 5 M P a)(1 0 . Thus log (280) = log K + n log (0.194 0.6.1 7 7 = εΤ 2 = ln (1 + 0 .259) Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. prior to necking: Engineering Stress (MPa) 235 250 Engineering Strain 0. we get λογ σΤ = λογ Κ + ν λογ εΤ which allows us to set up two simultaneous equations for the above pairs of true stresses and true strains.

Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.25 to true strain εΤ = ln (1 + 0.18a gives σ = sT 306 MPa = = 245 MPa 1 + e 1 + 0.223 The corresponding σT to give this value of ε T (using Equation 6.383 = 306 MPa Now converting this value of σT to an engineering stress using Equation 6.19) is just n σ Τ = KeT = (543 MPa)(0.223) 0.25 Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted.383.25) = 0. Now. . converting ε = 0.Solving for these two expressions yields K = 543 MPa and n = 0.

Solution This problem calls for us to compute the toughness (or energy to cause fracture). Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. . respectively.3 .75 0. For plastic deformation.19. in which the values for K and n are 6900 MPa (1 × 106 psi) and 0.65 × 109 J/m3 (5.75 = ò 0 Ee d e + òKen d e 0.75. Furthermore. The easiest way to do this is to integrate both elastic and plastic regions.01 and 0. assume that the relationship between stress and strain is described by Equation 6.01 0 K + e(n+1) (n + 1) 0.5 for elastic deformation. Toughness = ∫ σ δε 0. that the modulus of elasticity is 172 GPa (25 × 106 psi).46 Find the toughness (or energy to cause fracture) for a metal that experiences both elastic and plastic deformation.29 × 105 in.3) = 3.01) 2 + [ (0.3 (0.30.01 0.01) 1.75) ] 2 (1. plastic deformation occurs between strain values of 0.3) f Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. and then add them together. at which point fracture occurs. Assume Equation 6.(0.0 + 0.01 Ee2 = 2 0.01 = 172 ´ 10 9 N/m 2 6900 ´ 10 6 N/ m2 1.-lb /in.01. and that elastic deformation terminates at a strain of 0.6.

Solution (6. determine the value of the true strain at this onset of necking. which. σ = K(ε ) .19.26) Let us take the derivative of Equation 6. from Equation 6.1) = K (eT ) n Now solving for ε T from this equation leads to ε =n T as the value of the true strain at the onset of necking.19.6.47 For a tensile test. yields T T Κν (eT )(n .1) = s T However. and then solve for ε T from the resulting expression. Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. . set it equal to σT.19. when substituted into the above expression. Thus δ [Κ (eT ) n ] d eT n = Kn (eT )(n. it can be demonstrated that necking begins when δσ Τ = σΤ δεΤ Using Equation 6. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

19 yields log σT = log K + n log ∈T (6. and 10th data points may be utilized. make a plot of log σT versus log ∈T and determine the values of n and K.19 is only valid in the region of plastic deformation to the point of necking.7497 for log K.136 for n. and thus K = 102. respectively. . The log-log plot with these data points is given below. Using the appropriate data tabulated in Problem 6. whereas the intercept gives a value of 2. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. Solution This problem calls for us to utilize the appropriate data from Problem 6.18a and 6.7497 = 562 MPa. a plot of log σT versus log ∈T in the plastic region to the point of necking should yield a straight line having a slope of n and an intercept (at log σT = 0) of log K. The slope yields a value of 0.6.48 Taking the logarithm of both sides of Equation 6.18b. It will be necessary to convert engineering stresses and strains to true stresses and strains using Equations 6.27 the slope and intercept of a log σT versus log ε T plot will yield n and log K. thus. From Equation 6.27) Thus. However. only the 7th.29. 9th. Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Equation 6. 8th.29 in order to determine the values of n and K for this material.

Solution (a) In order to determine the final length of the brass specimen when the load is released. computing the stress σ = 16. 000 psi) Upon locating this point on the stress-strain curve (Figure 6.) long is pulled in tension with a force of 6000 N (1350 lbf). Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. when the load is increased to 16.08 which is the amount of plastic strain.20 mm (3.5 ´ 10.).1.0 mm (3.Elastic Recovery After Plastic Deformation 6. the force is subsequently released. Again.54 in. (b) In this portion of the problem we are asked to calculate the final length.82 in. therefore.) in diameter and 90.5 ´ 10.3 m ö2 pç ÷ 2 è ø = 136 MPa (19. elastic region.2 as li = l0(1 + ε) = (90 mm)(1 + 0. (a) Compute the final length of the specimen at this time.49 A cylindrical specimen of a brass alloy 7.12). 300 psi) The point on the stress-strain curve corresponding to this stress is in the plastic region. it first becomes necessary to compute the applied stress using Equation 6. The tensile stress–strain behavior for this alloy is shown in Figure 6.54 in.3 m ö2 pç ÷ 2 è ø = 373 MPa (52. this line intersects the strain axis at a strain of about 0. thus σ = F = A0 F æd ö pç 0 ÷ è2ø 2 = 6000 N æ7. we note that it is in the linear.30 in.500 N (3700 lbf) and then released. The final specimen length li may be determined from a rearranged form of Equation 6. 500 N æ7. when the load is released the specimen will return to its original length of 90 mm (3.500 N (3700 lbf). We are able to estimate the amount of permanent strain by drawing a straight line parallel to the linear elastic region.5 mm (0. (b) Compute the final specimen length when the load is increased to 16. .08) = 97. after load release.) Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted.12.

Thus σ = 38. since E = 207 GPa for steel (Table 6.3 m) From Figure 6.300 psi) (12.25 in.) has the stress–strain behavior shown in Figure 6. ε p is just the difference between the total and elastic strains.000 N = 468 ´ 10 6 N / m2 = 468 MPa (68.00774 Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. thus σ = Φ Φ = Α0 β0 δ0 where b0 and d0 are cross-sectional width and depth (12. what will be its final length after the load in part (a) is applied and then released? Solution (a) We are asked to determine both the elastic and plastic strain values when a tensile force of 38.7 mm × 6.00226 = 0.5 as εε = And.010 – 0.1) σ Ε εε = 468 MPa = 0. is about 0. (b) If its original length is 460 mm (18. First it becomes necessary to determine the applied stress using Equation 6.0 in.4 mm (0. The total strain at this point.21. ε t.000 N (8540 lbf) is applied to the steel specimen and then released. respectively).1. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.21.5 in.000 N (8540 lbf) then (a) Determine the elastic and plastic strain values.010.3 m)(6. If this specimen is subjected to a tensile force of 38.6. this point is in the plastic region so the specimen will be both elastic and plastic strains.7 mm and 6. We are able to estimate the amount of permanent strain recovery ε e from Hooke's law. × 0. Equation 6.7 ´ 10.4 ´ 10.00226 207 ´ 10 3 MPa The value of the plastic strain.4 mm. that is ε p = ε t – ε e = 0.). .50 A steel alloy specimen having a rectangular cross section of dimensions 12.

) Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted.(b) If the initial length is 460 mm (18.14 in.0 in. .00774) = 463.) then the final specimen length li may be determined from a rearranged form of Equation 6.2 using the plastic strain value as li = l0(1 + ε p) = (460 mm)(1 + 0.6 mm (18. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

Hardness 6. Compute the HB of this material.62 mm) 2 ] = 241 (b) This part of the problem calls for us to determine the indentation diameter d which will yield a 450 HB when P = 500 kg.62 mm. Solving for d from the equation in Table 6.51 (a) A 10-mm-diameter Brinell hardness indenter produced an indentation 1. d = 1. It is necessary to use the equation in Table 6. and D = 10 mm.5 for HB.19 mm (450 )(p)(10 mm) û ë Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. . Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.(1.5 gives 2 é 2Π ù ∆ 2 − ê∆ − ú (HB)p D û ë δ = = 2 é (2)(500 kg) ù (10mm) 2 .62 mm in diameter in a steel alloy when a load of 500 kg was used.ê10 mm ú = 1. where P = 500 kg. Thus.d2 ] HB = = (2)(500 kg ) (p)(10 mm) [10 mm (10 mm) 2 . the Brinell hardness is computed as 2P p D [D D2 . (b) What will be the diameter of an indentation to yield a hardness of 450 HB when a 500 kg load is used? Solution (a) We are asked to compute the Brinell hardness for the given indentation.

Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. (b) The steel alloy (Figure 6.45 Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. This corresponds to a hardness of about 160 HB or ~90 HRB from the line for steels in Figure 6. Alternately. (a) For the brass specimen.25(d)].21.20a HB = TS (MPa) 515 MPa = = 149 3.000 psi). using Equation 6.12. the tensile strength is 450 MPa (65. the hardness for brass corresponding to this tensile strength is about 125 HB or 70 HRB.45 3.19. the stress-strain behavior for which is shown in Figure 6.700 psi) [Problem 6.6. From Figure 6.19.52 Estimate the Brinell and Rockwell hardnesses for the following: (a) The naval brass for which the stress–strain behavior is shown in Figure 6. .21) has a tensile strength of about 515 MPa (74. (b) The steel alloy for which the stress–strain behavior is shown in Figure 6.12. Solution This problem calls for estimations of Brinell and Rockwell hardnesses.

Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. from Figure 6. similar to Equations 6. respectively. if we make the arbitrary choice of (HB)1 and (HB)2 as 200 and 300.000 psi) and 1100 MPa (160.(HB)1 For nodular cast iron.53 Using the data represented in Figure 6. (TS)1 and (TS)2 take on values of 600 MPa (87.300 HB (730 psi/HB) Now. are of the form TS = C + (E)(HB) where TS is the tensile strength. Substituting these values into the above expression and solving for E gives Ε = 600 MPa . for nodular cast iron. as (TS)1 = C + (E)(BH)1 (TS)2 = C + (E)(BH)2 Solving for E from these two expressions yields Ε = (TS )1 .20a and 6. these two equations take the form Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted.0 MPa/HB)(200 HB) = – 400 MPa (– 59. Solution These equations. which need to be determined.000 psi). HB is the Brinell hardness. then.0 MPa/HB 200 HB .20b for steels.19.1100 MPa = 5. . for a straight line. specify equations relating tensile strength and Brinell hardness for brass and nodular cast iron. solving for C yields C = (TS)1 – (E)(BH)1 = 600 MPa .(TS) 2 (HB) 2 . One way to solve for C and E is analytically--establishing two equations using TS and HB data points on the plot.000 psi) Thus. and C and E are constants.19. respectively.(5.6.

solving for C yields C = (TS)1 – (E)(BH)1 = 370 MPa – (2. (TS)1 and (TS)2 take on values of 370 MPa (54. for brass these two equations take the form TS(MPa) = 80 + 2.9 x HB TS(psi) = 13.TS(MPa) = – 400 + 5. Substituting these values into the above expression and solving for E gives Ε = 370 ΜΠα − 660 ΜΠα = 2.200 HB (410 psi/HB) Now.9 MPa/HB 100 HB .000 + 730 x HB Now for brass. from Figure 7.0 x HB TS(psi) = – 59. respectively.31.000 psi). we take (HB)1 and (HB)2 as 100 and 200. . then.9 MPa/HB)(100 HB) = 80 MPa (13. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. respectively.000 + 410 x HB Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted.000 psi) and 660 MPa (95.000 psi) Thus.

Solution The five factors that lead to scatter in measured material properties are the following: (1) test method. (2) variation in specimen fabrication procedure. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.54 Cite five factors that lead to scatter in measured material properties. Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. . (3) operator bias.Variability of Material Properties 6. (4) apparatus calibration. and (5) material inhomogeneities and/or compositional differences.

+ (86.5 86.22 as follows: 15 å σ= i=1 ( HRB i .3) 2 + (88.4 86. .3 = 85.85.HRB) 15 .21 as 15 80.3 + 82.9 84.55 Below are tabulated a number of Rockwell B hardness values that were measured on a single steel specimen.3) 2 ù1/2 =ê ú 14 ë û = 60.31 = 2. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.3 . + 86.3 + 88.3 .8 83.6. . .3 å HRB = i=1 HRBi 15 = 83.1 2 é(83.8 .3) 2 + .3 15 And we compute the standard deviation using Equation 6.4 85.2 86.7 87. 83.5 85.2 Solution The average of the given hardness values is calculated using Equation 6.3 82. .3 88.8 86. . .3 .85.2 87.08 14 Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted.85. Compute average and standard deviation hardness values.7 84. .

Design/Safety Factors 6.56 Upon what three criteria are factors of safety based? Solution The criteria upon which factors of safety are based are (1) consequences of failure. (3) accuracy of measurement of mechanical forces and/or material properties. . Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. and (4) economics. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. (2) previous experience.

12). therefore.000 psi).000 psi).000 psi). since σy = 250 MPa (36. the working stress is 125 MPa (18. .6. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. whereas for the steel alloy (Figure 6. which we will take to be 2. and. Solution The working stresses for the two alloys the stress-strain behaviors of which are shown in Figures 6.12 and 6.21. σw = 200 MPa (29.000 psi). For the brass alloy (Figure 6.57 Determine working stresses for the two alloys that have the stress–strain behaviors shown in Figures 6.21 are calculated by dividing the yield strength by a factor of safety.12 and 6.21). Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. σy = 400 MPa (58.

and subsequently the original diameter d0 may be calculated as Α0 = δ 2 Φ = π 0 σω 2 And δ0 = 4F = ps w (4)(11.) Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted.23 mm (0. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. It is estimated that the load on each wire will be 11.000 psi ) 2 Since the force is given. Solution For this problem the working stress is computed using Equation 6.D1 A large tower is to be supported by a series of steel wires.23 × 10-3 m = 5.206 in.1.000 psi). . as σω = s y 2 = 1030 MPa = 515 MPa (75.DESIGN PROBLEMS 6.100 N (2500 lbf). Determine the minimum required wire diameter assuming a factor of safety of 2 and a yield strength of 1030 MPa (150.100 N) p (515 ´ 106 N / m2 ) = 5. the area may be determined from Equation 6.24 with N = 2.

D2 (a) Gaseous hydrogen at a constant pressure of 1. The temperature of the tube is to be 300 °C and the pressure of hydrogen outside of the tube will be maintained at 0. cylinder radius (r). The concentrations at the inside and outside wall faces may be determined using Equation 6. respectively. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.7 expç÷ è ø RT pressure difference across the wall (Δp).3.6. PH2 (in MPa) and absolute temperature (T) according to æ 12. furthermore. how much of a diminishment in diffusion flux would result? Solution (a) This portion of the problem asks for us to compute the wall thickness of a thin-walled cylindrical Ni tube at 300°C through which hydrogen gas diffuses.01013 MPa (0.1013 and 0. In this case. the diffusion coefficient is computed using Equation 6. which necessitates that we employ Equation 5.1 m.56 kJ/mol ö DH = 4.8 pH 2 exp ç÷ è ø RT Furthermore. the diffusion coefficient for the diffusion of H in Ni depends on temperature as (6. (c) The room-temperature yield strength of Ni is 100 MPa (15. CH (in moles hydrogen per m3 of Ni) is a function of hydrogen pressure. the circumferential stress is a function of the σ = ρ ∆π 4 ∆ξ (6. 1.29) (b) For thin-walled cylindrical tubes that are pressurized. How much would the diffusion flux increase with this reduction in thickness? On the other hand. and.3) Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. The inside and outside pressures are.000 psi) and.76 ´ 10. . compute the minimum thickness that could be used without any deformation of the tube walls. and tube thickness (Δx) as (6.013 MPa (10 atm) is to flow within the inside of a thin-walled cylindrical tube of nickel that has a radius of 0. Calculate the minimum wall thickness if the diffusion flux is to be no greater than 1 × 10-7 mol/m2-s. if the thickness determined in part (c) is found to be unsuitable.29.1 atm). The concentration of hydrogen in the nickel.01013 MPa. and the diffusion flux is to be no greater than 1 × 10-7 mol/m 2-s.28. then specify a minimum thickness that you would use. furthermore.28) æ 39.3 kJ/mol ö CH = 30. Would you expect the wall thickness computed in part (b) to be suitable for this Ni cylinder at 300°C? Why or why not? (d) If this thickness is found to be suitable. This is a steady-state diffusion problem. σy diminishes about 5 MPa for every 50°C rise in temperature.30) Compute the circumferential stress to which the walls of this pressurized cylinder are exposed. Solving for ∆x (using Equation 5.

5 mm wall thickness is suitable.013 MPa . we may write an equation for the dependence of yield strength (σy) on temperature (T) as follows: σ ψ = 100 ΜΠα − 5 ΜΠα (Τ − Τρ) 50°Χ where Tr is room temperature and for temperature in degrees Celsius. this thickness is entirely suitable.1013 MPa ) = 0. from which it is possible to determine whether or not the 2. Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. at 300°C σ ψ = 100 MPa .01013 MPa - 1. From the information given in the problem.s = - 1 ´ 10.01013 MPa) (4)(0. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.7 (4.0 MPa (c) Now we are to compare this value of stress to the yield strength of Ni at 300°C.0.76 æ ö 39.K)(300 + 273 K ) ø 0.10 m)(1. Thus. 560 J / mol ´ 10 -7 ) exp ç÷´ è (8. 300 J/mol (30.∆ξ = − ∆ ∆Χ ϑ 1 ´ mol/m2 . .K)(300 + 273 K ) ø æ ö 12.(0.1 MPa/°C) (300 °C .31 J/mol .5 mm (b) Now we are asked to determine the circumferential stress: σ = ρ ∆π 4 ∆ξ = (0.0025 m) = 10.8) exp ç÷ ( è (8.0025 m = 2.31 J/mol .20°C) = 72 MPa Inasmuch as the circumferential stress (10 MPa) is much less than the yield strength (72 MPa).

the flux increases by approximately a factor of 3.00070 m = 0.013 MPa ) = 3.8) exp êú( ë (8. we now compute the tube thickness as ∆ξ = ρ ∆π 4σω = (0.76 é ù 39.5.70 mm Substitution of this value into Fick's first law we calculate the diffusion flux as follows: ϑ = −∆ ∆Χ ∆ξ =- (4.31 J/mol .0 for N.10 m)(1.013 MPa .K)(300 + 273 K) û é ù 12. let us use a value of 2.0. On the basis of our experience.K)(300 + 273 K ) û 0.31 J/mol . this part of the problem asks that we specify how much this thickness may be reduced and still retain a safe design.0007 m 0. 560 J/mol ´ 10 -7 ) exp êú´ ë (8.01013 MPa - 1. 300 J / mol (30. Thus σω = s y N = 72 MPa = 36 MPa 2 Using this value for σw and Equation 6. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. finally. .30.53 × 10-7 mol/m 2-s Thus.01013 MPa ) 4(36 MPa ) = 0. Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Let us use a working stress by dividing the yield stress by a factor of safety. from 1 × 10-7 to 3.24. according to Equation 6.(d) And.53 × 10-7 mol/m 2-s with this reduction in thickness.

There are probably several different approaches that may be used.0203 MPa.3. the maximum allowable temperature is 450°C.30.6. the tube radius is 0.026 and 0.8) exp êú( 0. As a starting point.002 m 2. a tube radius of 0. let us arbitrarily choose a wall thickness of 2 mm (2 × 10-3 m). respectively.0203 MPa ë (8. One design calls for a diffusion flux of 5 × 10-8 mol/m2-s.K)(T) û é ù 12.30. and inside and outside pressures of 2. The steady-state diffusion equation. If this condition is not met then another iteration of the procedure should be conducted with a more educated choice of wall thickness. this value is satisfactory inasmuch as it is less than the maximum allowable value (450°C). of course. 300 J/mol (30.K) (T) û 0. The next step is to compute the stress on the wall using Equation 6. .31 J/mol . (2) compute the yield strength of the nickel at this temperature using the dependence of yield strength on temperature as stated in Problem 6.026 MPa ) Solving this expression for the temperature T gives T = 514 K = 241°C.(4.76 ´ 10 -7 ) exp êú ´ ë (8.31 J/mol . Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.2 atm). Specify a suitable temperature and wall thickness to give this diffusion flux and yet ensure that the tube walls will not experience any permanent deformation.D3 Consider the steady-state diffusion of hydrogen through the walls of a cylindrical nickel tube as described in Problem 6.3 and 6. and (4) compare the yield strength and circumferential stress values--the yield strength should probably be at least twice the stress in order to make certain that no permanent deformation occurs. and.026 MPa (20 atm) and 0. and. there is not one unique solution. compute the temperature at which the diffusion flux is that required. 560 J/mol = . respectively. then. using Fick's first law for diffusion (which also employs Equations 5. (3) calculate the circumferential stress on the tube walls using Equation 6.D2. takes the form ϑ = −∆ ∆Χ ∆ξ = 5 × 10-8 mol/m 2-s é ù 39.D2. thus Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted.125 m and the inside and outside pressures are 2.29). Solution This problem calls for the specification of a temperature and cylindrical tube wall thickness that will give a diffusion flux of 5 × 10-8 mol/m 2-s for the diffusion of hydrogen in nickel. Equation 5.0203 MPa (0.125 m. Let us employ the following procedure to solve this problem: (1) assume some wall thickness.

1 MPa/°C)(241°C – 20°C) = 77.125 m)(2. Thus.026 MPa .3 MPa Now. Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted.9 MPa Inasmuch as this yield strength is greater than twice the circumferential stress.0.σ = r Dp 4 Dx = (0.0203 MPa) (4) (2 ´ 10. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. 5 ΜΠα (Τ − Τρ) 50°Χ σy = 100 MPa – (0. the yield strength (σy) of Ni at this temperature may be computed using the expression σ ψ = 100 ΜΠα − where Tr is room temperature. .3 m) = 31. wall thickness and temperature values of 2 mm and 241°C are satisfactory design parameters.