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1 A WORLD OF EMPIRES THE HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE Two flags that we have seen on our world travels are the Holy Roman Empire flag with a red cross on a white background and another Spanish flag with a two-headed eagle. Philip II and Ferdinand I flew these two flags. In the year 1600, Philip was the king of Spain. Ferdinand I was the king of the Holy Roman Empire. Charles had three kings in his family. Charles inherited three thrones from his three relatives who were kings while still a teenager: the thrones of the Netherlands, Spain, and Germany. Charles wanted the title of Holy Roman Emperor, but the pope would not crown him. The Roman Empire ruled Europe 1500 years before Charles. It spread across Europe. Charlemagne brought peace to France, and first held the title Holy Roman Emperor. Charlemagne was called the Holy Roman Emperor because he kept the peace in a large area and because he could spread Christianity across his empire. The king of France, the princes of Italy, and the pope joined together and fought against Charles and his armies. Charles hired a group of Protestant Christians, called the Germany Fury, to march and attack Rome. The pope finally agreed to crown Charles Holy Roman Emperor. Charles helped the pope drive the German soldiers away. Charles had many problems within his kingdom. Charles was growing poorer and poorer because he fought many wars, which cost money. Within his kingdoms, Catholics and Protestants were battling each other; and his Protestant subjects no longer wanted to obey his decrees. Philip and Ferdinand inherited Charless lands. (These were Charles brother and his son.) THE RICHES OF SPAIN

Mining is difficult for a young boy because he must carry rocks up a steep tunnel. The rocks are very heavy, and he must breathe foul air. Christopher Columbus was looking for India when he sailed west from Europe. Spanish adventurers were called conquistadors. The conquistadors realized the land Columbus found was not India, but it was an entirely new land. An encomienda was a special contract that gave conquistadors permission to sail to South America to take gold. The king of Spain gave the conquistadors special permission to take the gold, because the South Americans werent Christians. Native tribes called Aztecs, Mayans, and Incas lived in South America. Spanish got gold by taking it from native tribes, panning for it in the streams, and mining it from rock. The Spanish took five hundred billion dollars worth of gold and silver from South America. The pope did not get a share of every load of gold bought from the New World. Parts of South America were known as New Spain because so many Spanish moved there. The Spanish prospered from gold in South America. The South Americans did not prosper; instead they suffered because the Spanish forced the men, women, and children to work for them in the mines.