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In particular, it has been used to extract lines, circles and ellipses (or conic sections). In the case of lines, its mathematical definition is equivalent to the Radon transform (Deans, 1981). The HT was introduced by Hough (Hough, 1962) and then used to find bubble tracks rather than shapes in images. The HT implementation defines a mapping from the image points into an accumulator space (Hough space). The mapping is achieved in a computationally efficient manner, based on the function that describes the target shape. This mapping requires much less computational resources than template matching. However, the fact that the HT is equivalent to template matching has given sufficient impetus for the technique to be amongst the most popular of all existing shape extraction techniques.

Generalized Hough Transform (GHT) Many shapes are far more complex than lines, circles or ellipses and hence cannot be defined by any equation. It is often possible to partition a complex shape into several geometric primitives, but this can lead to a highly complex data structure. In general it is more convenient to extract the whole shape, in other words, to characterize a shape. This has motivated the development of techniques that can find arbitrary shapes using the evidence-gathering procedure of the HT. These techniques again give results equivalent to those delivered by matched template filtering, but with the computational advantage of the evidence gathering approach. An early approach offered only limited capability for arbitrary shapes (Merlin, 1975). The full mapping is called the Generalized Hough Transform (GHT) (Ballard, 1981) and can be used to locate arbitrary shapes with unknown position, size and orientation. Formal definition of the GHT In general, we are interested in matching the model shape against a shape in an image. However, the shape in the image has a different location, orientation and scale. Originally the GHT defines a scale parameter in the x and y directions, but due to computational complexity and practical relevance the use of a single scale has become much more popular. We can define the image shape by considering translation, rotation and change of scale. Thus, the shape in the image can be defined as, ------- (1) is a scale factor and is a rotation where b = (x0, y0) is the translation vector matrix. Here we have included explicitly the parameters of the transformation as arguments, In order to define a mapping for the HT, the location of the shape is given by,

------- (2) Given a shape and a set of parameters b, and , this equation defines the location of the shape. However, we do not know the shape (since it depends on the parameters that we are looking for), but we only have a point in the curve. In order to find the solution we can gather evidence by using a four-dimensional accumulator space. In the GHT the gathering process is performed by adding an extra constraint to the system that allows us to match points in the image with points in the model shape. This constraint is based on gradient direction information the gradient direction at a point in the arbitrary model. Thus,

------ (3) Equation (3) is true only if the gradient direction at a point in the image matches the rotated gradient direction at a point in the (rotated) model, that is, ------- (4) where is the angle at the point . Note that according to this equation, gradient direction is independent of scale (in theory at least) and it changes in the same ratio as rotation. We can constrain Equation (2) to consider only the points for which, -------- (5) is obtained by selecting That is, a point spread function for a given edge point such that the edge direction at the image point rotated by a subset of points in equals the gradient direction at the model point. For each point and selected point in the point spread function is defined by the HT mapping in Equation (2).

The GHT Technique The above equations give an idea for detection of arbitrary shapes. The geometry of these equations is shown in the Figure (1). Given an image point we have to find a displacement vector (combination of rotation and scale). When the vector is then its end is at the point b. In the GHT jargon, this point is called the placed at reference point. The vector can be easily obtained as or alternatively . However, in order to evaluate these equations, we need to know the point . as

Figure – 1. The process of determining centers on solving Equation 4. According to this equation, since we know , then we need to find the point whose gradient direction is . Then we must use to obtain the displacement vector . The GHT pre-computes the solution of this problem and stores it an array for called the R-table. The R-table stores for each value of the vector and . In polar form, the vectors are stored as a magnitude direction pair and in Cartesian form as a co-ordinate pair. The possible range for is between –π/2 and π/2 radians. This range is split into N equally-spaced slots, or bins. These slots become rows of data in the R-table. The edge direction at each border point determines the appropriate row in the R-table. The length, r, and direction, from the reference point are entered into a new column element, at that row, for each border point in the shape. In this manner, the N rows of the R-table have elements related to the border information, elements for which there is no information contains null vectors. The length of each row is given by the number of edge points that have the edge direction corresponding to that row; the total number of elements in the R-table equals the number of edge points above a chosen threshold. The structure of the R-table for N edge direction bins and m template border points is illustrated in Figure 1(b).

Invariant GHT The problem with the GHT (and other extensions of the HT) is that they are very general. That is, the HT gathers evidence for a single point in the image. However, a point on its own provides little information. Thus, it is necessary to consider a large parameter space to cover all the potential shapes defined by a given image point. The GHT improves evidence gathering by considering a point and its gradient direction. However, since gradient direction changes with rotation, then the evidence gathering is improved in terms of noise handling, but little is done about computational complexity. In order to reduce computational complexity of the GHT, we can consider replacing the gradient direction by another feature. That is, by a feature that is not

affected by rotation. The main aim of the constraint in Equation (5) is to include gradient . direction to reduce the number of votes in the accumulator by identifying a point Once this point is known, then we obtain the displacement vector . However, . Now let us replace that for each value of rotation, we have a different point in constraint in Equation (4) by a constraint of the form. -------- (6) The function Q is said to be invariant and it computes a feature at the point. This feature can be, for example, the colors of the point, or any other property that does not change in the model and in the image. By considering Equation (6), we have that Equation (5) is redefined as -------- (7) That is, instead of searching for a point with the same gradient direction, we will search for the point with the same invariant feature. The advantage is that this feature will not change with rotation or scale, so we only require a 2D space to locate the shape. The definition of Q depends on the application and the type of transformation. The most general invariant properties can be obtained by considering geometric definitions. In the case of rotation and scale changes (i.e. similarity transformations) the fundamental invariant property is given by the concept of angle. An angle is defined by three points and its value remains unchanged when it is rotated and scaled. Thus, if we associate to each edge point a set of other two points ,then we can compute a geometric feature that is invariant to similarity transformations. That is,

-------- (8) Where Equation (8) defines the tangent of the In general, we can define the points in different ways. angle at the point An alternative geometric arrangement is shown in Figure 2 (a). Given the points and a fixed angle then we determine the point such that the angle between the tangent line at and the line that joins the points is The third point is defined by the intersection of the tangent lines at and . The tangent of the angle is defined by Equation (8) this can be expressed in terms of the points and its gradient directions as

--------- (9)

We can replace the gradient angle in the R-table (previous approach) by the angle . The form of the new invariant table is shown in Figure 2(c). Since the angle does not change with rotation or change of scale, then we do not need to change the index for each potential rotation and scale. However, the displacement vector changes according to rotation and scale. Thus, if we want an invariant formulation, then we must also change the definition of the position vector.

Figure (2)

Implementation –

From the implementation point views following steps are performed1. Take a model image (which contains only the shape for which shape matching will be performed in different images). 2. Perform edge detection on the model image. 3. Select a point on edge image and search second point at fixed angle (will be decided prior to coding). 4. Draw tangent from these two points and calculate angle between them that is . 5. Draw line from first point passes through centre of gravity of shape and calculate angle between them that angle is . 6. Now we will get two parameter for edge point ( , ). 7. Repeat the process for each edge point. We will get two parameters for edge point (which got second point otherwise there will be no parameter for that point). 8. Now we will make R-Table with help of these parameters, by segmenting or dividing over a range of 0 to 2π and storing the corresponding values of . 9. Now the edged image is obtained for that image in which shape matching has to be performed. 10. Select an edge point and calculate in same way as done during creation of RTable and search value of from R-Table. If is present, then gradient on that edge point is drawn in a two dimensional accumulator array. 11. Above step repeat in image for each edge point. 12. Finally in accumulator array we will get only the shape for which shape matching is being performed. This shape will be brightest and remaining will have some other line or point.

Output of Program

Input Image for Creating R-Table This is an image containing a bean shaped entity which has to be identified in other images with invariance. Using this image the R-Table is created.

Input Image for Shape Matching This is an image containing a shifted, rotated and scaled image of the bean shaped entity which has to be detected based on the R-Table which has been created previously by using the image shown above.

Accumulator Array after Executing Program This image gives the accumulator array after execution of the program for detection of image using Invariant Generalized Hough Transform.

NOTE: The actual size of all the images shown above is 1024*768 it has been reduced so as to give a clear perception in this document.

**Conclusion - In GHT shape matching is performed on the basis of those parameter
**

which are not affected by translation, rotation and scaling. This whole process required some computations and time but best suited for shape matching for any arbitrary shape.

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UsefulNot usefulIts a report on Invarient Generalized Hough Transform for detection of nonuniform shapes

Its a report on Invarient Generalized Hough Transform for detection of nonuniform shapes

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