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Non-dimensionalisation of the Navier-Stokes equations

Michal Kopera
Centre for Scientific Computing

24 January 2008

Michal Kopera

Non-dimensionalisation of the Navier-Stokes equations

Outline
Previously on Research Seminar ...
Navier-Stokes equations (vector and tensor notation)

Different forms of Navier-Stokes equations
Divergent Dissipative Skew-symmetric Rotational

Non-dimensionalization
Dimensionless variables Derivations of dimensionless equations Choosing the reference values
Michal Kopera Non-dimensionalisation of the Navier-Stokes equations

Previously on Research Seminar...

Continuity equation
∂ρ ∂(ρu) ∂(ρv ) ∂(ρw ) + + + =0 ∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z

Assumptions
Infinitesimal control volume, but big enough to treat the fluid as a continuum ρ = const.

Michal Kopera

Non-dimensionalisation of the Navier-Stokes equations

Previously on Research Seminar...

Continuity equation
∂ρ ∂(ρu) ∂(ρv ) ∂(ρw ) + + + =0 ∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z

Assumptions
Infinitesimal control volume, but big enough to treat the fluid as a continuum ρ = const.

Michal Kopera

Non-dimensionalisation of the Navier-Stokes equations

but big enough to treat the fluid as a continuum ρ = const.. Continuity equation ∂ρ ∂(ρu) ∂(ρv ) ∂(ρw ) + + + =0 ∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z Assumptions Infinitesimal control volume..Previously on Research Seminar. Michal Kopera Non-dimensionalisation of the Navier-Stokes equations .

Previously on Research Seminar... Continuity equation for incompressible fluid ∂w ∂u ∂v + + =0 ∂x ∂y ∂z V =0 ∂ui =0 ∂xi Michal Kopera Non-dimensionalisation of the Navier-Stokes equations .

.. Continuity equation for incompressible fluid ∂w ∂u ∂v + + =0 ∂x ∂y ∂z V =0 ∂ui =0 ∂xi Michal Kopera Non-dimensionalisation of the Navier-Stokes equations .Previously on Research Seminar.

Previously on Research Seminar. Continuity equation for incompressible fluid ∂w ∂u ∂v + + =0 ∂x ∂y ∂z V =0 ∂ui =0 ∂xi Michal Kopera Non-dimensionalisation of the Navier-Stokes equations ...

. Linear momentum equation ρ ∂V + ρ(V · ∂t ρ )V = ρg − p+ τij ∂τij ∂ui ∂p ∂ui + ρuj = ρgi − + ∂t ∂xj ∂xi ∂xj Assumptions Newtonian fluid: τij = µ ∂ui ∂xj + ∂uj ∂xi Michal Kopera Non-dimensionalisation of the Navier-Stokes equations .Previously on Research Seminar..

Linear momentum equation ρ ∂V + ρ(V · ∂t ρ )V = ρg − p+ τij ∂τij ∂ui ∂ui ∂p + ρuj = ρgi − + ∂t ∂xj ∂xi ∂xj Assumptions Newtonian fluid: τij = µ ∂ui ∂xj + ∂uj ∂xi Michal Kopera Non-dimensionalisation of the Navier-Stokes equations ..Previously on Research Seminar..

Previously on Research Seminar. Linear momentum equation ρ ∂V + ρ(V · ∂t ρ )V = ρg − p+ τij ∂τij ∂ui ∂ui ∂p + ρuj = ρgi − + ∂t ∂xj ∂xi ∂xj Assumptions Newtonian fluid: τij = µ ∂ui ∂xj + ∂uj ∂xi Michal Kopera Non-dimensionalisation of the Navier-Stokes equations ...

Linear momentum equation for Newtonian fluid ∂V + (V · ∂t )V = g − 1 p+ν V ρ ∂ui ∂ui 1 ∂p ∂ 2 ui + uj = gi − +ν ∂t ∂xj ρ ∂xi ∂xj ∂xj Michal Kopera Non-dimensionalisation of the Navier-Stokes equations ..Previously on Research Seminar..

. Linear momentum equation for Newtonian fluid ∂V + (V · ∂t )V = g − 1 p+ν V ρ ∂ui ∂ui 1 ∂p ∂ 2 ui + uj = gi − +ν ∂t ∂xj ρ ∂xi ∂xj ∂xj Michal Kopera Non-dimensionalisation of the Navier-Stokes equations .Previously on Research Seminar..

Energy equation ρ du ˆ + p( dt · V) = (k · T) + Φ Assumptions Fourier law: q = −k T d u ≈ cv dT ≈ cp dT ˆ cv . k. Φ=0 Michal Kopera Non-dimensionalisation of the Navier-Stokes equations ...Previously on Research Seminar. µ. ρ ≈ const. cp .

. Energy equation ρ du ˆ + p( dt · V) = (k · T) + Φ Assumptions Fourier law: q = −k T d u ≈ cv dT ≈ cp dT ˆ cv . µ. ρ ≈ const. k. Φ=0 Michal Kopera Non-dimensionalisation of the Navier-Stokes equations . cp .Previously on Research Seminar..

ρ ≈ const. k... cp . Energy equation ρ du ˆ + p( dt · V) = (k · T) + Φ Assumptions Fourier law: q = −k T d u ≈ cv dT ≈ cp dT ˆ cv . Φ=0 Michal Kopera Non-dimensionalisation of the Navier-Stokes equations . µ.Previously on Research Seminar.

.. cp . k. ρ ≈ const. µ. Energy equation ρ du ˆ + p( dt · V) = (k · T) + Φ Assumptions Fourier law: q = −k T d u ≈ cv dT ≈ cp dT ˆ cv . Φ=0 Michal Kopera Non-dimensionalisation of the Navier-Stokes equations .Previously on Research Seminar.

Energy equation for an incompressible flow without viscous dissipation ∂T + (V · ∂t )T = k ρcp T ∂T k ∂2T ∂T + uj = ∂t ∂xj ρcv ∂xj ∂xj Michal Kopera Non-dimensionalisation of the Navier-Stokes equations ...Previously on Research Seminar.

Previously on Research Seminar.. Energy equation for an incompressible flow without viscous dissipation ∂T + (V · ∂t )T = k ρcp T ∂T k ∂2T ∂T + uj = ∂t ∂xj ρcv ∂xj ∂xj Michal Kopera Non-dimensionalisation of the Navier-Stokes equations ..

Different forms of the Navier-Stokes equation convective form ∂ui ∂ui 1 ∂p ∂ 2 ui + uj = gi − +ν ∂t ∂xj ρ ∂xi ∂xj ∂xj divergent form ∂(ui uj ) ∂ui 1 ∂p ∂ 2 ui + = gi − +ν ∂t ∂xj ρ ∂xi ∂xj ∂xj skew-symmetric form ∂ui 1 ∂ui 1 ∂(ui uj ) 1 ∂p ∂ 2 ui + uj + = gi − +ν ∂t 2 ∂xj 2 ∂xj ρ ∂xi ∂xj ∂xj Michal Kopera Non-dimensionalisation of the Navier-Stokes equations .

Different forms of the Navier-Stokes equation convective form ∂ui ∂ui 1 ∂p ∂ 2 ui + uj = gi − +ν ∂t ∂xj ρ ∂xi ∂xj ∂xj divergent form ∂(ui uj ) ∂ui 1 ∂p ∂ 2 ui + = gi − +ν ∂t ∂xj ρ ∂xi ∂xj ∂xj skew-symmetric form ∂ui 1 ∂ui 1 ∂(ui uj ) 1 ∂p ∂ 2 ui + uj + = gi − +ν ∂t 2 ∂xj 2 ∂xj ρ ∂xi ∂xj ∂xj Michal Kopera Non-dimensionalisation of the Navier-Stokes equations .

Different forms of the Navier-Stokes equation convective form ∂ui ∂ui 1 ∂p ∂ 2 ui + uj = gi − +ν ∂t ∂xj ρ ∂xi ∂xj ∂xj divergent form ∂(ui uj ) ∂ui 1 ∂p ∂ 2 ui + = gi − +ν ∂t ∂xj ρ ∂xi ∂xj ∂xj skew-symmetric form ∂ui 1 ∂ui 1 ∂(ui uj ) 1 ∂p ∂ 2 ui + uj + = gi − +ν ∂t 2 ∂xj 2 ∂xj ρ ∂xi ∂xj ∂xj Michal Kopera Non-dimensionalisation of the Navier-Stokes equations .

Different forms of the Navier-Stokes equation rotational form ∂V +( ∂t × V) × V + 1 2 |V | 2 =g− 1 p+ν V ρ ×V 1 P = p + ρ|V |2 2 ω= ∂V 1 +ω×V =g − P +ν V ∂t ρ Michal Kopera Non-dimensionalisation of the Navier-Stokes equations .

Different forms of the Navier-Stokes equation rotational form ∂V +( ∂t × V) × V + 1 2 |V | 2 =g− 1 p+ν V ρ ×V 1 P = p + ρ|V |2 2 ω= ∂V 1 +ω×V =g − P +ν V ∂t ρ Michal Kopera Non-dimensionalisation of the Navier-Stokes equations .

Different forms of the Navier-Stokes equation rotational form ∂V +( ∂t × V) × V + 1 2 |V | 2 =g− 1 p+ν V ρ ×V 1 P = p + ρ|V |2 2 ω= ∂V 1 +ω×V =g − P +ν V ∂t ρ Michal Kopera Non-dimensionalisation of the Navier-Stokes equations .

Different forms of the Navier-Stokes equation convective term in tensor notation ( × V) × V + 1 2 |V | 2 → uj ∂uj ∂ui − ∂xj ∂xi + ∂ ∂xi 1 uj uj 2 rotational form in tensor notation ∂ui + uj ∂t ∂uj ∂ui − ∂xj ∂xi = gi − 1 ∂P ∂ 2 ui +ν ρ ∂xi ∂xj ∂xj Michal Kopera Non-dimensionalisation of the Navier-Stokes equations .

Different forms of the Navier-Stokes equation convective term in tensor notation ( × V) × V + 1 2 |V | 2 → uj ∂uj ∂ui − ∂xj ∂xi + ∂ ∂xi 1 uj uj 2 rotational form in tensor notation ∂ui + uj ∂t ∂uj ∂ui − ∂xj ∂xi = gi − 1 ∂P ∂ 2 ui +ν ρ ∂xi ∂xj ∂xj Michal Kopera Non-dimensionalisation of the Navier-Stokes equations .

Different forms of the Navier-Stokes equation Summary of the Navier-Stokes equation formulations convective divergent skew-symmetric rotational ∂ui ∂t ∂ui ∂t ∂ui ∂t + uj ∂uji = gi − ∂x + ∂(ui uj ) ∂xj 1 ∂p ρ ∂xi 1 ∂p ρ ∂xi ∂ ui + ν ∂xj ∂xj ∂ ui + ν ∂xj ∂xj 1 ∂p ρ ∂xi ∂ ui + ν ∂xj ∂xj 2 2 2 2 = gi − + 1 uj ∂uji + 2 ∂x + uj ∂ui ∂xj 1 ∂(ui uj ) 2 ∂xj ∂uj ∂xi = gi − ∂ui ∂t − = gi − 1 ∂P ρ ∂xi ∂ ui + ν ∂xj ∂xj Michal Kopera Non-dimensionalisation of the Navier-Stokes equations .

reference constant (eg. free stream velocity) a∗ = a A .dimensionless variable Michal Kopera Non-dimensionalisation of the Navier-Stokes equations .Dimensionless variables Dimensionless variables a . velocity) A . length of a football pitch.variable which has a dimension (unit) (length.Non-dimensionalization .

Dimensionless variables Dimensionless variables a .reference constant (eg. velocity) A .variable which has a dimension (unit) (length.dimensionless variable Michal Kopera Non-dimensionalisation of the Navier-Stokes equations . length of a football pitch.Non-dimensionalization . free stream velocity) a∗ = a A .

free stream velocity) a∗ = a A .reference constant (eg.dimensionless variable Michal Kopera Non-dimensionalisation of the Navier-Stokes equations . velocity) A .Dimensionless variables Dimensionless variables a .Non-dimensionalization . length of a football pitch.variable which has a dimension (unit) (length.

Non-dimensionalization .Continuity equation Continuity equation ∂ui =0 ∂xi Dimensionless variables ui∗ = ui U xi∗ = xi L Non-dimensional continuity equation ∂ui∗ =0 ∂xi∗ Michal Kopera Non-dimensionalisation of the Navier-Stokes equations .

Non-dimensionalization .Continuity equation Continuity equation ∂ui =0 ∂xi Dimensionless variables ui∗ = ui U xi∗ = xi L Non-dimensional continuity equation ∂ui∗ =0 ∂xi∗ Michal Kopera Non-dimensionalisation of the Navier-Stokes equations .

Non-dimensionalization .Continuity equation Continuity equation ∂ui =0 ∂xi Dimensionless variables ui∗ = ui U xi∗ = xi L Non-dimensional continuity equation ∂ui∗ =0 ∂xi∗ Michal Kopera Non-dimensionalisation of the Navier-Stokes equations .

Momentum equation Linear momentum equation ∂ui ∂ui 1 ∂p ∂ 2 ui + uj = gi − +ν ∂t ∂xj ρ ∂xi ∂xj ∂xj Dimensionless variables ui∗ = ui U xi∗ = xi L t∗ = t U L p∗ = p ρU 2 Non-dimensional momentum equation ∂ui∗ ∂u ∗ L ν ∂ 2 ui∗ ∂p ∗ + uj∗ i∗ = gi 2 − ∗ + ∂t ∗ ∂xj U ∂xi UL ∂xj∗ ∂xj∗ Michal Kopera Non-dimensionalisation of the Navier-Stokes equations .Non-dimensionalization .

Non-dimensionalization .Momentum equation Linear momentum equation ∂ui ∂ui 1 ∂p ∂ 2 ui + uj = gi − +ν ∂t ∂xj ρ ∂xi ∂xj ∂xj Dimensionless variables ui∗ = ui U xi∗ = xi L t∗ = t U L p∗ = p ρU 2 Non-dimensional momentum equation ∂ui∗ ∂u ∗ L ν ∂ 2 ui∗ ∂p ∗ + uj∗ i∗ = gi 2 − ∗ + ∂t ∗ ∂xj U ∂xi UL ∂xj∗ ∂xj∗ Michal Kopera Non-dimensionalisation of the Navier-Stokes equations .

Momentum equation Linear momentum equation ∂ui ∂ui 1 ∂p ∂ 2 ui + uj = gi − +ν ∂t ∂xj ρ ∂xi ∂xj ∂xj Dimensionless variables ui∗ = ui U xi∗ = xi L t∗ = t U L p∗ = p ρU 2 Non-dimensional momentum equation ∂ui∗ ∂u ∗ L ν ∂ 2 ui∗ ∂p ∗ + uj∗ i∗ = gi 2 − ∗ + ∂t ∗ ∂xj U ∂xi UL ∂xj∗ ∂xj∗ Michal Kopera Non-dimensionalisation of the Navier-Stokes equations .Non-dimensionalization .

Momentum equation ∂ui∗ ∂u ∗ L ν ∂ 2 ui∗ ∂p ∗ + uj∗ i∗ = gi 2 − ∗ + ∂t ∗ ∂xj U ∂xi UL ∂xj∗ ∂xj∗ Dimensionless parameters Reynolds number: Re = Froude number: Fr = U2 gL UL ν (always important) (only if there is a free surface) Non-dimensional momentum equation with dimensionless parameters ∂u ∗ ∂ui∗ 1 ∂p ∗ 1 ∂ 2 ui∗ + uj∗ i∗ = − ∗+ ∗ ∂t ∂xj Fr ∂xi Re ∂xj∗ ∂xj∗ Michal Kopera Non-dimensionalisation of the Navier-Stokes equations .Non-dimensionalization .

Energy equation Energy equation ∂T ∂T k ∂2T + uj = ∂t ∂xj ρcp ∂xj ∂xj Dimensionless variables ui∗ = ui U xi∗ = xi L t ∗ = t · t0 T∗ = T −T0 T1 −T0 Non-dimensional energy equation T1 − T0 ∂T ∗ U ∂T ∗ k T1 − T0 ∂T ∗ + (T1 − T0 )uj∗ ∗ = t0 ∂t ∗ L ∂xj ρcp L2 ∂xj∗ ∂xj∗ Michal Kopera Non-dimensionalisation of the Navier-Stokes equations .Non-dimensionalization .

Non-dimensionalization .Energy equation Energy equation ∂T ∂T k ∂2T + uj = ∂t ∂xj ρcp ∂xj ∂xj Dimensionless variables ui∗ = ui U xi∗ = xi L t ∗ = t · t0 T∗ = T −T0 T1 −T0 Non-dimensional energy equation T1 − T0 ∂T ∗ U ∂T ∗ k T1 − T0 ∂T ∗ + (T1 − T0 )uj∗ ∗ = t0 ∂t ∗ L ∂xj ρcp L2 ∂xj∗ ∂xj∗ Michal Kopera Non-dimensionalisation of the Navier-Stokes equations .

Energy equation Energy equation ∂T ∂T k ∂2T + uj = ∂t ∂xj ρcp ∂xj ∂xj Dimensionless variables ui∗ = ui U xi∗ = xi L t ∗ = t · t0 T∗ = T −T0 T1 −T0 Non-dimensional energy equation T1 − T0 ∂T ∗ U ∂T ∗ k T1 − T0 ∂T ∗ + (T1 − T0 )uj∗ ∗ = t0 ∂t ∗ L ∂xj ρcp L2 ∂xj∗ ∂xj∗ Michal Kopera Non-dimensionalisation of the Navier-Stokes equations .Non-dimensionalization .

Energy equation T1 − T0 ∂T ∗ U ∂T ∗ k T1 − T0 ∂T ∗ + (T1 − T0 )uj∗ ∗ = t0 ∂t ∗ L ∂xj ρcp L2 ∂xj∗ ∂xj∗ Dimensionless parameters UL ν µc Prandtl number: Pr = k p L Strouhal number: St = Ut0 Reynolds number: Re = Non-dimensional energy equation with dimensionless parameters St ∂T ∗ ∂T ∗ 1 ∂T ∗ + uj∗ ∗ = ∂t ∗ ∂xj RePr ∂xj∗ ∂xj∗ Michal Kopera Non-dimensionalisation of the Navier-Stokes equations .Non-dimensionalization .

Non-dimensionalization .Energy equation T1 − T0 ∂T ∗ U ∂T ∗ k T1 − T0 ∂T ∗ + (T1 − T0 )uj∗ ∗ = t0 ∂t ∗ L ∂xj ρcp L2 ∂xj∗ ∂xj∗ Dimensionless parameters UL ν µc Prandtl number: Pr = k p L Strouhal number: St = Ut0 Reynolds number: Re = Non-dimensional energy equation with dimensionless parameters St ∂T ∗ ∂T ∗ 1 ∂T ∗ + uj∗ ∗ = ∂t ∗ ∂xj RePr ∂xj∗ ∂xj∗ Michal Kopera Non-dimensionalisation of the Navier-Stokes equations .

Non-dimensionalization .Summary Summary of dimensionless Navier-Stokes equations continuity momentum energy ∂ui∗ ∂t ∗ ∂u ∗ j ∂ui∗ ∂xi∗ =0 − ∗ + uj∗ ∂x i∗ = ∗ 1 Fr ∂p ∗ ∂xi∗ + 2 ∗ 1 ∂ ui Re ∂xj∗ ∂xj∗ St ∂T∗ + uj∗ ∂T∗ = ∂t ∂x j 1 ∂T ∗ RePr ∂xj∗ ∂xj∗ Michal Kopera Non-dimensionalisation of the Navier-Stokes equations .

Non-dimensionalization . ? Michal Kopera Non-dimensionalisation of the Navier-Stokes equations .choosing the parameters Now how to choose the U. L etc.