# Lid driven cavity tutorial Problem Description The lid-driven cavity flow is probably one of the most

studied fluid problem in the field of computational fluid dynamics. Lid-driven cavity flow retains a rich fluid flow physics manifested by multiple counter rotating recirculating regions on the corners of the cavity depending on the Reynolds number. In this tutorial, we consider a square cavity with a height H = 1 m (Figure 1.1). The top wall is moving with a velocity of 1 m/s in X direction, while bottom and side walls are stationary. The ow is considered to be ow at Re = 1000. Given: domain (grid) extents : 1 x 1 (H x H)

Flow Reynolds Number, Re= ρ v H /μ= 1000 Density of fluid, ρ = 1 kg/m3 Viscosity, μ = 0.001 kg/m-s Open workbench Drag and drop Fluent onto the main screen Double click on the upper half ‘Setup’ Select 2D and Double precision (2ddp) Fluent window opens.. File… Import… Mesh… select cavity.msh file Check… // ensure min volume is a positive number Report Quality… // check aspect ratio, skewness, squish General : >Pressure based >absolute velocity >2D space >Steady Models : Viscous-laminar (default)

Materials : Air air density = 1 kg/m3 viscosity = 0.001 kg/m-s click Change/Create close Cell Zone : make sure cell zone is of Type fluid Boundary conditions : lid > type> wall Edit.. under Momentum tab > moving wall > relative to cell zone > translational > no slip >speed = 1 m/s As Re = ρvH / μ , velocity of lid is set to 1 m/s so that Re = 1000 >direction X=1, Y=0 right wall > wall left wall > wall bottom wall > wall interior surface > interior Solution Methods : Pressure velocity coupling > SIMPLEC Pressure > Standard Momentum > First order upwind (1st trial) Second order upwind (2nd trial) // SIMPLEC is a better option for uncomplicated problems, where convergence depends on pressure velocity coupling. In SIMPLEC, the pressure correction under-relaxation factor is generally set to 1.0, which helps speed up convergence. Soluton Initialization : X velocity = 0.5 m/s Y velocity = 0.02 m/s Initialize.. // To have a good convergence, provide an initial estimate for the velocity field. As the wall is moving with a velocity of 1 m/s, in X direction, X-velocity can be set as some fraction of this value say, 0.5 m/s. Very low velocities such as 0.02 m/s can be set in Y direction. Run Calculations : Iterations = 400 // The solution converges in about 320 iterations, with default convergence criteria ( First Order Upwind,Residual=10^-3)

Converges in about 520 iterations > Second Order upwind Post-processing Graphics and Animations: Display > vectors > velocity >Vector options/attributes >Enable Fixed Length from the options. >Click Apply and close the Velocity Vectors panel. >Enter 0.04 for Scale and 3 for Skip. > Click Display and close Vectors panel. // Set the Fixed Length option to display all the vectors with the same length. Increase the Skip to reduce the number of vectors, so that the display does not have too many vectors.

Display > Contours > Velocity > stream function change no. of levels to 100(max) display... deselect auto range min > 0.111 display… Displaying pathlines released from specified point surface. // To visualize circulation in the cavity, display path lines by releasing from point surfaces. Create a point surface for doing this. (On Menu bar) Surface… point… Enter 0.3267275 for x0 and 0.792252 for y0. Create .. create points (0.0722, 0.17402),
(0.03889, 0.06426), (0.93554, 0.055343)

Display > Pathlines Release from surfaces > select the four points >Step size = 0.001m >Step = 4000 >Style > line arrows .. attributes..line width=0.5 , spacing factor= 4, scale=0.15