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Vol. 2, Issue 3, PP121126, JulySeptember, 2011
CFD for nonnewtonian CMC fluid flow through concentric annuli with centre
body rotation
Md Mamunur Rashid
Faculty, Bangladesh Institute of Management (www.bim.org.bd)
4, Sobhanbag, Mirpur Road, Dhaka1207
Email: mamun87245@gmail.com
Abstract
The laminar flow of nonNewtonian fluid through
concentric annuli with centre body rotation has
been studied numerically. The scope of this study is
limited to numerical prediction of axial velocity
profiles and tangential velocity profiles at steady
state condition. A general computer program
“TEACHT” has been modified for this purpose.
The program was used after sufficient justification.
In the present study, confined flow through
concentric annuli with centre body rotation is
examined numerically by solving the modified
NavierStokes Equations.
Keywords
Annuli, Flux, Hydraulic diameter, isoviscous,
Peclect number
Nomenclature and list of symbols
m Mass flow rate , Kg/sec
u Nondimensional temperature profiles
R Half diameter of the pipe or tube
µ Laminar viscosity, NS/m
2
Q Volumetric flow rate, m
3
/s
Gz Graetz number
Pr Prandtl number
U Bulk axial velocity
ρ
Fluid density, Kg/m
3
X Axial distance, m
Re bulk flow Reynolds number, 2ρU(R
o
R
i
)/µ
Ri radius of inner wall of annulus
R
o
radius of outer wall of annulus
u, v, w axial, radial & tangential velocities
x, r,
u
coordinate directions
ζ (rR
i
)/( R
o
R
i
)
ξ
x/( R
o
R
i
)
K nonNewtonian fluid consistency
index
n power –law exponent
1. INTRODUCTION
Generally, developing countries, like Bangladesh has
no other alternative but to approach the foreign
consults to solve problems arising due to fluid flow of
nonNewtonian nature. A computer package, which
can run on available personal computers, will be of
much help for Bangladesh. In the present study, a
detailed computational investigation on the non
Newtonian fluid flow through concentric annuli with
centre body rotation with CMC
(carboxymethylcellulose) as a working fluid will be
carried out. The geometry and dimensions of the non
Newtonian fluid flow is based on the experimental
studies Escudier et al. (1995) [12]. Pls see the author
was presented some works in this arena [48]. The
specific objectives of this study are to develop a
computer program for theoretical investigation of
combined axial and tangential laminar velocity of
concentric annular with centre body rotation, to study
the constant rotational speed with different Reynolds
number of concentric annuli with centre body rotation
flow and final attempt would be made to establish
reliabilities, suitability and assessment of the quality
of this program through comparing the results
obtained with those available in the literature.
2. GOVERNING DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
This work is concerned with steady laminar flow in
concentric annuli with center body rotation. The
rheological equation used in this work is wellknown
power law, viz.
121
International Journal on Science and Technology (IJSAT)
Vol. 2, Issue 3, PP121126, JulySeptember, 2011
n
rz
z
v
r
u
K 
.

\

c
c
+
c
c
÷ = t (1)
Where,
rz
t in shear stress, n is a temperature
independent exponent, which is equal to unity in the
present work and consistency index K, which is also
temperature independent.
Ri Ro
e
Schematic
diagram of
the numerical
model
Figure 1: Schematic diagram of the numerical
model
The fluid flow in concentric annuli with center body
rotation (shown in figure1) is considered under the
following conditions: a) the fluid flows in laminar
and steady. b) The fluid density ρ, consistency index
K, thermal conductivity k, and heat capacity C
p
are
temperature independent. Under the assumptions
stated above, the continuity and momentum equations
for an incompressible fluid in cylinder coordinate
(r, u , z) system are:
Continuity:
0 = +
c
c
+
c
c
r
V
z
v
r
v
r z r
(2)
Momentum:
r z r z
V
V
r
V
V
rr zr rr r
z
r
r
uu
o o o o o o ÷
+
c
c
+
c
c
=
c
c
+
c
c
r z r z
V
V
r
V
V
r z r
z r
u u u u u
o o o o o 2
+
c
c
+
c
c
=
c
c
+
c
c
r z r z
V
V
r
V
V
zr zz zr z
z
z
r
o o o o o
+
c
c
+
c
c
=
c
c
+
c
c
(3)
Where the stress tensors are given by
n
r
r
V
r
V
K 
.

\

÷
c
c
=
u u
u
o
n
z
z
V
K 
.

\

c
c
=
u
u
o
n
zz
z
V
K P 
.

\

c
c
+ ÷ =
u
o 2
n
z r
zr
r
V
z
V
K 
.

\

c
c
+
c
c
= o
n
r
r
V
K P 
.

\

+ ÷ = 2
uu
o
n
r
rr
r
V
K P 
.

\

c
c
+ ÷ = 2 o
3. DISCRETIZED GOVERNING
DIFFERENTIAL
EQUATIONS
In the present study the finite volume approach, as
described by Gosman et al. [1989], is adopted [3].
Typical however, the Newtonian term, which is
included in the present study, is introduced through
the source terms. In his approach, the governing
differential equations are discretized by integrating
them over a finite number of control volumes or
computational cells, into which the solution domain is
divided [1012]. Discretized transport will take the
following quasilinear form:
(a
p
b) фp=
¿
a
nb
ф
nb
+ C
Where the a
nb
are coefficients multiplying the values
of ф at the neighbouring nodes surrounding the
central node P. The umber of neighbour depends on
the interpolation practice or differencing schemes
used. Here a
p
is the coefficient of ф
p
given by
a
p
=
¿
n
a
nb
;
¿
=
n
Summation over neighbours (N, S, E, W)
For the present study, the hybrid Scheme is used.
The name Hybrid indicates a combination of the
Central Difference Scheme (CDS) and Upwind
Difference Scheme (UDS). For the range of peclect
number (ρuL/Γ) 2< P
e
< 2, both the diffusion and
convective term are evaluated by the CDS. Outside
this range convective terms are evaluated using the
UDS and the diffusion terms are evaluation using
CDS. Boundary conditions of the present study are at
inlet boundary, flat profile of axial velocity is
122
International Journal on Science and Technology (IJSAT)
Vol. 2, Issue 3, PP121126, JulySeptember, 2011
specified, at outlet boundary, the gradients of all
variables are set to zero in the axial direction and at
wall boundaries; outer wall velocity is set to a
constant value.
4. RESULT AND DISCUSSION
The entire investigation domain is divided into a non
uniform grid arrangement of 52 X32 with multiple
repetition is used. Fine grid spacing was used near the
solid walls and a relative course grid was used in the
flow region. For the present study the following
values of parameters are chosen:
Power law index, n=0.75
Consistency index, K=0.04 Ns/m
2
Density ρ=1000 kg/m
3
,
Outer radius R
o
=0.0502 m
Inner radius R
i
=0.0254 m
Length, X=5.775 m and
Rotational speed of inner pipe, N=126 rpm.
Figure 2. Axial velocity profiles for CMC fluid at
R
e
=110
Figure 3. Axial velocity profiles for CMC fluid at
R
e
=350
Figure 4. Axial velocity profiles for CMC fluid at
R
e
=4400
Figures 2, 3 and 4 represent the developing axial
velocity profiles i.e. dimensionless radius. The
profiles at different nondimensional axial distances
are shown in such a way, that the gradual change in
profiles from flat to developed parabolic type can be
easily inspected. The last curve (at length to hydraulic
diameter ratio, X/D
h
=104) in each case shows the
developed axial velocity profile and compared with
experimental results of Escudier et al. (1995). The
prediction is for the isoviscous laminar flow of
fluids. From figure 2 the last curve of the graph
shows the developed velocity profile and points of
experimental result from Escudier et al. (1995). The
maximum velocity for experimental result is 1.7 and
for numerical solutions it is 1.5. Hence a percentage
deviation of 12% in maximum velocity is observed at
the last station. In the figure 4 at the last station the
maximum velocity for experimental result is 1.4 and
numerical solution it is 1.65. Hence percentage
deviations of 17% in maximum velocity observed.
For both figures 2 and 3, it is seen for laminar flow
(low Reynolds number respectively 110 and 350) the
maximum velocity occurs near the inner wall. Higher
rotation of inner pipe gives rise to higher shear stress
adjacent to the inner wall resulting lower viscosity,
consequently maximum velocity near the inner wall
123
International Journal on Science and Technology (IJSAT)
Vol. 2, Issue 3, PP121126, JulySeptember, 2011
occurs due to lower shear stress. The flow becomes
turbulent at R
e
=4400, the present prediction is
carried out under the laminar flow assumption. This
is because the study of turbulent flow is beyond the
scope of present study. The results obtained for Re =
4400 is presented in figure 4. This figure shows that
the maximum velocity for experimental result is 1.22
and numerical solution it is 1.423. Hence a
percentage deviation of 16% in maximum velocity
observed at the last station. Due to existence of
turbulence the experimental velocity profile appears
to be flatter than that by the present numerical
prediction.
Figure 5. Tangential velocity profiles for CMC fluid
at R
e
=110
Figure 6. Tangential velocity profiles for CMC fluid
at R
e
=350
Figure 7. Tangential velocity profiles for CMC fluid
at R
e
=4400
Figures 5, 6 and 7 represent the tangential velocity
profiles. The tangential velocity levels within the
annular gap are progressively increased close to the
centre body. It is seen that the tangential velocity
gradually transforms to developed profiles and the
curve for the length to hydraulic diameter ratio,
X/D
h
=104 of the figure are compared with
experimental results of Escudier et al. (1995). In
figure 5 it is observed that curves for length to
hydraulic ratio of 50 and 104 superimpose.
Experimental tangential velocity curves of Escudier
et al. (1995) are not in agreement with our numerical
prediction. The reason is that Escudier et al. (1995)
mentioned that in their showed experiments turbulent
diffusion was present. Due to this turbulent diffusion
the fluid particles move from higher velocity region
to lower velocity region and hence uniform velocity
occur at the central region of the annuli. But in our
numerical scheme turbulent diffusion was not
considered. In figure 8, Newtonian laminar tangential
flow for Glucose at Reynolds number 800 is
compared with analytical data for following equation:
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
÷
÷
= r
r
V
r
r r
r r
2
1
1 1
2
2
2
1
2
1
2
2
1
e e
u
124
International Journal on Science and Technology (IJSAT)
Vol. 2, Issue 3, PP121126, JulySeptember, 2011
Figure 8. Tangential velocity profiles for Glucose at
R
e
=800
and it is found to be in excellent agreement. This
shows the validity of present numerical predictions.
In the experiments of Escudier et al. (1995), the
centre body is slightly distorted, and it is impossible
to achieve a concentric geometry over the entire
length of the test section. In our numerical prediction
this concentricity was not considered. In contrast to
the negligible influence of friction factor, rotating has
a strong influence on the tangential mean velocities,
which generally reveal a triple layer structure of
speed; Nouri and law (1994) also reported very
similar observation for CMC. As the Reynolds
number is increased the tangential velocity levels
within the annular gap are progressively reduced
except for R
e
110, which is shown in figure 9.
Figure 9. Effects of Re of tangential velocity profiles at X/Dh=104
Therefore that the tangential velocity gradient in the
inner layer must be substantially higher than in the
outer layer. From figure 7 that the tangential velocity
profile is gradually developed. Escudier et al. (1995)
has shown that the tangential velocity reveal three
distinct regions across the radial for Reynolds
number. Flow regions have been categorized as
region adjacent to inner pipe, central region of almost
constant velocity and region adjacent to outer pipe.
Present predictions reveal a pattern of exponential
decay of tangential velocity towards the outer wall.
This is due to laminar assumption in the present
study.
5. COCLUSION
The main findings are summarized below: a) the axial
velocity profile at inlet is flat and gradually
transforms to parabolic shape. b) Maximum axial
velocity occurs at a region close to the inner wall.
This tendency is particularly noticeable at a Reynolds
number of 110. c) The tangential velocity decreases
with the increase of radius; while near the outer wall
it changes slowly and d) increasing the Reynolds
number for constant rotational speed produces a
progressively reduced level of the tangential velocity,
except for anomalous behavior at low Reynolds
number for CMC.
6. RECOMMENDATIONS
The same prediction can be carried out for the
turbulent cases by incorporating the turbulent
transport equations Similar study can be made for
eccentric annular with centre body rotation. (E.g.
LUDS, Quick Scheme) can be used to have better
accuracy in this type of prediction [912]. Similar
study can be made for different size, length, diameter
and rotational speed. Similar prediction can be made
giving the inner body rotation with vibration.
REFERENCES
[1 ] Escudier, M.P. and Gouldson, I.W., Concentric annular flow
with centre body rotation of a Newtonian and shear thinning
liquid. Int. Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow. Vol. 16. No.3
(1995).
125
International Journal on Science and Technology (IJSAT)
Vol. 2, Issue 3, PP121126, JulySeptember, 2011
[2 ] Nouri, J.M. and Whitelaw, J.H., Flow of Newtonian and non
Newtonian Fluids in a concentric annulus with rotation of the
inner cylinder, J. Fluid Engineering, vol.116, pp821827,
(1994).
[3 ] Gosman AD, and Iderials FJK, TEACHT: A general
computer program for two dimensional turbulent re
circulating flows, Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Imperial College, London, SW7,1976
[4 ] Patankar SV, and Spalding DB, Heat and Mass transfer in
Boundary layers, 2
nd
Edn. Intertext Books, London, 1970
[5 ] Rashid MM, and Naser J.A., Computational Fluid Dynamics
For Newtonian Fluid Flow Through Concentric Annuli With
Center Body Rotation, Proceedings of the Fourth
International Conference on Mechanical Engineering,
December,2628, 2001, Dhaka, Bangladesh, VolumeII,
Section –IV (Fluid Mechanics), pp. 119123
[6 ] Rashid MM, and Naser J.A., NonNewtonian Fluid Flow
Through Concentric Annuli, Proceedings of the First BSME
ASME International Conference on Thermal Engineering, 31
December, 20012 January 2002, Dhaka, Bangladesh; pp.
S46S51
[7 ] Rashid MM, , Numerical Simulation  A Modern Concept of
Chemical Industries, In the Proceedings of the 1
st
Annual
Paper Meet and International Conference on Chemical
Engineering, February 12, 2002, IEB Chandpur, Bangladesh ,
Paper No7, pp.7277
[8 ] Rashid MM, Numerical simulation of nonNewtonian fluid
flow through concentric annuli with center body rotation,
M.Sc in Mechanical Engineering Thesis, BUET, 1996.
[9 ] Yuan SW, Foundations of Fluid mechanics, PrenticeHall of
India Private limited, New Delhi, 1969.
[10 ] Anderson DA, Tannehill JC, and Pletcher RH, Computational
Fluid Mechanics and Heat Transfer, Hemisphere Publishing
Corporation, Washington DC, 1984
[11 ] Popovska F, and Wilkinson WL, Laminar heat mass transfer
to Newtonian and nonNewtonian fluids in tubes, Chemical
engineering Science, 32, 11541164,1977
[12 ] Nouri, J.M. Umur, J.M., and Whitelaw, J.H., Flow of
Newtonian and nonNewtonian Fluids in concentric and
eccentric Annuli, Journal of Fluid Mechanics,253,617641,
(1993).
126
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