Total Breast Care And Maintenance

Your Ultimate Breast Health Companion

Total Breast Care And Maintenance
Contents A Note for all Readers Introduction Part 1: About Your Breast • • Learn About Your Breast 8 Fun Facts about Your Breast

Part 2: Breast Self Check • • • About Breast Self Check (BSE) When is the best time to do Breast Self Check (BSC) Breast Self Check Procedure

Part 3: How to Choose the Right Bra & Wear It the Right Way? • • • • • Importance of Wearing the Right Bra Determining Your bra size and cup Does Your Current Bra Fit You? Are you wearing your bra the right way? Different types of bra for different clothing

Part 4: About Mammogram • • • • • • • • What is mammogram? Different types of mammograms Are mammograms safe How is a mammogram done How is a mammogram done in a woman with breast implants How often should I get a mammogram? How can I get ready for my mammograms Are there any problems with mammograms

Part 5: Breast Cancer Information • • • • • • About Breast Cancer Understanding of Breast Cancer Are you at risk? Detection of Breast Cancer Screening and Examination of Breast Cancer Diagnosis of Breast Cancer

A Note for all Readers
This manual contains materials protected under international and federal copyright laws and treaties. Any unauthorized re-print or use of these materials is prohibited. This breast care information is distributed by The information and materials provided on this information kit are to be used for informational purposes only. It should not be construed as personal medical advice or instruction. No action should be taken based solely on the contents of this information kit. Always consult your physician or other health care professional before making any decision based upon something that you have read here. or its distributors assume no responsibility for the use or application of any posted material. For more information on Total Wellness and Breast Enhancement you should visit to subscribe to ... "Free Breast Enhancement And Wellness Newsletter." A Glimpse Of What You Will Be Receiving ...
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Premature sagging of breast. The herb is so popular that demand is outweighing supply. it will increase their breast size. keeping them firm and perky. our breast needs to be given extra attention and tender care to maintain their appearance.Introduction Just as important as applying moisturizers onto our face religiously day and night. Ph." News Article From Thailand Miracle Jungle Root Of Thailand A jungle root that grows in the north of Thailand is believed to enlarge the breasts of women who take it. "The root is presumed to contain substances that might have an effect on glands. Germany and the United States have been conducting research into the Pueraria Mirifica root.D. you will be surprised by the number of women who seemingly taken their current breast health for granted." say medicinal plant expert Varro Tyler. however. late diagnosis of Breast cancer. and breast cancer prevention and treatment options are covered too. Woman today do not give sufficient attention to their breast thus causing them to regret. Ohio USA . which could have been too late. unnecessary discomfort concerning your breast health are results of poor breast maintenance. News Channel 5 reports new finding show if women take an herb called Pueraria Mirifica. mammogram information. He said research done at King Mongkut Hospital had also found that the herbs could be useful in preventing breast cancer. News Article From Ohio. You will learn more about your breast. a source in Thailand's Agriculture Department told the Bangkok Post. Performing breast care is not a tedious task. News Article From "The Nation" Deputy Public Health Minister of Thailand said he had learnt that Pueraria Mirifica (kwao kreu) could be used as a supplemental hormone for menopausal women. The aim of this information kit is to provide all the essential information on breast care. could enhance breasts. As reported on NEWS NET 5 Cleveland. USA There's new information that suggests an herbal plant will enhance your breast. and could even create new brain cells to treat Alzheimer's disease. breast self check. how to select and wear bra the correct way. Firms from Japan.

Many years even before the first Pueraria Mirifica is grown. include. which include skincare and breast enhancement. the founder of ANBES™ Breast Serum began a long and tedious research to determine the best species that holds the most amounts of miroestrol and deoxymiroestrol inside the root of Pueraria Mirifica plant.Unpublished Story Of ANBES™ Pueraria Mirifica Breast Serum. The 2005 budget request that President Bush has sent to Congress calls for a total NNI budget of $982 million. All this process is done in GMP certified factories where sanitation comes first. President Bush requested $849 million for nanotechnology R&D across all of the agencies that participate in the NNI. All products that failed his personally manage “Quality Management Task Force” will be destroyed immediately. Introducing Nanotechnology … let me give you some background information. This represents an increase of approximately 10% over the amount appropriated by Congress for FY 2003. he proceed to create an organic growing environment. As far as I know. That’s not all … Breakthrough Technology … It Makes All The Usual Breast Enhancement Creams and Serums Like Applying Moisturizer On Your Breast. to grow their own Pueraria Mirifica. which represents a 2% increase over estimated expenditures for FY 2004. All roots need to first run through the washing and peeling machine before they are grinded into powder by a high speed slicing machine. All Pueraria Mirifica are harvest only at their maturity.44% of active phytoestrogen … out of every 100g – 30% more than most brand name found in the market. He took great pain to ensure and maintain a high quality manufacturing environment to turn the Premium Pueraria Mirifica roots into their respective products. After he found the right type of Pueraria Mirifica. Studies from independent laboratory shows that ANBES™ Pueraria Mirifica contains 42. Government Agencies involved. there is no other manufacturer that come close to their tightly monitor manufacturing system. All the powder are then dried by passing through special UV light and air sprayed to jet out all possible moisture. • • • NSF DOD DOE • • • HHS(NIH) DOC(NIST) NASA • • • USDA EPA DHS . As he believe this is the best way to ensure the safety and consistency of the roots. As part of the FY 2004 Budget.

com/freesample. the breasts are often swollen and tender because the ductal . firmer breasts. pigmented area in the center called the areola. called ducts.To put it simply.htm Click Here For Free Sample Hurry. The nipple. Completion of breast development. depending on her age and whether she is pregnant or going through a menstrual cycle. requires the interaction of other hormones such as progesterone. This effective mechanism will target directly to the skin organ which will result in gaining the most benefit from the composition. It is specially manufactured with the latest Nano Technology that will ensure deep penetration into your breast tissues upon application to give you the immediate breast enhancement. prolactin. After breast growth is completed. In humans. Nanotechnology is the invention of small particles in Nano-size that does amazing things where normal size particles are unable to.anbes. when the ovaries start to produce the hormone estrogen. You Can Experience Breast Enhancement in 5 Minutes Free Sample … Hurry. a rounded protruding structure. that produce the milk. It helps in development and natural enhancement of a woman’s breasts. that connect to the nipple. Just before the onset of menstruation. In mature women the breast contains a collection of 10 to 15 tubes. Limited Stocks! Part 1: About Your Breast Learn About Your Breast The surface of a human breast has a circular. and corticosteroids. lies in the center of the areola. ending in clusters of rounded cells. shape and firmness of your breasts. called lobules. It has the capacity to penetrate deep down into the skin layer while the core of the particle is being protected while carrying variety of substances to pass into the inner skin layer. which occurs around 16 to 18 years old. http://www. These ducts branch out from the nipple into the interior of the breast. Breast development begins in girls about 10 to 12 years old. a woman’s breast size and shape vary widely. In addition to the structures directly connected with the production and outflow of milk. the breast is composed of fatty tissue and ligaments that provide support and shape. Limited Stocks! ANBES breast serum is an all natural herbal serum specially formulated to naturally increase the size. the breasts typically undergo monthly cyclic changes in response to fluctuating hormone levels in the blood that occur during the menstrual cycle. ANBES Breast Serum offers a non-surgical solution to attaining fuller.

1. To give you a better understanding.and a few downright bizarre details -. your boobs are made up of fat. the glands and collagen shrink and are replaced by more and more fat. we've put together 8 of the most fascinating facts about your bosom buddies.about your precious pair. After a baby is born.truth is. For all the attention breasts get from men (and the media). Initially. the breast produces milk as the suckling infant stimulates the release of another hormone called oxytocin. instead of . Breasts get fat as you age. Maybe it's because you've had your set for years now. The decreased stimulation from this hormone causes the milk-producing ducts and lobules in the breast to be replaced with extra fatty tissue. This hormone causes contractions in the network of cells that surround the ducts and lobules. your boobs are a hell of a lot more than just two bumps that keep your bikini top in place. the hormone prolactin stimulates milk production in the breast. The added flab can send breasts down. In your 20s. But as you age. you've never had a reason to give them much thought. milk glands and collagen -. Read on as we reveal important info -. hold on to your bra straps -. Within three to five days. 8 Fun Facts about your Breasts There's more to taking care of your twins than doing self-exams and wearing a good bra. you probably know surprisingly little about yours. Female Breast The female breast is either of two mammary glands (organs of milk secretion) on the chest. Well. which is particularly rich in the disease-fighting substances called antibodies. If pregnancy does not occur. As a woman passes the childbearing age and enters menopause. During pregnancy there is a remarkable growth of ducts and lobules in the breast along with a thickening of the nipples.the connective tissue that keeps them firm. the estrogen level falls and the breasts return to normal. Or your twin peaks seem so low-maintenance. so that milk readily flows from the breast and into the mouth of the hungry infant. and you view them simply as a bodacious accessory. the ovaries stop producing estrogen.system expands in preparation for pregnancy. the breast produces a thick yellow liquid called colostrum.

bumpy and tender. Fluctuating hormones cause your breast tissue to change and feel differently. Some women even sport a pair that aim in opposing directions. your nipples may become more sexually sensitive. 4. Some areolae rest a little higher. around one pound. Wipe down the affected skin with an antibacterial lotion to prevent infection after plucking them off. You have gained weight. 8. Because they were stretched as you developed. During midcycle. They may point in different directions. It is common if you have 4 to 15 dark. Thin-skinned and need extra care.000 going under the knife each year. Generally. about half a pound. The average age of a woman who gets implants is 34. extra progesterone may leave your breasts swollen. Most women increase by 2 cup sizes after the implants. 3. The week before and during your period. as with any operation. and a D. are they normal? Almost all women have some degree of nipple hair. Not only do nipples come in varying sizes. there's the small but dangerous risk of infection and excessive bleeding. . a B. they too need moisturiser as they are also prone to dryness. It's easier to tweeze if you only have a few bothersome nipple hair. they also point in different directions. which can angle the nipples upward. That surge in the scale isn't your set's fault: An A-cup clocks in at only a quarter pound. 2. leaking or becoming wrinkled can happen for breast implants. three-quarters of a pound. Don't forget your nipples either. due to increased estrogen levels. But not every women who underwent implants are always happy with the results: about 6% of women with breast implants return for a size adjustment or to have them taken out altogether. Otherwise. straight strands growing at one time. After your period. In addition. About 2 million of women have fake breasts. leaving them susceptible to dryness. waxing it away is also fine. breasts have thinner skin than the rest of your body. Use firming cream that stimulates collagen and elastin growth and has UV protection and retinol to prevent wrinkling. but it is not your set fault. 5. Watch out. A surgery is required to fix the problem. the darker your skin and the hair on your head. Others rest lower or are closer to the edges of the breasts. Wearing an underwire bra (whether you're an A-cup or a D) can help fight sagging over time. About two million women in the United States have breast implants. This usually will require another operation to replacement the faulty ones. breast tissue usually feels smoothest. They have their own monthly cycle. Breast Implants Have its Risks Side effects like implant breasts deflating. This happens when the scar tissue that naturally forms around implants tightens. with 250. a C. the more nipple hair you'll have. 6. and 90 percent do it after they have had kids. 7.increasing your bra size. Stray strands. The breast may feel hard if after surgery complication called capsular contracture occurs.

and why is it so important? Let’s find out in this section. Ø Feel for lumps. Ø Hold the fingers of the other hand flat. . Now do the other breast. it helps early detection which aides recovery process tremendously. Although it doesn't prevent breast cancer from occuring.Part 2: Breast Self Check About Breast Self Check (BSE) What is breast self check. BSE is considered a preventive measure for breast cancer. These lump are mostly non cancerous. Ø Gently touch every part of the breast below the raised arm. When is the best time to do Breast Self Check (BSC) It is important to do a Breast Self Exam around the same day in your cycle every month. The most suitable time for a BSE will be one week after your period. as your breasts are not swollen or tender from PMS etc. Breast lumps are usually discovered by the woman herself or by her sex partner. if anything unusual is observed immediate report to your family doctor is needed. Breast Self Check Procedure: Ø Stand up and place one hand behind your head. However. Breast self check is a procedure that takes no more then 10 min yet contributes much more in the long run. Physicians encourage regular breast self-examinations in which a woman uses her fingers to feel for changes in breast shape and fluid discharge from the nipple. bumps or thickening.

Ø Stand in front of a mirror. Ø Place your right hand behind your head. You may want to use one of the following patterns: Wedges : Starting at the outer edge of the breast. Ø Place your hands on your hips. covering one small wedge-shaped section at a time. move your fingers toward the nipple and back to the edge. shape and form. Ø Now do the other breast. Be sure to follow a consistent pattern. Be sure to check the underarm area and the upper chest . bumps or thickening. Ø Feel for lumps. Ø Inspect each breast for changes in size. Ø Examine every part of your breast with the fingers of the left hand held flat. Ø Do it again with your arms raised above your head Ø Lie back with a pillow or folded towel under your right shoulder. Check your whole breast.

bumps or thickening in the same way.Lines : Start in the underarm area and move your fingers downward little by little until they are below the breast. Ø Examine the underarm. As you become more familiar with the "feel". Don't forget to check the underarm and upper chest areas. Then move your fingers slightly toward the middle and slowly move back up. Move around the breast in smaller circles gradually working toward the nipple. Ø Now do the other underarm. These steps will become familiar to you and you will begin to get use to the "feel" of your breasr. Ask your your family doctor for more information and guidance. Circles : Beginning at the outer edge of your breast. Ø Rest your arm on a firm surface like the top of a bookshelf. Ø Feel for lumps. Go up and down until you cover the whole area. . move your fingers slowly around the whole breast in a circle. In time. the easier it is for you tol recognize any breast abnormalities.

Having the correct fit can make larger women look smaller and small-busted women bigger. The result is usually more discomfort. Women today should be aware that wearing the wrong bra size could cause all sorts of medical problems.Part 3: How to Choose the Right Bra & Wear It the Right Way? Importance of Wearing the Right Bra Do you know a good bra of the correct fit is essential to a woman’s breast? Most women are still unaware that they are not wearing the right bra. and bad posture because you either have too much bust or not enough. . that has to be a bonus. Better fitting bras not only feel comfortable but also help your clothes to look better. ü lifting the shoulder swaps and ü popping back in what has flowed out. Most women have these problems. ‘We are never happy with our lot. weight loss or weight gain . tender. There are so many women out there buying their bras assuming that their size is the same or some guesses their bra size and without trying them on or seeking expert advise. making four boobs. grooves in shoulders. the back riding up. Imagine some of these symptoms – you may recognize them: ü ü ü ü ü ü ü backache. The advantages of a correct fit bra: ü no more soreness under the bust. A wellfitted bra is similar to a pair of well-fitting shoes. wrinkled cups. following childbirth. shoulder pain. soreness under the breast size can change dramatically. Women should re-measured regularly especially during pregnancy. The most common complaints are ü ü ü ü ü straps slipping off the shoulders. neck ache. aching bust.’ These are just a few of the very real problems that can be put right with a good bra. not to mention uncomfortable chafing and unsightly bumps and ridges. ü pulling the back down.

Your bra size consist of two figures. the bra has to fit slightly tighter but not too tight otherwise unsightly bulges would be formed. Although manufacturers use what appears to be standard sizing on their labels. Difference 1" 2" 3" 4" 5" 6" Cup size A B C D E F . Use the value to find out its corresponding cup size in the table below. however most women find it unnecessary and a nuisance.Determining your bra size and cup It takes an expert eye to find the size and style that will make the very best of each woman’s figure. It also required in-depth knowledge of the wide variety of bras now available. Especially when buying a strapless bra. You will need to take two measurements using a tape measure: Back Size: The measurement is taken around the body directly under the bust or your breasts (over your present bra). Use the following table to find your exact bra size. Back Measurement (cms) 63 68 73 78 83 88 67 72 77 82 87 92 Bra back size 30 32 34 36 38 40 Cup size: this is determined the difference between bra back size and the measurement around the fullest part of the bust. This is the major mistake as a good fitted bra brings about many benefits and eliminates unnecessary aliments. Measuring your bra size and bra cup of exact fit is not difficult. rounding it off to the nearest inch. This means that a particular cup size in one style may not give you the right fit with another style or manufacturer. every bra is in fact slightly different. Calculate the difference of the 2 measurements. your back size and your cup. Most major department stores and lingerie shops offer this measuring service to their customers. The following is some information for you while taking the measurement for yourself.

ü dig into the back. lean your upper body forward and bend downwards allowing your breasts to fall into the cups of the bra. Step 5: The next step is what I call the 'scooping' action. No one bra fits all shape. you should feel comfortable. Also. Lift your arms up and a well-fitted bra should not move up. the process will eventually become a habit when you wear your bra. The following technique may sound confusing and complicated. Bras are like clothes. After a few tries. When you wear the right bra. Step 7: Make sure the breasts fit snugly into the bra cups. An ill-fitting bra can cause ü red imprints on your skin. result in flesh bulging from the sides and back and ü also cause pain. Ask the shop's staff for help as they can help you do a more accurate measurement and give a good recommendation on which bra they carry is suitable for you. Does your current bra fit you? Try doing your own measurement for bra and cup size and check if it matches your current bra size. Step 4: Now. If the size differ it might mean that your bra size have changed. With one hand holding the side of the bra. combine the two to get your exact fit size. Take your time the next time you shop for undergarments. if the bra fits tightly or is uncomfortable even though it is the same size as what you have measured. Step 3: Return to normal standing position and fasten the hooks of the under-bust band. adjust the shoulder straps to comfortable length. Step 6: Repeat for the other side. with different designs and cutting to accentuate different shapes of the breast. Adjust bra to ensure that the nipples are in the centre seams of the bra cups. but it isn’t as it is simply a break down of the steps. so that they do not cut into the flesh or keep falling off. insert the other hand in between the breast and the bra cup and gently pull the excess flesh from the underarm area into the breast cup. it might mean that the bra's design have a slightly different cutting or is more suitable for a different breast shape from yours. Step 1: You start by slipping your hands through the shoulder straps Step 2: While holding the under-bust bands of your bra. ü ride up the back. Are you wearing your bra the right way? Wearing your bra the right way is very important. Step 8: Stand up straight to see if the front under bust band and the back band is at the same level.After you have obtained both values. .

Different types of bra for different clothing The right bra is essential to achieve the desired effect of looking good.A cup size that is too small can pinch and be uncomfortable. it will also help minimize the bouncing of the breast. V-Neck Bra A plunge neckline dress or low neckline top will need a bra that dips low at the front middle band which give support at the side. The main reason why a sport bra is worn instead of the daily bra is that while exercising. Sports bras are also a good alternative for women who are pregnant as breast fullness and tenderness is a often experienced. the correct type of bra is none other then the sports bras. It can be worn under a strapless dress or under a Tshirt. nursing bra designed with cups that open and close with minimum effort. The extra support provided by the sports bra help to minimize discomfort. Sport Bra While performing sports. the breast needs more support comparing to when we are performing our normal activities. All you need to do is to adjust the strap to suit your clothes. Nursing Bra For mothers who are breast feeding. soft fabrics. Not only can it enhance what you already have. Convertible Bra A bra which is suitable for all occasions. stretch straps and adjustability will be ideal . which can cause the connective tissue in the breast to be strained. On top of that the support . a nursing bra helps you respond quickly when your baby is hungry. Well-endowed women should wear bras with full cups and the breasts should not be “overflowing” from their bra cups. Comfort and support are key. it can also make you look your best in your favorite dress.

Part 4: About Mammogram What is mammogram? A mammogram is a test that is done to look for any abnormalities. This technique records x-ray images on a computer. with a woman's breasts. It may cause you some from the side and one from above. If a lump is found. The person who takes the x-rays (always a woman) places your breasts (one at a time) between two plastic plates. a test where a small amount of tissue is taken from the lump and area around the lump. A high-quality mammogram. They can find small lumps or growths that a health care provider or woman can't feel when doing a physical breast exam. Mammograms look for breast lumps and changes in breast tissue that may develop into problems over time. Breast lumps or growths can be benign (not cancer) or malignant (cancer). rather than film. The test uses a special x-ray machine to take pictures of both breasts. In January 2000. feeling like squeezing or pinching. How is a mammogram done in a woman with breast implants? . two pictures are taken of each breast . or problems. the flatter your breasts. called digital mammography. The tissue is sent to a lab to look for cancer or changes that may mean cancer is likely to develop. You will feel pressure on your breast for a few seconds. allow the person taking the x-ray to make adjustments without having to take another mammogram. Different types of mammograms? There are two reasons mammograms are taken. along with clinical breast exam (exam done by a professional health care provider) are the most effective tools for detecting breast cancer early. Diagnostic mammograms are done when a woman has symptoms of breast cancer or a breast lump. Detecting breast cancer early means that a woman has a better chance of surviving the disease. the better the picture. There are also more choices for treatment when breast cancer is found early. a health care provider will order a biopsy. How is a mammogram done? You stand in front of a special x-ray machine. the FDA approved a new way of doing mammograms. It can reduce exposure to radiation. The whole thing takes only a few minutes. The plates press your breast and make it flat. Most often. But. The results are recorded on film that your health care provider can examine. low-dose x-ray of the breast. Are mammograms safe?? A mammogram is a safe. Diagnostic mammograms take longer than screening mammograms because more pictures of the breast are taken. and takes pictures of the entire breast even if the denseness of the breast tissue varies. Screening mammograms are done for women who have no symptoms of breast cancer.

or a skirt. Talk to your health care provider about how often you should get a mammogram. How often should I get a mammogram? Women over 40 should get a mammogram every 1 to 2 years. This is because the breast tissue is denser. False negatives don't happen often.S. lotion. For this reason. That way you can undress from the waist up and leave your shorts. This is important because breast implants can hide some breast tissue. . or skirt on when you get your mammogram. This guideline was just re-issued by the federal government's U. Here are some general guidelines to follow: • Make your mammogram appointment for one week after your period. the x-ray technician might gently lift the breast tissue slightly away from the implant. or powder under your arms or on your breasts on the day of your mammogram appointment. to take a mammogram of a breast with an implant. be sure to tell your mammography facility that you have them. pants. • Don't wear any deodorant. which could make if difficult for the radiologist to see breast cancer when looking at your mammograms. Your health care provider may order a mammogram for you to get a better look at your breast changes. Be aware that mammograms don't take the place of getting breast exams from a health care provider and examining your own breasts. it is also the position of the Secretary of the U. Women who have had breast cancer or breast problems. If you find a lump or see changes in your breast. How can I get ready for my mammograms? First. You will need an x-ray technician who is trained in x-raying patients with implants. Your breasts hurt less after your period. pants. Preventive Services Task Force. These limits include: • Mammograms are only part of a complete breast exam. Are there any problems with mammograms? As with any medical test. This means everything may look normal. or with a family history of breast cancer may need to start having mammograms at a younger age or more often. check with the place you are having the mammogram for any special things you may need to do before you go.If you have breast implants. but cancer is actually present. These things can make shadows show up on your mammogram.S. Younger women are more likely to have a false negative mammogram than are older women. And. • Wear a shirt with shorts. • False negatives can happen. perfume. mammograms can have limits. If they show abnormalities your health care provider will follow-up with other tests. Department of Health and Human Services. talk to your health care provider right away no matter what your age. making cancer harder to spot.

Since 1986. late first-term pregnancy (30 years or older). regardless of hereditary factors. 6. female breast cancer rates have increased by 0.S. All women are at risk for breast cancer. This is when the mammogram results look like cancer is present. earlier onset of menstruation (12 years or younger). postmenopausal obesity. The number of new cases of breast cancer in women was estimated to be about 212. 3. low physical activity and 11. Other known risk factors include: 1. 4. False positives are more common in younger women than older women. In 2003 it is estimated that 1. 10.000 diagnosed in 1998. .6 percent each year in the U. 85 to 90 percent of breast cancer incidences cannot be explained by hereditary factors. alcohol consumption. more than four years use of hormone replacement therapy. will be diagnosed with breast cancer. early use of oral contraceptives. In fact.• False positives can happen. 5. Breast cancer occurs in men and is increasing at an alarming rate. 2. a woman's lifetime risk of breast cancer was 1 in 22. 7. later menopause (55 years or older). exposure to radiation. even though it is not. In situ breast cancer incidence rates have also continued to increase by 6. exposures to second-hand cigarette smoke. the risk is 1 in 8. In the 1940's. the lifetime risk of breast cancer has nearly tripled in the United States. no children or no breast-feeding. 9. 8. In the year 2003.300 men in the U.S.1 percent per year over the same period. a 30 percent increase over the 1. In the past 50 years. Part 5: Breast Cancer Information About Breast Cancer Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer among women in United States(other than skin cancer).600 in 2003.

When breast cancer cells enter the lymphatic system. When cancer spreads (metastasizes). . the building blocks that make up tissues. Cells from benign tumors do not spread to tissues around them or to other parts of the body. It is treated as breast cancer. Also. The spread of cancer is called metastasis. Doctors can seldom explain why one woman gets breast cancer and another does not. Malignant tumors are cancer: • • • Malignant tumors generally are more serious than benign tumors. When cells grow old. or touching the breast does not cause breast cancer. bruising. Are you at risk? No one knows the exact causes of breast cancer.Understanding of Breast Cancer Breast cancer like any other cancer begins in cells. cells grow and divide to form new cells as the body needs them. That is how cancer cells spread from the original cancer (primary tumor) to form new tumors in other organs. if breast cancer spreads to the bone. and old cells do not die when they should. Doctors sometimes call the new tumor "distant" or metastatic disease. they die. Malignant tumors often can be removed. For example. Not all tumors are cancer. they may be found in lymph nodes near the breast. They may be lifethreatening. not bone cancer. and they seldom grow back. Tumors can be benign or malignant: Benign tumors are not cancer: • • • Benign tumors are rarely life-threatening. New cells form when the body does not need them. And breast cancer is not contagious. but they can grow back. cancer cells can break away from a malignant tumor and enter the bloodstream or lymphatic system. the new tumor has the same kind of abnormal cells and the same name as the primary tumor. Doctors do know that bumping. the cancer cells in the bone are breast cancer cells. and new cells take their place Sometimes this orderly process goes wrong. Tissues make up the organs of the body. benign tumors can be removed. The cancer cells also may travel to other organs through the lymphatic system or bloodstream. Normally. The disease is metastatic breast cancer. No one can "catch" this disease from another person. not as bone cancer. Cells from malignant tumors can invade and damage nearby tissues and organs. These extra cells can form a mass of tissue called a growth or tumor. Usually.

and others) increase the risk of breast cancer. research has shown that women with certain risk factors are more likely than others to develop breast cancer. Asian. Having other relatives with breast cancer on either her mother's or her father's side of the family may also increase a woman's risk. or African American women. or to improve the detection of this disease in women who have these changes in their genes. A woman over age 60 is at greatest risk. Large. Studies have found the following risk factors for breast cancer: • Age: The chance of getting breast cancer goes up as a woman gets older. This disease is very uncommon before menopause. Certain breast changes: Some women have cells in the breast that look abnormal under a microscope. Women who began menstruation (had their first menstrual period) at an early age (before age 12). Women who take menopausal hormone therapy (either estrogen alone or estrogen plus progestin) for 5 or more years after menopause also appear to have an increased chance of developing breast cancer. Family history: A woman's risk of breast cancer is higher if her mother. • • • • • • • • • . Much research has been done to learn whether having an abortion or a miscarriage affects a woman's chance of developing breast cancer later on. A risk factor is anything that increases a person's chance of developing a disease. well-designed studies have consistently shown no link between abortion or miscarriage and the development of breast cancer. This includes women treated with radiation for Hodgkin's lymphoma. Personal history of breast cancer: A woman who has had breast cancer in one breast has an increased risk of getting this disease in her other breast. genetic testing can sometimes show the presence of specific genetic changes. Radiation therapy to the chest: Women who had radiation therapy to the chest (including breasts) before age 30 are at an increased risk of breast cancer. especially at a young age (before age 40). Race: Breast cancer occurs more often in white women than Latina. the greater her chance of breast cancer. Having certain types of abnormal cells (atypical hyperplasia or lobular carcinoma in situ [LCIS]) increases the risk of breast cancer. or never had children also are at an increased risk. went through menopause late (after age 55). or daughter had breast cancer. Health care providers may suggest ways to try to reduce the risk of breast cancer. sister. BRCA2. Genetic alterations: Changes in certain genes (BRCA1. Reproductive and menstrual history: The older a woman is when she has her first child. The Cancer Information Service can provide printed material about genetic testing. In families in which many women have had the disease.However.

It is helpful to be aware of risk factors. such as family history. Being obese means that the woman has an abnormally high proportion of body fat. This does not yet appear to be the case for their daughters who were exposed to DES before birth. Also. the greater her risk of breast cancer. obese women are more likely than thin women to have higher levels of estrogen in their bodies. can't be avoided. women who are obese have an increased risk of developing breast cancer. Physical inactivity: Women who are physically inactive throughout life appear to have an increased risk of breast cancer.Studies show that the younger a woman was when she received radiation treatment. a woman who thinks she may be at risk of breast cancer should discuss this concern with her health care provider. The health care provider may suggest ways to reduce the risk and can plan an appropriate schedule for checkups. High levels of estrogen may be the reason that obese women have an increased risk of breast cancer. In fact. Also.) Women who took DES during pregnancy have a slightly increased risk of breast cancer. Still. It can help doctors find and treat cancer early. (DES is no longer given to pregnant women. But it's also important to keep in mind that most of the women who have these risk factors do not get breast cancer. except for growing older. . Treatment is more likely to be effective when cancer is found early. Because the body makes some of its estrogen (a hormone) in fatty tissue. Detection of Breast Cancer Early detection is crucial to the treatment for breast cancer as treatment is more efficient on patients of early stages How? Screening for cancer before there are symptoms can be important. most women with breast cancer have no strong risk factors. Being physically active may help to reduce risk by preventing weight gain and obesity. Many risk factors can be avoided and breast cancer can be prevented . as these daughters grow older. • • Breast density: Older women who have mostly dense (not fatty) tissue on a mammogram (x-ray of the breast) are at increased risk of breast cancer. most women who develop breast cancer have no history of the disease in their family. Taking DES (diethylstilbestrol): DES is a synthetic form of estrogen that was given to some pregnant women in the United States between about 1940 and 1971. Being obese after menopause: After menopause. some studies show that gaining weight after menopause increases the risk of breast cancer. • • Other Possible Risk Factors Are Under Study. more studies of their breast cancer risk are needed. Others. However. Alcoholic beverages: Some studies suggest that the more alcoholic beverages a woman drinks. the higher her risk of breast cancer later in life.

It may have ridges or pitting so that it looks like the skin of an orange. .The health care provider may also suggested the following examination and screening tests which is used to check for breast cancer before any of the symptoms develop: 1. Screening and Examination of Breast Cancer Screening and examination for cancer should be done annually before the symptoms develops instead of after. Screening mammogram 2. The health care provider advises women to take the following types of screening and examinations annually. red. Women who are at higher than average risk of breast cancer should talk with their health care providers about whether to have mammograms before age 40 and how often to have them. Breast self-exam 1. Clinical breast exam 3. these symptoms are not cancer. 1. Breast self-exam Symptoms Breast cancer can cause changes that women should watch for: • A change in how the breast or nipple feels o o A lump or thickening in or near the breast or in the underarm area Nipple tenderness • A change in how the breast or nipple looks o o o A change in the size or shape of the breast The nipple is turned inward into the breast The skin of the breast. areola. a woman should see her health care provider about breast pain or any other symptom that does not go away. Screening mammogram 2. but it is important to check with the health care provider so that any problems can be diagnosed and treated as early as possible. or swollen. Most often. Clinical breast exam 3. Screening mammogram Who should take? Women in their 40s and older should have mammograms (pictures of the breast made with x-rays) every one to two years. • Nipple discharge (fluid) Although early breast cancer usually does not cause pain. or nipple may be scaly.

2.Screening mammograms can often show a breast lump before it can be felt. or other abnormal signs. menopause. They also can show a cluster of very tiny specks of calcium. The skin of each breast is checked for a rash. (More information on biopsy is in the section on Detection and Diagnosis.") A mammogram may show things that turn out not to be cancer. . Lumps or specks can be signs of cancer. It is a good idea for a woman to talk with her health care providers about the need for each x-ray and to ask about the use of shields during the x-ray to protect other parts of the body. (This is called a "false negative. A biopsy is the only way to tell for sure if cancer is present. Clinical Breast Exam During a clinical breast exam.") Some fast-growing tumors may already have spread to other parts of the body before a mammogram detects them. The health care provider looks for differences between the breasts. repeated exposure to x-rays could be harmful. It is normal for the breasts to feel a little lumpy and uneven. and the collarbone area. or press her hands against her hips. A lump is generally the size of a pea before anyone can feel it. it is common for a woman's breasts to be swollen and tender right before or during her menstrual period. Also.) Mammograms are the best tool doctors have to find breast cancer early. Also. it is important for her to remember that each woman's breasts are different. first on one side. pregnancy. A thorough clinical breast exam may take 10 minutes. the underarm. 2. the woman may need to have a biopsy. (This is called a "false positive. let them hang by her sides. dimpling. or taking birth control pills or other hormones. The nipples may be squeezed to see if fluid is present. Using the pads of the fingers to feel for lumps. then on the other. it is good for a woman to keep in mind that: A mammogram may miss some cancers that are present. and other routine x-rays) use very small doses of radiation. including unusual differences in size or shape. When a woman does this exam. The lymph nodes near the breast may be checked to see if they are swollen. Mammograms (as well as dental x-rays. the woman may need more pictures taken. Breast Self-Exam Some women perform monthly breast self-exams to check for any changes in their breasts. If the doctor sees an abnormal area on the mammogram. However.Although the benefits nearly always outweigh the risks. the health care provider checks the entire breast. and that changes can occur because of aging. the menstrual cycle. These specks are called microcalcifications. the health care provider feels the breasts while the woman is standing or sitting up and lying down. The woman may be asked to raise her arms over her head.

The woman has a physical exam. shape. such as a lump. She may have a mammogram or other imaging procedure that makes pictures of tissues inside the breast. smooth. MRI may be used along with a mammogram. the pictures can be stored on video and printed out. pain. The doctor can view these pictures on a monitor and can print them on film. it is important to remember that breast self-exams cannot replace regular screening mammograms and clinical breast exams. studies so far have not shown that breast self-exams reduce the number of deaths from breast cancer. After the tests. After the test. Diagnostic Mammography Diagnostic mammograms involve x-ray pictures of the breast to get clearer. her doctor must determine whether it is due to breast cancer or some other cause. A hard. and movable are likely to be benign. Magnetic Resonance Imaging For magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). If a woman has a breast lump. Although breast self-exams lead to more breast biopsies. They also are used to help the doctor learn more about unusual breast changes. Or the woman may need a biopsy to examine the suspicious area for cancer cells. Diagnosis of Breast Cancer Diagnosis: If a woman has a breast change. or change in breast size or shape.Women who notice anything unusual during a breast self-exam or at any other time should contact their health care provider. The health care provider can check the size. Ultrasonography Using high-frequency sound waves. This exam may be used along with a mammogram. nipple discharge. They may involve special techniques and more views than screening mammograms. thickening. more detailed pictures of any area that looks abnormal on a screening mammogram. round. ultrasonography (ultrasound) can often show whether a lump is a fluid-filled cyst (not cancer) or a solid mass (which may or may not be cancer). Diagnostic mammograms may focus on a specific area of the breast. and texture of the lump and feel whether it moves easily. The doctor asks about her personal and family medical history. a powerful magnet linked to a computer is sometimes used to make detailed pictures of tissue inside the breast. Also. Lumps that are soft. § Clinical Breast Exam The health care provider feels each breast for lumps and looks for other problems. § § § . the health care provider can tell a lot about it by feeling it and the tissue around it. oddly shaped lump that feels firmly attached within the breast is more likely to be cancer. The doctor can view these pictures on a monitor. Benign lumps often feel different from cancerous ones. the doctor may decide that no further tests are needed and no treatment is necessary.

. • • If cancer cells are found. the surgeon removes a sample of a lump or abnormal area. or stereotactic biopsy. A pathologist examines the tissue for cancer cells. The results of these tests help the doctor learn more about the cancer and plan appropriate treatment. Core biopsy: The doctor uses a thick needle to remove breast tissue. This is called a biopsy. Many women with breast cancer will have the hormone receptor test. It begins in the lining of the ducts. The result helps the doctor plan treatment. Sometimes a suspicious area that can be seen on a mammogram cannot be felt during a clinical breast exam. It shows whether the cancer needs hormones (estrogen or progesterone) to grow. The most common type of breast cancer is ductal carcinoma. the pathologist can tell what kind of cancer it is. For the biopsy. called lobular carcinoma. A woman who needs a biopsy may want to ask her doctor the following questions: What kind of biopsy will I have? Why? How long will it take? Will I be awake? Will it hurt? Will I have anesthesia? What kind? How soon will I know the results? Are there any risks? What are the chances of infection or bleeding after the biopsy? If I do have cancer. it goes to a lab where a pathologist uses a microscope to check for cancer cells. In an excisional biopsy. If the fluid is clear. If the fluid appears to contain cells. Surgical biopsy: In an incisional biopsy. the surgeon removes the entire lump or abnormal area. Doctors can remove tissue from the breast in different ways: • Fine-needle aspiration: The doctor uses a thin needle to remove fluid and/or cells from a breast lump. This procedure is also called a needle biopsy. who will talk with me about treatment? When? Additional Tests If the diagnosis is cancer. Such procedures include ultrasound-guided. it may not need to be checked by a lab. needlelocalized. fluid or tissue must be removed from the breast to help the doctor learn whether cancer is present. begins in the lobules. A pathologist checks for cancer cells. The doctor can use imaging devices to help see the area to then obtain tissue. the doctor may refer the woman to a surgeon or breast disease specialist. the doctor may order special lab tests on the tissue that was removed.§ Biopsy Often. Another type.

and proposed treatment plan) and arrange to see another doctor. A woman may have a different specialist for each type of treatment. to take notes. Each woman can make her own decision about how much she wants to know. . Usually. Specialists who treat breast cancer include surgeons. They want to take an active part in making decisions about their medical care. others may cover a second opinion if the woman or doctor requests it. A local or state medical society. get a second opinion. or the woman may ask for a referral. biopsy slides. and plastic surgeons. or a medical school can usually provide the names of specialists. Internet provides much information on specialist in breast cancers available and the medical group available in your country. Learning more about the disease helps many women cope. To help remember what the doctor says. and learn more about breast cancer before making a treatment decision. The presence of the HER2 receptor or gene may increase the chance that the breast cancer will come back. or just to listen. The shock and stress after a diagnosis of cancer can make it hard to think of everything to ask the doctor. It may take time and effort to gather medical records (mammogram films. There are a number of ways to find a doctor for a second opinion: The woman's doctor may refer her to one or more specialists. Some also want to have a family member or friend with them when they talk to the doctor--to take part in the discussion. But how much information to seek and how to deal with it are personal choices. Often it helps to make a list of questions before an appointment. Getting a Second Opinion Before starting treatment. a woman with breast cancer may want to get a second opinion about her diagnosis and treatment options.Sometimes a sample of breast tissue is checked for the human epidermal growth factor receptor2 (HER2) or the HER2/neu gene. At cancer centers. In general. radiation oncologists. The doctor may refer a woman with breast cancer to a specialist. a nearby hospital. medical oncologists. Treatments for Breast Cancer Many women with breast cancer want to learn all they can about their disease and their treatment choices. Some insurance companies require a second opinion. a woman can take notes or ask whether she may use a tape recorder. several specialists often work together as a team. taking several weeks to get a second opinion does not make treatment less effective. pathology report. there is time for a woman to talk with her doctor about treatment options. Treatment generally begins within a few weeks after the diagnosis.

The doctor is the best person to describe treatment choices. Many women receive more than one type of treatment. breast-conserving surgery. Through a separate incision. (See the pictures below. to relieve the side effects of treatment. chemotherapy. side effects. They remove or destroy cancer in the breast. the most important factor in treatment choices is the stage of the disease. Information about supportive care is available on NCI's Web site at http://cancer. Others have systemic therapy after surgery and/or radiation to prevent the cancer from coming back. Systemic therapy: Chemotherapy. Some women with breast cancer have systemic therapy to shrink the tumor before surgery or radiation.Treatment Methods Women with breast cancer have many treatment options. See the section called Treatment Choices by Stage. and biological therapy. They enter the bloodstream and destroy or control cancer throughout the body. most women receive radiation therapy to the breast to destroy cancer cells that may remain in the breast. segmental mastectomy. Each woman can work with her doctor to develop a treatment plan that meets her needs and personal values. In addition. or partial and from NCI's Cancer Information Service at 1-800-4-CANCER. and to ease emotional problems. hormonal therapy. discuss and compare the benefits and risks. Surgery: Surgery is the most common treatment for breast cancer. radiation therapy. hormonal therapy. Systemic treatments also are used for cancer that has spread. This kind of treatment is called supportive care. and biological therapy are systemic treatments. These options are described below. lumpectomy. the surgeon often removes the underarm lymph nodes to learn whether cancer cells have entered the lymphatic system. There are several types of surgery. local therapy may be used to control the disease in those specific areas but not elsewhere. and the expected results of treatment.) The doctor can explain each type. and describe how each will affect the woman's appearance: Breast-sparing surgery: An operation to remove the cancer but not the breast is called breast-sparing surgery. Treatment for cancer is either local therapy or systemic therapy: • Local therapy: Surgery and radiation therapy are local treatments. . These include surgery. When breast cancer has spread to other parts of the body. After breast-sparing surgery. women with breast cancer may have treatment to control pain and other symptoms of the cancer. symptom management. at any stage of disease. In most cases. • Most women want to know how treatment may change their normal activities. The procedure to remove the underarm lymph nodes is called an axillary lymph node dissection. or palliative care. They want to know how they will look during and after treatment.

and. (Sometimes an excisional biopsy--which removes all of the tumor--serves as a lumpectomy. Some lymph nodes under the arm may also be removed. the lining over the chest muscles. the surgeon removes the whole breast. the surgeon removes the tumor in the breast and some tissue around it. A new method of checking for cancer cells in the lymph nodes is called sentinel lymph node biopsy. the surgeon removes the whole breast. a specially trained surgeon removes only one or a few lymph nodes (the sentinel nodes) instead of removing a much larger number of underarm lymph nodes. often.) Occasionally. The smaller of the two chest muscles also may be taken out to make it easier to remove the lymph nodes. most or all of the lymph nodes under the arm. . In modified radical mastectomy. some of the lining over the chest muscles below the tumor is removed as well. In most cases. Studies have found equal survival rates for breast-sparing surgery (with radiation therapy) and mastectomy for Stage I and Stage II breast cancer. In total mastectomy. After surgery. Some lymph nodes under the arm may also be removed. In breast-sparing surgery. Biopsy is described in the Diagnosis section. the surgeon also removes lymph nodes under the arm. the woman may receive radiation therapy.Mastectomy: An operation to remove the breast (or as much of the breast tissue as possible) is a mastectomy. In this operation.

the drugs enter the bloodstream and travel throughout the body. a woman with breast cancer goes to the hospital or clinic. depending on the size of the tumor and other factors. Internal radiation (implant radiation): The radiation comes from radioactive material placed in thin plastic tubes put directly in the breast. Chemotherapy for breast cancer is usually a combination of drugs. treatments are scheduled 5 days a week for several weeks. hormonal therapy can affect cells throughout the body. Radiation therapy Radiation therapy (also called radiotherapy) is the use of high-energy rays to kill cancer cells. Hormonal therapy Hormonal therapy keeps cancer cells from getting the natural hormones (estrogen and progesterone) they need to grow. For implant radiation. at the doctor's office. If lab tests show that the breast tumor has hormone receptors. It may be done at the same time as a mastectomy or later. Chemotherapy Chemotherapy is the use of drugs to kill cancer cells. The implants remain in place for several days.Women may choose to have breast reconstruction (plastic surgery to rebuild the shape of the breast). This treatment may be a medicine or surgery: . Either way. This approach is most often used when the breast tumor is large or cannot easily be removed by surgery. the woman may have hormonal therapy. Women considering reconstruction may wish to talk about it with a plastic surgeon before having a mastectomy. radiation therapy also is used after mastectomy. Doctors use two types of radiation therapy to treat breast cancer: External radiation: The radiation comes from a machine. Sometimes. They are removed before the woman goes home. the woman stays in the hospital. It generally follows breast-sparing surgery. Some women have radiation therapy (alone or with chemotherapy or hormonal therapy) before surgery to destroy cancer cells and shrink tumors. or at home. For external radiation therapy. The radiation destroys breast cancer cells that may remain in the area. Some women with breast cancer have both kinds of radiation therapy. Generally. But some women may need to stay in the hospital during chemotherapy. Most women with breast cancer have chemotherapy in an outpatient part of the hospital. The drugs may be given as a pill or by injection into a vein (IV). Like chemotherapy.

A woman may want to ask her doctor these questions before having systemic therapy (chemotherapy. underarm. One example is tamoxifen. or biological therapy): Side Effects of Cancer Treatment Because cancer treatment is likely to damage healthy cells and tissues. Herceptin can slow or stop the growth of the cancer cells. Before surgery. Side effects may not be the same for each woman. The health care provider will explain the possible side effects of treatment and how to manage them. unwanted side effects are common. Surgery: If a woman has not gone through menopause. women may want to talk with their health care provider about pain management. and upper arm. Also. Because nerves may be injured or cut during surgery. but these problems usually are temporary. a form of estrogen. a woman may have numbness and tingling in her chest. Surgery . Any kind of surgery also carries a risk of infection. she may have surgery to remove her ovaries. nurse. Herceptin is injected into a vein. Specific side effects depend mainly on the type and extent of the treatment. hormonal therapy.causes short-term pain and tenderness in the area of the operation. And a woman's side effects may change from one treatment session to the next.) Biological therapy Biological therapy uses the body's natural ability (immune system) to fight cancer. the skin in the area where the breast was removed may feel tight.Medicine: The doctor may suggest a drug that can block the natural hormone. or even for women having the same treatments. Some women with metastatic breast cancer receive a biological therapy called Herceptin® (trastuzumab). which blocks estrogen. Removal of one or both breasts can cause a woman to feel off balance--especially if she has large breasts. it can affect cancer cells throughout the body. These . The ovaries are the main source of the body's estrogen. Herceptin is given to women whose lab tests show that a breast tumor has too much of a specific protein known as HER2. or physical therapist can recommend exercises to help a woman regain movement and strength in her arm and shoulder. a substance made in the laboratory that can bind to cancer cells. The muscles of the arm and shoulder may feel stiff and weak. (After menopause. By blocking HER2. or other problems. Like chemotherapy and hormonal therapy. This imbalance can cause discomfort in her neck and back. Women who develop any problems should tell their health care provider right away. The doctor. It is a monoclonal antibody. shoulder. It may be given by itself or along with chemotherapy. Another type (aromatase inhibitor) prevents the body from making the female hormone estradiol. hormone production by the ovaries naturally declines so surgery would not be needed. bleeding.

. and itchy." Exposing this area to air as much as possible can help the skin heal. Toward the end of treatment. but doctors usually advise patients to try to stay as active as they can. chemotherapy affects normal cells as well as cancer cells. may bruise or bleed easily. or use of a machine that gently compresses the arm. Cells in hair roots: Chemotherapy can lead to hair loss. Radiation Therapy -`During radiation therapy. manual lymph drainage (massage). tender. dry. Resting is important. This feeling may continue for a while after treatment is over. The woman may be referred to a physical therapist or another specialist. When blood cells are affected.Removing the lymph nodes under the arm slows the flow of lymph fluid. The doctor also may suggest other approaches. These effects of radiation therapy on the skin are temporary. Because bras and some other types of clothing may rub the skin and cause irritation. It is also common for the skin in the treated area to become red. Lymphedema . or creams on the treated area. such as medication. The hair grows back.As with radiation. However. and may feel very weak and tired. numbness does not go away. Chemotherapy . but for some women. Gentle skin care also is important. and carry oxygen to all parts of the body. A woman needs to protect her arm and hand on the treated side for the rest of her life. lotions. In general. help the blood to clot. especially toward the end of treatment. the doctor may suggest exercises and other ways to deal with this problem. For example. If lymphedema occurs. especially: Blood cells: These cells fight infection. there may be a lasting change in the color of the skin. patients are more likely to get infections. The breast may feel heavy and tight. but the new hair may be somewhat different in color and texture. and the area gradually heals once treatment is over.feelings usually go away within a few weeks or months. women may want to wear loose-fitting cotton clothes during this time. women with breast cancer may become tired. These problems will go away over time. The side effects of chemotherapy depend mainly on the specific drugs and the dose. and women should check with their doctor before using any deodorants. the skin may become moist and "weepy. The fluid may build up in the arm and hand and cause swelling (lymphedema). anticancer drugs affect cells that divide rapidly. some women with lymphedema wear an elastic sleeve to improve lymph circulation. This problem can develop right after surgery or months to years later.

she may be able to become pregnant. The side effects are likely to be more severe than problems associated with natural menopause. Some anticancer drugs can damage the ovaries. there have been cases in which the heart becomes weakened. nausea and vomiting. infertility is likely to be permanent. if a woman remains fertile during chemotherapy. However. Women who are still menstruating may become pregnant when taking tamoxifen. Side effects that most commonly occur during the first treatment with Herceptin are fever and chills. nausea and/or vomiting. vaginal dryness or itching. Because the effects of chemotherapy on an unborn child are not known. and skin rash. it can cause blood clots in the veins. Hormonal Therapy . The doctor may do a pelvic exam.Herceptin is the biological therapy used to treat some women with breast cancer that has spread.The side effects of hormonal therapy depend largely on the specific drug or type of treatment. especially in the legs and in the lungs. If the hormonal therapy is surgery to remove the ovaries. the woman may have symptoms of menopause. diarrhea. as well as a biopsy of the lining of the uterus. For women over the age of 35. Also. Serious side effects of tamoxifen are rare.Cells that line the digestive tract: Chemotherapy can cause poor appetite. fatigue. headaches. If the damaged ovaries stop making hormones. tamoxifen can slightly increase the risk of stroke. such as hot flashes and vaginal dryness. It blocks the effects of estrogen on cells. Women should discuss birth control methods with their doctor before taking tamoxifen. or mouth and lip sores. On the other hand. a woman will go through menopause immediately. Any unusual vaginal bleeding should be reported to the doctor. the side effects of tamoxifen are similar to some of the symptoms of menopause. it can cause cancer that arises in the lining or the muscular wall of the uterus. Her menstrual periods may become irregular or may stop. Although long-term side effects are quite rare. Some women experience irregular menstrual periods. second cancers. such as leukemia (cancer of the blood cells). and she may become infertile (unable to become pregnant). Tamoxifen may harm the unborn baby. or other tests. a woman may wish to talk with her doctor about birth control before treatment begins. Other possible side . Also. The most common side effects are hot flashes and vaginal discharge. In general. Biological Therapy . Many of these side effects can be controlled with drugs. Not all women who take tamoxifen have side effects. irritation of the skin around the vagina. have occurred in people who have had chemotherapy. The health care provider can suggest ways to cope with these side effects. Tamoxifen is the most common hormonal treatment. In a small number of women.

Herceptin also may cause heart damage. • Monitor your diet Introduce more whole grain bagels. nausea. the health care provider checks the woman for heart and lung problems. difficulty breathing. acupuncture. Before a woman receives Herceptin. tortillas. An approach is called alternative medicine when it is used instead of a standard treatment.effects include pain. cereals. During treatment. Increases your intake of fruits and vegetables as they are packed with promising cancer-fighting phytochemicals. weakness. Many women report that such approaches help them feel better. These side effects generally become less severe after the first treatment. Prevention of Breast Cancer Breast cancer cannot be prevented but we can reduce the risk of getting breast cancer through the following methods. which may lead to heart failure. a woman should discuss their possible benefits and risks with her doctor. some types of complementary and alternative medicine may interfere with or may be harmful when used with treatments prescribed by a doctor. vitamins or special diets. Take more nuts as they are a great source of fiber and another breast cancer foe-monounsaturated fats. and pasta into your diet. . It can also affect the lungs. diarrhea. Complementary and Alternative Medicine Some women with breast cancer use complementary and alternative medicine healing approaches to reduce stress or to reduce side effects and symptoms: An approach is generally called complementary medicine when it is used in addition to treatments prescribed by a doctor. and rashes. breads. causing breathing problems that require immediate medical attention. massage therapy. headaches. visualization. herbal products. and spiritual healing. Health insurance may not cover the cost. crackers. the health care provider watches for signs of heart and lung problems. Before trying any of these therapies. which may fight breast cancer by lowering levels of estrogen in the body. meditation. Some common types of complementary and alternative medicine are acupressure. However. This maximizes intake of fiber. Some types of complementary and alternative medicine may be expensive. vomiting.

Soybeans contain potentially anticarcinogenic compounds (weak estrogen compounds). The omega-3 fats in fish such as salmon. which will contribute to a healthier you in terms of mind. including saponins. However occassional glasses or red wine and white white might be beneficial to the health as it contains high level of antioxident which will also help help prevent cancer. phytates. Thinner women who exercise more and maybe eat a lower-fat diet may have a lower risk. There is also one drug. which may protect against breast cancer. Tamoxifen (Nolvadex) is a synthetic substance that is an anti-estrogen in the breast. The Breast Cancer Prevention Trial recently examined tamoxifen's usefulness in preventing first breast . but those effects are modest. • Increase your fitness level Exercising helps to keep the body rejuvenated while help to maintain a healthy weight and to strengthen the immune system at the same time. Olive oil and canola oil are high in monounsaturated fats. sardines. Eliminate highly processed food which has high amount of trans fats and saturated fats which increases cancer risk. that has been shown to lower the risk of breast cancer for women with high risk. The number one risk factor for breast cancer is age. Start at normal speed initially and building up the pace over time to achieve a stronger you. and herring may help fight breast cancer. A good fitness activity will be quick paced-walking which is easy and helps built stronger heart muscles. Not forgetting that exercising keeps the spirit up within you. white tuna. Herb and spice increases your intake of phytochemicals Green tea is known for the promising anticancer activity of a compound it contains called epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG). women who have a late first period and early first pregnancy have a lower risk. tamoxifen. mackerel. Younger women would be unlikely to take it. and isoflavones. It has been used for about 20 years as chemotherapy (drug treatment) for advanced breast cancer and more recently to prevent recurrence of earlystage breast cancer treated by lumpectomy. protease inhibitors. Taking in of alcohol will also increase the risk of cancer. body and soul. But those are things you can't control. The studies of this drug have been limited to women over age 35. • Lower your risk through medications On average.

With this drug. tamoxifen has time and time again been proven to save lives. Listen to your body's needs and increase your immune system slowly. • Regular Examination Do regular self breast examination and annual breast health check for yourself will not to prevent. As a treatment for advanced breast cancer. irregular periods. especially in women who are undergoing other forms of chemotherapy. tamoxifen has potentially serious side effects. after complete discussion of her risk factors and all possible drawbacks to tamoxifen therapy. this risk is small. Create a balance in the mind. but may be annoying: hot flashes. while acting as an antiestrogen in breast tissue. However. acts like estrogen on the uterine lining. this increases the risk of developing cancer of the uterine lining by two to three times. however it allows the detection of abnormalities of your breast early so that you can be treated at preliminary stages where the chances of recovery will be much higher. rather then aiming to prevent breast cancer. Self-discipline is the key to success.cancers in women who are at high risk. However. This is the same increase in uterine cancer that is seen in women with a uterus who take estrogen replacement without a progestin. this study found a 45 percent reduction in the development of breast cancer in the group on tamoxifen. many more women are able to survive their breast cancer than will develop blood clots. It may increase the chance of developing cataracts. . Tamoxifen. Living well and maintaining a healthy body and a joyous attitude is all you need to reduce the risk of cancer. cataracts or uterine cancer. There is a small increase in blood clots. Preventing breast cancer is a long-term commitment. As far as using tamoxifen to potentially prevent breast cancer that is a highly individual decision that must be carefully considered by each women and her doctor. vaginal dryness. and only recently was that approval expanded to include decreasing the risk of developing breast cancer in a very select group of women at very high risk. Any woman on tamoxifen who has any abnormal vaginal bleeding or pelvic pain must be evaluated by her gynecologist! Other side effects are less serious. There is no hard and fast rule to reduce your risk of getting cancer. and tamoxifen has been approved for this use as well. aim to live a healthy and happy lifestyle. Tamoxifen was approved by the FDA a long time ago to treat breast cancer. This way. you not only prevent yourself from breast cancer but all other health ailments. but as with blood clots. body and soul. or to prevent recurrence of a treated early-stage cancer.

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