This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Inventions of the Industrial Revolution
The Industrial Revolution brought about a shift from the agrarian economy of the rural areas to the town-based industrialized economy, driven by factories and industries. It was triggered as well as sustained by technological advances brought about by inventions like the steam engine, the spinning yarn and the water frame that changed the way of living for human beings forever... The Industrial Revolution started during the late 18th and early 19th centuries in Great Britain. It then spread to the rest of Europe, North America and finally to the whole of the world. It is termed as a revolution as it brought about a sea of change in the way people lived and worked. It was marked by technological and industrial developments that affected every aspect of human life, from economic to social changes. Industries and factories provided an alternate to farming and animal rearing, which till then had been the only source of employment. People moved out of villages to the towns and cities where they worked in mills and factories. They stopped making goods of daily use at home and started living in industrialized societies, manufacturing and buying commodities made in factories and industries. Such changes were brought about by certain inventions that brought about important social and political changes. Inventions of the Industrial Revolution The Industrial Revolution was the result of a number scientific inventions that led to the mechanization of the textile industry, improved roads and railway networks and development of iron making techniques. Some of the important inventions are as follows:
The Spinning Jenny: Prior to the Industrial Revolution, Britain had a large textile industry in which the artisans worked at home using the spinning wheel and the hand loom. However, the traditional methods of producing yarn restricted large-scale production of goods. With the invention of the spinning jenny by James Hargreaves, artisans could spin almost 120 threads together instead of one thread at a time. The Water Frame: The water frame which was developed by Thomas Highs and later patented by Richard Arkwright in 1769, was a spinning frame that could be run by water. The water frame provided more power to the spinning frame than those operated by human beings. Hence, not only did it reduce the amount of human labor required, it also increased the spindle count and provided stronger thread than the spinning jenny. The Cotton Gin: The cotton gin that was invented by Eli Whitney, an American inventor. The gin allowed large-scale separation of cotton seeds from the cotton ball, that otherwise had to be separated by hand, a task that was carried out by the slaves on the American cotton plantations. The Steam Engine: The drawback of the water frame was that it required a water source close to the factory. This problem was overcome by the steam engine that was invented by James Watson. Though, mainly known for its use in running a train, the power of steam was also used to run machinery in factories and mines.
As a result. It set the wheels of scientific inventions and technical advancements rolling. a number of bills like the First Two Factory Acts (1802 and 1819) were passed by the Parliament to regulate the safety of children in factories. All these conditions led to abuse of children in the form of child labor. As muscle power was not required to run the machines and there was no work force that was already trained in operating them. the managers and a separate class of the workers. It led to the creation of factories that provided job opportunities to the workforce. In 1804. However. The mainly local and isolated feudal-medieval . the benefits of which we are still reaping after two centuries! Effects of Industrial Revolution The Industrial Revolution changed the world in a manner that very few other developments in the world have. he used steam power to run locomotives on rails. the plight of the factory workers was so dismal that there was widespread protests against the exploitation of the working class. it saw a flux of population from the rural areas to the towns and cities that promised better employment opportunities. an engineer in the mining industry further developed more powerful locomotives in 1814 that helped establish the first two rail lines in England in 1825 and 1830. Political Changes During the initial stages of the Industrial Revolution the government's policy was that of non-interference with business and industry. who otherwise toiled on their farmlands. Their productivity was almost the same as adults while their labor was cheaper. The Industrial Revolution is one of the most important events in the history of mankind. because of which they suffered from a number of diseases. Their living conditions were unhygienic. The working class were underpaid and overworked. They worked in inhuman conditions and lived in small cramped houses. children became a good choice for labor for the factory owners. Division of the Society: The Industrial Revolution saw the rise of the middle class as opposed to the nobility and royalty during the days of monarchy. Wealth was concentrated in the hands of the rich people who mainly enjoyed the comforts of the Industrial Revolution. Child Labor: The Industrial Revolution led to a spurt in the growth of factories and industries that required more labor. Subsequently other bills were passed that were aimed at restoring the rights of the workers and to regulate the working conditions in factories. It created a class of the rich industry owners. and led to the phenomenon of urbanization. George Stephenson.2 • Locomotive: The power of steam was used by Richard Trevithick running carriages on the roads. Effects Social Changes • • • Urbanization: The Industrial Revolution had a great effect on towns and cities.
workers had no rights over the produce which was owned by the factory owner. Let us learn more about the effects of industrial revolution. mining. Mechanization of production was another important change. Surplus production would require an efficient transport system. to say the least. The system was known as putting out system. women and children were employed as they could be paid lower wages than adult male workers. As a result. Effects of Industrial Revolution The working conditions in mines were horrible. Some other improvements in agricultural knowledge led to elimination of the need to keep land fallow for restoring its fertility. wherein small farmers were deprived of the common village lands by the rich farmers. ships. method and system of production of goods. Above all. in which the production was done at one place . Earlier. the labor of these small farmers were available for other industries.the factory. many believe that this was the culmination of many other processes that had begun almost two hundred years ago. Furthermore. People manufactured textiles in their house. However. As a result.3 economy was made a thing of the past and the world became increasingly interconnected. production was scattered. and the workers worked at pre-determined salaries. means a great change. railway compartments. and economic policies. Next came Arkwright. The process is said to have begun in the middle of the eighteenth century in England with the mechanization of textile production. This was a second line occupation practiced by people in their spare time. the revolution also spread to other parts of Europe. Starting Process of the Revolution Surplus produce in agricultural sector is the basic requirement for sustaining an urban population not engaged in food production. English farmers started using farm implements made from metal. All these areas were connected. This was replaced by the factory system. as there was an . instead of the wooden equipment used earlier. equipment and location for production. mining of coal and iron also saw many alterations. These inventions led to an exponential increase in the production of textiles. The industrial revolution was a process that started in the middle of the eighteenth century and introduced many changes in agriculture. and changes in one resulted changes in the other. was later replaced by steam power. Child laborers possessed another advantage . rail and shipping. Furthermore.. The workers could not bargain for better conditions and payments. James Hargreaves invented the jenny.the owner provided the initial money. which allowed an operator to spin multiple threads at the same time. transport. Later. He owned the produce and sold it for a profit. using their own equipment. This led to surplus agricultural production.. where production was decentralized or given out. The situation in factories was not very different. with his water-powered factory. This required the development of road.they could easily crawl through the narrow passages in mines. Another change in this sphere was the enclosure movement. This led to the development of capitalism . etc. which had replaced manual and animal power. Production equipment was provided by the owners of the factory. and fuel and iron would be required to make rails. In the eighteenth century. Revolution. these changes metamorphosed the social equations and relations. Changes were also introduced into the system of production. in the simplest terms. Water power. right from procurement of raw materials to transportation of finished goods. The steam engine required coal.
there was the problems of urbanization during the industrial revolution. Denmark. Other customs like the importance of punctuality and taking appointments before meeting people. This resulted in a scramble for colonies amongst the great powers of that age. he would be fired . The migration of such a huge population to cities resulted in the overcrowding of cities and development of slums. This degraded the quality of life to such an extent that it was said: "the shortest route out of Manchester is a glass of whiskey". and many others paved the way for different other technological advancements that we get to enjoy in today's world. leading to tariff barriers.and there was always someone else ready to replace him. the former peasant or farmer) was used to in villages. caused many other problems like alcoholism. cotton gin. This led to the organization of labor unions. This led to the many problems we face even today. also started during this age. loneliness. If one would protest. As a result of colonization. The capitalists emerged from the hitherto middle class. Also. . the capitalists were becoming richer by the day. To control this. The migration also broke the social ties the worker (i. there were quite a few important inventions of the industrial revolution. English exports were creating problems for the industrial development of other powers. and later. Using their wealth. etc. Africa and South America. Although England was the strongest power. Many of the inventions are in use even today. illicit relationships. The origin of many modern phenomena and problems can be traced back to the industrial revolution. child labor. Things like the locomotive. This race led to imperialism. like pollution. They had the funds to influence the government. There was a lot of migration of the work force to the urban areas. etc. This is the simplest description of globalization. France. The economies of the colonies were comprehensively subordinated to the mother nation. family division. A capitalist had two main requirements for making windfall profits. and the other was a ready market. Both of these were available in colonies. on a positive note. This. like it was before. Germany and Italy also entered the race. This led to the colonization of many lands in Asia. On the other hand. This subject. The industrial revolution was primarily the economic dimension of the change from the middle age to the modern age. they were influencing the policies and laws of the government. Their power increased in leaps and bounds. culminating in the two World Wars. tariffs were imposed on British goods.4 abundant supply of workers available in the form of displaced peasants and farmers. For one. The pace of urbanization quickened to unprecedented levels. and subsequently to the development of the concept of socialism. and many more. Portugal. They acquired a stranglehold over politics which continues till date. This influence was naturally harmful to the labor class. space crunch. makes valuable study material for anyone attempting to study the modern times. The greatest changes of the effects due to the industrial revolution were visible all over the world.e. The revolution also affected many other areas. steam engine. The industrial revolution was an expression of their strength. events in one part of the world started influencing events in other parts of the world as well. The population distribution everywhere didn't remain equal. Holland. hence. along with the deplorable living conditions. were all a result of the revolution. One was cheap supply of raw materials.
Summary: The Industrial Revolution started in England around 1733 with the first cotton mill. Industrial Revolution Inventions Industrial revolution inventions and scientific discoveries can be held responsible for the progress of the world. England wanted to keep its industrialization a secret.. This advancement changed mankind within a time span of just 3 centuries. he reconstructed a cotton-spinning machine from memory. Samuel Slater. played a major role in modernization of the world. Timeline of these inventions span over the 18th and 19th centuries. unskilled labor. which eventually led to the industrial revolution inventions. read on. the most basic inventions have been discussed. while others were severely injured and sometimes killed working at the dangerous machines in factories. A more modern world had begun. You can also find additional information about specific individuals and their inventions at the bottom. In this article. who had been an apprentice in an English cotton factory. factories followed soon thereafter. Meanwhile. Inventions of the Industrial Revolution . To know more. Some got sick and died because of the toxic fumes. The Industrial Revolution had arrived in the United States. so they prohibited anyone who had worked in a factory to leave the country. disguised himself and came to America. Often the entire time period is divided into the first industrial revolution and second industrial revolution. By the age of 6. As the name suggests the industrial revolution. He then proceeded to build a factory of his own. These inventions and discoveries are something upon which the entire industrial revolution started. Factory owners. the Industrial Revolution had both good and bad sides.. The Industrial Revolution brought severe consequences to society. We will give a summary of how it started and some important facts. Americans offered a significant reward to anyone who could build a cotton-spinning machine in the United States. Once here. As new inventions were being created. profited greatly by using children and women to run the machines. The era of whole-scale industrial liberalization has played a significant role in the scientific advancement of the world. It all began with the advancement of the liberal thoughts of mankind after the Renaissance. needing cheap. many children were already working 14 hours a day in factories! These kids had no free time to do anything else and earned low wages. The inventions of the industrial revolution have been discussed in the following paragraphs.5 IRWeb: Information Page This page tells the facts about the Industrial Revolution. Obviously. in which we live today.
• • • Steam Engine: Sir Isaac Newton proved the many laws of motion and energy and people pondered for a long time over two enslave motion and energy. Apart from the aforementioned inventions. James Watt was successful in making the steam engine that would successfully operate mine pumps and then the rail roads. Industrial Revolution Inventions in Europe If we consider the investors from Europe. invented . Henry Cort is credited to be the inventor of the famous puddling furnace. Iron Founding: As the ever booming industry needed several parts and machines. Textiles: The textile industry was a very well paying and important industry of the European economy. the forgers and iron men came up with iron fondling machines. Coke replaced charcoal in smelting and potting. If travel much further through a few decades then we have Cyrus West Field. then it is bound to be mammoth. Turning to the field of communications we have Samuel Thomas von Sömmerring.. Francois Isaac de Rivaz. a Swedish scientist invented the Dynamite in 1867. then we have James Watt and Thomas Newcomen who worked on the steam engine. James Hargreaves's Spinning Jenny and Samuel Crompton's Spinning Mule are 3 important inventions of the textile sectors. Moving on across the Atlantic. a Swiss scientist designed one of the earliest internal combustion engines in 1807. In some cases more than one person can be credited to be the person behind the invention and the promotion of technology. Nikola Tesla is a name that must be certainly mentioned. A very very.6 If we go on to make a list of industrial revolution inventions. a pioneer in textile developments. Jr. Hence to make matters simpler. the Nobel Prize. Turning to electricity. Water Frame of Richard Arkwright. that were contributed by American inventors. Eli Whitney. Robert Fulton a pioneer of naval transport. stamping and puddling processes replaced come older conventions. There are some substantial number of landmark inventions of the industrial revolutions. Alexander Graham Bell should not be forgotten as he is the father of communications. Sir Alfred Nobel. important invention was the diesel engine of Rudolf Diesel. Industrial Revolution Inventions in America It was not just the Europeans who contributed their inventions. Another notable promoter of the steam engine was Thomas Newcomen. So here goes. a German scientists who built one of the first electronic telegraphs in 1809. Such inventions have been divided according to the continents. headed Atlantic Telegraph Company which laid the first telegraph cable across the Atlantic. The father of modern science awards. whose contribution in early 20th century to commercial electricity powered the industry. a description of three industrial revolution inventions that actually started off the race for riches through industrial processes has been included. there are some landmark industrial revolution inventions that changed the world. invented the cotton gin in 1793.. Then we have Henry Cort who worked in the field of iron founding.
Productivity began a spectacular climb. The energy. Henry Ford is a must mention because of his assembly line technique. the people of England began to use machines to make cloth and steam engines to run the machines. and (3) the adoption of the factory system. by people (and sometimes. These industrial revolution inventions have shaped the world in which we live today. the making of yarn and the weaving of cloth had been much the same for thousands of years. From Britain the Industrial Revolution spread gradually throughout Europe and to the United States. robots) working on assembly lines using power-driven machines. . It happened in a short span of time. tedious hours of hand labor even on simple objects. People of ancient and medieval times had no such products. Elias Howe gave tailors and housewives a great comfort with his effective sewing machine. The children of the poor would have little or no schooling and would work from dawn to dark on the farm or in the home. Scientific legend. (2) the use of steam. and shelter for all. The design of sewing machine was further promoted by Isaac Singer. or power. work by children as well as by adults was needed in order to provide enough food. Thomas Edison was the inventor of 3 technologies. A little later they invented locomotives. the world owes a lot to them. The Industrial Revolution came gradually. Automobiles and airplanes would vanish. when measured against the centuries people had worked entirely by hand. The Industrial Revolution is the name given the movement in which machines changed people's way of life as well as their methods of manufacture. however. clothing. Out of all other inventions. Morse code. Until John Kay invented the flying shuttle in 1733 and James Hargreaves the spinning jenny 31 years later. INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION Most products people in the industrialized nations use today are turned out swiftly by the process of mass production. Wright brothers who gave man wings. It is almost impossible to imagine what the world would be like if the effects of the Industrial Revolution were swept away. By 1800 a host of new and faster processes were in use in both manufacture and transportation.7 the steam boat and the first submarine. There many names and inventions that should have been mentioned. They had to spend long. Telephones. which drives the speed of industry even today. in place of the muscles of human beings and of animals. still in use. radios. Electric lights would go out. will always carry the credit of flight. bulb. By 1850 most Englishmen were laboring in industrial towns and Great Britain had become the workshop of the world. Changes That Led to the Revolution The most important of the changes that brought about the Industrial Revolution were (1) the invention of machines to do the work of hand tools. this one is probably the most complex one and also the smallest. Samuel Morse pioneered the communication sector with Bell when he invented the single wire telegraph and the. and television would disappear Most of the abundant stocks on the shelves of department stores would be gone. About the time of the American Revolution. they employed in work came almost wholly from their own and animals' muscles. Before machines were invented. and later of other kinds of power. phonograph and motion picture camera. by the virtue of size.
would buy raw wool from the sheep owners. for example. From Cottage Industry to Factory Cloth merchants. and the manufacture of cloth was its leading industry. but the one behind is always trying to catch up. the Industrial Revolution grew more powerful each year as new inventions and manufacturing processes added to the efficiency of machines and increased productivity. The merchants would then collect the cloth and give it out again to finishers and dyers. With the expansion of trade. as. and to establish another system of producing goods. and take it to country weavers to be made into textiles. Indeed. did the French Revolution. Banks and credit systems developed. Larger ships were built. as they had done for centuries. Similar methods of organizing . These country weavers could manufacture the cloth more cheaply than city craftsmen could because they got part of their living from their gardens or small farms. Thus they controlled clothmaking from start to finish.8 This relatively sudden change in the way people live deserves to be called a revolution. Money had to be available before machinery and steam engines could come into wide use for they were costly to manufacture and install. By 1750 large quantities of goods were being exchanged among the European nations. Beginning in about 1400. and flourishing cities grew up. for instance. beyond the reach of the hampering regulations. have it spun into yarn by farmers' wives. Sometimes one is ahead and sometimes the other. for their growing trade. America was discovered. England was the leading commercial nation. clothing. Organizing Production Several systems of making goods had grown up by the time of the Industrial Revolution. Many factors helped bring about this revolution in trade. Gold and silver from the New World helped meet this need. and there was a demand for more goods than were being produced. world commerce grew and changed so greatly that writers sometimes use the term "commercial revolution" to describe the economic progress of the next three and a half centuries. It differs from a political revolution in its greater effects on the lives of people and in not coming to an end. The strong central governments which replaced the feudal system began to protect and help their merchants. By the end of the 17th century Europe had a large accumulation of capital. In country districts families produced most of the food. were limited and costly. though of high quality. since World War I the mechanization of industry has increased so enormously that another revolution in production is taking place Expanding Commerce Affects Industry Commerce and industry have always been closely related. Large-scale commerce could not be carried on by barter. and manufacturing was strictly regulated by the guilds and by the government. The merchants needed cheaper items. as much of the earlier trade had been. In the cities merchandise was made in shops much like those of the medieval craftsmen. were chartered by governments. such as the British East India Company. As early as the 15th century they already had begun to go outside the cities. and European nations began to acquire rich colonies there and elsewhere. Trading firms. and other articles they used. The goods made in these shops. as well as larger quantities. The Crusades opened up the riches of the East to Western Europe. New trade routes were opened. more money was needed. Instead.
Earlier in the century. a machine for spinning with rollers operated by water power. These establishments were factories. It provided employment for every member of a craft worker's family and gave jobs to skilled workers who had no capital to start businesses for themselves. patented his spinning jenny in 1770. which was used to pump water out of mines. This system of industry had several advantages over older systems. Another was the doctrine of laissez-faire. The expansion in trade had made it possible to accumulate capital to use in industry. three inventions had been made which opened the way for the later machines. however. . Thus the English government for the most part kept its hands off and left business free to adopt the new inventions and the methods of production which were best suited to them. They brought workers together under one roof and supplied them with spinning wheels and looms or with the implements of other trades. slow-moving steam engine built by Thomas Newcomen (1705). One of these was the growing interest in scientific investigation and invention. or letting business alone. Their invention was not commercially practical. It also enabled him to order the particular kinds of items that he needed for his markets. Now many Englishmen had come to believe that it was better to let business be regulated by the free play of supply and demand rather than by laws. A few merchants who had enough capital had gone a step further. Inventions in Textile Industry As the flying shuttle sped up weaving. combined Hargreaves' jenny and Arkwright's roller frame into a spinning machine. Why the Revolution Began in England English merchants were leaders in developing a commerce which increased the demand for more goods. A cheaper system of production had grown up which was largely free from regulation. James Hargreaves. It enabled one worker to run eight spindles instead of one. Some writers call this the putting-out system. Another term is cottage industry. In 1779 Samuel Crompton. though they bear slight resemblance to the factories of today. About the same time Richard Arkwright developed his water frame. cutlery. but it was the first step toward solving the problem of machine spinning. One was the crude. There also were new ideas in England which aided the movement. first set up by Lewis Paul and John Wyatt (1741). The second was John Kay's flying shuttle (1733). such as the nail. and leather goods. the demand for cotton yarn increased. It was especially popular after the British economist Adam Smith argued powerfully for it in his great work 'The Wealth of Nations' (1776). The most important of the machines that ushered in the Industrial Revolution were invented in the last third of the 18th century. Others call it the domestic system because the work was done in the home ("domestic" comes from the Latin word for home). It enabled one person to handle a wide loom more rapidly than two persons could operate it before. Many inventors set to work to improve the spinning wheel. for most of the workers belonged to the class of farm laborers known as cotters and carried on the work in their cottages. a weaver who was also a carpenter. The third was a frame for spinning cotton thread with rollers. For centuries the craft guilds and the government had controlled commerce and industry down to the smallest detail. a spinner.9 and controlling the process of manufacture came to prevail in other industries. This doctrine had been growing in favor throughout the 18th century. It gave the merchant a large supply of manufactured articles at a low price.
The next great steps were taken in the 1780s. Wheels turned by running water had been the chief source of power for the early factories. In 1804 J. This created a new demand for coal and laid the foundation for the British coal industry. smashed the machines.10 called a mule. perfected a loom on which patterns might be woven in fabrics by mechanical means. This was a great improvement on block printing. Changing Conditions in England .M. These were necessarily situated on swift-running streams. Ironmasters had long been experimenting with coal as a fuel for smelting. As late as 1880 many hand looms were still in use for weaving woolen cloth. which became available to everyone Watt's Steam Engine While textile machinery was developing. was asked to repair a model of a Newcomen steam engine. it was possible to locate factories in more convenient places. In the iron industry they pumped water to create the draft in blast furnaces. and tried to prevent their use. It made successive impressions of a design "join up" and did the work more rapidly and more cheaply. Second. In spite of the need for it. In 1785 Edmund Cartwright patented a power loom. where they could be run by water power. Jacquard. In coal mines they pumped out the water which usually flooded the deep shafts. It did not completely replace the hand loom in weaving cotton until 1850. The iron industry benefited also from other early inventions of the 18th century. a Scottish mechanic. Since the roller frame and the mule were large and heavy. They were tended by women and children. It was not well adapted to the making of some woolens. This loom was later adapted to the making of lace. Hand in hand with the adoption of the new inventions went the rapid development of the factory system of manufacture. It produced thread of greater fineness and strength than the jenny or the roller frame. Thus they rioted. They were destined to be basic industries in the new age of machinery. and production was falling off because England's forests could not supply enough charcoal for smelting the ore. Puddling produced nearly pure malleable iron. Those who got jobs in the factories were obliged to take the same pay as unskilled workers. The power loom was only coming into wide operation in the cotton industry by 1813. after three generations of effort. Finally the Darby family. the hand weavers violently opposed its adoption because it threw many of them out of work. it became the practice to install them in mills. many improvements had to be made before the loom was satisfactory. In 1763 James Watt. He saw how crude and inefficient it was and by a series of improvements made it a practical device for running machinery. when Henry Cort developed the processes of puddling and rolling. a Frenchman. Coal and Iron The first users of steam engines were the coal and iron industries. succeeded with coal that had been transformed into coke. Iron was scarce and costly. Many other machines contributed to the progress of the textile industry. First. These improvements in spinning machinery called for further improvements in weaving. In 1785 Thomas Bell of Glasgow invented cylinder printing of cotton goods. In 1793 the available supply of cotton was increased by Eli Whitney's invention of the cotton gin. When the steam engine became efficient. As early as 1720 many steam engines were in operation. progress was being made in other directions. weaving machinery came into use very slowly.
Although the need for money often drove him to toil long hours. better transportation was needed. On the contrary. Some of the other changes. The change from domestic industry to the factory system meant a loss of independence to the worker. When he became a factory employee. Early in the 19th century came George Stephenson's locomotive and Robert Fulton's steamboat. The worker at a machine with 100 spindles on it could spin 100 threads of cotton more rapidly than 100 workers could on the old spinning wheels. where it was impossible to dig canals and where heavy loads of coal had to be hauled. Then mills were closed and workers were thrown out of employment. British merchants no longer found it a problem to obtain enough goods to supply their markets. With English factories calling for supplies. Southern planters in the United States were able to meet the increased demand for raw cotton because they were using the cotton gin. an American invention. In some places.11 The new methods increased the amount of goods produced and decreased the cost. This machine could do the job of 50 men in cleaning cotton. Here again the need produced the invention. It moved smoothly if slowly over the water. were not so welcome. . Railroads called for the production of more goods. Thomas Telford and John MacAdam each developed a method of road construction better than any that had been known since the ancient Romans built their famous roads. machines took a great burden of hard work from the muscles of human beings. He lived near the factory. Packhorses and wagons crawled along them. He was forced to work continuously at the pace set by the machine. for they put factory-made products within reach of many more people at prices they could afford to pay. Because of progress in medical knowledge and sanitation. social and political conditions changed with them. Far-reaching changes were gradually brought about in the life of the industrial workers. On these early railroads one horse could haul as much coal as 20 horses could on ordinary roads. such as American cotton. fewer people died in infancy or childhood and the average length of life increased. Cities grew rapidly. A canalboat held much more than a wagon. he could vary the monotony of his task by digging or planting his garden patch. Similar improvements were being made in other lines of industry. They marked the beginning of modern transportation on land and sea. The Condition of Labor As conditions in industry changed. carrying small loads. with a single horse hitched to the towline. The population of England as a whole began to increase rapidly after the middle of the 18th century. Such slow and inadequate transportation kept the cost of goods high. often in a crowded slum district. mine owners laid down wooden or iron rails. however. The long hours and the monotonous toil were an especially great hardship for the women and children. The vast majority of the jobs were held by them by 1816. For one thing. he not only had to work long hours. They connected the main rivers and so furnished a network of waterways for transporting coal and other heavy goods. and sending goods to all parts of the world. The roads of England were wretchedly poor and often impassable. but he had to leave his little farm. Farm laborers and artisans flocked to the manufacturing centers and became industrial workers. at times the markets were glutted with more goods than could be sold. and the percentage of farmers in the total population declined. The home laborer could work whenever he pleased. Building Canals and Railways Many canals were dug.
The high death rate of these child slaves eventually roused Parliament to pass laws limiting the daily toil for apprentices. however. they became organizations for winning improvements by collective bargaining and strikes. They fought such legislation as the English laws of 1799 and 1800 forbidding labor organizations. employment of women and children. They had been independent masters. Factory owners could therefore arrange working conditions in whatever way they pleased. They had many difficulties in organizing their factories to run efficiently. capitalists in a small way. Those who were successful made huge profits with which to buy more machines. The men who controlled these enterprises formed a powerful new class in England--the industrial capitalists. Thus capital increased far more rapidly than it ever had before. When peace came France began to follow England. Children could tend most of the machines as well as older persons could. They had to find and hold markets for their products. currency. . Ill-fed and ill-clothed. put up larger buildings. it is no wonder that they rioted and broke up looms. They also had to make a profit on their investments in the face of intense competition. The other European countries made little progress until the second half of the 19th century. they were sometimes driven under the lash of the overseer. Belgium was ahead of France in adopting the new methods. It had little opportunity to introduce machinery. and steamships and in developing foreign trade. Soon. When they saw themselves being forced into factories to do other men's bidding for the same pay as unskilled workers.12 The change was particularly hard on the weavers and the other skilled workers who sank to the position of factory workers. Industrial workers also sought to benefit themselves by political action. railroads. Many were apprenticed to the factory owners and housed in miserable dormitories. and purchase supplies in greater quantities at enormous savings. It followed slowly. and housing conditions. Much of it was invested in building canals. accidents. however. Rise of Labor Unions Workers sought to win improved conditions and wages through labor unions. unemployment. The struggle by workers to win the right to vote and to extend their political power was one of the major factors in the spread of democracy during the 19th century. Grave problems arose for the workers--problems of working hours. and managers of their own businesses. They had pride in their skill. These unions often started as "friendly societies" that collected dues from workers and extended aid during illness or unemployment. Great numbers of them were worked form 12 to 14 hours a day under terrible conditions. wages. They needed a better system of banking. and credit. Laissez-faire was the rule in England. and has never devoted itself as exclusively to manufacturing as England has. They campaigned to secure laws which would help them. Revolution Spreads to the United States Until 1815 France was busy with the Napoleonic wars. The capitalists had a struggle to obtain a voice in the government. Problems of Capital and Labor A person had to have a lot of capital to buy machines and open a factory. and they could be hired for less pay. This meant that the government had accepted the doctrine that it should keep hands off business.
They became interchangeable. plentiful in this forested land. He was hired by Moses Brown of Providence. Many new products were devised. These machines were arranged in lines for more efficient production. was made in New England in 1790 by Samuel Slater. They burned charcoal. In Pennsylvania iron for machines. making it quicker and easier. An employee of Arkwright's spinning mills. The new nation had little capital with which to buy the machinery and put up the buildings required. Labor was scarce because men continued to push westward.13 The United States too was slow in adopting machine methods of manufacture. Eli Whitney led the movement to standardize parts used in manufacture. River. Great new industries were founded on this scientific advance: steel. Mass. and important advances were made in the system of mass production. chemicals. Such capital as existed was largely invested in shipping and commerce. Spinning machines driven by steam were operating in New York by 1810. These new industries were larger and more productive than any industries existing . New scientific knowledge was applied to industry as scientists and engineers unlocked the secrets of physics and chemistry. A start in manufacturing. It had swift streams for power and a humid climate. His mechanical reaper. This was called the "American system of manufacturing. Changes in industry were so great that the period after 1860 has been called the Second Industrial Revolution. Pioneer Industries and Inventions New England soon developed an important textile industry. I. enabling unskilled workers to assemble products from boxes of parts quickly. Techniques of factory production were refined in American workshops. Farming and trading were its chief interests until the Civil War.. Engineers quickly adopted the new engine and used it to power locomotives and steamboats. mechanical devices compared with the industrial technology that followed. which kept cotton and wool fibers in condition for spinning and weaving. R. American factories used machine tools to make parts. When the Napoleonic wars and the War of 1812 upset commerce and made English products difficult to obtain. by Francis Cabot Lowell in 1814. American inventors produced many new machines that could be applied to industry as well as to agriculture. Slater came to the United States in 1789. English laws forbade export of either the new machinery or plans for making it.. revolutionized harvesting. to build a mill on the Pawtucket. It was first applied to the manufacture of firearms and later spread to other industries like clock and lock making. New England was the first area in the United States to industrialize." and it was admired by all other industrial nations. or Seekonk. and petroleum benefited from new understandings of chemistry. clearing the forests and establishing themselves on the land. breakthroughs in the study of electricity and magnetism provided the basis for a large electrical industry. more American investors began to build factories. patented in 1834. Cyrus McCormick invented several machines used to mechanize farming. Slater designed the machine from memory and built a mill which started operation in 1790. Shoemaking was organized into a factory system of production in Massachusetts in the early 19th century. The first practical power loom was installed at Waltham. and guns was smelted in stone furnaces. tools. Oliver Evans designed a steam engine more powerful than that of James Watt. Second Industrial Revolution The machines of the Industrial Revolution in the 18th and early 19th centuries were simple. Elias Howe's sewing machine eased the life of the housewife and made the manufacture of clothing less expensive. however.
The Second Industrial Revolution marked great progress in the methods of mass production. and networks of telephone lines were built quickly across the United States. Much of the world had not yet begun a first industrial revolution. Italy. New methods of management were devised that stressed central control. France. They bought out competitors and acquired sources of raw materials and retail outlets. and South America. The age of electricity began in 1882 when Thomas A. The assembly line greatly increased the speed of manufacture and soon was used in many industries. The size of factories increased rapidly. The electric telegraph was invented by Samuel Morse in 1844 and was used to relay commercial information about prices and markets. employing more workers and using more machinery.S. Alexander Graham Bell patented his telephone in 1876. The larger size of business presented great challenges to managers who administered enormous organizations with many branches and subsidiaries. India. and by the end of the 19th century they were challenging Great Britain in the world market for industrial goods. More and more industries used interchangeable parts and machine tools. It was used in the stock exchanges and on the railway systems. In 1913 Henry Ford introduced the assembly line in the manufacture of his Model T Ford. the United States. Advances in communications and transportation helped decision makers to maintain control. Parts were assembled on a moving conveyor belt. Germany. Only Great Britain.14 before. Canada. and the Model T took shape as it moved from one work station to the next. Electric lighting quickly spread across the United States and was soon adopted in Europe. Human power was replaced by machine power. faster. This gave them great economic power. Russia. and Japan were just beginning to industrialize. from mining and drilling to delivering it to the customer. and efficient production methods. and Spain did not begin to industrialize until well into the 20th century. These industries integrated all stages of production under a single corporate structure. Electric power replaced steam power in factories. . it was cheaper. and the United States government took measures to limit their monopolies in steel and petroleum. only a small number of industries in the most industrialized nations of the world had adopted advanced production methods and organization. One of the leading advocates of "scientific management" was Frederick Winslow Taylor. Most of the world's population still worked in primitive agricultural economies. Companies like Westinghouse and General Electric helped to electrify cities in Europe. and some parts of the Scandinavian countries had successfully completed an industrial revolution. It allowed machine tools to be arranged more efficiently. Steel and Standard Oil controlled all stages of manufacturing the product. Electricity was later applied to driving all kinds of machinery as well as powering locomotives and streetcars. Corporations such as U. By the outbreak of World War I in 1914. and more flexible. They were the first multinational companies. The electrical industry was dominated by large companies that developed new products and then manufactured and marketed them. Africa. Edison introduced a system of electric lighting in New York City. The telephone became a useful tool for managers to keep in contact with the widely dispersed parts of their businesses. planning. The steel and chemical industries used new technology that greatly increased production. Germany and the United States became the leaders. China. These companies were based in Germany and the United States but sold their goods all over the world.