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S6 Electronics and Communication Digital Communication

Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, Amrita School of Engineering

Amritapuri Campus
Question Bank Chapter 5

Part A

1. Given M finite energy signals si t    i  1 to M of duration 0  t  T and N orthonormal func-

tions φi t    i  1 to N,
(a) How is a signal si t  represented as a vector? Give the vector corresponding to si t .
(b) Define the following
i. Inner product of si t  and s j t .
ii. Inner product of the vectors si and sj corresponding to the signals si t  and s j t  respec-
tively.
iii. Norm of the vector si .
iv. Signal space.
v. Dimensionality of signal space.
vi. Signal constellation.
(c) What is the relation between energy of a signal and the norm of the vector which corresponds
to the signal?
(d) How is the inner product of si t  and s j t  related to the inner product of the respective vectors
si and sj ?
2. Define orthogonality of two signals s1 t  and s2 t .
3. When can a set of functions φi t    i  1 to N be called orthonormal?
4. State and prove Schwarz’s inequality.
5. Explain the procedure for obtaining a set of orthonormal functions, given a finite set of finite energy
signals. How is the number of orthonormal functions related to the number of finite energy signals?
6. What is i) synthesizer ii) analyzer or correlator? (pg. 311 of text)
7. Given a communication system with M finite energy signals and N orthonormal functions, assum-
ing that the signal is transmitted through an AWGN channel, show that the received vector at the
output of the receiver correlator has a Gaussian pdf. Also show that
(a) the components of the received vector are mutually uncorrelated.
(b) the extra noise component W  tk  (following the notation used in the text), is statistically
independent of the components of the received vector. (this is stated as equation 5.47 in the
text book)
8. What is likelihood function?
9. Show that the receiver that minimizes the probability of error for the system mentioned in Ques-
tion 7 is the correlation receiver.
10. Draw the block diagram of the optimum receiver and give a brief explanation of how the transmitted
symbol is extracted from the received signal.

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S6 Electronics and Communication Digital Communication

11. Which part of the receiver in Question 10 on the page before can be replaced by a matched filter?
12. Write the expression for probability of error for the system in Question 7 on the preceding page.
13. Show that the probability of error is invariant to rotation and translation.
14. Give an application of translational invariance of probability of error.
15. Derive the union bound on the probability of error.
16. How does the bound derived in Question 15 gets modified
(a) for circularly symmetric signal constellation.
(b) if the minimum distance between signal points is used.
17. Represent the average symbol error rate in terms of bit error rate (ratio of the number of bits incor-
rectly received to the total number of bits sent during a specified time interval) for the following
two cases.
(a) when Gray coding is used to map from binary to M-ary symbols.
(b) when the no: of symbols M  2K where K is an integer and the symbol errors are equally
likely.

Part B

18. Following problems from the text book

(a) 5.1
(b) 5.2
(c) 5.3
(d) 5.4
(e) 5.5
(f) 5.11
(g) 5.12
(h) 5.13
(i) 5.17
(j) 5.19
19. Consider the three waveforms fn t  shown in Figure 1 on the following page.

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S6 Electronics and Communication Digital Communication

f 1 (t) f 2 (t)

1/2 1/2

0 2 4 t 0 t
4
_ 1/2

f 3 (t)

1/2

0 1 2 3 t
4
_ 1/2

(a) Show that these waveforms are orthonormal.

(b) Express the waveform x(t) as a linear combination of fn t , n  1  2  3  if

 1 0  t  1
x t  
 1 1 1  t  3
3  t  4
and determine the weighting coefficients. 
20. Consider the four waveforms shown in Figure 2

s1 (t) s2 (t)
2

0 4 0 1 4
1 t 2 3 t
−1 −1

s3 (t) s (t)
4
2

1 1

0 0
1 3 t 1 3 4 t

−2 −2

Figure 2: Question 20

(a) Determine the dimensionality (number of orthonormal functions needed to represent the four
signals) and a set of basis functions (the orthonormal functions).
(b) Use the basis functions to represent the four waveforms by vectors s1  s2  s3  and s4 

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S6 Electronics and Communication Digital Communication

(c) Determine the minimum distance between any pair of vectors.

21. Determine a set of orthonormal functions for the four signals shown in Figure 3

s (t) s (t) s (t)

1 2 3
1 3
2 2 0
t

0 0 −2
3 t 1 t
s (t)
4
2

0
2 t

Figure 3: Question 21

22. Carry out the Gram-Schmidt orthogonalization of the signals in Figure 4 in the order s4 t , s4 t ,
s4 t , and, thus, obtain a set of orthonormal functions fm t  . Then, determine the vector repre-
sentation of the signal sn t   by using the orthonormal functions fm t  . Also, determine the
signal energies.

s (t) s (t) s (t) s (t)

1 2 3 4
1 1 1

0 0 0 0
2 t 1 2 t 2 3 t 3 t
−1 −1 −1

Figure 4: Question 22

23. Determine the signal space representation of the four signals sk t   k  1  2  3  4  shown in
Figure 5 on the following page, by using as basis functions the orthonormal functions f1 t  and
f2 t . Plot the signal space diagram and show that this signal set is equivalent to that for a four-
phase PSK signal.

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S6 Electronics and Communication Digital Communication

1 2 3
E E

1
0 0 0
1 t t 1 2 t

− E

4 1 2
1 1

1 2
0 0 0
t 1 t 1 2 t

− E

24. Let
2π nt
s1 t  
2
T
cos T  0t T

4π nt
s1 t  
2
T
cos T  0t T

6π nt
s1 t  
2
T
cos T  0t T

where n is an arbitrary integer.

(a) Sketch the signal space and decision boundaries for this set of signals.
(b) Assuming that s1 t , s2 t , and s3 t  have equal a priori probabilities, show that the signal
space can be reduced to two dimensions.
25. The purpose of a radar system is basically to detect the presence of a target, and to extract useful
information about the target. Suppose that in such a system, hypotheses H0 is that there is no target
present, so that the received signal x t   w t , where w t  is white Gaussian noise of zero mean

and power spectral density N0 2. For hypothesis H1 , a target is present, and x t   w t  s t , 
where s t  is an echo produced by the target. Assume that s t  is completely known. Evaluate the
following probabilities:
(a) The probability of false alarm define as the probability that the receiver decided a target is
present when it is not.
(b) The probability of detection defined as the probability that the receiver decides a target is
present when it is.
26. Consider an M-ary digital communication system, where M  2N . The M equally likely signal
vectors lie at the corners of a hypercube centered at the origin. This is illustrated in Figure 6 on the
following page for N  3 and M  8. The signal energy per symbol is E.

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S6 Electronics and Communication Digital Communication

phi 2

2 











4

 


 

6 8

0 phi
1







1 3


phi
3 5 7

(a) The transmitted signal si t  is define in terms of a set of orthonormal functions, φi t  , by

N
si t   ∑ si j φi t  i  12    M
j 1


Find the values of the coefficients si j

(b) Show that the average probability of symbol error is given by
N



1 E
Pe  1 1
2
er f c 

N0 log2 M 
 



where N0 2 is the power spectral density of the additive white Gaussian noise (assumed to be
of zero mean).

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