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LOGIC 003 – 10:30AM TTH ASSIGNMENT 1
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Definition of PHILOSOPHY All learning exclusive of technical precepts and practical arts. The sciences and liberal arts exclusive of medicine, law, and theology (a doctor of philosophy). The 4-year college course of a major seminary (1) archaic: PHYSICAL SCIENCE (2) : ETHICS: a discipline comprising as its core logic, aesthetics, ethics, metaphysics, and epistemology. Pursuit of wisdom; a search for a general understanding of values and reality by chiefly speculative rather than observational means: an analysis of the grounds of and concepts expressing fundamental belief. A system of philosophical concepts: a theory underlying or regarding a sphere of activity or thought (the philosophy of war). The most basic beliefs, concepts, and attitudes of an individual or group: calmness of temper and judgment befitting a philosopher
THE FOUR MAIN POINTS OF PHILOSOPHY Philosophy is a science Science is a systematized body of knowledge based on evidence. Philosophy is a science and like all other branches of science, it is also based on evidence. This means that philosophy is not based on speculations, opinions or mere conjecture.
Science of things Philosophy is concerned with everything in the world as far as the human mind can reach, from the microscopic particles to the giant mountains. Nothing is exempted, and all things are the concern of philosophy.
Ultimate principles and causes All branches of science have their own special focus. Zoology, for instance, is concerned with animals; botany deals with plants; sociology studies people or society and its functions, etc. philosophy explores the ultimate or final cause of a thing.
Known only by natural reason A dissecting instrument is used in studying the internal organs of a frog. Philosophy does not use a piece of equipment, a laboratory device, etc. the philosopher uses his natural reason, particularly, human reasoning.
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The Divisions of Philosophy Speculative Philosophy A particular philosophical school, system, or work representative of this kind of philosophy. Practical Philosophy
It draws from the great philosophical teachings of the East and West to help us enjoy a deeper understanding of ourselves, our world and mankind; it presents us with a fresh, and exciting philosophical approach to dealing with the challenges we face in everyday life.
The Relation of Philosophy with Theology Man, as a rational being, makes decisions or draws conclusions according to his reasons. He uses his intelligence in organizing systematically and scientifically facts or data in his search of knowledge. he uses knowledge, and looks for objective evidence in his dealings with reality. However, along with man's rationality are his limitations to comprehend the meaning of the vast totality of the universe. There are points in the world that man's rationality cannot fathom. Christianity recognizes miracles - occurrences that science cannot explain. a pious person died and after several years his body was unearthed and found still fresh. There were no traces of decomposition. Before the church intervened, scientists came to investigate. After tedious years of study, the scientists gave up. They found no cause why the body remained uncorrupted after many years. Human rationality cannot explain the occurrence; science cannot explain the cause. Theology comes in eventually. Man has no choice but to acknowledge the existence of God. Man asserts and strengthens his faith in his ascent to find the truth, a truth which rationality cannot explain. This is the point where rationality or philosophy and faith or theology complements each other. Man uses philosophy for rational explanation and uses theology for moral safety. The Essence of Philosophy Ideally, the essence of philosophy is the same in all settings. Etymologically, to be a philosopher is to be a lover of wisdom. Therefore, anyone who seeks after wisdom is doing philosophy. Aristotle distinguished between theoretical and practical wisdom. Professors of philosophy often concentrate on theoretical wisdom. While the most fundamental ideas are not necessarily the most important, they are the ones philosophers most often discuss in the academy.
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For example, the question "What is a wise human being?" is important. We would like to understand its answer so that we can become wise. Notice that answering it takes for granted or presupposes the answer to a more fundamental question, namely, "What is a human being?" If you don't know what humans being are, it's impossible to sort them into those who are wise and those who are not. Notice also that the question "What is a human being?" takes for granted or presupposes the answer to a more fundamental question, namely, "What is a being?" If you don't know what beings are, it's impossible to sort them into those who are wise and those who are not. Since any claims about beings are worthless unless backed by evidence, another fundamental idea is the idea of evidence. Since an understanding of reality should ground the decisions that we make about how to live, the idea of value is a third fundamental idea. In this way, the essence of philosophy in the academy often focuses on three fundamental ideas, namely, being (reality, existence), evidence (apprehending, knowing, believing), and valuing. The relevant disciplines, namely, ontology, epistemology, and axiology, are central to philosophy.
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