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Ans 1: Job enlargement is a technique in which the new tasks are added to the previous job, which requires the same level of skill to perform the job. It is also known as horizontal enlargement In this new duties and responsibilities are added. Benefit: The employees don’t get bored doing monotonous task. They feel more valuable Job rotation: is a technique in which the responsibilities of the employees are changed, which helps in improving themselves doing another job. Benefit: Employees will learn more and increase their knowledge doing another job. They will better understand the functions of the company. Job enrichment: is a technique in which more duties and responsibilities are added. It is also called as vertical expansion. Benefit: Employee feel that he is more important to company than before.
Ans 2: Critical Path Method: is an important technique used in project management, it is a mathematical technique in which algorithm is used to schedule particular activities in a project. There is just one time factor for every single activity when CPM is used in project. CPM helps project manager to make schedule, monitor activities, control and have an idea about the project such as how much project is completed and how much do we need to complete at the given time
Program Evaluation and Review Technique: PERT is an another important technique used in project Management, it is a tool that analyze and represents the mission which helps in completion of project There are three type of time estimates 1. Optimistic 2. Pessimistic 3. Time. In comparison between PERT and CPM, PERT is more reliable technique than CPM as it gives more accurate results
CIM: Computer Integrated Manufacturing is a computer-based tool used for manufacturing Answer 4. usually via a 3D or isometric drawing. usually to a given schedule. CAM: stands for Computer Aided Manufacturing. it is used for controlling manufacturing machineries. or with guidance. 5. Assembly Drawing is an exploded view of the product. 2. CAD: stands for Computer Aided Design it is used to design and make engineering tools with the help of computers. Robot: A robot is a mechanical intelligent device. In this there is some degree of flexibility which allows the system to make changes. 1. intermediate assemblies. parts and the quantities of each needed to manufacture an end product. sub-assemblies. components. which records a change in design. Bill of Materials: is a list of the raw materials. 4. A correction or modification of an engineering drawing or bill of material. Engineering Change Notice: It is a document. that is used to fully and clearly define requirements for engineered items.Ans 3. Work Order: An instruction to make a given quantity of a particular item. Engineering Drawing is a type of technical drawing. which is guided by computer and electronic programming FMS: Flexible Manufacturing System is a manufacturing system in which the computer gives instructions to every job station and to material-managing tool. 2 . 3. AVG: Automated Guided Vehicle is a form of mobile robot that is controlled and guided by electrical signal to carry parts. which can perform certain tasks on its own. It is an electro-mechanical machine.
2. which gives more responsibilities to workers. MRP systems are software based. parts. Ans 7. slashes inventory levels and cuts space requirements.Ans 5. It makes employees feel more valuable. better or faster?” Major Principles: 1. Job Shop is typically small manufacturing operations that handle specialized manufacturing processes. people. In assembly line the workers need to in one specific area. Material Requirements planning: is a system. Assembly Line is a manufacturing process in which parts are added to a product in a sequential manner to create a finished product much faster than with handcrafting-type methods. Inventory: Job shops have high level of inventories. Total Quality Management: is a system of management in which every staff member must be committed to maintain high standards of work in every aspect of a company's operations. If the answer is yes. Ans 6. cut costs and finish works in short time 3. Machines: Job shops require small machines to produce last product. Employee Empowerment: It is a technique. Continuous improvement (unending development): Continuous improvement contain supplier. In this one workstation does one job at a time. Job shops moves to different jobs on the completion of one. Enhances quality. MRP help in maintaining inventory level by improving customer-service levels. Worker Skills: In Job shop the employees have different skills to perform different tasks. reduces flow time. TQM asks “should we be doing this anytime (at all)?. which is used to manage inventory system. and procedures. then it questions “How can we do it inexpensive. it can also be used manually. Operation manager uses this technique to schedule and refill stock on a need-to-order. Assembly line needs big machinery to manufacture product. equipments. 3 . whereas an Assembly line has low level of inventories. Six Sigma – 6 Sigma is an approach to provide more quality.
Deming does not support 100% inspection. tasting. In Inspection process.C are labor and raw material cost. 100% inspection is very difficult for measuring quality level. TQM Tools: • • • • Check paper(sheet) Scatter charts(diagram) Cause and effect diagram Pareto graphics(charts) Ans 8. Breakeven analysis helps the managers to determine at what production level. weighing. “NO”. The major components of V. It is very expensive and time consuming. Benchmarking: It is a technique. Ans 9. Fixed Costs: is a type of cost that is not dependent on the volume of production. Variable Costs: is a type of cost. which depends on the volume of manufacturing. or testing of the product. JIT reduces the costs of quality by keeping low-level inventory. Inspection involves measurement. It stays the same when the production increases.4. 4 . Just in Time (JIT): is a philosophy of unending improvement and enforced problem solving. Inspection only finds deficiencies and defects but cannot correct them. Crossover chart: A chart that is used by technical analyst which help in forecasting the future movements in stock prices. which Companies use to measure their performance by comparing other companies in same market. There is not enough time to inspect all products that are produced. Inspection is a technique which ensure that an operation is manufacturing at the expected level of quality. touching. Break-even analysis shows the point where costs of product are equal to revenues which is showed in currency and units.Breakeven charts: is a chart which contains fixed cost. products should be randomly selected and inspected. 6. 5. JIT is designed to manufacture or deliver goods just as they are needed. variable cost. total cost and total revenue.
R&D cost is so high. this curve is also called as experience curve.Ans 10. Some assumptions for EOQ are below: 1. At the beginning of the organization. they hire more employees. Still. Also. the product has been developed. The amount of sales is low. The life of the product starts from initial production design and ends at the withdrawal from the market. Volume of sales increases. Ans 12: Economic Order Quantity It is technique that is used to control and manage the inventory and minimize Total Variable Cost of factory. Managers use learning curve when they are making production plan. Learning Curve: The basis that organizations and employees get better at duties which they are responsible for as the tasks are performed over and over again. Demand is known and it is constant 5 . Decline: This stage company’s sales volume goes down. Public awareness increases. Ans 11. they use when they calculate the cost like AV. This technique tells us when to order and what to order. There is little or no competition. The sales are on peak level and are on saturation level The industrial profits get low. Then. The price of the product is low. Company does not make money at this stage. VC. The Company begin to profit. Growth : Company reach to economies of scales. It consist of 4 stage which are classified below: Introduction (birth) Growth (youth) Maturity (adult) Decline (death) Analysis of stages: Introduction: In this stage. The cost of production is getting low. they fire the number of employees. Product Life Cycle: PLC shows the life cycle of the product. Average cost reduces as the production experience builds up. Maturity : There are so many competitors in market.
Maximizes value to final customer. JIT is designed to manufacture or deliver goods just as they are needed. Maintaining low level of inventory reduces the cost of quality. JIT: Just in Time is an ever-going process of improvement and enforced problem solving. Ans 13. it helps in cutting the cost. JIT is designed to manufacture or deliver goods as per the need. i. and speed-to-market. high quality. Also. Lead time of orders is known and is constant 3. 5. Setup cost is known. Scheduler is better than before 6 . Discounts are not considered. and controlling the operations of the supply chain with the purpose to satisfy customer requirements as efficiently as possible. Benefits of SCM: 1. cost reductions. implementing. Customers get good service and product at low price. Ans 14. It reduces the costs by keeping low-level inventory. Increase firm’s competitiveness via customization of product. Who Benefits from SCM? Everybody benefits from SCM. Supply chain management: it is the process of planning. JIT: Just in time is a philosophy of continuous improvement and forced problem solving. .e giving best product at best possible price. The receipt of the order occurs in a single instant and immediately after ordering it 4. Advantages in JIT application • • • Production Setup time is reduced Supplier qualifications are increased. Company gets customer to sell their products.2.
The company should respond quickly with customers query. 7 . Hence. So. Examples: Hewlett-Packard is good example of response strategy. it needs talented.Mass production manufacturing The main focus of the managers is on production in factory and distribution. Production depends entirely on suppliers. Achieve a competitive advantages by making goods and services differently that adds value according to customers expectations Cost-Leadership: Companies can gain cost leadership by offering lowest price than the competitors. For instance. Large repair/ service business: Service is similar to people. Services have same attribute. all services are separated from each other because service are depends on customer.• Efficiency of employees increases Disadvantages in JIT application • • There is no room for mistake/ faults in production as minimum stock is held. Service requires knowledge. Therefore. There are limitations due to geographical boundaries. Ans 16. Every individual is different from one other. Response: Another way to gain competitive advantage in the market is by response. Ans 15: Differentiation: Differentiation means to provide service or product in market differently. as inventories are a little constant. Wal-Mart business model mainly aims at lower cost design. Managers try to achieve economies of scales by having high volume production. Every service is unique. The company should be flexible and should respond quickly. JIT is easy to implement. The perception of customers is like quality of service. all customers are separated from each other. They try to achieve continuous progress and quality in production. a customer who lives in India cannot use At&t. skilled employee. thus it achieve top value as perceived by its customers. Operations are divided into small elements. Production can stop if the stock is not received at a particular time. Outputs can be named. As. The output of service sector is intangible that means one cannot touch or hold it.
They can learn about more opportunities and learn how to do things in a better and efficient manner. lowlevel difference process. They have to do business in the competitive market which already exits. The company can cut its cost by hiring cheaper labor in another country. Repetitive focus: product focused production should use modules. we should establish some guiding principles to be to use in future: Roadmap focus: What is level of progress we shall consider to guarantee production that will cater the future demand? The factory should be organized for processed to produce low level production and different types of production. Disadvantages of manufacturing overseas: To do business internationally involves high level of risk because company does not know much about that country. Companies can produce better product for international customers by keeping in touch every time as they could reduce the response time. Companies won’t have same controlling power. Analysis & design of process: every stage of the process should add value to product and be worthwhile. as they get closer to raw materials. The companies cannot find latest technology in the developing countries and they have to bring technology from their own country which involve high cost also they can face problem with the barriers to entry. Logistics could also be a problem. Selection of equipment and technology: There should be enough flexibility.Ans 17: Advantages of manufacturing overseas: There are certain advantages when a company decided to go Internationally or Globally. 8 . Flexible tools and machinery should be used that keep up with time. cost effective. When designing a new factory with a vision of future. Mass customization focus: It should be rapid and adapt according to customer needs. Ans 18. Can save lot of money by paying less taxes and avoiding tariffs. plant should be arranged around product high-level production. According to product focus. Its hard for the companies to find skilled workers. The company can have better supply chains.
Ans 20: Adam Smith gave new ideas to study of management like job and labor specialization. Ans 21: W. He separated planning and scheduling process from each other. Leading: In this stage managers motivate and lead their employees to gain their objectives. Henry Ford was the founder of the assembly line production. This helped in reducing the cost of labor. The managers get feedback and results of the activities and evaluate the performance of the employees. goals. He said that Company should teach its workers to eradicate the failures before they occur – this is related to design stages. Edwards Deming studied on quality and reducing cost subject.Ans 19: Planning: It is the first step of the management process. interchangeable parts. Manager set policies. He said that employees should work under hygienic conditions Eli Whitney studied on standardization of parts and quality control. Scientists believe that he is an inventor of American manufacturing of American manufacturing system on power machinery. Controlling: In this phase management monitors and correct the activities if the employees. He brought new belief for staff selection and work system. target. objectives and procedures to layout the perfect course of activity for work to be done. Frederick Taylor is called as Father of Management Science. It gets easier to produce product. Organizing: In this stage the management distributes responsibilities between people or teams. which consist of so many parts. and labor separation. He believed in motivation of employees. He says that each department is the client of the one before – each department must implement the quality standards desired by its “clienteles” 9 . They design the structure of organization Staffing: At this stage skilled people are hired.
In order to find critical path. Priority rules are rules that are used to determine the sequence. The critical path is the longest path through the process network. Control charts are designed in manner that new data can be measured fast in comparison to earlier performance data. and temperature. Performance Evaluation and Control: We take the samples of the process output and plot the average of samples on a chart that has up and low limits. i. It is an efficiency increasing technique that focuses on customer satisfaction and data analysis in order to remove excessive cost. Ans 22: These are techniques of how to sequence jobs in work centers. we compute two different starting and ending times for each activity.Crosby believes that company should work aggressively towards the quality. It reduces the no.9997% accurate products and services. weights.. first served – jobs are completed in the order they arrived SPT: shortest processing time: the shortest jobs are processed first EDD: earliest due date: the job with the earliest due date is selected first LPT: longest processing time: the longer jobs are often very important and are selected first. Ans 23: Control charts: are the charts that are used for statistical presentation and graphic demonstrations of data over time. The upper and lower limits could be something like Pressure. Ans 24: Six Sigma is program of Total Quality Management. He believed that top level managers are highly responsible for quality. of defects. They should continuously encourage and engage in quality effort. Ans 25: Critical path method helps us determining how long will the process take to complete it. It is a quality process that gives 99. but not a gift. Earliest Start: It is the earliest starting time for an activity 10 . determine the order in which jobs should be completed. He claims quality is free. • • • • FCFS: first come. It present upper.e. Juran was a legend who taught Japanese how to implove quality. lower limits for the progress that we want to control.
Earliest Finish:It is the earliest finishing time for an activity • • Latest start: It is the latest starting time for activity Latest finish: It is latest finishing time for activity Crash a specific task: 1. 2. When the scheduled project finish time is moved forward 11 . When project is running behind schedule.
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