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Eggressing Technoliges In

Automobilez

ABHIGAM - 2007

AUTOMOBILEZ “HYBRID” FUTURE

- EGGRESSING TECHNOLOGIES IN AUTOMOBILEZ

Presented By

V.NISHA

nisha.253@gmail.com

G.SURESH BABU

ghattamaneni_suresh@yahoo.co.in

SREENIDHI INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

(ACCREDITED BY NATIONAL BOARD OF ACCREDITON AND AICTE)

YAMNAMPET, GHATKESAR,

HYDERABAD .

AUTOMOBILEZ “HYBRID” FUTURE

Presented By

V.NISHA

G.SURESH BABU

HYBRID VEHICLES

(THE HYPE,HOPE AND FUTURE)

CONTENTS

• ABSTRACT

• VEHICLES OF CHANGE

• WHY HYDROGEN FUEL

• HYDROGEN FUEL EFFECIENCY

• WORKING OF HYBRID HYDROGEN VEHICLE

• HARVEST HYDROGEN FUEL FROM PLANTS GET CHEAPER

• LIGHT WEIGHT, BUT NO WIMP

• HYBRID VIGOR

• HURDLES FOR HYDROGEN

• HYDROGEN HYPE

• ADVANTAGES OF HYBRID CARS

• DISADVANTAGES OF HYBRID VEHICLES

• HYBRID CARS HIT THE STREET

• FUTURE HYBRID VEHICLES

• CONCLUSIONS

• REFERENCES

• ABSTRACT

Hydrogen's promise to fight global warming and reduce oil imports takes a hit as researchers
question the wisdom of bypassing present-day, cost-effective measures that could achieve similar
goals. In this paper the pros and cons of hybrid vehicles and the likelihood that they will
proliferate in the near future are discussed. Barring some extraordinary development, the internal
combustion engine will be with society, in some form, for some time to come, but it will have
company, however, in the form of hybrid vehicles that use a combination of power sources. At the
turn of the century (the last one), gasoline-powered cars did not dominate the streets. Steam and
electricity vied with gasoline for the affection of consumers.. The failed electric-car projects have
led to the invention of highly desirable hybrid propulsion serves as another reminder that what
one finds may be better than what one sought. Sometimes a bad idea points the way to a good
one. While electric cars are efficient and gas cars are convenient, hybrid cars combine the best of
both worlds and represent the biggest auto innovation in a century.

• VEHICLES OF CHANGE

The advent of the automobile led to dramatic alterations in people's way of life as well as the
global economy--transformations that no one expected at the time. The ever increasing
availability of economical personal transportation remade the world into a more accessible place
while spawning a complex industrial infrastructure that shaped modern society. Now another
revolution could be sparked by automotive technology: one fueled by hydrogen rather than
petroleum & Fuel cells, which cleave hydrogen atoms into protons and electrons that drive electric
motors while emitting nothing worse than water vapour,could make the automobile much more
environmentally friendly. Not only could cars become cleaner, they could also become safer,
more comfortable, more personalized-- and even perhaps less expensive.

HYBRID SCOOTER

• WHY HYDROGEN FUEL ?

Hydrogen has several features that make it a serious contender as an alternative fuel. It can be
produced from various domestic sources, including renewable sources; it can

• reduce emissions to near zero while maintaining performance

• it can now be safely stored and transported.

• An immediate motive for moving to hydrogen is its potential to improve urban air quality.

• HYDROGEN FUEL EFFICIENCY


C urrent engine designs have low energy efficiency. Small piston engines (in the range of about 40
kW or 54 horsepower) have not been optimized specifically for hydrogen fuel. The unique
combustion properties of hydrogen allow engines to run leaner and at a higher compression ratio
than they do with hydrocarbon fuels. Energy efficiency is a serious problem if consumers want a
driving range comparable to that of today's gasoline-powered vehicles. Thus, what we need are
high-efficiency drive trains if we are to consider hydrogen seriously as an alternative fuel.
Researchers at LLNL are showing that such drive trains are feasible and that hydrogen has a
genuine opportunity to compete for the first time in the transportation sector

• WORKING OF HYBRID HYDROGEN VEHICLE

Let us first see how conventional and electric cars work.

The conventional cars uses gasoline powered internal combustion engine which is and the car gets
its all the power from this. An electric car gets its power from batteries. The [b]Hybrid cars [/b]is
one which can run on electric motors or gasoline powered engines or combination of both which
creates higher mileage possibility.
The basic features of hybrid cars are :
Smaller engine:
The smaller engine provides enough power to car to run on free way but when the car needs to
run uphill batteries comes to its rescue and the car runs on both batteries and gasoline engine.
There is no effect in performance and driver could be unaware of the shift from battery to
gasoline vice versa.
Engine-shut-off:-
When car puts brakes or when the car reaches red light the engine shuts down and car is
powered by gasoline without driver knowing it

Efficiency:-
The efficiency of the hybrid cars is achieved by
# Using lightweight materials for making body ofcar.
# Recovering energy and storing it in the battery
# Using advanced aerodynamics to reduce drag
#Using low-rolling resistance tires
# Engine shut off at redlight and when car pauses for a while.

In the hybrid concept vehicle we are developing, stored electrical energy is extracted as needed
by the power demands for accelerating, cruising, and accessories. The engine does not idle;
rather, it shuts down each time the energy-storage device is fully charged. To complete the power
train, an electric motor is coupled to the wheels by a single-speed transmission. By turning the
electric motor into a generator during braking, our concept vehicle includes the feature of
regenerative braking. Thus, kinetic energy returns to the storage device when the brakes are
applied.If the engine/generator in a hydrogen-powered vehicle supplies enough power for a fully
loaded vehicle to climb hills at cruising speeds, then it performs much like today's gasoline-
powered automobiles..

• HARVESTING HYDROGEN FUEL FROM


PLANTS GET CHEAPER

A major roadblock to widespread use of hydrogen-powered electric vehicles, which emit water
vapor as a by-product and could cut greenhouse gas emissions substantially, is the cost and
trouble associated with producing a suitable supply of hydrogen. Last year scientists reported
having developed a technique to harness the fuel from biomass, but the catalyst required for the
reaction was too expensive to be commercially viable. The same researchers announce today in
the journal Science that they have discovered a different catalyst that works just as well--at a
fraction of the cost. Researchers found that a catalyst known as Raney-nickel, which is 90 percent
nickel and 10 percent aluminum--was moderately effective at producing hydrogen. Adding tin to
the mix yielded a catalyst that was comparable to the platinum-based one and performed
admirably at lower temperatures .

• LIGHTWEIGHT, BUT NO WIMP

The engine structure is mostly aluminum. The engineers borrowed construction methods from the
company's Acura NSX sports car and used extruded aluminum frame members (precisely bent
with Honda-developed methods) and cast-aluminum connecting joints. The body is 40% lighter
than a comparable steel body , yet the body has 13% greater bending rigidity and 38% more
torsional stiffnes . This stiffness is possible because the engineers increased the cross-sectional
rigidity of the frame members. A large cross section has optimal distribution of wall thickness and
seamless bonding. In addition, the frame layout, which transmits and disperses incoming forces,
adds to rigidity. In highly loaded areas, such as the front and rear subframes, the hexagonal
aluminum frame members are large, internally ribbed sections. These sections also form part of
the impact.

• HYBRID VIGOR

The failed electric-car projects have led to the invention of highly desirable hybrid propulsion
serves as another reminder that what one finds may be better than what one sought

Internal-combustion engines of all sizes, mainly using gasoline, are remarkably well developed in
cost and in reliability. They convert fuel to mechanical power with an efficiency high for heat
engines, 25 to 30 percent. Alternatives are not lacking, though they improve slowly.

Hybrid vigor, a favorite phrase among flower breeders, is pretty apt for power engineering as
well. The automobile species seems to be at the cusp of hybridization on a really large scale. The
new gasoline-electric hybrid car has been brilliantly engineered over the past decade or so.

Not prophets, we expect hybrids to grow in number until they populate most roads, reducing fuel
use to a third and emissions to an eighth. Fuel cells promise two or three times the fuel efficiency
of any heat engine and may well become the next standard; we do not know what fuels will be
used, perhaps solar-generated hydrogen itself? Benign water vapor could replace the carbon
dioxide wastes of half a billion light, economical cars in the world of six or eight decades ahead.
The fuel industry will be lean, personal autos less dominant.

• HURDLES FOR HYDROGEN

Hydrogen's promise to fight global warming and reduce oil imports takes a hit as researchers
question the wisdom of bypassing present-day, cost-effective measures that could achieve similar
goals . Hydrogen -- often called the 'Holy Grail' of energy -- is having a tough time lately.
A series of recent reports have taken a bit of the gloss off hydrogen's promise as an unlimited
energy source that gives off virtually zero pollution and no greenhouse gases.

Widespread use of hydrogen as a fuel could potentially cause damage to the ozone layer.. Since
hydrogen is the world's lightest element, if it leaked from pipelines, storage tanks, and fuel cells
in cars and power plants, the study's authors surmised it could readily lift skyward, possibly
tripling the amount of hydrogen molecules in the upper reaches of the atmosphere.

Leakage is indeed a big concern with developing a hydrogen energy system. Hydrogen is highly
flammable in air, requiring less oxygen than other gases to burn. Picture it: you're tooling down
the road in your new hydrogen-fueled fuel cell car when ... boom! Not an ideal scenario for
hydrogen's champions and a real threat for carmakers. In May, Toyota even recalled its fuel-cell
hybrid vehicle in Japan when one of the cars sprung a leak from its hydrogen tank.

The only way to eliminate those gases, and thus make hydrogen truly pollution-free, would be to
only make hydrogen using wind or solar power.

• HYDROGEN HYPE

A National Academy of Sciences report says hydrogen is a laudable long-term energy goal, but it
shouldn't supplant short-term solutions to the coming fossil fuel decline

fuel cells are currently far too expensive to be cost-effective in the consumer market. And
hydrogen itself isn't an energy source on its own. Rather, it is a way to transport energy, which
means it must be manufactured, stored and transported using other energy sources. Right now,
the main method used to produce hydrogen is natural gas or coal -- not exactly a non-polluting,
greenhouse-gas friendly alternative.

And then there's the question of constructing a widespread hydrogen infrastructure of fill-up
stations, pipelines and storage facilities to supply masses of fuel cell vehicles.

Who will invest in the manufacture of fuel cell vehicles if there is no widespread hydrogen
supply?-- they compared the costs of developing fuel cell vehicles to the costs of other strategies
that can achieve the same environmental and economic goals.As a long-term solution, hydrogen
will likely remain our best bet, many experts think. So research will keep plugging along, and
may yet make it a reality. A new study has discovered how plants split split water into hydrogen
and oxygen through photosynthesis, which could possibly open up a new path to producing
hydrogen fuel without relying on fossil fuels or other sources. All we'd need is water. Nature
figured out how to split water using sunlight in an energy-efficient way 2.5 billion years ago; By
revealing the structure of the water-splitting center we can begin to unravel how to perform this
task in an energy-efficient way, too. Manufacturing hydrogen from water using the photosynthetic
methods would be far more efficient than using electrolysis. C urrently, hydrogen derived from
electrolysis -- splitting water into its constituent parts of hydrogen and oxygen by passing electric
charges through water -- costs 10 times as much as natural gas, and is three times as expensive
as gasoline .

The sooner we can reap the benefits of such research, the better. The age of oil is ending, and
supply will soon begin to decline, precipitating a global crisis,Even if we substitute coal and natural
gas for some of the oil, we will start to run out of fossil fuels by the end of the century. And by the
time we have burned up all that fuel,we may well have rendered the planet unfit for human life.
Even if human life does go on, civilization as we know it will not survive.

The hydrogen strategy relies on fuel cell vehicles and hydrogen fuel. The better way relies on
hybrid vehicles, plug-in hybrids and biofuels like ethanol.

The expense of hydrogen is often justified because it will be used in fuel cell powered cars and
fuel cells are two to three times more efficient than internal combustion engines. But comparing a
future technology to one that is a century old is inappropriate. Better to weigh fuel cell vehicles
against the newest transportation technology, the hybridelectric vehicle(HEV).

The newest HEVs already achieve efficiencies comparable to those promised by fuel cells. They're
available now. Indeed, some models have become best sellers. The hybrid SUV (sports utility
vehicle) will not diminish performance nor interior room. Yet it will achieve a fuel efficiency
(estimated at 40 miles per gallon) that is twice that of a comparable conventional SUV..

• ADVANTAGES OF HYBRID CARS

• The vehicle is lighter and roomier then a electric car due to less heavy batteries.

• Engine smaller and lighter as it has to produce less power and remaining comes frombatteries.

• Engine runs on constant speed as acceleration of vehicle is assisted by batteries and hence
saving of fuel

• C onfigured braking which captures kinetic energy which in turn is used for charging batteries

• Less damage to environment as less exhaust.

• Less reliability on Fuel


C ar friendly laws

• $$ saving for gas

• Less trip to gas station and in long queues hence time saving.

• DISADVANTAGES OF HYBRID VEHICLES

• High cost of vehicle.

• More Weight due to extra hardware

• Reduced storage capacity.

Above points shows that [b]hybrid cars is worth some extra $$ as benifits are far then enough
then disadvantage

• HYBRID CARS HIT THE STREET

Ford recently announced the release of Ford H2IC E E-450 shuttle bus Ford's new hydrogen
powered vehicles with advanced technology.The Internal combustion engine is similar to gasoline
powered internal combustion engine but would be modified to run on hydrogen fuel. Ford has his
new car on sale, its one of the hybrid version Ford Escape. Ford is also working on fuel cells. With
collaboration from Ballard Power Systems Ford is making a 30 car fleet of Focus fuel cell vehicles.
Ford is also working on clean diesel cars and direct injection system in Europe . The fuel cell
vehicles will be placed in germany , Vancouver , Orlando , Michigan and Sacramento .

Toyota Motor C orp one of the largest japan car maker is going to make eco friendly [b]Hybrid car
[/b] Toyota Prius with joint venture with C hina FAW Group C orp by end of 2005. Honda civic
hybrid [/b]has one of the best hybrid technology.

HONDA C IVIC HYBRID

Presently there are ample number of hybrid vehicles plying on the road. Some of them are listed
below:

1.HONDA INSIGHT

2. TOYOTA PRIUS

3.FORD PRODIGY

4.GM PREC EPT

5. HONDA FC X (powered by fuel cell)

and etc.

Honda's insight hybrid relies on a lightweight aluminum body and structure, along with plastic
front fenders and skirts (top) to maximize gas mileage and provide crash protection with large
cross-section, extruded aluminum members (bottom).

HONDA INSIGHT car was the most fuel efficient car for 2004-2005 as per Department of Energy
and Environmental Protection Agency. Even in 2004-2005 car rankings Hybrid cars dominated.

HONDA INSIGHT-THE MOST FUEL EFFIC IENT HYBRID C AR

• FUTURE HYBRID VEHICLES

• Nissan Altima Hybrid

• Toyota Sienna Hybrid Minivan

• Dodge Durango

• Porsche and Daimler Benz planning for Hybrid cars in future.

• General Motors planning to build Hybrid cars in C hina .

• CONCLUSIONS

A hybrid vehicle is one of the cleanest engine you can imagine. Its an environment-friendly car.
Hybrid cars with their comparatively smaller gasoline engines contribute to the pollution-free,
greener environment cause. Moreover, with their sleek, aerodynamic designing and ultra light
materials joining hands to give these vehicles driving force of about 60-90 horsepower, you can
be sure that the hybrid cars will rule the automobile industry until the arrival of new eco- friendly,
efficient cars.

• REFERENCES :

1.www.msn.com

2.www.tidepool.org

3.www.fuelcelltoday.com

4.MIT NEWS MAGAZINE

C reated by Department of C SE