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# TRANSFORMATIONS OF TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS

A QUICK REVIEW The transformation of functions includes the shifting, stretching, and reflecting of their graph. The same rules apply when transforming trigonometric functions. VERTICAL AND HORIZONTAL SHIFTS Suppose c > 0. To obtain the graph of y = f (x) + c : shift the graph of y = f (x) up by c units; y = f (x) c : shift the graph of y = f (x) down by c units; y = f (x c) : shift the graph of y = f (x) to the right by c units; and y = f (x + c) : shift the graph of y = f (x) to the left by c units. _______________________________________________________________________ Example: Sketch the functions y = sin(x) , y = sin( x) + 4 , and y = sin x + . 2 Solution:

Here, y = sin(x) is shown in black. The curve y = sin( x) + 4 is shifted 4 units up, shown

in green. The curve y = sin x + is shifted units to the left, and is shown in 2 2 blue. Notice that this is the same thing as the curve y = cos(x) . _______________________________________________________________________

## Suppose c > 1. To obtain the graph of

y = cf (x) : stretch the graph of y = f (x) vertically by a factor of c; 1 y = f ( x) : compress the graph of y = f (x) vertically by a factor of c; c y = f (cx) : compress the graph of y = f (x) horizontally by a factor of c; and x y = f : stretch the graph of y = f (x) horizontally by a factor of c. c
_______________________________________________________________________ Example: Sketch the functions y = cos(x) , y = cos(2 x) , and y = 3 cos(2 x) . Solution:

The function y = cos(x) is shown in black. The blue curve represents the function y = cos(2 x) and is compressed horizontally by a factor of 2. The green curve represents the function y = 3 cos(2 x) and is the blue curve stretched vertically by a factor of 3. _______________________________________________________________________

REFLECTIONS To obtain the graph of y = f (x) : reflect the graph of y = f (x ) about the x-axis; and y = f ( x) : reflect the graph of y = f (x ) about the y-axis _______________________________________________________________________ Example: Given that the blue curve represents the function y = sin(x) , determine whether the following statement is TRUE or FALSE.

The green curve on the following graph represents both y = sin(x ) and y = sin( x) .

Solution: TRUEThe green curve does represent y = sin(x) and y = sin( x) . In this particular situation the reflection about the x-axis is the same as the reflection about the yaxis. _______________________________________________________________________