ANNUAL BOOK of ASTM STANDARDS

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SECTION 8

Plastics
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VOLUME 08.01

Plastics (I): D 256 - D 2343
Includes standards of the following committee(s):
D20 on Plastics

INTERNATIONAL
ASTM Stock Number: S080102

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ASTM INTERNATIONAL • 100 BARR HARBOR DRIVE, PO BOX C700, WEST CONSHOHOCKEN, PA 19428-2959 TEL: 610-832-9500 • FAX: 610-832-9555 • EMAILservice@astm.org • WEBSITE: www.astm.org

correlates with its regular transmittance. 1. Note 1—There is no similar or equivalent ISO standard.60 T. This correlation is poor for highly diffusing materials because of interference of scattered light in the visual test. Vol 06. The regular transmittance may equal the total transmittance but cannot exceed it. A superscript epsilon (e) indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval.1.01.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns. lens system. limitations on the geometry of the optical system are specified in Section 5. Apparatus 5.1 This test method covers the measurement of the trans 3. United States. Terminology 3. *A Summary of Changes section appears at the end of this standard." which is rated subjectively by the effect of a hand-held specimen on an observer's ability to distinguish clearly a relatively distant target. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. receptor aperture. Significance and Use 4. Copyright © ASTM International.01. it is principally intended for use with nominally clear and colorless thin sheeting.1. the resolution is largely determined by the angular width of the receptor aperture. Results obtained by the use of this test method are greatly influenced by the design parameters of the instruments.1 The apparatus shall consist of a light source. Caution should therefore be exercised in comparing results obtained from different instruments.2 transmittance—the ratio of the flux transmitted by a specimen to the radiant flux incident on the specimen. and an indicating or recording system. Sensitivity to differences improves with de creasing incident beam. 1. photoelectric detector.and receptor-angle. specimen holder. arranged to measure regular transmittance.97 INTERNATIONAL An American National Standard Standard Test Method for Transparency of Plastic Sheeting1 This standard is issued under the fixed designation D 1746. Note 2—For additional information. Although generally applicable to any translucent or transparent material. Current edition approved July 10. 4. for example. measured by its ability to transmit image-forming light. 100 Barr Harbor Drive. Vol 08. Originally published as D 1746 .02.2 Regular transmittance data according to this test method E 1164 Practice for Obtaining Spectrophotometric Data for Object-Color Evaluation3 E 1345 Practice for Reducing the Effect of Variability of Color Measurement by Use of Multiple Measurements3 E 1347 Test Method for Color and Color-Difference Mea correlate with the property commonly known as "see-through. West Conshohocken. 1997. 1. (For this test method. if any. The values given in parentheses are for information only. Published April 1998.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. 4. PO Box C700.1 An incandescent or vapor-arc lamp.1 ASTM Standards: D 618 Practice for Conditioning Plastics for Testing2 D 1003 Test Method for Haze and Luminous Transmittance of Transparent Plastics2 E 284 Terminology of Appearance3 E691 Practice for Conducting an Interlaboratory Study to Determine the Precision of a Test Method4 sheeting of commercial interest have a range of transparency of about 10 to 90 % as measured by this test.96. 5. Last previous edition D 1746 .1. in the case of revision. PA 19428-2959. Vol 14. see Terminology E 284 and Prac tice E 1164. especially for samples with low regular transmittance. associated with its use.1 The attribute of clarity of a sheet. with a regulated power supply such that fluctuations in light intensity shall be 3Annual Book of ASTM Standards. This test method has been approvedfor use by agencies of the Department of Defense.1° or less.) 3.40 on Optical Properties. 4Annual Book of ASTM Standards. mitted flux to incident flux. source aperture. Referenced Documents 2. The system shall meet the following requirements: 5. the number immediately following the designation indicates the year of original adoption or. the year of last revision. Scope * 1. 414 . It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appro priate safety and health practices and determine the applica bility of regulatory limitations prior to use.1 regular transmittance—the ratio of undiffused trans parency of plastic sheeting in terms of regular transmittance (Tr). If the angular width of the incident beam and of the receptor aperture (as seen from the specimen position) are of the order of 0.1 Definitions: 3. 2. 2Annual Book of ASTM Standards. surement by Tristimulus (Filter) Colorimetry3 E 1348 Test Method for Transmittance and Color by Spec trophotometry Using Hemispherical Geometry3 1This test methodis under thejurisdictionof ASTMCommitteeD-20on Plastics and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee D 20.T Designation: D 1746 .

Instrument Adjustment 9.2 With the light beam blocked at sample position. have essentially plane parallel surfaces.025°. Provision for transverse motion may be provided to facilitate replication of measurements.3 A holder shall be provided that will secure the 7. is the total luminous transmit tance (see Test Method D 1003. 5.JljJ^ D1746 less than± 1 %.1 ± 0.2 With the light beam blocked at sample position. Record the reading as Ir. ° 0 Intensity 100 10 1 0.1 0. 10. 8. 11. of 0. 10. adjust the reading to a maximum by moving the receptor aperture so that the receptor receives the maximum intensity from the light. the tolerances shall be 1°C (1. Test Specimens 7. operating temperature.6°F) and 50 ± 5 % relative humidity for not less than 40 h prior to test in accordance with Procedure A of Practice D 618 for those tests where conditioning is required. Landrum.1 Since no regular transmittance standards are known to be available.3 With the light beam unblocked. for circular apertures. 10.3 A minimum of three test specimens shall be prepared for each material unless otherwise specified in the applicable material specification. E 1347. 8.6°F) and 50 ± 5 % relative humidity. Box 395.2) and for readjusting for maximum light intensity in the event that the beam is deviated by a specimen with nonparallel surfaces. and label it with the value obtained.4 Mount a test specimen in the instrument so that it is neither wrinkled nor stretched but centered and normal to the 6. Note 5—Transparency of colored or highly reflective materials may be measured by the ratio of Tr IT.5 and commercial versions are available.O.6 A test result is the mean of these three readings (minimum). (800)462-1804. operating temperature. "Method for the Measurement of Transparency of Sheet Materials. SC 29356.1 Calculate the percent regular transmittance. an appropriate filter shall be used to limit light only to the spectral range from 540 to 560 nm. 9.005° at the plane of the specimen. When measured with the indicating or recording system of the apparatus. Either set this value to 100 or record it as I0.1..1.8°F) and ±2 % relative humidity.05 0. The image of the source aperture with no specimen in place shall be the same shape as the receptor aperture centered on and entirely within it. In cases of disagreement. in the direction of the short dimension of the slit. If an arc lamp is used. where T. 5.1 Turn the instrument on and allow it to come to a stable Note 3—This provision is necessary for checking the geometry of the incident beam (5.1 Conditioning—Condition the test specimens at 23 ± 2°C (73. light beam. 6. pp. as follows: 415 .025 ± 0.4 An aperture shall be provided over the receptor so that its diameter or width subtends an angle. JOSAA. Calculation 6 A Clarity Meter is available from Zebedee. Procedure Note 4—Apparatus meeting these requirements has been described in the literature.1 0. 9.4 Check for changes in instrument performance by read ing the reference materials prepared in Section 6.1.6 Means shall be provided for relatively displacing the receptor or the image of the source aperture (in the plane of the receptor aperture) by at least 1° from the optical axis of the undeviated incident beam. set the reading to zero. No.01 l0 or less. Reference Materials 10.3 With the light beam unblocked. and be free of surface or internal contamination. September 1957. In cases of disagreement. 5.5 Repeat 10. 7. 9. the tolerances shall be 1°C (1. in two direc tions at right angles to each other.1 Turn the instrument on and allow it to come to a stable 6.1. 5. 10.6 6. 785-789.2 Test Conditions—Conduct tests in the standard labora tory atmosphere of 23 ± 2°C (73. for slit optics.1 All specimens should be nominally colorless (Note 5) and transparent to translucent.8°F) and ±2 % relative humidity. 8.2 Nonrigid specimens must be held in a suitable holder so that they are flat and free from wrinkles. 9.5 A photoelectric detector shall be provided such that the indicated or recorded response to incident light shall be substantially a linear function and uniform over the entire range from the unobstructed beam (/0) to 0. 5. 11. or E 1348). at the plane of the specimen." Journal of the Optical Society of America. 9. Vol 47.1. Conditioning specimen so that its plane is normal to the axis of the incident beam at a fixed distance from the receptor aperture. it is recommended that specimens of glass or other material believed to maintain constant light transmission properties with time be selected that yield different regular transmittance values for use as reference materials.4 ± 3.1. Provision must be made for rotating the specimen if slit optics are used. unless otherwise specified in the test meth ods.3 Keep these reference materials for checking for changes in instrument performance in the future. set the reading to zero. set the reading to 100 and record it as I0. 5 Webber.3 The source aperture may be circular or a rectangular slit having a length-to-width ratio of at least 10. 10. using a receptor aperture having a width or diameter subtending an angle of 0. 10.2 A system of apertures and lenses shall be used that will provide a symmetricalincident beam. P.4 for the other two specimens (minimum). 7. Practice E 1345 provides procedures for reducing variability in test results to meet stated tolerance limits by using measurements of multiple specimens (or multiple measurements on a single specimen). Alfred C. Tr.2 Measure the regular transmittance value of each speci men. the incident beam shall meet the following requirements: Maximum Relative Angle.4 ± 3.

D1746 100/.6) are intended only to present a meaningful way of considering the 13.54 accepted reference method for determining this property.36 5.66 6.4 Repeatability—In comparing two mean values for 13. readings.47 0. and each specimen was evaluated in duplicate in one day.39 0. per Practice E 691. the same material.3).8 89. transparency 416 .41 0.92 0.76 6.5 Standard deviation (see 11. 12.1. chart or special scale is used to interpret the instrument reading.3 Calculate the standard deviation of the average trans mittance (standard deviation of n readings/rt1/2).24 2. Report Aand Bwere photographic films.49 2. This procedure yielded eight test results for each material under evaluation. and 12. the means should be judged not equivalent if they differ by more than the r value for that material.19 89.95 11.7 46.64 2. 12.3-13. sheeting.6 Any measured anisotropy.66 SR 1.1 Report the following information: 12.4 Number of specimens tested. Keywords 7.1.47 6.10 1.03 5.7 For further information.34 SR 0.1. regular transmittance. Measurements of these materials using three different old Gardner clarity meters yielded results consistent with those TABLE 1 Round Robin on Clarity orTransparency Using Old Gardner Clarity Meters.40 7.60 2. method should apply the principles outlined in Practice E691 to generate data specific to their laboratory and materials.21 44.86 1. SR is the between-laboratory reproducibility standard deviation of a test result. The data in Table 1and Table 2should not be applied rigorously to acceptance or rejection of material as those data are specific to the round robin and may not be representative of other lots. obtained with the Zebedee meters. 11.2).2 Table 2 is based on a round robin conducted in 1994. 13.5 will be correct in approximately 95 %ofsuch comparisons. 14.6 would then be valid for such data.1. and R = 2. II„ where: (1) TABLE 2 Round Robin on Clarity or Transparency Usinq Zebedee CL-100 Meter. plastic. and I0 = lightintensity with no specimen in the beam..01 0. for the material indicated. Note 6—No calculation is needed if /„ is set to 100 or a conversion Average 21.34 6.74 5. involving seven materials tested by seven In the tables.1.. r = 2.1.1.92 0. laboratories.5 Reproducibility—In comparing two mean values for the same material obtained by different operators using differ ent equipment on different days.2 Bias—Bias cannot be determined since there is no Average Transparency 10.83 X Sr (see 13. or laboratories. materials.1.62 0. Summary Expressed in Percent Material'1 E /.79 is no bias between the Zebedee and old Gardner clarity meters.1 Table 1is based on a round robin conducted in 1987. The mean of the five measurements on each specimen was considered a test result.81 2.98 2. 12.1.47 0.14 1.22 A B 0. Users of this test Note 7—Caution: The following explanations of r and R (13.94 4 5 6 7 84.1.6 12.45 r R 1.83 X SR.86 1.1 Sample designation.2 3.05 2.27 1.2 Calculate the test result oraverage transmittance ofthe three.80 D 2. 12. or more.33 4.3 Summary statistics are given in Table 1 and Table 2.1 clarity. Four specimens of each material were measured in five places.9 90.23 0. conditions.4 73. There 2 3 0. per Practice E691. The principles of 13.6 Judgments made as described in 13.2 sr 0.92 5. Sr is the pooled within-laboratory standard deviation of a test result. = light intensity with the specimenin the beam. which are no longer commercially available. 13. or between specific 13.1 3. Each material tested was represented by four specimens run on separate days. Summary Material Designation 1 13.60 2.67 4.1.1.1 Precision: laboratories.1.4). 13. 13. from each laboratory. 12.1.00 1. 12.4 and 13.48 2.46 2. Precision and Bias 13.1. 13. involving six materials tested by nine laboratories using Zebedee clarity meters.62 77.07 2.36 2. and Cthrough Fwere packaging films.1.35 90. either in the same laboratory or in different laboratories.2 Instrument used. obtained by the same operator using the same equipment on the same day. 13.00 1.8 14.38 C F 57. see Practice E 691.1. approximate precision ofthis test method. The instruments used were Gardner clarity meters.3 Average regular transmittance (see 11.1.38 2. the means should be judged not equivalent if they differ by more than the R value for that material.1.66 6.1 1.89 6. trans mittance.

tte°3se . or both.o. ifJSlTSTl6!5 SUbJeCt '° reyS'0n a'3ny time by the rBSP°nsit»e technical committee and must be reviewedeveryfive years and (7.he number of readings "> tanceAddHda ms. jj . or revisions of the changes. KAA .-* *4i ^ ahh„h »'*♦. m•_ This section identifies the location of selected changes to this test method. For the convenience of the user Committee D-20 has highl. ^STaddressm8 .ghted those changes that may impact the use of this test method This sect on may Y »!srmmb"olspecimensre<. W Added references to Guide E 1345 for reducing thp vari 417 .he.7'Tfor calc"M"s» «» —*• 2 and standard deviation for a specific material. .redf". measurements on ££?.♦ . $1746-97: .n Ti.est *•* °i — test specimen(s).<#> D1746 SUMMARY OF CHANGES also include descriptions of the changes.

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